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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8256
New Testament, Luke, 2


nannan, Now it happened in those days, that a decree went out from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be enrolled. , This was the first enrollment made when Quirinius was governor of Syria. , All went to enroll themselves, everyone to his own city. , Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judea, to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem, because he was of the house and family of David; , to enroll himself with Mary, who was pledged to be married to him as wife, being great with child. , It happened, while they were there, that the day had come that she should give birth. , She brought forth her firstborn son, and she wrapped him in bands of cloth, and laid him in a feeding trough, because there was no room for them in the inn. , There were shepherds in the same country staying in the field, and keeping watch by night over their flock. , Behold, an angel of the Lord stood by them, and the glory of the Lord shone around them, and they were terrified. , The angel said to them, "Don't be afraid, for behold, I bring you good news of great joy which will be to all the people. , For there is born to you, this day, in the city of David, a Savior, who is Christ the Lord. , This is the sign to you: you will find a baby wrapped in strips of cloth, lying in a feeding trough.", Suddenly, there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and saying, , "Glory to God in the highest, On earth peace, good will toward men.", It happened, when the angels went away from them into the sky, that the shepherds said one to another, "Let's go to Bethlehem, now, and see this thing that has happened, which the Lord has made known to us.", They came with haste, and found both Mary and Joseph, and the baby lying in the feeding trough. , When they saw it, they publicized widely the saying which was spoken to them about this child. , All who heard it wondered at the things which were spoken to them by the shepherds. , But Mary kept all these sayings, pondering them in her heart. , The shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all the things that they had heard and seen, just as it was told them. , When eight days were fulfilled for the circumcision of the child, his name was called Jesus, which was given by the angel before he was conceived in the womb. , When the days of their purification according to the law of Moses were fulfilled, they brought him up to Jerusalem, to present him to the Lord , (as it is written in the law of the Lord, "Every male who opens the womb shall be called holy to the Lord"), , and to offer a sacrifice according to that which is said in the law of the Lord, "A pair of turtledoves, or two young pigeons.", Behold, there was a man in Jerusalem whose name was Simeon; and this man was righteous and devout, looking for the consolation of Israel, and the Holy Spirit was on him. , It had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he should not see death before he had seen the Lord's Christ. , He came in the Spirit into the temple. When the parents brought in the child, Jesus, that they might do concerning him according to the custom of the law, , then he received him into his arms, and blessed God, and said, , "Now you are releasing your servant, Master, According to your word, in peace; , For my eyes have seen your salvation, , Which you have prepared before the face of all peoples; , A light for revelation to the Gentiles, And the glory of your people Israel.", Joseph and his mother were marveling at the things which were spoken concerning him, , and Simeon blessed them, and said to Mary, his mother, "Behold, this child is set for the falling and the rising of many in Israel, and for a sign which is spoken against. , Yes, a sword will pierce through your own soul, that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed.", There was one Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher (she was of a great age, having lived with a husband seven years from her virginity, , and she had been a widow for about eighty-four years), who didn't depart from the temple, worshipping with fastings and petitions night and day. , Coming up at that very hour, she gave thanks to the Lord, and spoke of him to all those who were looking for redemption in Jerusalem. , When they had accomplished all things that were according to the law of the Lord, they returned into Galilee, to their own city, Nazareth. , The child was growing, and was becoming strong in spirit, being filled with wisdom, and the grace of God was upon him. , His parents went every year to Jerusalem at the feast of the Passover. , When he was twelve years old, they went up to Jerusalem according to the custom of the feast, , and when they had fulfilled the days, as they were returning, the boy Jesus stayed behind in Jerusalem. Joseph and his mother didn't know it, , but supposing him to be in the company, they went a day's journey, and they looked for him among their relatives and acquaintances. , When they didn't find him, they returned to Jerusalem, looking for him. , It happened after three days they found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the teachers, both listening to them, and asking them questions. , All who heard him were amazed at his understanding and his answers. , When they saw him, they were astonished, and his mother said to him, "Son, why have you treated us this way? Behold, your father and I were anxiously looking for you.", He said to them, "Why were you looking for me? Didn't you know that I must be in my Father's house?", They didn't understand the saying which he spoke to them. , And he went down with them, and came to Nazareth. He was subject to them, and his mother kept all these sayings in her heart. , And Jesus increased in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and men.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

32 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 40.35 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

40.35. וְלֹא־יָכֹל מֹשֶׁה לָבוֹא אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד כִּי־שָׁכַן עָלָיו הֶעָנָן וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה מָלֵא אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן׃ 40.35. And Moses was not able to enter into the tent of meeting, because the cloud abode thereon, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle.—"
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 6.1-6.4, 14.18-14.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.1. וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃ 6.1. וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 6.2. וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃ 6.2. מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃ 6.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃ 6.4. הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃ 14.18. וּמַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק מֶלֶךְ שָׁלֵם הוֹצִיא לֶחֶם וָיָיִן וְהוּא כֹהֵן לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן׃ 14.19. וַיְבָרְכֵהוּ וַיֹּאמַר בָּרוּךְ אַבְרָם לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן קֹנֵה שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ׃ 6.1. And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them," 6.2. that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose." 6.3. And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’" 6.4. The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown." 14.18. And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine; and he was priest of God the Most High." 14.19. And he blessed him, and said: ‘Blessed be Abram of God Most High, Maker of heaven and earth;" 14.20. and blessed be God the Most High, who hath delivered thine enemies into thy hand.’ And he gave him a tenth of all."
3. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 66.3, 97.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

66.3. אִמְרוּ לֵאלֹהִים מַה־נּוֹרָא מַעֲשֶׂיךָ בְּרֹב עֻזְּךָ יְכַחֲשׁוּ לְךָ אֹיְבֶיךָ׃ 97.3. אֵשׁ לְפָנָיו תֵּלֵךְ וּתְלַהֵט סָבִיב צָרָיו׃ 66.3. Say unto God: 'How tremendous is Thy work! Through the greatness of Thy power shall Thine enemies dwindle away before Thee." 97.3. A fire goeth before Him, And burneth up His adversaries round about."
4. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.9-6.10, 7.14, 40.3-40.5, 56.1, 59.17, 61.1-61.2, 61.10, 62.1, 63.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.9. וַיֹּאמֶר לֵךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ לָעָם הַזֶּה שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמוֹעַ וְאַל־תָּבִינוּ וּרְאוּ רָאוֹ וְאַל־תֵּדָעוּ׃ 7.14. לָכֵן יִתֵּן אֲדֹנָי הוּא לָכֶם אוֹת הִנֵּה הָעַלְמָה הָרָה וְיֹלֶדֶת בֵּן וְקָרָאת שְׁמוֹ עִמָּנוּ אֵל׃ 40.3. קוֹל קוֹרֵא בַּמִּדְבָּר פַּנּוּ דֶּרֶךְ יְהוָה יַשְּׁרוּ בָּעֲרָבָה מְסִלָּה לֵאלֹהֵינוּ׃ 40.3. וְיִעֲפוּ נְעָרִים וְיִגָעוּ וּבַחוּרִים כָּשׁוֹל יִכָּשֵׁלוּ׃ 40.4. כָּל־גֶּיא יִנָּשֵׂא וְכָל־הַר וְגִבְעָה יִשְׁפָּלוּ וְהָיָה הֶעָקֹב לְמִישׁוֹר וְהָרְכָסִים לְבִקְעָה׃ 40.5. וְנִגְלָה כְּבוֹד יְהוָה וְרָאוּ כָל־בָּשָׂר יַחְדָּו כִּי פִּי יְהוָה דִּבֵּר׃ 56.1. צפו [צֹפָיו] עִוְרִים כֻּלָּם לֹא יָדָעוּ כֻּלָּם כְּלָבִים אִלְּמִים לֹא יוּכְלוּ לִנְבֹּחַ הֹזִים שֹׁכְבִים אֹהֲבֵי לָנוּם׃ 56.1. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה שִׁמְרוּ מִשְׁפָּט וַעֲשׂוּ צְדָקָה כִּי־קְרוֹבָה יְשׁוּעָתִי לָבוֹא וְצִדְקָתִי לְהִגָּלוֹת׃ 59.17. וַיִּלְבַּשׁ צְדָקָה כַּשִּׁרְיָן וְכוֹבַע יְשׁוּעָה בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וַיִּלְבַּשׁ בִּגְדֵי נָקָם תִּלְבֹּשֶׁת וַיַּעַט כַּמְעִיל קִנְאָה׃ 61.1. שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ בַּיהוָה תָּגֵל נַפְשִׁי בֵּאלֹהַי כִּי הִלְבִּישַׁנִי בִּגְדֵי־יֶשַׁע מְעִיל צְדָקָה יְעָטָנִי כֶּחָתָן יְכַהֵן פְּאֵר וְכַכַּלָּה תַּעְדֶּה כֵלֶיהָ׃ 61.1. רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח יְהוָה אֹתִי לְבַשֵּׂר עֲנָוִים שְׁלָחַנִי לַחֲבֹשׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב לִקְרֹא לִשְׁבוּיִם דְּרוֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִים פְּקַח־קוֹחַ׃ 61.2. לִקְרֹא שְׁנַת־רָצוֹן לַיהוָה וְיוֹם נָקָם לֵאלֹהֵינוּ לְנַחֵם כָּל־אֲבֵלִים׃ 62.1. לְמַעַן צִיּוֹן לֹא אֶחֱשֶׁה וּלְמַעַן יְרוּשָׁלִַם לֹא אֶשְׁקוֹט עַד־יֵצֵא כַנֹּגַהּ צִדְקָהּ וִישׁוּעָתָהּ כְּלַפִּיד יִבְעָר׃ 62.1. עִבְרוּ עִבְרוּ בַּשְּׁעָרִים פַּנּוּ דֶּרֶךְ הָעָם סֹלּוּ סֹלּוּ הַמְסִלָּה סַקְּלוּ מֵאֶבֶן הָרִימוּ נֵס עַל־הָעַמִּים׃ 63.1. וְהֵמָּה מָרוּ וְעִצְּבוּ אֶת־רוּחַ קָדְשׁוֹ וַיֵּהָפֵךְ לָהֶם לְאוֹיֵב הוּא נִלְחַם־בָּם׃ 63.1. מִי־זֶה בָּא מֵאֱדוֹם חֲמוּץ בְּגָדִים מִבָּצְרָה זֶה הָדוּר בִּלְבוּשׁוֹ צֹעֶה בְּרֹב כֹּחוֹ אֲנִי מְדַבֵּר בִּצְדָקָה רַב לְהוֹשִׁיעַ׃ 6.9. And He said: ‘Go, and tell this people: Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not." 6.10. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they, seeing with their eyes, and hearing with their ears, and understanding with their heart, return, and be healed.’" 7.14. Therefore the Lord Himself shall give you a sign: behold, the young woman shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel." 40.3. Hark! one calleth: ‘Clear ye in the wilderness the way of the LORD, make plain in the desert a highway for our God." 40.4. Every valley shall be lifted up, and every mountain and hill shall be made low; and the rugged shall be made level, and the rough places a plain;" 40.5. And the glory of the LORD shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together; for the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it.’" 56.1. Thus saith the LORD: Keep ye justice, and do righteousness; For My salvation is near to come, And My favour to be revealed." 59.17. And He put on righteousness as a coat of mail, And a helmet of salvation upon His head, And He put on garments of vengeance for clothing, And was clad with zeal as a cloak." 61.1. The spirit of the Lord God is upon me; Because the LORD hath anointed me To bring good tidings unto the humble; He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the eyes to them that are bound;" 61.2. To proclaim the year of the LORD’S good pleasure, And the day of vengeance of our God; To comfort all that mourn;" 61.10. I will greatly rejoice in the LORD, My soul shall be joyful in my God; For He hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, He hath covered me with the robe of victory, As a bridegroom putteth on a priestly diadem, And as a bride adorneth herself with her jewels." 62.1. For Zion’s sake will I not hold My peace, And for Jerusalem’s sake I will not rest, Until her triumph go forth as brightness, And her salvation as a torch that burneth." 63.1. ’Who is this that cometh from Edom, with crimsoned garments from Bozrah? This that is glorious in his apparel, stately in the greatness of his strength?’— ’I that speak in victory, mighty to save.’—"
5. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 13.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

13.5. כִּי הִנָּךְ הָרָה וְיֹלַדְתְּ בֵּן וּמוֹרָה לֹא־יַעֲלֶה עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ כִּי־נְזִיר אֱלֹהִים יִהְיֶה הַנַּעַר מִן־הַבָּטֶן וְהוּא יָחֵל לְהוֹשִׁיעַ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִיַּד פְּלִשְׁתִּים׃ 13.5. for, lo, thou shalt conceive, and bear a son; and no razor shall come on his head: for the child shall be a Nazir to God from the womb: and he shall begin to deliver Yisra᾽el out of the hand of the Pelishtim."
6. Anon., 1 Enoch, 106-107, 11, 46-49, 51, 6, 62-63, 7-10 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10. Then said the Most High, the Holy and Great One spake, and sent Uriel to the son of Lamech,,and said to him: 'Go to Noah and tell him in my name 'Hide thyself!' and reveal to him the end that is approaching: that the whole earth will be destroyed, and a deluge is about to come,upon the whole earth, and will destroy all that is on it. And now instruct him that he may escape,and his seed may be preserved for all the generations of the world.' And again the Lord said to Raphael: 'Bind Azazel hand and foot, and cast him into the darkness: and make an opening,in the desert, which is in Dudael, and cast him therein. And place upon him rough and jagged rocks, and cover him with darkness, and let him abide there for ever, and cover his face that he may,not see light. And on the day of the great judgement he shall be cast into the fire. And heal the earth which the angels have corrupted, and proclaim the healing of the earth, that they may heal the plague, and that all the children of men may not perish through all the secret things that the,Watchers have disclosed and have taught their sons. And the whole earth has been corrupted",through the works that were taught by Azazel: to him ascribe all sin.' And to Gabriel said the Lord: 'Proceed against the bastards and the reprobates, and against the children of fornication: and destroy [the children of fornication and] the children of the Watchers from amongst men [and cause them to go forth]: send them one against the other that they may destroy each other in,battle: for length of days shall they not have. And no request that they (i.e. their fathers) make of thee shall be granted unto their fathers on their behalf; for they hope to live an eternal life, and,that each one of them will live five hundred years.' And the Lord said unto Michael: 'Go, bind Semjaza and his associates who have united themselves with women so as to have defiled themselves,with them in all their uncleanness. And when their sons have slain one another, and they have seen the destruction of their beloved ones, bind them fast for seventy generations in the valleys of the earth, till the day of their judgement and of their consummation, till the judgement that is,for ever and ever is consummated. In those days they shall be led off to the abyss of fire: and",to the torment and the prison in which they shall be confined for ever. And whosoever shall be condemned and destroyed will from thenceforth be bound together with them to the end of all",generations. And destroy all the spirits of the reprobate and the children of the Watchers, because,they have wronged mankind. Destroy all wrong from the face of the earth and let every evil work come to an end: and let the plant of righteousness and truth appear: and it shall prove a blessing; the works of righteousness and truth' shall be planted in truth and joy for evermore.",And then shall all the righteous escape, And shall live till they beget thousands of children, And all the days of their youth and their old age Shall they complete in peace.,And then shall the whole earth be tilled in righteousness, and shall all be planted with trees and,be full of blessing. And all desirable trees shall be planted on it, and they shall plant vines on it: and the vine which they plant thereon shall yield wine in abundance, and as for all the seed which is sown thereon each measure (of it) shall bear a thousand, and each measure of olives shall yield,ten presses of oil. And cleanse thou the earth from all oppression, and from all unrighteousness, and from all sin, and from all godlessness: and all the uncleanness that is wrought upon the earth,destroy from off the earth. And all the children of men shall become righteous, and all nations,shall offer adoration and shall praise Me, and all shall worship Me. And the earth shall be cleansed from all defilement, and from all sin, and from all punishment, and from all torment, and I will never again send (them) upon it from generation to generation and for ever.
7. Cicero, Republic, 6.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6.13. Sed quo sis, Africane, alacrior ad tutandam rem publicam, sic habeto: omnibus, qui patriam conservaverint, adiuverint, auxerint, certum esse in caelo definitum locum, ubi beati aevo sempiterno fruantur; nihil est enim illi principi deo, qui omnem mundum regit, quod quidem in terris fiat, acceptius quam concilia coetusque hominum iure sociati, quae civitates appellantur; harum rectores et conservatores hinc profecti huc revertuntur.
8. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 1.3, 8.12-8.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 2.13-2.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.13. The same things are reported in the records and in the memoirs of Nehemiah, and also that he founded a library and collected the books about the kings and prophets, and the writings of David, and letters of kings about votive offerings.' 2.14. In the same way Judas also collected all the books that had been lost on account of the war which had come upon us, and they are in our possession.'
10. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 45-50, 44 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

11. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 2.17-2.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.17. Let us see if his words are true,and let us test what will happen at the end of his life; 2.18. for if the righteous man is Gods son, he will help him,and will deliver him from the hand of his adversaries.
12. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 25, 5, 2 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2. but the deliberate intention of the philosopher is at once displayed from the appellation given to them; for with strict regard to etymology, they are called therapeutae and therapeutrides, either because they process an art of medicine more excellent than that in general use in cities (for that only heals bodies, but the other heals souls which are under the mastery of terrible and almost incurable diseases, which pleasures and appetites, fears and griefs, and covetousness, and follies, and injustice, and all the rest of the innumerable multitude of other passions and vices, have inflicted upon them), or else because they have been instructed by nature and the sacred laws to serve the living God, who is superior to the good, and more simple than the one, and more ancient than the unit;
13. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 147 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

147. This is he who gave freedom to every city, who brought disorder into order, who civilized and made obedient and harmonious, nations which before his time were unsociable, hostile, and brutal. This is he who increased Greece by many Greeces, and who Greecised the regions of the barbarians in their most important divisions: the guardian of peace, the distributor to every man of what was suited to him, the man who proffered to all the citizens favours with the most ungrudging liberality, who never once in his whole life concealed or reserved for himself any thing that was good or excellent. XXII.
14. Vergil, Georgics, 2.28-2.31 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.28. Nature imparted first; hence all the race 2.29. of forest-trees and shrubs and sacred grove 2.30. Springs into verdure. Other means there are 2.31. Which use by method for itself acquired.
15. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 18.65-18.84, 18.118-18.119 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18.65. 4. About the same time also another sad calamity put the Jews into disorder, and certain shameful practices happened about the temple of Isis that was at Rome. I will now first take notice of the wicked attempt about the temple of Isis, and will then give an account of the Jewish affairs. 18.66. There was at Rome a woman whose name was Paulina; one who, on account of the dignity of her ancestors, and by the regular conduct of a virtuous life, had a great reputation: she was also very rich; and although she was of a beautiful countece, and in that flower of her age wherein women are the most gay, yet did she lead a life of great modesty. She was married to Saturninus, one that was every way answerable to her in an excellent character. 18.67. Decius Mundus fell in love with this woman, who was a man very high in the equestrian order; and as she was of too great dignity to be caught by presents, and had already rejected them, though they had been sent in great abundance, he was still more inflamed with love to her, insomuch that he promised to give her two hundred thousand Attic drachmae for one night’s lodging; 18.68. and when this would not prevail upon her, and he was not able to bear this misfortune in his amours, he thought it the best way to famish himself to death for want of food, on account of Paulina’s sad refusal; and he determined with himself to die after such a manner, and he went on with his purpose accordingly. 18.69. Now Mundus had a freed-woman, who had been made free by his father, whose name was Ide, one skillful in all sorts of mischief. This woman was very much grieved at the young man’s resolution to kill himself, (for he did not conceal his intentions to destroy himself from others,) and came to him, and encouraged him by her discourse, and made him to hope, by some promises she gave him, that he might obtain a night’s lodging with Paulina; 18.71. She went to some of Isis’s priests, and upon the strongest assurances [of concealment], she persuaded them by words, but chiefly by the offer of money, of twenty-five thousand drachmae in hand, and as much more when the thing had taken effect; and told them the passion of the young man, and persuaded them to use all means possible to beguile the woman. 18.72. So they were drawn in to promise so to do, by that large sum of gold they were to have. Accordingly, the oldest of them went immediately to Paulina; and upon his admittance, he desired to speak with her by herself. When that was granted him, he told her that he was sent by the god Anubis, who was fallen in love with her, and enjoined her to come to him. 18.73. Upon this she took the message very kindly, and valued herself greatly upon this condescension of Anubis, and told her husband that she had a message sent her, and was to sup and lie with Anubis; so he agreed to her acceptance of the offer, as fully satisfied with the chastity of his wife. 18.74. Accordingly, she went to the temple, and after she had supped there, and it was the hour to go to sleep, the priest shut the doors of the temple, when, in the holy part of it, the lights were also put out. Then did Mundus leap out, (for he was hidden therein,) and did not fail of enjoying her, who was at his service all the night long, as supposing he was the god; 18.75. and when he was gone away, which was before those priests who knew nothing of this stratagem were stirring, Paulina came early to her husband, and told him how the god Anubis had appeared to her. Among her friends, also, she declared how great a value she put upon this favor 18.76. who partly disbelieved the thing, when they reflected on its nature, and partly were amazed at it, as having no pretense for not believing it, when they considered the modesty and the dignity of the person. 18.77. But now, on the third day after what had been done, Mundus met Paulina, and said, “Nay, Paulina, thou hast saved me two hundred thousand drachmae, which sum thou sightest have added to thy own family; yet hast thou not failed to be at my service in the manner I invited thee. As for the reproaches thou hast laid upon Mundus, I value not the business of names; but I rejoice in the pleasure I reaped by what I did, while I took to myself the name of Anubis.” 18.78. When he had said this, he went his way. But now she began to come to the sense of the grossness of what she had done, and rent her garments, and told her husband of the horrid nature of this wicked contrivance, and prayed him not to neglect to assist her in this case. So he discovered the fact to the emperor; 18.79. whereupon Tiberius inquired into the matter thoroughly by examining the priests about it, and ordered them to be crucified, as well as Ide, who was the occasion of their perdition, and who had contrived the whole matter, which was so injurious to the woman. He also demolished the temple of Isis, and gave order that her statue should be thrown into the river Tiber; 18.81. 5. There was a man who was a Jew, but had been driven away from his own country by an accusation laid against him for transgressing their laws, and by the fear he was under of punishment for the same; but in all respects a wicked man. He, then living at Rome, professed to instruct men in the wisdom of the laws of Moses. 18.82. He procured also three other men, entirely of the same character with himself, to be his partners. These men persuaded Fulvia, a woman of great dignity, and one that had embraced the Jewish religion, to send purple and gold to the temple at Jerusalem; and when they had gotten them, they employed them for their own uses, and spent the money themselves, on which account it was that they at first required it of her. 18.83. Whereupon Tiberius, who had been informed of the thing by Saturninus, the husband of Fulvia, who desired inquiry might be made about it, ordered all the Jews to be banished out of Rome; 18.84. at which time the consuls listed four thousand men out of them, and sent them to the island Sardinia; but punished a greater number of them, who were unwilling to become soldiers, on account of keeping the laws of their forefathers. Thus were these Jews banished out of the city by the wickedness of four men. 18.118. Now when [many] others came in crowds about him, for they were very greatly moved [or pleased] by hearing his words, Herod, who feared lest the great influence John had over the people might put it into his power and inclination to raise a rebellion, (for they seemed ready to do any thing he should advise,) thought it best, by putting him to death, to prevent any mischief he might cause, and not bring himself into difficulties, by sparing a man who might make him repent of it when it would be too late. 18.119. Accordingly he was sent a prisoner, out of Herod’s suspicious temper, to Macherus, the castle I before mentioned, and was there put to death. Now the Jews had an opinion that the destruction of this army was sent as a punishment upon Herod, and a mark of God’s displeasure to him.
16. Josephus Flavius, Life, 16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

17. New Testament, Acts, 1, 1.1, 1.8, 1.14, 1.16, 1.21, 1.24, 1.25, 2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.42, 2.46, 3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 3.20, 3.21, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 3.25, 3.26, 4, 4.12, 4.14, 4.23, 4.24, 4.25, 4.26, 4.27, 4.28, 4.29, 4.30, 4.31, 5, 5.20, 5.21, 6, 6.4, 6.6, 7, 7.25, 7.48, 7.59, 7.60, 8.12, 8.15, 8.22, 8.24, 9.11, 9.40, 10, 10.1-11.18, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.9, 10.14, 10.30, 10.31, 10.38, 11, 11.5, 11.18, 12.5, 12.12, 13.2, 13.3, 13.14, 13.15, 13.16, 13.17, 13.18, 13.19, 13.20, 13.21, 13.22, 13.23, 13.24, 13.25, 13.26, 13.27, 13.28, 13.29, 13.30, 13.31, 13.32, 13.33, 13.34, 13.35, 13.36, 13.37, 13.38, 13.39, 13.40, 13.41, 13.42, 13.43, 13.44, 13.45, 13.46, 13.47, 13.48, 13.49, 14.23, 15, 16.13, 16.16, 16.17, 16.25, 17.6, 17.24, 17.31, 18.6, 18.25, 20.32, 20.36, 21.5, 21.26, 21.27, 21.28, 22, 22.17, 23, 23.27, 24, 24.14, 25, 25.8, 25.11, 25.25, 26, 26.6, 26.7, 26.8, 26.22, 26.29, 27, 27.34, 28, 28.8, 28.17, 28.18, 28.19, 28.20, 28.21, 28.22, 28.23, 28.24, 28.25, 28.26, 28.27, 28.28, 28.29, 28.30, 28.31 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. New Testament, John, 1.19-1.34, 4.21-4.23, 8.31, 8.44, 12.27, 12.39-12.40 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.19. This is John's testimony, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, "Who are you? 1.20. He confessed, and didn't deny, but he confessed, "I am not the Christ. 1.21. They asked him, "What then? Are you Elijah?"He said, "I am not.""Are you the Prophet?"He answered, "No. 1.22. They said therefore to him, "Who are you? Give us an answer to take back to those who sent us. What do you say about yourself? 1.23. He said, "I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, 'Make straight the way of the Lord,' as Isaiah the prophet said. 1.24. The ones who had been sent were from the Pharisees. 1.25. They asked him, "Why then do you baptize, if you are not the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet? 1.26. John answered them, "I baptize in water, but among you stands one whom you don't know. 1.27. He is the one who comes after me, who has come to be before me, whose sandal strap I'm not worthy to untie. 1.28. These things were done in Bethany beyond the Jordan, where John was baptizing. 1.29. The next day, he saw Jesus coming to him, and said, "Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world! 1.30. This is he of whom I said, 'After me comes a man who is preferred before me, for he was before me.' 1.31. I didn't know him, but for this reason I came baptizing in water: that he would be revealed to Israel. 1.32. John testified, saying, "I have seen the Spirit descending like a dove out of heaven, and it remained on him. 1.33. I didn't recognize him, but he who sent me to baptize in water, he said to me, 'On whomever you will see the Spirit descending, and remaining on him, the same is he who baptizes in the Holy Spirit.' 1.34. I have seen, and have testified that this is the Son of God. 4.21. Jesus said to her, "Woman, believe me, the hour comes, when neither in this mountain, nor in Jerusalem, will you worship the Father. 4.22. You worship that which you don't know. We worship that which we know; for salvation is from the Jews. 4.23. But the hour comes, and now is, when the true worshippers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for the Father seeks such to be his worshippers. 8.31. Jesus therefore said to those Jews who had believed him, "If you remain in my word, then you are truly my disciples. 8.44. You are of your Father, the devil, and you want to do the desires of your father. He was a murderer from the beginning, and doesn't stand in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaks a lie, he speaks on his own; for he is a liar, and the father of it. 12.27. Now my soul is troubled. What shall I say? 'Father, save me from this time?' But for this cause I came to this time. 12.39. For this cause they couldn't believe, for Isaiah said again 12.40. He has blinded their eyes and he hardened their heart, Lest they should see with their eyes, And perceive with their heart, And would turn, And I would heal them.
19. New Testament, Luke, 1, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5-2.52, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.13, 1.14, 1.15, 1.25, 1.32, 1.33, 1.34, 1.35, 1.38, 1.45, 1.46, 1.47, 1.48, 1.49, 1.50, 1.51, 1.52, 1.53, 1.54, 1.55, 1.67, 1.74, 1.78, 1.79, 2.1, 2.5, 2.11, 2.21, 2.25, 2.26, 2.27, 2.29, 2.30, 2.31, 2.32, 2.34, 2.35, 2.36, 2.37, 2.38, 2.39, 2.46, 2.48, 2.49, 3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 3.20, 3.21, 3.22, 3.23, 4, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.21, 4.22, 4.23, 4.24, 4.25, 4.26, 4.27, 4.28, 4.29, 4.30, 5, 5.16, 5.33, 5.34, 5.35, 6, 6.12, 6.28, 7, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.25, 7.26, 7.27, 7.28, 7.29, 7.30, 7.31, 7.32, 7.33, 7.34, 7.35, 7.36, 7.37, 7.38, 7.39, 7.40, 7.41, 7.42, 7.43, 7.44, 7.45, 7.46, 7.47, 7.48, 7.49, 7.50, 8, 8.10, 9, 9.18, 9.28, 9.29, 10, 10.2, 10.21, 10.22, 10.25, 10.26, 10.27, 10.28, 10.29, 10.30, 10.31, 10.32, 10.33, 10.34, 10.35, 10.36, 10.37, 11, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 11.10, 11.11, 11.12, 11.13, 11.27, 12, 13.31, 13.34, 13.35, 14.17, 14.18, 14.19, 14.20, 14.21, 14.22, 14.23, 14.24, 15, 15.11, 15.12, 15.13, 15.14, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17, 15.18, 15.19, 15.20, 15.21, 15.22, 15.23, 15.24, 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.28, 15.29, 15.30, 15.31, 15.32, 16, 16.19, 16.20, 16.21, 16.22, 16.23, 16.24, 16.25, 16.26, 16.27, 16.28, 16.29, 16.30, 16.31, 17, 18, 18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 18.4, 18.5, 18.6, 18.7, 18.8, 18.9, 18.10, 18.11, 18.12, 18.13, 18.14, 19, 19.9, 19.12, 19.13, 19.14, 19.15, 19.16, 19.17, 19.18, 19.19, 19.20, 19.21, 19.22, 19.23, 19.24, 19.25, 19.26, 19.27, 19.28, 19.29, 19.30, 19.31, 19.32, 19.33, 19.34, 19.35, 19.36, 19.37, 19.38, 19.39, 19.40, 19.41, 19.42, 19.43, 19.44, 19.45, 19.46, 20, 20.27, 21, 21.15, 21.36, 22, 22.32, 22.40, 22.42, 22.43, 22.44, 23, 23.6, 23.7, 23.8, 23.9, 23.10, 23.11, 23.12, 23.34, 23.46, 23.47, 24, 24.44, 24.47, 24.53 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20. New Testament, Mark, 1.4, 4.12, 6.15, 8.17-8.18, 8.27-8.28, 9.5, 12.18, 13.11, 15.39 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. John came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching the baptism of repentance for forgiveness of sins. 4.12. that 'seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest perhaps they should turn again, and their sins should be forgiven them.' 6.15. But others said, "It is Elijah." Others said, "It is the Prophet, or like one of the prophets. 8.17. Jesus, perceiving it, said to them, "Why do you reason that it's because you have no bread? Don't you perceive yet, neither understand? Is your heart still hardened? 8.18. Having eyes, don't you see? Having ears, don't you hear? Don't you remember? 8.27. Jesus went out, with his disciples, into the villages of Caesarea Philippi. On the way he asked his disciples, "Who do men say that I am? 8.28. They told him, "John the Baptizer, and others say Elijah, but others: one of the prophets. 9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah. 12.18. There came to him Sadducees, who say that there is no resurrection. They asked him, saying 13.11. When they lead you away and deliver you up, don't be anxious beforehand, or premeditate what you will say, but say whatever will be given you in that hour. For it is not you who speak, but the Holy Spirit. 15.39. When the centurion, who stood by opposite him, saw that he cried out like this and breathed his last, he said, "Truly this man was the Son of God!
21. New Testament, Matthew, 1.18, 1.20-1.21, 2.13-2.15, 2.23, 3.7-3.8, 3.13-3.15, 4.1-4.11, 5.20, 6.9, 13.14-13.15, 27.54 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. Now the birth of Jesus Christ was like this; for after his mother, Mary, was engaged to Joseph, before they came together, she was found pregt by the Holy Spirit. 1.20. But when he thought about these things, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream, saying, "Joseph, son of David, don't be afraid to take to yourself Mary, your wife, for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Spirit. 1.21. She shall bring forth a son. You shall call his name Jesus, for it is he who shall save his people from their sins. 2.13. Now when they had departed, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream, saying, "Arise and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and stay there until I tell you, for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him. 2.14. He arose and took the young child and his mother by night, and departed into Egypt 2.15. and was there until the death of Herod; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying, "Out of Egypt I called my son. 2.23. and came and lived in a city called Nazareth; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through the prophets: "He will be called a Nazarene. 3.7. But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming for his baptism, he said to them, "You offspring of vipers, who warned you to flee from the wrath to come? 3.8. Therefore bring forth fruit worthy of repentance! 3.13. Then Jesus came from Galilee to the Jordan to John, to be baptized by him. 3.14. But John would have hindered him, saying, "I need to be baptized by you, and you come to me? 3.15. But Jesus, answering, said to him, "Allow it now, for this is the fitting way for us to fulfill all righteousness." Then he allowed him. 4.1. Then Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. 4.2. When he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he was hungry afterward. 4.3. The tempter came and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, command that these stones become bread. 4.4. But he answered, "It is written, 'Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God.' 4.5. Then the devil took him into the holy city. He set him on the pinnacle of the temple 4.6. and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down, for it is written, 'He will give his angels charge concerning you.' and, 'On their hands they will bear you up, So that you don't dash your foot against a stone.' 4.7. Jesus said to him, "Again, it is written, 'You shall not test the Lord, your God.' 4.8. Again, the devil took him to an exceedingly high mountain, and showed him all the kingdoms of the world, and their glory. 4.9. He said to him, "I will give you all of these things, if you will fall down and worship me. 4.10. Then Jesus said to him, "Get behind me, Satan! For it is written, 'You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve.' 4.11. Then the devil left him, and behold, angels came and ministered to him. 5.20. For I tell you that unless your righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, there is no way you will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven. 6.9. Pray like this: 'Our Father in heaven, may your name be kept holy. 13.14. In them the prophecy of Isaiah is fulfilled, which says, 'By hearing you will hear, And will in no way understand; Seeing you will see, And will in no way perceive: 13.15. For this people's heart has grown callous, Their ears are dull of hearing, They have closed their eyes; Or else perhaps they might perceive with their eyes, Hear with their ears, Understand with their heart, And should turn again; And I would heal them.' 27.54. Now the centurion, and those who were with him watching Jesus, when they saw the earthquake, and the things that were done, feared exceedingly, saying, "Truly this was the Son of God.
22. Tacitus, Annals, 16.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16.6.  After the close of the festival, Poppaea met her end through a chance outburst of anger on the part of her husband, who felled her with a kick during pregcy. That poison played its part I am unable to believe, though the assertion is made by some writers less from conviction than from hatred; for Nero was desirous of children, and love for his wife was a ruling passion. The body was not cremated in the Roman style, but, in conformity with the practice of foreign courts, was embalmed by stuffing with spices, then laid to rest in the mausoleum of the Julian race. Still, a public funeral was held; and the emperor at the Rostra eulogized her beauty, the fact that she had been the mother of an infant daughter now divine, and other favours of fortune which did duty for virtues.
23. Hermas, Mandates, 5.2.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Hermas, Similitudes, 2, 8, 1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 43.8 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. Tatian, Oration To The Greeks, 32 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14b. שברי לוחות שמונחים בארון ואי ס"ד ס"ת הקיפו ו' טפחים מכדי כל שיש בהקיפו שלשה טפחים יש בו רוחב טפח וכיון דלאמצעיתו נגלל נפיש ליה מתרי טפחא רווחא דביני ביני בתרי פושכי היכי יתיב,אמר רב אחא בר יעקב ספר עזרה לתחלתו הוא נגלל ואכתי תרי בתרי היכי יתיב אמר רב אשי דכריך ביה פורתא וכרכיה לעיל,ור' יהודה מקמי דליתי ארגז ספר תורה היכי הוה יתיב דפא הוה נפיק מיניה ויתיב עילוה ספר תורה ור"מ האי מצד ארון מאי עביד ליה ההוא מיבעי ליה דמתנח ליה מצד ולא מתנח ביני לוחי ולעולם בגויה מן הצד,ור"מ עמודין היכא הוו קיימי מבראי ור"מ שברי לוחות דמונחין בארון מנא ליה נפקא ליה מדרב הונא דאמר רב הונא מאי דכתיב (שמואל ב ו, ב) אשר נקרא שם שם ה' צבאות יושב הכרובים עליו מלמד שלוחות ושברי לוחות מונחים בארון,ואידך ההוא מבעי ליה לכדרבי יוחנן ד"ר יוחנן א"ר שמעון בן יוחאי מלמד שהשם וכל כינויו מונחין בארון,ואידך נמי מיבעי ליה להכי אין הכי נמי אלא שברי לוחות דמונחין בארון מנא ליה נפקא ליה מדתני רב יוסף דתני רב יוסף (דברים י, ב) אשר שברת ושמתם מלמד שהלוחות ושברי לוחות מונחין בארון,ואידך ההוא מיבעי ליה לכדריש לקיש דאמר ר"ל אשר שברת אמר לו הקב"ה למשה יישר כחך ששברת:,תנו רבנן סדרן של נביאים יהושע ושופטים שמואל ומלכים ירמיה ויחזקאל ישעיה ושנים עשר מכדי הושע קדים דכתיב (הושע א, ב) תחלת דבר ה' בהושע וכי עם הושע דבר תחלה והלא ממשה ועד הושע כמה נביאים היו וא"ר יוחנן שהיה תחלה לארבעה נביאים שנתנבאו באותו הפרק ואלו הן הושע וישעיה עמוס ומיכה וליקדמיה להושע ברישא,כיון דכתיב נבואתיה גבי חגי זכריה ומלאכי וחגי זכריה ומלאכי סוף נביאים הוו חשיב ליה בהדייהו וליכתביה לחודיה וליקדמיה איידי דזוטר מירכס,מכדי ישעיה קדים מירמיה ויחזקאל ליקדמיה לישעיה ברישא כיון דמלכים סופיה חורבנא וירמיה כוליה חורבנא ויחזקאל רישיה חורבנא וסיפיה נחמתא וישעיה כוליה נחמתא סמכינן חורבנא לחורבנא ונחמתא לנחמתא:,סידרן של כתובים רות וספר תהלים ואיוב ומשלי קהלת שיר השירים וקינות דניאל ומגילת אסתר עזרא ודברי הימים ולמאן דאמר איוב בימי משה היה ליקדמיה לאיוב ברישא אתחולי בפורענותא לא מתחלינן רות נמי פורענות היא פורענות דאית ליה אחרית דאמר רבי יוחנן למה נקרא שמה רות שיצא ממנה דוד שריוהו להקב"ה בשירות ותושבחות,ומי כתבן משה כתב ספרו ופרשת בלעם ואיוב יהושע כתב ספרו ושמונה פסוקים שבתורה שמואל כתב ספרו ושופטים ורות דוד כתב ספר תהלים על ידי עשרה זקנים ע"י אדם הראשון על ידי מלכי צדק ועל ידי אברהם וע"י משה ועל ידי הימן וע"י ידותון ועל ידי אסף 14b. bthe broken pieces of thefirst set of btablets, which were placed in the Ark.Having cited the ibaraita /i, the Gemara now presents its objection to what was taught earlier with regard to the dimensions of a Torah scroll: bAnd if it should enter your mindto say, as Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi held, that bthe circumference of a Torah scroll is six handbreadths, now since anycylindrical object bhaving a circumference of three handbreadths has a diameter of one handbreadth,a Torah scroll with a circumference of six handbreadths has a diameter of two handbreadths. bAnd sincea Torah scroll bis wound to the middle,since it is rolled from both sides, bitmust take up bmore than two handbreadthsdue to bthe space betweenthe sheets of parchment and the double rolling. According to Rabbi Meir, who says that the Torah scroll was placed inside the ark, bhow didthe scroll bfit inthe remaining btwo handbreadths [ ipushkei /i]of space in the Ark?, bRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: The scroll of theTemple bcourtyard,which was kept in the Ark, bwas wound to its beginning,i.e., it had only a single pole, so that its circumference was only two handbreadths. The Gemara asks: bBut still, how doesan item bthat is twohandbreadths wide bfit intoa space that is precisely btwohandbreadths? It would be impossible to fit it in. bRav Ashi said: A small sectionof the scroll bwas woundseparately bandthen bplaced on topof the scroll.,Having concluded its current discussion, the Gemara now addresses the details of the aforementioned ibaraitaand asks: bAndaccording to bRabbi Yehuda,who says that the Torah scroll rested on the chest that came from the Philistines, bwhere was the Torah scroll placed before the chest arrived?The Gemara answers: bA shelf protruded fromthe Ark band the Torah scroll rested on it.The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bRabbi Meir,who says that the Torah scroll rested inside the Ark, bwhat does he do with thisverse: “Take this Torah scroll and put it bat the side of the Ark”(Deuteronomy 31:26)? The Gemara answers: bHe requiresthat verse to teach bthatthe Torah scroll bwas placed at the sideof the tablets, band that it was not placed betweenthe two btablets, butit was bactuallyplaced binsidethe Ark bat the sideof the tablets.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bRabbi Meir, where were thesilver bcolumns placed?The Gemara answers: bOutsidethe Ark. The Gemara further asks: bAnd from where does Rabbi Meirderive that bthe broken pieces of thefirst set of btablets were placed in the Ark,as the verse from which Rabbi Yehuda learns this: “There was nothing in the Ark except” (I Kings 8:9), is needed by Rabbi Meir to teach that the Torah scroll was placed there? The Gemara answers: bHe derivesthis point bfrom what Rav Hunaexpounded, bas Rav Huna says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“The Ark of God, bwhereupon is called the Name, the name of the Lord of hosts that sits upon the cherubs”(II Samuel 6:2)? The phrase “the name, the name of the Lord” bteaches thatboth bthesecond btablets and the broken pieces of thefirst set of btablets were placed in the Ark. /b,The Gemara asks: bAndwhat does bthe otherSage, i.e., Rabbi Yehuda, derive from this verse? The Gemara responds: bHe requiresthat text bforthat bwhich Rabbi Yoḥasays, bas Rabbi Yoḥa saysthat bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says:This bteaches that theineffable bnameof God band all of His appellations were placed in the Ark. /b,The Gemara inquires: bAnddoesn’t bthe otherSage, Rabbi Meir, balso require it for that?The Gemara answers: bYes,it bis indeed so. Rather, from where does hederive that bthe broken pieces of thefirst set of btablets were placed in the Ark?The Gemara expounds: bHe derivesthis bfromthat bwhich Rav Yosef taught, as Rav Yosef taughta ibaraita /i: The verses state: “At that time the Lord said to me: Hew for yourself two tablets of stone like the first…and I will write on the tablets the words that were on the first tablets, bwhich you broke, and you shall put themin the Ark” (Deuteronomy 10:1–2). bThis teaches thatboth bthesecond set of btablets and the broken pieces of thefirst set of btablets were placed in the Ark. /b,The Gemara asks: bAndwhat does bthe otherone, Rabbi Yehuda, learn from this verse? The Gemara answers: bHe requires it forthat bwhich Reish Lakishteaches, bas Reish Lakish says:What is the meaning of that which is stated: “The first tablets, bwhich you broke [ iasher shibbarta /i]”?These words allude to the fact that God approved of Moses’ action, as if bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: May your strength be straight [ iyishar koḥakha /i] because you brokethem.,§ bThe Sages taught: The order of thebooks of the bProphetswhen they are attached together is as follows: bJoshua and Judges, Samuel and Kings, Jeremiah and Ezekiel,and bIsaiah and the TwelveProphets. The Gemara asks: bConsider: Hosea precededsome of the other prophets whose books are included in the Bible, bas it is written: “The Lord spoke first to Hosea”(Hosea 1:2). At first glance this verse is difficult: bBut did God speak first with Hosea,and not with any other prophet before him? bWeren’t there many prophets between Moses and Hosea? And Rabbi Yoḥa says: He was the first of four prophets who prophesied in that period, and they were: Hosea and Isaiah, Amos and Micah.Accordingly, Hosea preceded those three prophets; bandthe book of bHoseaas well bshould precedethe books of those prophets.,The Gemara answers: bSince his prophecy is written together withthose of bHaggai, Zechariah, and Malachiin one book of the Twelve Prophets, band Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi were the last of the prophets, he is counted with them.The Gemara inquires: bBut letthe book of Hosea bbe written separately and let it precedethe others. The Gemara answers: Were it written separately, bsince it is small it would be lost. /b,The Gemara further asks: bConsider: Isaiah preceded Jeremiah and Ezekiel; letthe book of bIsaiah precedethe books of those other prophets. The Gemara answers: bSincethe book of bKings ends with the destructionof the Temple, bandthe book of bJeremiahdeals bentirely withprophecies of bthe destruction, andthe book of bEzekiel begins with the destructionof the Temple bbut ends with consolationand the rebuilding of the Temple, band Isaiahdeals bentirely with consolation,as most of his prophecies refer to the redemption, bwe juxtapose destruction to destruction and consolation to consolation.This accounts for the order: Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Isaiah.,The ibaraitacontinues: bThe order of the Writingsis: bRuth and the book of Psalms, and Job and Proverbs; Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Lamentations; Daniel and the Scroll of Esther;and bEzra and Chronicles.The Gemara asks: bAnd according to the one who saysthat bJoblived bin the time of Moses, letthe book of bJob precedethe others. The Gemara answers: bWe do not begin with suffering,i.e., it is inappropriate to start the Writings with a book that deals so extensively with suffering. The Gemara asks: But the book of bRuth,with which the Writings opens, bis alsoabout bsuffering,since it describes the tragedies that befell the family of Elimelech. The Gemara answers: This is bsuffering which has a futureof hope and redemption. bAs Rabbi Yoḥa says: Why was she named Ruth,spelled ireish /i, ivav /i, itav /i? Because there bdescended from her David who sated,a word with the root ireish /i, ivav /i, iheh /i, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, with songs and praises. /b,The ibaraitanow considers the authors of the biblical books: bAnd who wrotethe books of the Bible? bMoses wrote his own book,i.e., the Torah, band the portion of Balaamin the Torah, bandthe book of bJob. Joshua wrote his own book and eight verses in the Torah,which describe the death of Moses. bSamuel wrote his own book,the book of bJudges, andthe book of bRuth. David wrote the book of Psalms by means of ten eldersof previous generations, assembling a collection that included compositions of others along with his own. He included psalms authored bby Adam the firstman, bby Melchizedekking of Salem, band by Abraham, and by Moses, and by Heman, and by Jeduthun, and by Asaph, /b
28. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

67a. סימנא בעלמא:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big המסית זה הדיוט והמסית את ההדיוט אמר יש יראה במקום פלוני כך אוכלת כך שותה כך מטיבה כך מריעה,כל חייבי מיתות שבתורה אין מכמינין עליהם חוץ מזו,אמר לשנים הן עדיו ומביאין אותו לב"ד וסוקלין אותו אמר לאחד הוא אומר יש לי חבירים רוצים בכך,אם היה ערום ואינו יכול לדבר בפניהם מכמינין לו עדים אחורי הגדר והוא אומר לו אמור מה שאמרת ביחוד והלה אומר לו והוא אומר לו היאך נניח את אלהינו שבשמים ונלך ונעבוד עצים ואבנים אם חוזר בו הרי זה מוטב ואם אמר כך היא חובתנו כך יפה לנו העומדין מאחורי הגדר מביאין אותו לבית דין וסוקלין אותו,האומר אעבוד אלך ואעבוד נלך ונעבוד אזבח אלך ואזבח נלך ונזבח אקטיר אלך ואקטיר נלך ונקטיר אנסך אלך ואנסך נלך וננסך אשתחוה אלך ואשתחוה נלך ונשתחוה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big המסית זה הדיוט טעמא דהדיוט הא נביא בחנק והמסית את ההדיוט טעמא דיחיד הא רבים בחנק,מתני׳ מני ר"ש היא דתניא נביא שהדיח בסקילה ר' שמעון אומר בחנק מדיחי עיר הנדחת בסקילה ר"ש אומר בחנק,אימא סיפא המדיח זה האומר נלך ונעבוד עבודת כוכבים ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב מדיחי עיר הנדחת שנו אתאן לרבנן רישא ר"ש וסיפא רבנן,רבינא אמר כולה רבנן היא ולא זו אף זו קתני,רב פפא אמר כי קתני מסית זה הדיוט להכמנה,דתניא ושאר כל חייבי מיתות שבתורה אין מכמינין עליהן חוץ מזו,כיצד עושין לו מדליקין לו את הנר בבית הפנימי ומושיבין לו עדים בבית החיצון כדי שיהו הן רואין אותו ושומעין את קולו והוא אינו רואה אותן והלה אומר לו אמור מה שאמרת לי ביחוד והוא אומר לו והלה אומר לו היאך נניח את אלהינו שבשמים ונעבוד עבודת כוכבים אם חוזר בו מוטב ואם אמר כך היא חובתנו וכך יפה לנו העדים ששומעין מבחוץ מביאין אותו לבית דין וסוקלין אותו:,[הוספה מחסרונות הש"ס: וכן עשו לבן סטדא בלוד ותלאוהו בערב הפסח,בן סטדא בן פנדירא הוא אמר רב חסדא בעל — סטדא בועל — פנדירא בעל פפוס בן יהודה הוא אלא אֵימא אמו סטדא אמו מרים מגדלא נשיא הואי כדאמרי בפומדיתא סטת דא מבעלה:], big strongמתני׳ /strong /big המדיח זה האומר נלך ונעבוד עבודת כוכבים,המכשף העושה מעשה חייב ולא האוחז את העינים ר"ע אומר משום ר' יהושע שנים לוקטין קשואין אחד לוקט פטור ואחד לוקט חייב העושה מעשה חייב האוחז את העינים פטור:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מדיחי עיר הנדחת שנו כאן:,המכשף זה העושה מעשה וכו': תנו רבנן מכשפה אחד האיש ואחד האשה א"כ מה ת"ל מכשפה מפני שרוב נשים מצויות בכשפים,מיתתן במה רבי יוסי הגלילי אומר נאמר כאן (שמות כב, יז) מכשפה לא תחיה ונאמר להלן (דברים כ, טז) לא תחיה כל נשמה מה להלן בסייף אף כאן בסייף,ר' עקיבא אומר נאמר כאן מכשפה לא תחיה ונאמר להלן (שמות יט, יג) אם בהמה אם איש לא יחיה מה להלן בסקילה אף כאן בסקילה,אמר לו ר' יוסי אני דנתי לא תחיה מלא תחיה ואתה דנת לא תחיה מלא יחיה,אמר לו רבי עקיבא אני דנתי ישראל מישראל שריבה בהן הכתוב מיתות הרבה ואתה דנת ישראל מעובדי כוכבים שלא ריבה בהן הכתוב אלא 67a. It is bmerely a mnemonic.The verse is not relevant to this ihalakha /i, and it is cited merely as a sign indicating that just as the ihalakhaof a betrothed young woman pertains to her first act of sexual intercourse, so too, the ihalakhaof the daughter of a priest who committed adultery pertains to a case where it is her first disqualification from the priesthood., strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to the case of ban inciter,listed among those liable to be executed by stoning, bthis is an ordinary person,not a prophet. bAndit is referring to bone who incites an ordinary personand not a multitude of people. What does the inciter do? bHe says: There is an idol in such and such a place,which beats like this, drinks like this, does goodfor its worshippers blike this,and bharmsthose who do not worship it blike this. /b,The mishna states a principle with regard to the ihalakhaof an inciter: With regard to ball of thosementioned bin the Torahwho bare liable toreceive bthe deathpenalty, if there are no witnesses to their transgressions, the court bdoes not hidewitnesses in order btoensnare and punish bthem, except for thiscase of an inciter.,The mishna elaborates: If the inciter bsaidhis words of incitement bto twomen, bthey are his witnesses, andhe does not need to be warned before the transgression; bthey bring him to court and stone him.If bhe saidhis words of incitement bto oneman alone, that man’s testimony would not be sufficient to have the inciter executed. Therefore bhe saysto the inciter: bI have friends who are interested in this;tell them too. This way there will be more witnesses.,The mishna continues: bIfthe inciter bis cunning, andhe knows that bhe cannot speak in front oftwo men, the court bhides witnesses for him behind the fenceso that he will not see them, bandthe man whom the inciter had previously tried to incite bsays to him: Say what you saidto me when we were bin seclusion. And the otherperson, the inciter, bsays to himagain that he should worship the idol. bAnd he says tothe inciter: bHow can we forsake our God in Heaven and go and worship wood and stones? Ifthe inciter bretractshis suggestion, bthat is good. But if he says: Thisidol worship bis our duty; thisis what bsuits us,then bthose standing behind the fence bring him to court and have him stoned. /b,The ihalakhaof an inciter includes bone who says: I shall worshipidols, or one of the following statements: bI shall go and worshipidols, or: blet us go and worshipidols, or: bI shall sacrificean idolatrous offering, or: bI shall go and sacrificean idolatrous offering, or: bLet us go and sacrificean idolatrous offering, or: bI shall burnincense as an idolatrous offering, or: bI shall go and burnincense, or: bLet us go and burnincense, or: bI shall pouran idolatrous libation, or: bI shall go and poura libation, or: bLet us go and poura libation, or: bI shall bowto an idol, or: bI shall go and bow,or: bLet us go and bow. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches: With regard to the case of ban inciter, this is an ordinary person.The Gemara infers: bThe reasonhe is executed by stoning is bthat he is an ordinary person, butif he is ba prophethe is executed bby strangulation,not by stoning. The mishna states further: bAndit is referring to bone who incites an ordinary person.The Gemara infers: bThe reasonhe is executed by stoning is bthathe incited ban individual, butif he subverted ba multitudeof people, he is executed bby strangulation. /b,Consequently, bwhoseopinion is expressed in bthe mishna? It isthe opinion of bRabbi Shimon, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA prophet who subvertedothers to participate in idol worship is executed bby stoning. Rabbi Shimon says:He is executed bby strangulation.Likewise, bthe subverters of an idolatrous cityare executed bby stoning. Rabbi Shimon says: By strangulation. /b,The Gemara challenges: bSay the last clauseof the mishna, i.e., say the following mishna: With regard to the case of bthe subverterlisted among those liable to be executed by stoning, bthis is one who says: Let us go and worship idols. And Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:In this mishna the Sages btaughtthe case of bthe subverters of an idolatrous city.Here bwe arrive atthe opinion of bthe Rabbis,who hold that those who incite a multitude of people are also executed by stoning. Is it possible that bthe first clauseof the mishna expresses the opinion of bRabbi Shimon, and the last clauseexpresses that of bthe Rabbis? /b, bRavina says: The entiremishna bisin accordance with the opinion of bthe Rabbis, andthe itanna bteachesthe mishna employing the style of: bNotonly bthisbut balso that.In other words, the mishna should be explained as follows: Not only is one who incites an individual executed by stoning, but even one who subverts an entire city is executed by stoning., bRav Pappa says: Whenthe mishna bteacheswith regard to one who bincitesthat bthis isreferring to ban ordinary person,it is not indicating that a prophet is not included in this ihalakha /i. Rather, it is referring btothe bhidingof witnesses behind a fence in order to ensnare the inciter, as his life is treated with contempt and derision, as though he were an ordinary person, i.e., a simpleton., bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAndwith regard to ball the rest of those liable toreceive the bdeathpenalty bby Torahlaw, the court bdoes not hidewitnesses in order btoensnare bthemand punish them bexcept for thiscase of an inciter., bHowdoes the court bdothis bto him?The agents of the court blight a candle for him in an inner room, andthey bplace witnesses for him in an outer roomin the dark, bso that they can see him and hear his voice but he cannot see them. And the otherperson, whom the inciter had previously tried to incite, bsays to him: Say what you said to mewhen we were bin seclusion. And he says to himagain that he should worship the idol. bAnd the otherperson bsays to him: How can we forsake our God in Heaven and worship idols? Ifthe inciter bretractshis suggestion, bthat is good. But if he says: Thisidol worship bis our duty, and thisis what bsuits us, the witnesses, who are listening from outside, bring him to court, andthey bhave him stoned. /b, bAndthe court bdid the same toan inciter named bben Setada, fromthe city of bLod, and they hanged him on Passover eve. /b,The Gemara asks: Why did they call him bben Setada,when bhe was the son of Pandeira? Rav Ḥisda says:Perhaps his mother’s bhusband,who acted as his father, was named bSetada,but his mother’s bparamour,who fathered this imamzer /i, was named bPandeira.The Gemara challenges: But his mother’s bhusband was Pappos ben Yehuda,not Setada. bRather,perhaps bhis motherwas named bSetada,and he was named ben Setada after her. The Gemara challenges: But bhis mother was Miriam, who braided women’s hair.The Gemara explains: That is not a contradiction; Setada was merely a nickname, bas they say in Pumbedita: This one strayed [ isetat da /i] from her husband. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to the case of bthe subverterlisted among those liable to be executed by stoning, bthis is one who saysto a multitude of people: bLet us go and worship idols. /b, bThe warlockis also liable to be executed by stoning. bOne who performsa real bactof sorcery bis liable, but not one who deceives the eyes,making it appear as though he is performing sorcery, as that is not considered sorcery. bRabbi Akiva says in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua:For example, btwopeople can each bgather cucumbersby sorcery. bOneof them bgatherscucumbers and he is bexempt, andthe other bone gatherscucumbers and he is bliable.How so? bThe one who performsa real bactof sorcery is bliable,and bthe one who deceives the eyes is exempt. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong With regard to the case of subverters mentioned in the mishna, bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:The Sages btaught herethe case of bthe subverters of an idolatrous city.Accordingly, there is no halakhic difference between one who incites individuals to idolatry and one who subverts an entire city; both are liable to be executed by stoning.,The mishna teaches that the case of bthe warlock isreferring to bone who performsa real bactof sorcery. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse: b“You shall not allow a witch to live”(Exodus 22:17), does not refer only to a female who practices sorcery; bboth a man and a womanare included. bIf so, whydoes bverse state “a witch”?This is bbecause most women are familiar with witchcraft. /b, bIn whatmanner is btheir deathsentence administered? bRabbi Yosei HaGelili says: It is stated here: “You shall not allow a witch to live,” and it is stated there,with regard to the conquest of the Canaanites: b“You shall allow nothing that breathes to live”(Deuteronomy 20:16). bJust as there,the Canaanites were to be killed bbythe bsword(see Numbers 21:24), bso too here,the execution of a witch is administered bbythe bsword. /b, bRabbi Akiva says: It is stated here: “You shall not allow a witch to live,” and it is stated there,with regard to Mount Sinai: “No hand shall touch it, for he shall be stoned, or thrown down; bwhether it be animal or man, it shall not live”(Exodus 19:13). bJust as there,the verse speaks bof stoning, so too here,a witch is executed bby stoning. /b, bRabbi YoseiHaGelili bsaid to him: I derivedthe meaning of the verse b“You shall not allowa witch bto live” fromthe verse b“You shall allow nothingthat breathes bto live”via a verbal analogy between two similar phrases, bbut you derivedthe meaning of the verse b“You shall not allowa witch bto live” fromthe verse b“It shall not live,”which is a less similar phrase., bRabbi Akiva said to him: I deriveda ihalakhaconcerning bJews froma ihalakhaconcerning bJews, with regard to whom the verse included manytypes of bdeathpenalties. Therefore, the fact that the expression “It shall not live” refers to stoning when stated with regard to Jews is especially significant. bBut you deriveda ihalakhaconcerning bJews froma ihalakhaconcerning bgentiles, with regard to whom the verse included only /b
29. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

104b. big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הכותב שתי אותיות בהעלם אחד חייב כתב בדיו בסם בסיקרא בקומוס ובקנקנתום ובכל דבר שהוא רושם על שני כותלי זויות ועל שני לווחי פינקס והן נהגין זה עם זה חייב הכותב על בשרו חייב המסרט על בשרו ר' אליעזר מחייב חטאת וחכמים פוטרין,כתב במשקין במי פירות באבק דרכים באבק הסופרים ובכל דבר שאינו מתקיים פטור לאחר ידו ברגלו בפיו ובמרפיקו כתב אות אחת סמוך לכתב וכתב על גבי כתב נתכוון לכתוב חי"ת וכתב ב' זיינין אחת בארץ ואחת בקורה כתב על ב' כותלי הבית על שני דפי פנקס ואין נהגין זה עם זה פטור כתב אות אחת נוטריקון ר' יהושע בן בתירא מחייב וחכמים פוטרין:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big דיו דיותא סם סמא סקרא אמר רבה בר בר חנה סקרתא שמה קומוס קומא קנקנתום אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר שמואל חרתא דאושכפי:,ובכל דבר שהוא רושם: לאתויי מאי לאתויי הא דתני רבי חנניא כתבו במי טריא ואפצא כשר תני ר' חייא כתבו באבר בשחור ובשיחור כשר:,המסרט על בשרו: תניא אמר להן רבי אליעזר לחכמים והלא בן סטדא הוציא כשפים ממצרים בסריטה שעל בשרו אמרו לו שוטה היה ואין מביאין ראיה מן השוטים: [הוספה מחסרונות הש"ס: בן סטדא בן פנדירא הוא אמר רב חסדא בעל סטדא בועל פנדירא בעל פפוס בן יהודה הוא אמו סטדא אמו מרים מגדלא שיער נשיא הואי כדאמרינן בפומדיתא סטת דא מבעלה:],כתב אות אחת סמוך לכתב: מאן תנא אמר רבא בר רב הונא דלא כר' אליעזר דאי ר' אליעזר האמר אחת על האריג חייב:,כתב על גבי כתב: מאן תנא א"ר חסדא דלא כר' יהודה דתניא הרי שהיה צריך לכתוב את השם ונתכוין לכתוב יהודה וטעה ולא הטיל בו דלת מעביר עליו קולמוס ומקדשו דברי ר' יהודה וחכמים אומרים אין השם מן המובחר,תנא כתב אות אחת והשלימה לספר ארג חוט אחד והשלימה לבגד חייב מאן תנא אמר רבא בר רב הונא ר' אליעזר היא דאמר אחת על האריג חייב רב אשי אמר אפילו תימא רבנן להשלים שאני,א"ר אמי כתב אות אחת בטבריא ואחת בציפורי חייב כתיבה היא אלא שמחוסר קריבה והתנן כתב על שני כותלי הבית ועל שני דפי פנקס ואין נהגין זה עם זה פטור התם מחוסר מעשה דקריבה הכא לא מחוסר מעשה דקריבה,תנא הגיה אות אחת חייב השתא כתב אות אחת פטור הגיה אות אחת חייב אמר רב ששת הכא במאי עסקינן כגון שנטלו לגגו של חי"ת ועשאו שני זיינין רבא אמר כגון שנטלו לתגו של דל"ת ועשאו רי"ש,תנא נתכוין לכתוב אות אחת 104b. strongMISHNA: /strong bOne who writes two letterson Shabbat bduring one lapse of awareness is liable.The following substances used as ink are explained in the Gemara. One is liable if bhe wrote with ideyo /i, with isam /i, with isikra /i, with gum [ ikomos /i], or with copper sulfate [ ikankantom /i] or with any substance that makes a mark.If one wrote bon two wallsof a house that form ba corner, or on two parts of a writing tablet, andthe two items bare read together, he is liable. One who writes on his fleshon Shabbat bis liable.If boneunwittingly bscratchesletters bon his fleshon Shabbat, bRabbi Eliezer deemshim bliableto bring ba sin-offering and the Sages deemhim bexempt. /b,If bone wrote with liquidsor bwith fruit juice,or if one drew letters bwith road dust, with scribes’ dustthat they use to dry the ink, bor with any substancewith bwhichthe writing bdoes not endure, he is exempt.Similarly, if one wrote by holding the pen on bthe back of his hand, with his foot, with his mouth,or bwith his elbow;if bone wroteonly ba single letter,even if it was badjacent toother preexisting bwriting;or if bone wrote overother bwriting;if bone meant to writethe letter iḥet /iand instead bwrotethe two halves of the iḥetas btwoinstances of the letter izayin /i;if one wrote boneletter bon the ground and one on a rafter;if bone wroteone letter bon two walls of a house,or bon two parts of a writing tablet that are not read together, he is exempt.If bone wrote one letteras ban abbreviationrepresenting an entire word, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Beteira deemshim bliableto bring a sin-offering, band the Rabbis deemhim bexempt. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara defines the terms used in the mishna. iDeyo /iis ideyota /imade from soot. iSam /iis isamma /i,which is yellow-tinged arsenic. iSikra /i, Rabba bar bar Ḥana said: It is called isikreta /iin Aramaic and is a lead-based red paint. iKomos /iis ikoma /iin Aramaic, and it is an ink made with gum Arabic from the sap of a tree. iKankantom /i, Rabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bShmuel said:This is bthe blacksubstance bused by cobblers,copper sulfate., bAndwe learned in the mishna that one who writes bwith any substance that makes a markis liable. The Gemara asks: bWhatdoes this statement come bto include?The Gemara answers: It comes bto include that which Rabbi Ḥaya taughtwith regard to writing a bill of divorce: If bone wrote it with the juice ofthe fruit called iteriya /i, orwith bgallnut juiceinstead of ink, bit is valid.Similarly, bRabbi Ḥiyya taught:If bone wrotea bill of divorce bwith lead, with soot( ige’onim /i), bor with shoeblack, it is valid.Since those substances leave a permanent mark, one who writes with them on Shabbat is liable.,We learned in the mishna: If boneunwittingly bscratchesletters bon his fleshon Shabbat, Rabbi Eliezer deems him liable to bring a sin-offering and the Sages deem him exempt. bIt was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer said to the Rabbis: Didn’tthe infamous bben Stada takemagic bspells out of Egypt in a scratch on his flesh? They said to him: He was a fool, and you cannot cite proof from a fool.That is not the way that most people write. Incidentally, the Gemara asks: Why did they call him bben Stada,when bhe was the son of Pandeira? Rav Ḥisda said:His mother’s bhusband,who acted as his father, was named bStada,but the bone who had relationswith his mother and fathered him was named bPandeira.The Gemara asks: Wasn’t his mother’s bhusband Pappos ben Yehuda? Rather, his motherwas named bStadaand he was named ben Stada after her. The Gemara asks: But wasn’t bhis mother Miriam, who braided women’s hair?The Gemara explains: That is not a contradiction. bRather,Stada was merely a nickname, bas they say in Pumbedita: Thisone bstrayed [ isetat da /i] from her husband. /b,We learned in the mishna: If bone wroteonly ba single letter,even if it was badjacent toother preexisting bwriting,he is exempt. The Gemara asks: bWho isthe itanna /iwhose opinion is cited in the mishna? bRava bar Rav Huna said:This ihalakhais bnot in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Eliezer, as ifit were bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Eliezer, didn’t he say:One who adds ba singlethread bto apreviously bwoven fabric is liablefor weaving? In his opinion, although a single thread or letter is insignificant in and of itself, one is liable because adding even a small measure to existing material is significant.,We learned in the mishna: If bone wrote overother bwritinghe is exempt. The Gemara asks: bWho isthe itanna /iwhose opinion is cited in the mishna? bRav Ḥisda said:This ihalakhais bnot in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda, as it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bIf one needed to write theTetragrammaton, the bnameof God, in a Torah scroll, and became confused band intendedinstead bto writethe name bYehuda, andwhile intending to write Yehuda bhe erred and omittedthe letter idalet /i,thereby writing the name of God, he should do the following. bHe passes a quillwith more ink boverthe name band sanctifies it,i.e., he writes it with the intention required when writing a holy name. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Yehuda. And the Rabbis say:Even if he adds ink over what he wrote, bthiswriting of God’s bname is not ideal.Apparently, according to Rabbi Yehuda, writing over other writing is considered writing anew.,A itanna btaughtin a ibaraita /i: If bone wrote a single letter andthereby bcompleted a book,or if bone wove a single thread andthereby bcompleted anentire bgarment, he is liable.The Gemara asks: bWho isthe itanna /iwhose opinion is cited in the ibaraita /i? bRava bar Rav Huna said: It isthe opinion of bRabbi Eliezer,who bsaid:One who adds ba singlethread bto apreviously bwoven fabric is liablefor weaving. bRav Ashi said: Evenif you bsaythat in accordance with the opinion of bthe Rabbis,one who does so bto completea garment is bdifferent.Even if he is not liable for weaving, he is liable at least for striking a blow with a hammer to complete the production process of a vessel., bRabbi Ami said:If bone wrote one letteron paper bin Tiberias and oneletter on paper bin Tzippori, he is liablebecause he performed a full-fledged act of bwriting that is lackingonly in bproximity.When the two pieces of paper are brought together he will have written two associated letters. The Gemara asks: bDidn’t we learnin the mishna: If bone wroteone letter bon two walls of a house,or bon two parts of a writing tablet that are not read together, he is exempt?All the more so that this is the ihalakhawith regard to one who wrote in two different cities. The Gemara answers: bThere,in the case of the parts of a tablet, bthere is the lack ofan additional bactof cutting or tearing to facilitate bringing the letters btogether.However, bhere,in the case of two cities, even though they are distant from one another, there is bno lackof an additional act to facilitate bbringing them together. /b,A itanna btaughtin the iTosefta /i: If bone emended a single letteron Shabbat, bhe is liable.The Gemara wonders: bNow,if bone wrote a single letteron Shabbat bhe is exempt;is it possible that if bone emends a single letterhe is bliable? Rav Sheshet said: With what are we dealing here?We are dealing with a case bwhere one removed the roof of a iḥetand transformed it into twoinstances of the letter izayin /i,effectively writing two letters with a single correction. bRava said:It is not necessarily referring to that specific case. It could even be referring to a case bwhere one removed the protrusionfrom the back bof a idaletand transformed it into a ireish /i,thereby emending the written text. One who did so is liable for performing the prohibited labor of striking a blow with a hammer to complete the production process of a vessel.,A itanna btaught:If bone intended to write one letteron Shabbat
30. Origen, Against Celsus, 1.32, 3.44 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.32. But let us now return to where the Jew is introduced, speaking of the mother of Jesus, and saying that when she was pregt she was turned out of doors by the carpenter to whom she had been betrothed, as having been guilty of adultery, and that she bore a child to a certain soldier named Panthera; and let us see whether those who have blindly concocted these fables about the adultery of the Virgin with Panthera, and her rejection by the carpenter, did not invent these stories to overturn His miraculous conception by the Holy Ghost: for they could have falsified the history in a different manner, on account of its extremely miraculous character, and not have admitted, as it were against their will, that Jesus was born of no ordinary human marriage. It was to be expected, indeed, that those who would not believe the miraculous birth of Jesus would invent some falsehood. And their not doing this in a credible manner, but (their) preserving the fact that it was not by Joseph that the Virgin conceived Jesus, rendered the falsehood very palpable to those who can understand and detect such inventions. Is it at all agreeable to reason, that he who dared to do so much for the human race, in order that, as far as in him lay, all the Greeks and Barbarians, who were looking for divine condemnation, might depart from evil, and regulate their entire conduct in a manner pleasing to the Creator of the world, should not have had a miraculous birth, but one the vilest and most disgraceful of all? And I will ask of them as Greeks, and particularly of Celsus, who either holds or not the sentiments of Plato, and at any rate quotes them, whether He who sends souls down into the bodies of men, degraded Him who was to dare such mighty acts, and to teach so many men, and to reform so many from the mass of wickedness in the world, to a birth more disgraceful than any other, and did not rather introduce Him into the world through a lawful marriage? Or is it not more in conformity with reason, that every soul, for certain mysterious reasons (I speak now according to the opinion of Pythagoras, and Plato, and Empedocles, whom Celsus frequently names), is introduced into a body, and introduced according to its deserts and former actions? It is probable, therefore, that this soul also, which conferred more benefit by its residence in the flesh than that of many men (to avoid prejudice, I do not say all), stood in need of a body not only superior to others, but invested with all excellent qualities. 3.44. After these points Celsus quotes some objections against the doctrine of Jesus, made by a very few individuals who are considered Christians, not of the more intelligent, as he supposes, but of the more ignorant class, and asserts that the following are the rules laid down by them. Let no one come to us who has been instructed, or who is wise or prudent (for such qualifications are deemed evil by us); but if there be any ignorant, or unintelligent, or uninstructed, or foolish persons, let them come with confidence. By which words, acknowledging that such individuals are worthy of their God, they manifestly show that they desire and are able to gain over only the silly, and the mean, and the stupid, with women and children. In reply to which, we say that, as if, while Jesus teaches continence, and says, Whosoever looks upon a woman to lust after her, has already committed adultery with her in his heart, one were to behold a few of those who are deemed to be Christians living licentiously, he would most justly blame them for living contrary to the teaching of Jesus, but would act most unreasonably if he were to charge the Gospel with their censurable conduct; so, if he found nevertheless that the doctrine of the Christians invites men to wisdom, the blame then must remain with those who rest in their own ignorance, and who utter, not what Celsus relates (for although some of them are simple and ignorant, they do not speak so shamelessly as he alleges), but other things of much less serious import, which, however, serve to turn aside men from the practice of wisdom.
31. Anon., 2 Enoch, 72, 71

32. Anon., 4 Ezra, 14.22-14.48

14.22. If then I have found favor before thee, send the Holy Spirit into me, and I will write everything that has happened in the world from the beginning, the things which were written in thy law, that men may be able to find the path, and that those who wish to live in the last days may live. 14.23. He answered me and said, "Go and gather the people, and tell them not to seek you for forty days. 14.24. But prepare for yourself many writing tablets, and take with you Sarea, Dabria, Selemia, Ethanus, and Asiel -- these five, because they are trained to write rapidly; 14.25. and you shall come here, and I will light in your heart the lamp of understanding, which shall not be put out until what you are about to write is finished. 14.26. And when you have finished, some things you shall make public, and some you shall deliver in secret to the wise; tomorrow at this hour you shall begin to write. 14.27. Then I went as he commanded me, and I gathered all the people together, and said 14.28. Hear these words, O Israel 14.29. At first our fathers dwelt as aliens in Egypt, and they were delivered from there 14.30. and received the law of life, which they did not keep, which you also have transgressed after them. 14.31. Then land was given to you for a possession in the land of Zion; but you and your fathers committed iniquity and did not keep the ways which the Most High commanded you. 14.32. And because he is a righteous judge, in due time he took from you what he had given. 14.33. And now you are here, and your brethren are farther in the interior. 14.34. If you, then, will rule over your minds and discipline your hearts, you shall be kept alive, and after death you shall obtain mercy. 14.35. For after death the judgment will come, when we shall live again; and then the names of the righteous will become manifest, and the deeds of the ungodly will be disclosed. 14.36. But let no one come to me now, and let no one seek me for forty days. 14.37. So I took the five men, as he commanded me, and we proceeded to the field, and remained there. 14.38. And on the next day, behold, a voice called me, saying, "Ezra, open your mouth and drink what I give you to drink. 14.39. Then I opened my mouth, and behold, a full cup was offered to me; it was full of something like water, but its color was like fire. 14.40. And I took it and drank; and when I had drunk it, my heart poured forth understanding, and wisdom increased in my breast, for my spirit retained its memory; 14.41. and my mouth was opened, and was no longer closed. 14.42. And the Most High gave understanding to the five men, and by turns they wrote what was dictated, in characters which they did not know. They sat forty days, and wrote during the daytime, and ate their bread at night. 14.43. As for me, I spoke in the daytime and was not silent at night. 14.44. So during the forty days ninety-four books were written. 14.45. And when the forty days were ended, the Most High spoke to me, saying, "Make public the twenty-four books that you wrote first and let the worthy and the unworthy read them; 14.46. but keep the seventy that were written last, in order to give them to the wise among your people. 14.47. For in them is the spring of understanding, the fountain of wisdom, and the river of knowledge. 14.48. And I did so.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acts of the apostles Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 102, 107
africa, africans Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 146
agency, augustus McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 62
agrippa and four concubines Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 146
agrippa ii Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
albinus's wife" '186.0_227.0@arcadian Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 146
albinus Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 146
alexander the great Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 92
antioch of pisidia Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 116, 117
antiochus iv Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 265
apologetic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
apostle Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
augustus Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
augustus (oktavian) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
authority, christian sources, early, role of non-intellectual authority in Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 166
authority, intellectual versus non-intellectual Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 166
authority, prophetic or revelatory Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 166
authority Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 166
baptism, jesus baptism Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 104
believer Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 44
bernice (berenice) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
biblical referents, canonization Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 51
bipartite vs. tripartite canon., of the pentateuch Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 51
bipartite vs. tripartite canon Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 51
bitenosh Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 92
body (human), xv Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
bucolic motifs Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 227
business, commerce Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 146
caesaraea philippi Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
care of the poor Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 146
characters Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 44
chariton Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 227
children Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 44
christian, early christian, anti-christian, christianity Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 71
christians, numbers of Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 146
chryse Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 146
circumcision Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
cleansing Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 71
cognitive science Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
concubinage Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 146
conflict, of jews and christians (parting of the ways) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 313
construction Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
conventions or themes Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 187
cross Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
cultural geography Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
daniel Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 92
david Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 92
deconstruction Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
demigods Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
demiurge McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 62
demographics, population growth Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 146
dialogue Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 44
dichotomy Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
domitian Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
dream of scipio McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 62
editing (process) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 313
educated, erudite Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 146, 227
embellishment Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 44
embodiment Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
enoch Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 92
eschatology, eschatological Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 117
faith, faithfulness Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
fasting Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 104
father, fatherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 329
fertility/infertility Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 18
fiction (literature) Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 227
firstspace Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
flesh Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 116
fortune, τύχη/fortuna Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 253
freedpersons (and their descendants), manumission Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 227
fulvia Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 146
galilee, galilean Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 71
gamaliel (gamliel) the elder, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
general Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 187
gentile Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
gentiles, gentile, nations Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
gentiles Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 116, 117
god-fearer, god-fearing Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
god as father Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 104
gospels Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 116, 117
greco, roman Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 18
greek Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 146
hebrew poetry Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 44
hegemony Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
hermas Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 227
herod antipas Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
herod the great Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
herodian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
herodians, herodian dynasty Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
high (chief) priest Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
hippolytus (soon after Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 146
historical tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 313
historiography Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
history of religions Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 18
holy spirit, geographic universalism Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 586
holy spirit, lukan conception Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 572, 586
holy spirit, possessors in luke-acts Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 572
holy spirit Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 116, 117; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 104
house of prayer Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 106
humiliores Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 146
hymns Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 102
immersion Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 71
intercourse, sexual Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 326
isaac Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 92
isaiah Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 117
israel/israelites Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 102, 104, 106, 107
jesus, as the anointed one, the messiah Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 71
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 71, 92
jesus, prayer model Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 102, 104
jesus-centered tradition Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
jesus Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 71
jew/s Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 107
jewish christianity Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 99
jewish christians, jewish-christian Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
jewish christians Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 146
jewish other, palestinian jewish Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 71
jews, jewish Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 146
jews, jewry, jewish, jewish matrix, jewish setting, anti-jewish, non-jewish Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
jews Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 116, 117
johannine community Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 313
john (the apostle) Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 117
john (the baptist) Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 116
john the baptist/baptizer/immerser Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 71
john the baptist Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 104
jordan river Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 71
josephus flavius Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 71
judaism Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 102
judean (geographical-political) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
justin martyr Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 99
kingdom of god/gods kingdom Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 104
lamech Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 92
latin, latinisms Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 146
law in paul Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 313
liberation Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
light Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 117
luke, gospel of Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 102, 104, 106, 107
luke, gospel writer Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 18
luke/acts\n, audience of Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 187
luke/acts\n, literary unity of Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 263
luke Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 116, 117; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 313, 553
margins Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
mary (mother) Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 99
message Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 116
message of salvation Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 117
method Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
methuselah Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 92
midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 313
mission of paul Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 116
moment Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 187
moral order McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 62
moses Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 51
mother, motherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 329
nan, angel Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 44
narrator Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 44
nazareth Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 116
nero Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 146, 227; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
nicomedes Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 146
nicostratus Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 146
noah (noe) Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 92
observance of law Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 313
obstinacy Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 117
of jesus Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 265
opponents, of god, θεομάχοι Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 265
opponents Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 265
parallelism Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 44
parents Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 329
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 313, 553
paul (the apostle) Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 116, 117
paul pharisee Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
peter Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 146
peter (the apostle) Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 117
pharisees, torah-sages, pharisaic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 71
place Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
platonism, effects on philo McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 62
pneumatology, lukan Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 572, 586
poetry Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 44
point of view Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 44
politics, of luke/acts Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 253
poppea Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 146
possessions, wealth Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 146
prayer Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 146
priest Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
prophecy Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 116
prophecy of isaiah Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 116, 117
prophet(ess)/prophecy/prophetic Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 18
prophet Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 117
prophetic or revelatory authority, use of, in early christian sources Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 166
prophetic text/book Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 116
prophets, prophecy Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 51
prophets/prophetic Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 104, 106
prophets (nebi'im, canonical division)" '32.0_326.0@syria(n) Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 51
provincials, immigrants Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 227
public-private Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
purity and impurity Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 99
quirinius Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
reconfiguration Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 44
repentance, return to god Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 71
repentance Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 265
repetition Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 44
resistance Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
resurrection Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 117
reversal Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 253
rhetoric Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 187
rhetorolect, miracle Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
rituals Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 104
roman, citizen Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
sadducees Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 71; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
salvation Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 18; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 116, 117
samaritan Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 313
samson Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 92
samuel Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 92
sanhedrin Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 117
scriptures Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 116
sebomenoi Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 146
secondspace Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
senator, senatorial Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 146
septuagint(al) Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 18
septuagint Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 263
sign Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 117
simeon Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 117
sins, transgressions, sinners, forgiveness of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 71
slaves, slavery Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 227
social order McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 62
socially elevated Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 146
son of god, gods chosen, democratic widening of divine sonship (general, of israel) Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
son of god, gods chosen Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
sons of god, sons of heaven Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 71
space Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
spirit, characterizations as, power Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 18
spirit, effects of, power, empowerment' Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 18
subte Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 44
suffering servant, servant song Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
synoptic gospels, tradition, pre-synoptic v-vi Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
synoptic narrative Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 71
syria Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
talmud(ic) Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 326
talmud Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 71
temple Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 329; Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
temple (in jerusalem) Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 106, 107
temple action episode Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 106, 107
textures, ideological Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
textures, inner Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 44
theater Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 227
thirdspace Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
thrones Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 44
tiberias, emperor Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
tiberius Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
titus Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
topos/topoi Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
torah Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
universality Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 265
virgin(al), virginity Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 326, 329
voice Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 44
women Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 146
worship, false/improper worship Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 106
worship, jewish worship Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 107
worship, place of worship Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 107
worship, true/authentic worship Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 107
zechariah Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 117