Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8256
New Testament, Luke, 13.14


ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ ἀρχισυνάγωγος, ἀγανακτῶν ὅτι τῷ σαββάτῳ ἐθεράπευσεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς, ἔλεγεν τῷ ὄχλῳ ὅτι Ἓξ ἡμέραι εἰσὶν ἐν αἷς δεῖ ἐργάζεσθαι· ἐν αὐταῖς οὖν ἐρχόμενοι θεραπεύεσθε καὶ μὴ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τοῦ σαββάτου.The ruler of the synagogue, being indignant because Jesus had healed on the Sabbath, said to the multitude, "There are six days in which men ought to work. Therefore come on those days and be healed, and not on the Sabbath day!


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

34 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 11.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.19. וְלִמַּדְתֶּם אֹתָם אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶם לְדַבֵּר בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃ 11.19. And ye shall teach them your children, talking of them, when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 20.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.11. כִּי שֵׁשֶׁת־יָמִים עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֶת־הַיָּם וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־בָּם וַיָּנַח בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי עַל־כֵּן בֵּרַךְ יְהוָה אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת וַיְקַדְּשֵׁהוּ׃ 20.11. for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested on the seventh day; wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it."
3. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 6.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.6. כִּי חֶסֶד חָפַצְתִּי וְלֹא־זָבַח וְדַעַת אֱלֹהִים מֵעֹלוֹת׃ 6.6. For I desire mercy, and not sacrifice, And the knowledge of God rather than burnt-offerings."
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 13.13, 21.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

13.13. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה כִסְּתָה הַצָּרַעַת אֶת־כָּל־בְּשָׂרוֹ וְטִהַר אֶת־הַנָּגַע כֻּלּוֹ הָפַךְ לָבָן טָהוֹר הוּא׃ 21.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֱמֹר אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם לְנֶפֶשׁ לֹא־יִטַּמָּא בְּעַמָּיו׃ 21.1. וְהַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל מֵאֶחָיו אֲ‍שֶׁר־יוּצַק עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ שֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה וּמִלֵּא אֶת־יָדוֹ לִלְבֹּשׁ אֶת־הַבְּגָדִים אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ לֹא יִפְרָע וּבְגָדָיו לֹא יִפְרֹם׃ 13.13. then the priest shall look; and, behold, if the leprosy have covered all his flesh, he shall pronounce him clean that hath the plague; it is all turned white: he is clean." 21.1. And the LORD said unto Moses: Speak unto the priests the sons of Aaron, and say unto them: There shall none defile himself for the dead among his people;"
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 6.23-6.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.23. דַּבֵּר אֶל־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶל־בָּנָיו לֵאמֹר כֹּה תְבָרֲכוּ אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אָמוֹר לָהֶם׃ 6.24. יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה וְיִשְׁמְרֶךָ׃ 6.25. יָאֵר יְהוָה פָּנָיו אֵלֶיךָ וִיחֻנֶּךָּ׃ 6.26. יִשָּׂא יְהוָה פָּנָיו אֵלֶיךָ וְיָשֵׂם לְךָ שָׁלוֹם׃ 6.27. וְשָׂמוּ אֶת־שְׁמִי עַל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַאֲנִי אֲבָרֲכֵם׃ 6.23. ’Speak unto Aaron and unto his sons, saying: On this wise ye shall bless the children of Israel; ye shall say unto them:" 6.24. The LORD bless thee, and keep thee;" 6.25. The LORD make His face to shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee;" 6.26. The LORD lift up His countece upon thee, and give thee peace." 6.27. So shall they put My name upon the children of Israel, and I will bless them.’"
6. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 7.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.13. When they had applauded him in fitting manner, their priests and the whole multitude shouted the Hallelujah and joyfully departed.
7. Philo of Alexandria, Hypothetica, 7.13 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7.13. and, in fact, they do constantly assemble together, and they do sit down one with another, the multitude in general in silence, except when it is customary to say any words of good omen, by way of assent to what is being read. And then some priest who is present, or some one of the elders, reads the sacred laws to them, and interprets each of them separately till eventide; and then when separate they depart, having gained some skill in the sacred laws, and having made great advancers towards piety.
8. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 297, 319, 157 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

157. But he never removed them from Rome, nor did he ever deprive them of their rights as Roman citizens, because he had a regard for Judaea, nor did he never meditate any new steps of innovation or rigour with respect to their synagogues, nor did he forbid their assembling for the interpretation of the law, nor did he make any opposition to their offerings of first fruits; but he behaved with such piety towards our countrymen, and with respect to all our customs, that he, I may almost say, with all his house, adorned our temple with many costly and magnificent offerings, commanding that continued sacrifices of whole burnt offerings should be offered up for ever and ever every day from his own revenues, as a first fruit of his own to the most high God, which sacrifices are performed to this very day, and will be performed for ever, as a proof and specimen of a truly imperial disposition.
9. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 14.374, 18.122 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.374. 2. Hereupon he resolved to go away, and did go very prudently the road to Egypt; and then it was that he lodged in a certain temple; for he had left a great many of his followers there. On the next day he came to Rhinocolura, and there it was that he heard what was befallen his brother. 18.122. o he was persuaded by what they said, and changed that resolution of his which he had before taken in this matter. Whereupon he ordered the army to march along the great plain, while he himself, with Herod the tetrarch and his friends, went up to Jerusalem to offer sacrifice to God, an ancient festival of the Jews being then just approaching;
10. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.277, 4.408, 5.562 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.277. 2. So when Herod had found that the Arabians were his enemies, and this for those very reasons whence he hoped they would have been the most friendly, and had given them such an answer as his passion suggested, he returned back, and went for Egypt. Now he lodged the first evening at one of the temples of that country, in order to meet with those whom he left behind; but on the next day word was brought him, as he was going to Rhinocurura, that his brother was dead, and how he came by his death; 4.408. yet were these men that now got together, and joined in the conspiracy by parties, too small for an army, and too many for a gang of thieves: and thus did they fall upon the holy places and the cities; 5.562. 6. But as for John, when he could no longer plunder the people, he betook himself to sacrilege, and melted down many of the sacred utensils, which had been given to the temple; as also many of those vessels which were necessary for such as ministered about holy things, the caldrons, the dishes, and the tables; nay, he did not abstain from those pouringvessels that were sent them by Augustus and his wife;
11. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.20-2.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.21. for he says, that “when the Jews had travelled a six days’ journey, they had buboes in their groins: and that on this account it was that they rested on the seventh day, as having got safely to that country which is now called Judea; that then they preserved the language of the Egyptians, and called that day the Sabbath, for that malady of buboes in their groin was named Sabbatosis by the Egyptians.” 2.21. Accordingly our legislator admits all those that have a mind to observe our laws, so to do; and this after a friendly manner, as esteeming that a true union, which not only extends to our own stock, but to those that would live after the same manner with us; yet does he not allow those that come to us by accident only to be admitted into communion with us. /p 2.22. And would not a man now laugh at this fellow’s trifling, or rather hate his impudence in writing thus? We must, it seems, take it for granted, that all these hundred and ten thousand men must have these buboes! 2.22. 32. Nay, indeed, in case it had so fallen out, that our nation had not been so thoroughly known among all men as they are, and our voluntary submission to our laws had not been so open and manifest as it is 2.23. But, for certain, if those men had been blind and lame, and had all sorts of distempers upon them, as Apion says they had, they could not have gone one single day’s journey; but if they had been all able to travel over a large desert, and, besides that, to fight and conquer those that opposed them, they had not all of them had buboes in their groins after the sixth day was over; 2.23. while they made use of other men as their servants for all the necessaries of life, and had their food prepared for them by the others: and these good and humane actions they do for no other purpose but this, that by their actions and their sufferings they may be able to conquer all those against whom they make war. 2.24. for no such distemper comes naturally and of necessity upon those that travel; but still, when there are many ten thousands in a camp together, they constantly march a settled space [in a day]. Nor is it at all probable that such a thing should happen by chance: this would be prodigiously absurd to be supposed. 2.24. uch as these, that they may be allowed to be as numerous as they have a mind to have them; that they are begotten one by another, and that after all the kinds of generation you can imagine. They also distinguish them in their places and ways of living, as they would distinguish several sorts of animals: as some to be under the earth; as some to be in the sea; and the ancientest of them all to be bound in hell; 2.25. However, our admirable author Apion hath before told us, that “they came to Judea in six days’ time;” and again, that “Moses went up to a mountain that lay between Egypt and Arabia, which was called Sinai, and was concealed there forty days, and that when he came down from thence he gave laws to the Jews.” But then, how was it possible for them to tarry forty days in a desert place where there was no water, and at the same time to pass all over the country between that and Judea in the six days? 2.25. 36. Wherefore it deserves our inquiry what should be the occasion of this unjust management, and of these scandals about the Deity. And truly I suppose it to be derived from the imperfect knowledge the heathen legislators had at first of the true nature of God; nor did they explain to the people even so far as they did comprehend of it: nor did they compose the other parts of their political settlements according to it 2.26. And as for this grammatical translation of the word Sabbath, it either contains an instance of his great impudence or gross ignorance; 2.26. and perhaps there may be some reason to blame the rigid severity of the Lacedemonians, for they bestowed the privilege of their city on no foreigners, nor indeed would give leave to them to stay among them; 2.27. for the words iSabboand iSabbathare widely different from one another; for the word Sabbath in the Jewish language denotes rest from all sorts of work; but the word Sabbo, as he affirms, denotes among the Egyptians the malady of a bubo in the groin. /p 2.27. And to be sure Apollonius was greatly pleased with the laws of the Persians, and was an admirer of them, because the Greeks enjoyed the advantage of their courage, and had the very same opinion about the gods which they had. This last was exemplified in the temples which they burnt, and their courage in coming, and almost entirely enslaving the Grecians. However, Apollonius has imitated all the Persian institutions, and that by his offering violence to other men’s wives, and castrating his own sons.
12. Mishnah, Sotah, 7.6-7.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.6. How was the priestly blessing [pronounced]?In the province (outside of the Temple) it was said as three blessings, but in the Temple as one blessing. In the Temple the name was uttered as it is written, but in the province in its substituted name. In the province the priests raise their hands at the height of their shoulders, but in the Temple above their heads, except the high priest who does not raise his hands higher than the frontlet (on his forehead). Rabbi Judah says: even the high priest raises his hands higher than the frontlet, as it says, “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them” (Leviticus 9:22)." 7.7. How were the benedictions of the high priest [performed]?The hazzan of the synagogue takes the Torah scroll and gives it to the president of the synagogue; the vice-president of the synagogue gives it to the high priest, and the high priest stands, receives [the scroll] and reads [the following portions]: “After the death” (Leviticus 16:1-34), and “But on the tenth day” (Leviticus 23:26-32). Then he rolls the Torah (scroll), places it in his bosom and exclaims, “More than I have read before you is written here!” [The portion], “On the tenth day” (Numbers 29:7-11), which is in the book of Numbers, he reads by heart. And he blesses upon it eight benedictions: “For the Torah”, “For the Temple service”, “For thanksgiving”, “For the pardon of sin”, “For the Temple”, “For Israel”, “For the priests”, viii) and the rest of the prayer." 7.8. How was the procedure in connection with the portion read by the king?At the conclusion of the first day of the festival (Sukkot) in the eighth [year], at the end of the seventh year, they erect a wooden platform in the Temple court, and he sits upon it, as it is said, “At the end of seven years, in the set time” etc (Deuteronomy 31:10). The synagogue attendant takes a Torah scroll and hands it to the head of the synagogue, the head of the synagogue hands it to the deputy and he hands it to the high priest, and the high priest hands it to the king and the king stands and receives it, but reads it while sitting. King Agrippa stood and received it and read standing, and the sages praised him. When he reached, “You shall not place a foreigner over you” (ibid 17:15) his eyes ran with tears. They said to him, “Fear not, Agrippas, you are our brother, you are our brother!” [The king] reads from the beginning of “These are the words” (ibid 1:1) until the Shema ((ibid 6:4-9), and the Shema, and “It will come to pass if you hear” (ibid 11:13-21 the second part of the Shema), and “You shall surely tithe” (ibid 14:22-29), and “When you have finished tithing” (ibid 26:12-15) and the portion of the king (ibid 17:14-20) and the blessings and curses (ibid, until he finishes all the section. The blessings that the high priest recites, the king recites, except that he substitutes one for the festivals instead of one for the pardon of sin."
13. Mishnah, Yoma, 7.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.1. The high priest [then] came to read. If he wished to read in linen garments, he reads, and if not he reads in his own white cloak. The synagogue attendant would take a Torah scroll and give it to the head of the synagogue, and the head of the synagogue gives it to deputy high priest, and the deputy high priest gives it to the high priest, and the high priest stands and receives it, and reads, [section] beginning] “After the death …” (Leviticus 16:1-34) and “But on the tenth…” (Leviticus 23:26-32). Then he would roll up the Torah scroll and put it in his bosom and say, “More than what I have read out before you is written here.” And “On the tenth …” (Numbers 29:7-11) which is in the Book of Numbers he recites by heart. And he recites on it eight benedictions: “For the law”, “For the Temple service,” “For thanksgiving,” “For the forgiveness of sins” and “For the Temple” on its own, and “For Israel” on its own and “For Jerusalem” on its own, “For the priests” on their own and “For the rest of the prayer.”"
14. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.1, 16.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, called to be an apostle of Jesus Christ through the willof God, and our brother Sosthenes 16.3. When I arrive, I will sendwhoever you approve with letters to carry your gracious gift toJerusalem.
15. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 4.1-4.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.1. But the Spirit says expressly that in later times some will fall away from the faith, paying attention to seducing spirits and doctrines of demons 4.2. through the hypocrisy of men who speak lies, branded in their own conscience as with a hot iron; 4.3. forbidding marriage and commanding to abstain from foods which God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and know the truth.
16. New Testament, Acts, 1.2-1.3, 1.8, 1.22, 2.1, 2.15, 2.17-2.18, 2.20, 2.29, 3.24, 5.36-5.37, 7.8, 7.41, 7.45, 9.9, 9.20, 10.3, 10.30, 10.40, 12.3, 13.5, 13.14-13.41, 13.44-13.47, 14.1-14.2, 15.2-15.29, 16.12-16.13, 16.18, 16.35, 17.1-17.2, 17.10, 17.17, 17.31, 18.1-18.19, 19.8, 20.3, 20.6, 20.18, 20.26, 21.4-21.5, 21.7, 21.10, 21.15-21.27, 21.38, 22.19, 23.1, 23.12, 24.1, 24.11-24.12, 24.24, 25.6, 25.13-25.14, 26.11, 26.13, 26.22, 27.7, 27.20, 28.7, 28.17, 28.23 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.2. until the day in which he was received up, after he had given commandment through the Holy Spirit to the apostles whom he had chosen. 1.3. To these he also showed himself alive after his suffering by many proofs, appearing to them over a period of forty days, and spoke about God's Kingdom. 1.8. But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come on you. You will be witnesses to me in Jerusalem, in all Judea and Samaria, and to the uttermost parts of the earth. 1.22. beginning from the baptism of John, to the day that he was received up from us, of these one must become a witness with us of his resurrection. 2.1. Now when the day of Pentecost had come, they were all with one accord in one place. 2.15. For these aren't drunken, as you suppose, seeing it is only the third hour of the day. 2.17. 'It will be in the last days, says God, I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh. Your sons and your daughters will prophesy. Your young men will see visions. Your old men will dream dreams. 2.18. Yes, and on my servants and on my handmaidens in those days, I will pour out my Spirit, and they will prophesy. 2.20. The sun will be turned into darkness, And the moon into blood, Before the great and glorious day of the Lord comes. 2.29. Brothers, I may tell you freely of the patriarch David, that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day. 3.24. Yes, and all the prophets from Samuel and those who followed after, as many as have spoken, they also told of these days. 5.36. For before these days Theudas rose up, making himself out to be somebody; to whom a number of men, about four hundred, joined themselves: who was slain; and all, as many as obeyed him, were dispersed, and came to nothing. 5.37. After this man, Judas of Galilee rose up in the days of the enrollment, and drew away some people after him. He also perished, and all, as many as obeyed him, were scattered abroad. 7.8. He gave him the covet of circumcision. So Abraham became the father of Isaac, and circumcised him the eighth day. Isaac became the father of Jacob, and Jacob became the father of the twelve patriarchs. 7.41. They made a calf in those days, and brought a sacrifice to the idol, and rejoiced in the works of their hands. 7.45. which also our fathers, in their turn, brought in with Joshua when they entered into the possession of the nations, whom God drove out before the face of our fathers, to the days of David 9.9. He was without sight for three days, and neither ate nor drank. 9.20. Immediately in the synagogues he proclaimed the Christ, that he is the Son of God. 10.3. At about the ninth hour of the day, he clearly saw in a vision an angel of God coming to him, and saying to him, "Cornelius! 10.30. Cornelius said, "Four days ago, I was fasting until this hour, and at the ninth hour, I prayed in my house, and behold, a man stood before me in bright clothing 10.40. God raised him up the third day, and gave him to be revealed 12.3. When he saw that it pleased the Jews, he proceeded to seize Peter also. This was during the days of unleavened bread. 13.5. When they were at Salamis, they proclaimed the word of God in the synagogues of the Jews. They had also John as their attendant. 13.14. But they, passing through from Perga, came to Antioch of Pisidia. They went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and sat down. 13.15. After the reading of the law and the prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, saying, "Brothers, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, speak. 13.16. Paul stood up, and beckoning with his hand said, "Men of Israel, and you who fear God, listen. 13.17. The God of this people Israel chose our fathers, and exalted the people when they stayed as aliens in the land of Egypt , and with an uplifted arm, he led them out of it. 13.18. For about the time of forty years he put up with them in the wilderness. 13.19. When he had destroyed seven nations in the land of Canaan, he gave them their land for an inheritance, for about four hundred fifty years. 13.20. After these things he gave them judges until Samuel the prophet. 13.21. Afterward they asked for a king, and God gave to them Saul the son of Kish, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, for forty years. 13.22. When he had removed him, he raised up David to be their king, to whom he also testified, 'I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after my heart, who will do all my will.' 13.23. From this man's seed, God has brought salvation to Israel according to his promise 13.24. before his coming, when John had first preached the baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel. 13.25. As John was fulfilling his course, he said, 'What do you suppose that I am? I am not he. But behold, one comes after me the sandals of whose feet I am not worthy to untie.' 13.26. Brothers, children of the stock of Abraham, and those among you who fear God, the word of this salvation is sent out to you. 13.27. For those who dwell in Jerusalem, and their rulers, because they didn't know him, nor the voices of the prophets which are read every Sabbath, fulfilled them by condemning him. 13.28. Though they found no cause for death, they still asked Pilate to have him killed. 13.29. When they had fulfilled all things that were written about him, they took him down from the tree, and laid him in a tomb. 13.30. But God raised him from the dead 13.31. and he was seen for many days by those who came up with him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who are his witnesses to the people. 13.32. We bring you good news of the promise made to the fathers 13.33. that God has fulfilled the same to us, their children, in that he raised up Jesus. As it is also written in the second psalm, 'You are my Son. Today I have become your father.' 13.34. Concerning that he raised him up from the dead, now no more to return to corruption, he has spoken thus: 'I will give you the holy and sure blessings of David.' 13.35. Therefore he says also in another psalm, 'You will not allow your Holy One to see decay.' 13.36. For David, after he had in his own generation served the counsel of God, fell asleep, and was laid with his fathers, and saw decay. 13.37. But he whom God raised up saw no decay. 13.38. Be it known to you therefore, brothers, that through this man is proclaimed to you remission of sins 13.39. and by him everyone who believes is justified from all things, from which you could not be justified by the law of Moses. 13.40. Beware therefore, lest that come on you which is spoken in the prophets: 13.41. 'Behold, you scoffers, and wonder, and perish; For I work a work in your days, A work which you will in no way believe, if one declares it to you.' 13.44. The next Sabbath almost the whole city was gathered together to hear the word of God. 13.45. But when the Jews saw the multitudes, they were filled with jealousy, and contradicted the things which were spoken by Paul, and blasphemed. 13.46. Paul and Barnabas spoke out boldly, and said, "It was necessary that God's word should be spoken to you first. Since indeed you thrust it from you, and judge yourselves unworthy of eternal life, behold, we turn to the Gentiles. 13.47. For so has the Lord commanded us, saying, 'I have set you as a light of the Gentiles, That you should be for salvation to the uttermost parts of the earth.' 14.1. It happened in Iconium that they entered together into the synagogue of the Jews, and so spoke that a great multitude both of Jews and of Greeks believed. 14.2. But the disobedient Jews stirred up and embittered the souls of the Gentiles against the brothers. 15.2. Therefore when Paul and Barnabas had no small discord and discussion with them, they appointed Paul and Barnabas, and some others of them, to go up to Jerusalem to the apostles and elders about this question. 15.3. They, being sent on their way by the assembly, passed through both Phoenicia and Samaria, declaring the conversion of the Gentiles. They caused great joy to all the brothers. 15.4. When they had come to Jerusalem, they were received by the assembly and the apostles and the elders, and they reported all things that God had done with them. 15.5. But some of the sect of the Pharisees who believed rose up, saying, "It is necessary to circumcise them, and to charge them to keep the law of Moses. 15.6. The apostles and the elders were gathered together to see about this matter. 15.7. When there had been much discussion, Peter rose up and said to them, "Brothers, you know that a good while ago God made choice among you, that by my mouth the Gentiles should hear the word of the gospel, and believe. 15.8. God, who knows the heart, testified about them, giving them the Holy Spirit, just like he did to us. 15.9. He made no distinction between us and them, cleansing their hearts by faith. 15.10. Now therefore why do you tempt God, that you should put a yoke on the neck of the disciples which neither our fathers nor we were able to bear? 15.11. But we believe that we are saved through the grace of the Lord Jesus, just as they are. 15.12. All the multitude kept silence, and they listened to Barnabas and Paul reporting what signs and wonders God had done among the Gentiles through them. 15.13. After they were silent, James answered, "Brothers, listen to me. 15.14. Simeon has reported how God first visited the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name. 15.15. This agrees with the words of the prophets. As it is written 15.16. 'After these things I will return. I will again build the tent of David, which has fallen. I will again build its ruins. I will set it up 15.17. That the rest of men may seek after the Lord; All the Gentiles who are called by my name, Says the Lord, who does all these things. 15.18. All his works are known to God from eternity.' 15.19. Therefore my judgment is that we don't trouble those from among the Gentiles who turn to God 15.20. but that we write to them that they abstain from the pollution of idols, from sexual immorality, from what is strangled, and from blood. 15.21. For Moses from generations of old has in every city those who preach him, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath. 15.22. Then it seemed good to the apostles and the elders, with the whole assembly, to choose men out of their company, and send them to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas: Judas called Barsabbas, and Silas, chief men among the brothers. 15.23. They wrote these things by their hand: "The apostles, the elders, and the brothers, to the brothers who are of the Gentiles in Antioch, Syria, and Cilicia: greetings. 15.24. Because we have heard that some who went out from us have troubled you with words, unsettling your souls, saying, 'You must be circumcised and keep the law,' to whom we gave no commandment; 15.25. it seemed good to us, having come to one accord, to choose out men and send them to you with our beloved Barnabas and Paul 15.26. men who have risked their lives for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. 15.27. We have sent therefore Judas and Silas, who themselves will also tell you the same things by word of mouth. 15.28. For it seemed good to the Holy Spirit, and to us, to lay no greater burden on you than these necessary things: 15.29. that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality, from which if you keep yourselves, it will be well with you. Farewell. 16.12. and from there to Philippi, which is a city of Macedonia, the first of the district, a Roman colony. We were staying some days in this city. 16.13. On the Sabbath day we went forth outside of the city by a riverside, where we supposed there was a place of prayer, and we sat down, and spoke to the women who had come together. 16.18. This she did for many days. But Paul, becoming greatly annoyed, turned and said to the spirit, "I charge you in the name of Jesus Christ to come out of her!" It came out that very hour. 16.35. But when it was day, the magistrates sent the sergeants, saying, "Let those men go. 17.1. Now when they had passed through Amphipolis and Apollonia, they came to Thessalonica, where there was a synagogue of the Jews. 17.2. Paul, as was his custom, went in to them, and for three Sabbath days reasoned with them from the Scriptures 17.10. The brothers immediately sent Paul and Silas away by night to Beroea. When they arrived, they went into the Jewish synagogue. 17.17. So he reasoned in the synagogue with Jews and the devout persons, and in the marketplace every day with those who met him. 17.31. because he has appointed a day in which he will judge the world in righteousness by the man whom he has ordained; whereof he has given assurance to all men, in that he has raised him from the dead. 18.1. After these things Paul departed from Athens, and came to Corinth. 18.2. He found a certain Jew named Aquila, a man of Pontus by race, who had recently come from Italy, with his wife Priscilla, because Claudius had commanded all the Jews to depart from Rome. He came to them 18.3. and because he practiced the same trade, he lived with them and worked, for by trade they were tent makers. 18.4. He reasoned in the synagogue every Sabbath, and persuaded Jews and Greeks. 18.5. But when Silas and Timothy came down from Macedonia, Paul was compelled by the Spirit, testifying to the Jews that Jesus was the Christ. 18.6. When they opposed him and blasphemed, he shook out his clothing and said to them, "Your blood be on your own heads! I am clean. From now on, I will go to the Gentiles! 18.7. He departed there, and went into the house of a certain man named Justus, one who worshiped God, whose house was next door to the synagogue. 18.8. Crispus, the ruler of the synagogue, believed in the Lord with all his house. Many of the Corinthians, hearing, believed and were baptized. 18.9. The Lord said to Paul in the night by a vision, "Don't be afraid, but speak and don't be silent; 18.10. for I am with you, and no one will attack you to harm you, for I have many people in this city. 18.11. He lived there a year and six months, teaching the word of God among them. 18.12. But when Gallio was proconsul of Achaia, the Jews with one accord rose up against Paul and brought him before the judgment seat 18.13. saying, "This man persuades men to worship God contrary to the law. 18.14. But when Paul was about to open his mouth, Gallio said to the Jews, "If indeed it were a matter of wrong or of wicked crime, Jews, it would be reasonable that I should bear with you; 18.15. but if they are questions about words and names and your own law, look to it yourselves. For I don't want to be a judge of these matters. 18.16. He drove them from the judgment seat. 18.17. Then all the Greeks laid hold on Sosthenes, the ruler of the synagogue, and beat him before the judgment seat. Gallio didn't care about any of these things. 18.18. Paul, having stayed after this yet many days, took his leave of the brothers, and sailed from there for Syria, with Priscilla and Aquila with him. He shaved his head in Cenchreae, for he had a vow. 18.19. He came to Ephesus, and he left them there; but he himself entered into the synagogue, and reasoned with the Jews. 19.8. He entered into the synagogue, and spoke boldly for a period of three months, reasoning and persuading about the things concerning the Kingdom of God. 20.3. When he had spent three months there, and a plot was made against him by Jews as he was about to set sail for Syria, he determined to return through Macedonia. 20.6. We sailed away from Philippi after the days of Unleavened Bread, and came to them at Troas in five days, where we stayed seven days. 20.18. When they had come to him, he said to them, "You yourselves know, from the first day that I set foot in Asia, how I was with you all the time 20.26. Therefore I testify to you this day that I am clean from the blood of all men 21.4. Having found disciples, we stayed there seven days. These said to Paul through the Spirit, that he should not go up to Jerusalem. 21.5. When it happened that we had accomplished the days, we departed and went on our journey. They all, with wives and children, brought us on our way until we were out of the city. Kneeling down on the beach, we prayed. 21.7. When we had finished the voyage from Tyre, we arrived at Ptolemais. We greeted the brothers, and stayed with them one day. 21.10. As we stayed there some days, a certain prophet named Agabus came down from Judea. 21.15. After these days we took up our baggage and went up to Jerusalem. 21.16. Some of the disciples from Caesarea also went with us, bringing one Mnason of Cyprus, an early disciple, with whom we would stay. 21.17. When we had come to Jerusalem, the brothers received us gladly. 21.18. The day following, Paul went in with us to James; and all the elders were present. 21.19. When he had greeted them, he reported one by one the things which God had worked among the Gentiles through his ministry. 21.20. They, when they heard it, glorified God. They said to him, "You see, brother, how many thousands there are among the Jews of those who have believed, and they are all zealous for the law. 21.21. They have been informed about you, that you teach all the Jews who are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, telling them not to circumcise their children neither to walk after the customs. 21.22. What then? The assembly must certainly meet, for they will hear that you have come. 21.23. Therefore do what we tell you. We have four men who have a vow on them. 21.24. Take them, and purify yourself with them, and pay their expenses for them, that they may shave their heads. Then all will know that there is no truth in the things that they have been informed about you, but that you yourself also walk keeping the law. 21.25. But concerning the Gentiles who believe, we have written our decision that they should observe no such thing, except that they should keep themselves from food offered to idols, from blood, from strangled things, and from sexual immorality. 21.26. Then Paul took the men, and the next day, purified himself and went with them into the temple, declaring the fulfillment of the days of purification, until the offering was offered for every one of them. 21.27. When the seven days were almost completed, the Jews from Asia, when they saw him in the temple, stirred up all the multitude and laid hands on him 21.38. Aren't you then the Egyptian, who before these days stirred up to sedition and led out into the wilderness the four thousand men of the Assassins? 22.19. I said, 'Lord, they themselves know that I imprisoned and beat in every synagogue those who believed in you. 23.1. Paul, looking steadfastly at the council, said, "Brothers, I have lived before God in all good conscience until this day. 23.12. When it was day, some of the Jews banded together, and bound themselves under a curse, saying that they would neither eat nor drink until they had killed Paul. 24.1. After five days, the high priest, Aias, came down with certain elders and an orator, one Tertullus. They informed the governor against Paul. 24.11. seeing that you can recognize that it is not more than twelve days since I went up to worship at Jerusalem. 24.12. In the temple they didn't find me disputing with anyone or stirring up a crowd, either in the synagogues, or in the city. 24.24. But after some days, Felix came with Drusilla, his wife, who was a Jewess, and sent for Paul, and heard him concerning the faith in Christ Jesus. 25.6. When he had stayed among them more than ten days, he went down to Caesarea, and on the next day he sat on the judgment seat, and commanded Paul to be brought. 25.13. Now when some days had passed, Agrippa the King and Bernice arrived at Caesarea, and greeted Festus. 25.14. As they stayed there many days, Festus laid Paul's case before the King, saying, "There is a certain man left a prisoner by Felix; 26.11. Punishing them often in all the synagogues, I tried to make them blaspheme. Being exceedingly enraged against them, I persecuted them even to foreign cities. 26.13. at noon, O King, I saw on the way a light from the sky, brighter than the sun, shining around me and those who traveled with me. 26.22. Having therefore obtained the help that is from God, I stand to this day testifying both to small and great, saying nothing but what the prophets and Moses did say should come 27.7. When we had sailed slowly many days, and had come with difficulty opposite Cnidus, the wind not allowing us further, we sailed under the lee of Crete, opposite Salmone. 27.20. When neither sun nor stars shone on us for many days, and no small tempest pressed on us, all hope that we would be saved was now taken away. 28.7. Now in the neighborhood of that place were lands belonging to the chief man of the island, named Publius, who received us, and courteously entertained us three days. 28.17. It happened that after three days Paul called together those who were the leaders of the Jews. When they had come together, he said to them, "I, brothers, though I had done nothing against the people, or the customs of our fathers, still was delivered prisoner from Jerusalem into the hands of the Romans 28.23. When they had appointed him a day, they came to him into his lodging in great number. He explained to them, testifying about the Kingdom of God, and persuading them concerning Jesus, both from the law of Moses and from the prophets, from morning until evening.
17. New Testament, Apocalypse, 3.12, 3.21, 5.6-5.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.12. He who overcomes, I will make him a pillar in the temple of my God, and he will go out from there no more. I will write on him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, the new Jerusalem, which comes down out of heaven from my God, and my own new name. 3.21. He who overcomes, I will give to him to sit down with me on my throne, as I also overcame, and sat down with my Father on his throne. 5.6. I saw in the midst of the throne and of the four living creatures, and in the midst of the elders, a Lamb standing, as though it had been slain, having seven horns, and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God, sent out into all the earth. 5.7. Then he came, and he took it out of the right hand of him who sat on the throne.
18. New Testament, Colossians, 2.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.16. Let no man therefore judge you in eating, or in drinking, or with respect to a feast day or a new moon or a Sabbath day
19. New Testament, Galatians, 1.18, 2.8, 2.13, 4.25-4.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem tovisit Peter, and stayed with him fifteen days. 2.8. (for he who appointedPeter to the apostleship of the circumcision appointed me also to theGentiles); 2.13. And the rest of the Jews joined him in his hypocrisy; so that evenBarnabas was carried away with their hypocrisy. 4.25. For this Hagar is Mount Sinai inArabia, and answers to the Jerusalem that exists now, for she is inbondage with her children. 4.26. But the Jerusalem that is above isfree, which is the mother of us all.
20. New Testament, Hebrews, 12.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.22. But you have come to Mount Zion, and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to innumerable hosts of angels
21. New Testament, Romans, 11.13, 15.19, 15.25-15.26, 15.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.13. For I speak to you who are Gentiles. Since then as I am an apostle to Gentiles, I glorify my ministry; 15.19. in the power of signs and wonders, in the power of God's Spirit; so that from Jerusalem, and around as far as to Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Christ; 15.25. But now, I say, I am going to Jerusalem, serving the saints. 15.26. For it has been the good pleasure of Macedonia and Achaia to make a certain contribution for the poor among the saints who are at Jerusalem. 15.31. that I may be delivered from those who are disobedient in Judea, and that my service which I have for Jerusalem may be acceptable to the saints;
22. New Testament, John, 2.1, 2.4, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 2.19, 2.20, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.21, 4.22, 4.23, 4.24, 4.25, 4.26, 4.27, 4.28, 4.29, 4.30, 4.31, 4.32, 4.33, 4.34, 4.35, 4.36, 4.37, 4.38, 4.39, 4.40, 4.41, 4.42, 4.43, 4.46, 4.47, 4.48, 4.49, 4.50, 5.9, 6.35, 6.36, 6.37, 6.38, 6.39, 6.40, 6.41, 6.42, 6.43, 6.44, 6.45, 6.46, 6.47, 6.48, 6.49, 6.50, 6.51, 6.52, 6.53, 6.54, 6.55, 6.56, 6.57, 6.58, 6.59, 8.56, 9.4, 9.14, 11, 11.1-12.8, 11.6, 11.9, 11.17, 11.24, 11.53, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8, 12.48, 13.8, 16.23, 16.26, 18.19, 18.20, 19.26, 19.31, 20.1, 20.2, 20.3, 20.4, 20.5, 20.6, 20.7, 20.8, 20.9, 20.10, 20.11, 20.12, 20.13, 20.15, 20.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

23. New Testament, Luke, 1.5, 1.20, 1.38, 1.59, 2.19, 2.21-2.22, 2.43-2.44, 2.46, 2.51, 4.2, 4.14-4.44, 6.1-6.11, 6.13, 6.23, 7.11-7.17, 7.36-7.50, 8.2-8.3, 8.9, 8.21, 8.41, 8.45-8.46, 8.48-8.49, 8.51, 9.22, 9.28, 9.46-9.48, 10.12, 10.25-10.37, 10.42, 11.27, 12.41, 12.46, 13.1, 13.10-13.13, 13.15-13.21, 13.23, 14.1, 17.4, 17.12-17.19, 17.22, 17.24, 17.26-17.31, 18.1-18.17, 18.33, 18.35-18.43, 19.9, 20.1, 21.22-21.23, 22.7, 22.66, 23.7, 23.12, 23.29, 24.1-24.13, 24.18, 24.21, 24.29, 24.46 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. There was in the days of Herod, the king of Judea, a certain priest named Zacharias, of the priestly division of Abijah. He had a wife of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elizabeth. 1.20. Behold, you will be silent and not able to speak, until the day that these things will happen, because you didn't believe my words, which will be fulfilled in their proper time. 1.38. Mary said, "Behold, the handmaid of the Lord; be it to me according to your word."The angel departed from her. 1.59. It happened on the eighth day, that they came to circumcise the child; and they would have called him Zacharias, after the name of the father. 2.19. But Mary kept all these sayings, pondering them in her heart. 2.21. When eight days were fulfilled for the circumcision of the child, his name was called Jesus, which was given by the angel before he was conceived in the womb. 2.22. When the days of their purification according to the law of Moses were fulfilled, they brought him up to Jerusalem, to present him to the Lord 2.43. and when they had fulfilled the days, as they were returning, the boy Jesus stayed behind in Jerusalem. Joseph and his mother didn't know it 2.44. but supposing him to be in the company, they went a day's journey, and they looked for him among their relatives and acquaintances. 2.46. It happened after three days they found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the teachers, both listening to them, and asking them questions. 2.51. And he went down with them, and came to Nazareth. He was subject to them, and his mother kept all these sayings in her heart. 4.2. for forty days, being tempted by the devil. He ate nothing in those days. Afterward, when they were completed, he was hungry. 4.14. Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit to Galilee, and news about him spread through all the surrounding area. 4.15. He taught in their synagogues, being glorified by all. 4.16. He came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. He entered, as was his custom, into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read. 4.17. The book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. He opened the book, and found the place where it was written 4.18. The Spirit of the Lord is on me, Because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim release to the captives, Recovering of sight to the blind, To deliver those who are crushed 4.19. And to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord. 4.20. He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on him. 4.21. He began to tell them, "Today, this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing. 4.22. All testified about him, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth, and they said, "Isn't this Joseph's son? 4.23. He said to them, "Doubtless you will tell me this parable, 'Physician, heal yourself! Whatever we have heard done at Capernaum, do also here in your hometown.' 4.24. He said, "Most assuredly I tell you, no prophet is acceptable in his hometown. 4.25. But truly I tell you, there were many widows in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the the sky was shut up three years and six months, when a great famine came over all the land. 4.26. Elijah was sent to none of them, except to Zarephath, in the land of Sidon, to a woman who was a widow. 4.27. There were many lepers in Israel in the time of Elisha the prophet, yet not one of them was cleansed, except Naaman, the Syrian. 4.28. They were all filled with wrath in the synagogue, as they heard these things. 4.29. They rose up, threw him out of the city, and led him to the brow of the hill that their city was built on, that they might throw him off the cliff. 4.30. But he, passing through the midst of them, went his way. 4.31. He came down to Capernaum, a city of Galilee. He was teaching them on the Sabbath day 4.32. and they were astonished at his teaching, for his word was with authority. 4.33. In the synagogue there was a man who had a spirit of an unclean demon, and he cried out with a loud voice 4.34. saying, "Ah! what have we to do with you, Jesus of Nazareth? Have you come to destroy us? I know you who you are: the Holy One of God! 4.35. Jesus rebuked him, saying, "Be silent, and come out of him!" When the demon had thrown him down in their midst, he came out of him, having done him no harm. 4.36. Amazement came on all, and they spoke together, one with another, saying, "What is this word? For with authority and power he commands the unclean spirits, and they come out! 4.37. News about him went out into every place of the surrounding region. 4.38. He rose up from the synagogue, and entered into Simon's house. Simon's mother-in-law was afflicted with a great fever, and they begged him for her. 4.39. He stood over her, and rebuked the fever; and it left her. Immediately she rose up and served them. 4.40. When the sun was setting, all those who had any sick with various diseases brought them to him; and he laid his hands on every one of them, and healed them. 4.41. Demons also came out from many, crying out, and saying, "You are the Christ, the Son of God!" Rebuking them, he didn't allow them to speak, because they knew that he was the Christ. 4.42. When it was day, he departed and went into an uninhabited place, and the multitudes looked for him, and came to him, and held on to him, so that he wouldn't go away from them. 4.43. But he said to them, "I must preach the good news of the Kingdom of God to the other cities also. For this reason I have been sent. 4.44. He was preaching in the synagogues of Galilee. 6.1. Now it happened on the second Sabbath after the first, that he was going through the grain fields. His disciples plucked the heads of grain, and ate, rubbing them in their hands. 6.2. But some of the Pharisees said to them, "Why do you do that which is not lawful to do on the Sabbath day? 6.3. Jesus, answering them, said, "Haven't you read what David did when he was hungry, he, and those who were with him; 6.4. how he entered into the house of God, and took and ate the show bread, and gave also to those who were with him, which is not lawful to eat except for the priests alone? 6.5. He said to them, "The Son of Man is lord of the Sabbath. 6.6. It also happened on another Sabbath that he entered into the synagogue and taught. There was a man there, and his right hand was withered. 6.7. The scribes and the Pharisees watched him, to see whether he would heal on the Sabbath, that they might find an accusation against him. 6.8. But he knew their thoughts; and he said to the man who had the withered hand, "Rise up, and stand in the middle." He arose and stood. 6.9. Then Jesus said to them, "I will ask you something: Is it lawful on the Sabbath to do good, or to do harm? To save a life, or to kill? 6.10. He looked around at them all, and said to him, "Stretch out your hand." He did, and his hand was restored as sound as the other. 6.11. But they were filled with rage, and talked with one another about what they might do to Jesus. 6.13. When it was day, he called his disciples, and from them he chose twelve, whom he also named apostles: 6.23. Rejoice in that day, and leap for joy, for behold, your reward is great in heaven, for their fathers did the same thing to the prophets. 7.11. It happened soon afterwards, that he went to a city called Nain. Many of his disciples, along with a great multitude, went with him. 7.12. Now when he drew near to the gate of the city, behold, one who was dead was carried out, the only son of his mother, and she was a widow. Many people of the city were with her. 7.13. When the Lord saw her, he had compassion on her, and said to her, "Don't cry. 7.14. He came near and touched the coffin, and the bearers stood still. He said, "Young man, I tell you, arise! 7.15. He who was dead sat up, and began to speak. And he gave him to his mother. 7.16. Fear took hold of all, and they glorified God, saying, "A great prophet has arisen among us!" and, "God has visited his people! 7.17. This report went out concerning him in the whole of Judea, and in all the surrounding region. 7.36. One of the Pharisees invited him to eat with him. He entered into the Pharisee's house, and sat at the table. 7.37. Behold, a woman in the city who was a sinner, when she knew that he was reclining in the Pharisee's house, she brought an alabaster jar of ointment. 7.38. Standing behind at his feet weeping, she began to wet his feet with her tears, and she wiped them with the hair of her head, kissed his feet, and anointed them with the ointment. 7.39. Now when the Pharisee who had invited him saw it, he said to himself, "This man, if he were a prophet, would have perceived who and what kind of woman this is who touches him, that she is a sinner. 7.40. Jesus answered him, "Simon, I have something to tell you."He said, "Teacher, say on. 7.41. A certain lender had two debtors. The one owed five hundred denarii, and the other fifty. 7.42. When they couldn't pay, he forgave them both. Which of them therefore will love him most? 7.43. Simon answered, "He, I suppose, to whom he forgave the most."He said to him, "You have judged correctly. 7.44. Turning to the woman, he said to Simon, "Do you see this woman? I entered into your house, and you gave me no water for my feet, but she has wet my feet with her tears, and wiped them with the hair of her head. 7.45. You gave me no kiss, but she, since the time I came in, has not ceased to kiss my feet. 7.46. You didn't anoint my head with oil, but she has anointed my feet with ointment. 7.47. Therefore I tell you, her sins, which are many, are forgiven, for she loved much. But to whom little is forgiven, the same loves little. 7.48. He said to her, "Your sins are forgiven. 7.49. Those who sat at the table with him began to say to themselves, "Who is this who even forgives sins? 7.50. He said to the woman, "Your faith has saved you. Go in peace. 8.2. and certain women who had been healed of evil spirits and infirmities: Mary who was called Magdalene, from whom seven demons had gone out; 8.3. and Joanna, the wife of Chuzas, Herod's steward; Susanna; and many others; who ministered to them from their possessions. 8.9. Then his disciples asked him, "What does this parable mean? 8.21. But he answered them, "My mother and my brothers are these who hear the word of God, and do it. 8.41. Behold, there came a man named Jairus, and he was a ruler of the synagogue. He fell down at Jesus' feet, and begged him to come into his house 8.45. Jesus said, "Who touched me?"When all denied it, Peter and those with him said, "Master, the multitudes press and jostle you, and you say, 'Who touched me?' 8.46. But Jesus said, "Someone did touch me, for I perceived that power has gone out of me. 8.48. He said to her, "Daughter, cheer up. Your faith has made you well. Go in peace. 8.49. While he still spoke, one from the ruler of the synagogue's house came, saying to him, "Your daughter is dead. Don't trouble the Teacher. 8.51. When he came to the house, he didn't allow anyone to enter in, except Peter, John, James, the father of the girl, and her mother. 9.22. saying, "The Son of Man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the elders, chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and the third day be raised up. 9.28. It happened about eight days after these sayings, that he took with him Peter, John, and James, and went up onto the mountain to pray. 9.46. There arose an argument among them about which of them was the greatest. 9.47. Jesus, perceiving the reasoning of their hearts, took a little child, and set him by his side 9.48. and said to them, "Whoever receives this little child in my name receives me. Whoever receives me receives him who sent me. For whoever is least among you all, this one will be great. 10.12. I tell you, it will be more tolerable in that day for Sodom than for that city. 10.25. Behold, a certain lawyer stood up and tested him, saying, "Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life? 10.26. He said to him, "What is written in the law? How do you read it? 10.27. He answered, "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength, and with all your mind; and your neighbor as yourself. 10.28. He said to him, "You have answered correctly. Do this, and you will live. 10.29. But he, desiring to justify himself, asked Jesus, "Who is my neighbor? 10.30. Jesus answered, "A certain man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and he fell among robbers, who both stripped him and beat him, and departed, leaving him half dead. 10.31. By chance a certain priest was going down that way. When he saw him, he passed by on the other side. 10.32. In the same way a Levite also, when he came to the place, and saw him, passed by on the other side. 10.33. But a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came where he was. When he saw him, he was moved with compassion 10.34. came to him, and bound up his wounds, pouring on oil and wine. He set him on his own animal, and brought him to an inn, and took care of him. 10.35. On the next day, when he departed, he took out two denarii, and gave them to the host, and said to him, 'Take care of him. Whatever you spend beyond that, I will repay you when I return.' 10.36. Now which of these three do you think seemed to be a neighbor to him who fell among the robbers? 10.37. He said, "He who showed mercy on him."Then Jesus said to him, "Go and do likewise. 10.42. but one thing is needed. Mary has chosen the good part, which will not be taken away from her. 11.27. It came to pass, as he said these things, a certain woman out of the multitude lifted up her voice, and said to him, "Blessed is the womb that bore you, and the breasts which nursed you! 12.41. Peter said to him, "Lord, are you telling this parable to us, or to everybody? 12.46. then the lord of that servant will come in a day when he isn't expecting him, and in an hour that he doesn't know, and will cut him in two, and place his portion with the unfaithful. 13.1. Now there were some present at the same time who told him about the Galilaeans, whose blood Pilate had mixed with their sacrifices. 13.10. He was teaching in one of the synagogues on the Sabbath day. 13.11. Behold, there was a woman who had a spirit of infirmity eighteen years, and she was bent over, and could in no way straighten herself up. 13.12. When Jesus saw her, he called her, and said to her, "Woman, you are freed from your infirmity. 13.13. He laid his hands on her, and immediately she stood up straight, and glorified God. 13.15. Therefore the Lord answered him, "You hypocrites! Doesn't each one of you free his ox or his donkey from the stall on the Sabbath, and lead him away to water? 13.16. Ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan had bound eighteen long years, be freed from this bondage on the Sabbath day? 13.17. As he said these things, all his adversaries were put to shame, and all the multitude rejoiced for all the glorious things that were done by him. 13.18. He said, "What is the Kingdom of God like? To what shall I compare it? 13.19. It is like a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and put in his own garden. It grew, and became a large tree, and the birds of the sky lodged in its branches. 13.20. Again he said, "To what shall I compare the Kingdom of God? 13.21. It is like yeast, which a woman took and hid in three sata of flour, until it was all leavened. 13.23. One said to him, "Lord, are they few who are saved?"He said to them 14.1. It happened, when he went into the house of one of the rulers of the Pharisees on a Sabbath to eat bread, that they were watching him. 17.4. If he sins against you seven times in the day, and seven times turns again, saying, 'I repent,' you shall forgive him. 17.12. As he entered into a certain village, ten men who were lepers met him, who stood at a distance. 17.13. They lifted up their voices, saying, "Jesus, Master, have mercy on us! 17.14. When he saw them, he said to them, "Go and show yourselves to the priests." It happened that as they went, they were cleansed. 17.15. One of them, when he saw that he was healed, turned back, glorifying God with a loud voice. 17.16. He fell on his face at Jesus' feet, giving him thanks; and he was a Samaritan. 17.17. Jesus answered, "Weren't the ten cleansed? But where are the nine? 17.18. Were there none found who returned to give glory to God, except this stranger? 17.19. Then he said to him, "Get up, and go your way. Your faith has healed you. 17.22. He said to the disciples, "The days will come, when you will desire to see one of the days of the Son of Man, and you will not see it. 17.24. for as the lightning, when it flashes out of the one part under the sky, shines to the other part under the sky; so will the Son of Man be in his day. 17.26. As it happened in the days of Noah, even so will it be also in the days of the Son of Man. 17.27. They ate, they drank, they married, they were given in marriage, until the day that Noah entered into the ark, and the flood came, and destroyed them all. 17.28. Likewise, even as it happened in the days of Lot: they ate, they drank, they bought, they sold, they planted, they built; 17.29. but in the day that Lot went out from Sodom, it rained fire and sulfur from the sky, and destroyed them all. 17.30. It will be the same way in the day that the Son of Man is revealed. 17.31. In that day, he who will be on the housetop, and his goods in the house, let him not go down to take them away. Let him who is in the field likewise not turn back. 18.1. He also spoke a parable to them that they must always pray, and not give up 18.2. saying, "There was a judge in a certain city who didn't fear God, and didn't respect man. 18.3. A widow was in that city, and she often came to him, saying, 'Defend me from my adversary!' 18.4. He wouldn't for a while, but afterward he said to himself, 'Though I neither fear God, nor respect man 18.5. yet because this widow bothers me, I will defend her, or else she will wear me out by her continual coming.' 18.6. The Lord said, "Listen to what the unrighteous judge says. 18.7. Won't God avenge his elect, who are crying out to him day and night, and yet he exercises patience with them? 18.8. I tell you that he will avenge them quickly. Nevertheless, when the Son of Man comes, will he find faith on the earth? 18.9. He spoke also this parable to certain people who were convinced of their own righteousness, and who despised all others. 18.10. Two men went up into the temple to pray; one was a Pharisee, and the other was a tax collector. 18.11. The Pharisee stood and prayed to himself like this: 'God, I thank you, that I am not like the rest of men, extortioners, unrighteous, adulterers, or even like this tax collector. 18.12. I fast twice a week. I give tithes of all that I get.' 18.13. But the tax collector, standing far away, wouldn't even lift up his eyes to heaven, but beat his breast, saying, 'God, be merciful to me, a sinner!' 18.14. I tell you, this man went down to his house justified rather than the other; for everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, but he who humbles himself will be exalted. 18.15. They were also bringing their babies to him, that he might touch them. But when the disciples saw it, they rebuked them. 18.16. Jesus summoned them, saying, "Allow the little children to come to me, and don't hinder them, for the Kingdom of God belongs to such as these. 18.17. Most assuredly, I tell you, whoever doesn't receive the Kingdom of God like a little child, he will in no way enter into it. 18.33. They will scourge and kill him. On the third day, he will rise again. 18.35. It happened, as he came near Jericho, a certain blind man sat by the road, begging. 18.36. Hearing a multitude going by, he asked what this meant. 18.37. They told him that Jesus of Nazareth was passing by. 18.38. He cried out, "Jesus, you son of David, have mercy on me! 18.39. Those who led the way rebuked him, that he should be quiet; but he cried out all the more, "You son of David, have mercy on me! 18.40. Standing still, Jesus commanded him to be brought to him. When he had come near, he asked him 18.41. What do you want me to do?"He said, "Lord, that I may see again. 18.42. Jesus said to him, "Receive your sight. Your faith has healed you. 18.43. Immediately he received his sight, and followed him, glorifying God. All the people, when they saw it, praised God. 19.9. Jesus said to him, "Today, salvation has come to this house, because he also is a son of Abraham. 20.1. It happened on one of those days, as he was teaching the people in the temple and preaching the gospel, that the chief priests and scribes came to him with the elders. 21.22. For these are days of vengeance, that all things which are written may be fulfilled. 21.23. Woe to those who are pregt and to those who nurse infants in those days! For there will be great distress in the land, and wrath to this people. 22.7. The day of unleavened bread came, on which the Passover must be sacrificed. 22.66. As soon as it was day, the assembly of the elders of the people was gathered together, both chief priests and scribes, and they led him away into their council, saying 23.7. When he found out that he was in Herod's jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod, who was also in Jerusalem during those days. 23.12. Herod and Pilate became friends with each other that very day, for before that they were enemies with each other. 23.29. For behold, the days are coming in which they will say, 'Blessed are the barren, the wombs that never bore, and the breasts that never nursed.' 24.1. But on the first day of the week, at early dawn, they and some others came to the tomb, bringing the spices which they had prepared. 24.2. They found the stone rolled away from the tomb. 24.3. They entered in, and didn't find the Lord Jesus' body. 24.4. It happened, while they were greatly perplexed about this, behold, two men stood by them in dazzling clothing. 24.5. Becoming terrified, they bowed their faces down to the earth. They said to them, "Why do you seek the living among the dead? 24.6. He isn't here, but is risen. Remember what he told you when he was still in Galilee 24.7. saying that the Son of Man must be delivered up into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again? 24.8. They remembered his words 24.9. returned from the tomb, and told all these things to the eleven, and to all the rest. 24.10. Now they were Mary Magdalene, Joanna, and Mary the mother of James. The other women with them told these things to the apostles. 24.11. These words seemed to them to be nonsense, and they didn't believe them. 24.12. But Peter got up and ran to the tomb. Stooping and looking in, he saw the strips of linen lying by themselves, and he departed to his home, wondering what had happened. 24.13. Behold, two of them were going that very day to a village named Emmaus, which was sixty stadia from Jerusalem. 24.18. One of them, named Cleopas, answered him, "Are you the only stranger in Jerusalem who doesn't know the things which have happened there in these days? 24.21. But we were hoping that it was he who would redeem Israel. Yes, and besides all this, it is now the third day since these things happened. 24.29. They urged him, saying, "Stay with us, for it is almost evening, and the day is almost over."He went in to stay with them. 24.46. He said to them, "Thus it is written, and thus it was necessary for the Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead the third day
24. New Testament, Mark, 1, 1.3, 1.21, 1.22, 1.23, 1.24, 1.25, 1.26, 1.27, 1.28, 1.29, 1.30, 1.31, 1.39, 2, 2.20, 2.23, 2.23-3.6, 2.24, 2.25, 2.26, 2.27, 2.28, 3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.34, 4, 5, 5.22, 5.23, 5.24, 5.25, 5.26, 5.27, 5.28, 5.29, 5.30, 5.31, 5.32, 5.33, 5.34, 5.35, 5.36, 5.37, 5.38, 5.39, 5.40, 5.41, 5.42, 5.43, 6, 6.2, 6.3, 6.21, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, 7.25, 7.26, 7.27, 7.28, 7.29, 7.30, 8.2, 8.31, 8.32, 9.2, 9.31, 9.33, 9.34, 9.35, 9.36, 9.37, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9, 10.10, 10.11, 10.12, 10.13, 10.14, 10.15, 10.16, 10.34, 10.46, 10.47, 10.48, 10.49, 10.50, 10.51, 10.52, 11.15, 11.16, 11.17, 12.10, 12.18, 12.19, 12.20, 12.21, 12.22, 12.23, 12.24, 12.25, 12.26, 12.27, 13.17, 13.19, 13.20, 13.24, 14.1, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9, 14.12, 14.25, 14.58, 15.29, 16.1, 16.2, 16.3, 16.4, 16.5, 16.6, 16.7, 16.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

25. New Testament, Matthew, 2.1, 4.2, 4.23, 6.34, 7.22, 8.5-8.13, 9.18, 9.23, 9.35, 10.15, 11.12, 11.22, 11.24, 12.1-12.14, 12.36, 12.40, 13.56, 15.1-15.7, 15.32, 16.21, 17.1, 18.1-18.5, 19.1-19.15, 20.2, 20.6, 20.12, 20.19, 22.46, 23.17, 23.30, 24.2, 24.19, 24.29, 24.36-24.38, 24.42, 24.50, 25.13, 26.2, 26.6-26.13, 26.29, 26.61, 27.40, 27.63-27.64, 28.1-28.8, 28.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, behold, wise men from the east came to Jerusalem, saying 4.2. When he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he was hungry afterward. 4.23. Jesus went about in all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing every disease and every sickness among the people. 6.34. Therefore don't be anxious for tomorrow, for tomorrow will be anxious for itself. Each day's own evil is sufficient. 7.22. Many will tell me in that day, 'Lord, Lord, didn't we prophesy in your name, in your name cast out demons, and in your name do many mighty works?' 8.5. When he came into Capernaum, a centurion came to him, asking him 8.6. and saying, "Lord, my servant lies in the house paralyzed, grievously tormented. 8.7. Jesus said to him, "I will come and heal him. 8.8. The centurion answered, "Lord, I'm not worthy for you to come under my roof. Just say the word, and my servant will be healed. 8.9. For I am also a man under authority, having under myself soldiers. I tell this one, 'Go,' and he goes; and to another, 'Come,' and he comes; and to my servant, 'Do this,' and he does it. 8.10. When Jesus heard it, he marveled, and said to those who followed, "Most assuredly I tell you, I haven't found so great a faith, not even in Israel. 8.11. I tell you that many will come from the east and the west, and will sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the Kingdom of Heaven 8.12. but the sons of the kingdom will be thrown out into the outer darkness. There will be weeping and the gnashing of teeth. 8.13. Jesus said to the centurion, "Go your way. Let it be done for you as you as you have believed." His servant was healed in that hour. 9.18. While he told these things to them, behold, a ruler came and worshiped him, saying, "My daughter has just died, but come and lay your hand on her, and she will live. 9.23. When Jesus came into the ruler's house, and saw the flute players, and the crowd in noisy disorder 9.35. Jesus went about all the cities and the villages, teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing every disease and every sickness among the people. 10.15. Most assuredly I tell you, it will be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment than for that city. 11.12. From the days of John the Baptizer until now, the Kingdom of Heaven suffers violence, and the violent take it by force. 11.22. But I tell you, it will be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon on the day of judgment than for you. 11.24. But I tell you that it will be more tolerable for the land of Sodom, on the day of judgment, than for you. 12.1. At that time, Jesus went on the Sabbath day through the grain fields. His disciples were hungry and began to pluck heads of grain and to eat. 12.2. But the Pharisees, when they saw it, said to him, "Behold, your disciples do what is not lawful to do on the Sabbath. 12.3. But he said to them, "Haven't you read what David did, when he was hungry, and those who were with him; 12.4. how he entered into the house of God, and ate the show bread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for those who were with him, but only for the priests? 12.5. Or have you not read in the law, that on the Sabbath day, the priests in the temple profane the Sabbath, and are guiltless? 12.6. But I tell you that one greater than the temple is here. 12.7. But if you had known what this means, 'I desire mercy, and not sacrifice,' you would not have condemned the guiltless. 12.8. For the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath. 12.9. He departed there, and went into their synagogue. 12.10. And behold there was a man with a withered hand. They asked him, "Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath day?" that they might accuse him. 12.11. He said to them, "What man is there among you, who has one sheep, and if this one falls into a pit on the Sabbath day, won't he grab on to it, and lift it out? 12.12. of how much more value then is a man than a sheep! Therefore it is lawful to do good on the Sabbath day. 12.13. Then he told the man, "Stretch out your hand." He stretched it out; and it was restored whole, just like the other. 12.14. But the Pharisees went out, and conspired against him, how they might destroy him. 12.36. I tell you that every idle word that men speak, they will give account of it in the day of judgment. 12.40. For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the whale, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. 13.56. Aren't all of his sisters with us? Where then did this man get all of these things? 15.1. Then Pharisees and scribes came to Jesus from Jerusalem, saying 15.2. Why do your disciples disobey the tradition of the elders? For they don't wash their hands when they eat bread. 15.3. He answered them, "Why do you also disobey the commandment of God because of your tradition? 15.4. For God commanded, 'Honor your father and your mother,' and, 'He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.' 15.5. But you say, 'Whoever may tell his father or his mother, "Whatever help you might otherwise have gotten from me is a gift devoted to God 15.6. he shall not honor his father or mother.' You have made the commandment of God void because of your tradition. 15.7. You hypocrites! Well did Isaiah prophesy of you, saying 15.32. Jesus summoned his disciples and said, "I have compassion on the multitude, because they continue with me now three days and have nothing to eat. I don't want to send them away fasting, or they might faint on the way. 16.21. From that time, Jesus began to show his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem and suffer many things from the elders, chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and the third day be raised up. 17.1. After six days, Jesus took with him Peter, James, and John his brother, and brought them up into a high mountain by themselves. 18.1. In that hour the disciples came to Jesus, saying, "Who then is greatest in the Kingdom of Heaven? 18.2. Jesus called a little child to himself, and set him in the midst of them 18.3. and said, "Most assuredly I tell you, unless you turn, and become as little children, you will in no way enter into the Kingdom of Heaven. 18.4. Whoever therefore humbles himself as this little child, the same is the greatest in the Kingdom of Heaven. 18.5. Whoever receives one such little child in my name receives me 19.1. It happened when Jesus had finished these words, he departed from Galilee, and came into the borders of Judea beyond the Jordan. 19.2. Great multitudes followed him, and he healed them there. 19.3. Pharisees came to him, testing him, and saying, "Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife for any reason? 19.4. He answered, "Haven't you read that he who made them from the beginning made them male and female 19.5. and said, 'For this cause a man shall leave his father and mother, and shall join to his wife; and the two shall become one flesh?' 19.6. So that they are no more two, but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, don't let man tear apart. 19.7. They asked him, "Why then did Moses command us to give her a bill of divorce, and divorce her? 19.8. He said to them, "Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts, allowed you to divorce your wives, but from the beginning it has not been so. 19.9. I tell you that whoever divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, and marries another, commits adultery; and he who marries her when she is divorced commits adultery. 19.10. His disciples said to him, "If this is the case of the man with his wife, it is not expedient to marry. 19.11. But he said to them, "Not all men can receive this saying, but those to whom it is given. 19.12. For there are eunuchs who were born that way from their mother's womb, and there are eunuchs who were made eunuchs by men; and there are eunuchs who made themselves eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven's sake. He who is able to receive it, let him receive it. 19.13. Then little children were brought to him, that he should lay his hands on them and pray; and the disciples rebuked them. 19.14. But Jesus said, "Allow the little children, and don't forbid them to come to me; for to such belongs the Kingdom of Heaven. 19.15. He laid his hands on them, and departed from there. 20.2. When he had agreed with the laborers for a denarius a day, he sent them into his vineyard. 20.6. About the eleventh hour he went out, and found others standing idle. He said to them, 'Why do you stand here all day idle?' 20.12. saying, 'These last have spent one hour, and you have made them equal to us, who have borne the burden of the day and the scorching heat!' 20.19. and will hand him over to the Gentiles to mock, to scourge, and to crucify; and the third day he will be raised up. 22.46. No one was able to answer him a word, neither dared any man from that day forth ask him any more questions. 23.17. You blind fools! For which is greater, the gold, or the temple that sanctifies the gold? 23.30. and say, 'If we had lived in the days of our fathers, we wouldn't have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets.' 24.2. But he answered them, "Don't you see all of these things? Most assuredly I tell you, there will not be left here one stone on another, that will not be thrown down. 24.19. But woe to those who are with child and to nursing mothers in those days! 24.29. But immediately after the oppression of those days, the sun will be darkened, the moon will not give its light, the stars will fall from the sky, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken; 24.36. But no one knows of that day and hour, not even the angels of heaven, but my Father only. 24.37. As the days of Noah were, so will be the coming of the Son of Man. 24.38. For as in those days which were before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noah entered into the ark 24.42. Watch therefore, for you don't know in what hour your Lord comes. 24.50. the lord of that servant will come in a day when he doesn't expect it, and in an hour when he doesn't know it 25.13. Watch therefore, for you don't know the day nor the hour in which the Son of Man is coming. 26.2. You know that after two days the Passover is coming, and the Son of Man will be delivered up to be crucified. 26.6. Now when Jesus was in Bethany, in the house of Simon the leper 26.7. a woman came to him having an alabaster jar of very expensive ointment, and she poured it on his head as he sat at the table. 26.8. But when his disciples saw this, they were indigt, saying, "Why this waste? 26.9. For this ointment might have been sold for much, and given to the poor. 26.10. But Jesus, knowing this, said to them, "Why do you trouble the woman? Because she has done a good work for me. 26.11. For you always have the poor with you; but you don't always have me. 26.12. For in pouring this ointment on my body, she did it to prepare me for burial. 26.13. Most assuredly I tell you, wherever this gospel is preached in the whole world, what this woman has done will also be spoken of as a memorial of her. 26.29. But I tell you that I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on, until that day when I drink it anew with you in my Father's kingdom. 26.61. and said, "This man said, 'I am able to destroy the temple of God, and to build it in three days.' 27.40. and saying, "You who destroy the temple, and build it in three days, save yourself! If you are the Son of God, come down from the cross! 27.63. saying, "Sir, we remember what that deceiver said while he was still alive: 'After three days I will rise again.' 27.64. Command therefore that the tomb be made secure until the third day, lest perhaps his disciples come at night and steal him away, and tell the people, 'He is risen from the dead;' and the last deception will be worse than the first. 28.1. Now after the Sabbath, as it began to dawn on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to see the tomb. 28.2. Behold, there was a great earthquake, for an angel of the Lord descended from the sky, and came and rolled away the stone from the door, and sat on it. 28.3. His appearance was like lightning, and his clothing white as snow. 28.4. For fear of him, the guards shook, and became like dead men. 28.5. The angel answered the women, "Don't be afraid, for I know that you seek Jesus, who has been crucified. 28.6. He is not here, for he has risen, just like he said. Come, see the place where the Lord was lying. 28.7. Go quickly and tell his disciples, 'He has risen from the dead, and behold, he goes before you into Galilee; there you will see him.' Behold, I have told you. 28.8. They departed quickly from the tomb with fear and great joy, and ran to bring his disciples word. 28.15. So they took the money and did as they were told. This saying was spread abroad among the Jews, and continues until this day.
26. Tacitus, Histories, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.5.  Whatever their origin, these rites are maintained by their antiquity: the other customs of the Jews are base and abominable, and owe their persistence to their depravity. For the worst rascals among other peoples, renouncing their ancestral religions, always kept sending tribute and contributions to Jerusalem, thereby increasing the wealth of the Jews; again, the Jews are extremely loyal toward one another, and always ready to show compassion, but toward every other people they feel only hate and enmity. They sit apart at meals, and they sleep apart, and although as a race, they are prone to lust, they abstain from intercourse with foreign women; yet among themselves nothing is unlawful. They adopted circumcision to distinguish themselves from other peoples by this difference. Those who are converted to their ways follow the same practice, and the earliest lesson they receive is to despise the gods, to disown their country, and to regard their parents, children, and brothers as of little account. However, they take thought to increase their numbers; for they regard it as a crime to kill any late-born child, and they believe that the souls of those who are killed in battle or by the executioner are immortal: hence comes their passion for begetting children, and their scorn of death. They bury the body rather than burn it, thus following the Egyptians' custom; they likewise bestow the same care on the dead, and hold the same belief about the world below; but their ideas of heavenly things are quite the opposite. The Egyptians worship many animals and monstrous images; the Jews conceive of one god only, and that with the mind alone: they regard as impious those who make from perishable materials representations of gods in man's image; that supreme and eternal being is to them incapable of representation and without end. Therefore they set up no statues in their cities, still less in their temples; this flattery is not paid their kings, nor this honour given to the Caesars. But since their priests used to chant to the accompaniment of pipes and cymbals and to wear garlands of ivy, and because a golden vine was found in their temple, some have thought that they were devotees of Father Liber, the conqueror of the East, in spite of the incongruity of their customs. For Liber established festive rites of a joyous nature, while the ways of the Jews are preposterous and mean.
27. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 47, 18 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. Justin: For since you have read, O Trypho, as you yourself admitted, the doctrines taught by our Saviour, I do not think that I have done foolishly in adding some short utterances of His to the prophetic statements. Wash therefore, and be now clean, and put away iniquity from your souls, as God bids you be washed in this laver, and be circumcised with the true circumcision. For we too would observe the fleshly circumcision, and the Sabbaths, and in short all the feasts, if we did not know for what reason they were enjoined you - namely, on account of your transgressions and the hardness of your hearts. For if we patiently endure all things contrived against us by wicked men and demons, so that even amid cruelties unutterable, death and torments, we pray for mercy to those who inflict such things upon us, and do not wish to give the least retort to any one, even as the new Lawgiver commanded us: how is it, Trypho, that we would not observe those rites which do not harm us- I speak of fleshly circumcision, and Sabbaths, and feasts?
28. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29b. כל היכא דליכא אלא חמש סלעים הוא קודם לבנו מאי טעמא מצוה דגופיה עדיפא כי פליגי היכא דאיכא חמש משועבדים וחמש בני חורין,ר' יהודה סבר מלוה דכתיב בתורה ככתובה בשטר דמיא בהני חמש פריק לבריה ואזיל כהן וטריף ליה לחמש משועבדים לדידיה,ורבנן סברי מלוה דכתיב באורייתא לאו ככתובה בשטר דמיא והילכך מצוה דגופיה עדיף,ת"ר לפדות את בנו ולעלות לרגל פודה את בנו ואחר כך עולה לרגל ר' יהודה אומר עולה לרגל ואח"כ פודה את בנו שזו מצוה עוברת וזו מצוה שאינה עוברת,בשלמא לר' יהודה כדקאמר טעמא אלא רבנן מאי טעמייהו דאמר קרא (שמות לד, כ) כל בכור בניך תפדה והדר לא יראו פני ריקם,ת"ר מנין שאם היו לו חמשה בנים מחמש נשים שחייב לפדות כולן ת"ל כל בכור בניך תפדה פשיטא בפטר רחם תלא רחמנא,מהו דתימא נילף בכור בכור מנחלה מה להלן ראשית אונו אף כאן ראשית אונו קמ"ל:,ללמדו תורה: מנלן דכתיב (דברים יא, יט) ולמדתם אותם את בניכם והיכא דלא אגמריה אבוה מיחייב איהו למיגמר נפשיה דכתיב ולמדתם,איהי מנלן דלא מיחייבא דכתיב ולימדתם ולמדתם כל שמצווה ללמוד מצווה ללמד וכל שאינו מצווה ללמוד אינו מצווה ללמד,ואיהי מנלן דלא מיחייבה למילף נפשה דכתיב ולימדתם ולמדתם כל שאחרים מצווין ללמדו מצווה ללמד את עצמו וכל שאין אחרים מצווין ללמדו אין מצווה ללמד את עצמו ומנין שאין אחרים מצווין ללמדה דאמר קרא ולמדתם אותם את בניכם ולא בנותיכם,ת"ר הוא ללמוד ובנו ללמוד הוא קודם לבנו ר' יהודה אומר אם בנו זריז וממולח ותלמודו מתקיים בידו בנו קודמו כי הא דרב יעקב בריה דרב אחא בר יעקב שדריה אבוה לקמיה דאביי כי אתא חזייה דלא הוה מיחדדין שמעתיה א"ל אנא עדיפא מינך תוב את דאיזיל אנא,שמע אביי דקא הוה אתי הוה ההוא מזיק בי רבנן דאביי דכי הוו עיילי בתרין אפי' ביממא הוו מיתזקי אמר להו לא ליתיב ליה אינש אושפיזא אפשר דמתרחיש ניסא,על בת בההוא בי רבנן אידמי ליה כתנינא דשבעה רישוותיה כל כריעה דכרע נתר חד רישיה אמר להו למחר אי לא איתרחיש ניסא סכינתין,ת"ר ללמוד תורה ולישא אשה ילמוד תורה ואח"כ ישא אשה ואם א"א לו בלא אשה ישא אשה ואח"כ ילמוד תורה אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל הלכה נושא אשה ואח"כ ילמוד תורה,ר' יוחנן אמר ריחיים בצוארו ויעסוק בתורה ולא פליגי הא לן והא להו:,משתבח ליה רב חסדא לרב הונא בדרב המנונא דאדם גדול הוא א"ל כשיבא לידך הביאהו לידי כי אתא חזייה דלא פריס סודרא א"ל מאי טעמא לא פריסת סודרא א"ל דלא נסיבנא אהדרינהו לאפיה מיניה א"ל חזי דלא חזית להו לאפי עד דנסבת,רב הונא לטעמיה דאמר בן עשרים שנה ולא נשא אשה כל ימיו בעבירה בעבירה סלקא דעתך אלא אימא כל ימיו בהרהור עבירה,אמר רבא וכן תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל עד כ' שנה יושב הקב"ה ומצפה לאדם מתי ישא אשה כיון שהגיע כ' ולא נשא אומר תיפח עצמותיו,אמר רב חסדא האי דעדיפנא מחבראי דנסיבנא בשיתסר ואי הוה נסיבנא בארביסר 29b. that banywhere that there are only five isela /iavailable, i.e., enough to redeem only one man, and one is obligated to redeem both himself and his son, bhe,the father, btakes precedence over his son. What is the reason?It is that bhis own mitzva is preferableto one that he performs on behalf of others. bWhen they disagreeis in a case bwhere there island worth bfive iselathat is blienedproperty that has been sold, i.e., he sold this land to other people but it can be reclaimed by his prior creditor, band five iselawhich is entirely bunsoldproperty.,And the reasoning behind the dispute is as follows: bRabbi Yehuda maintainsthat ba loan that is written in the Torah,i.e., any ficial obligation that applies by Torah law, is bconsidered as though it is written in a document,and therefore it can be collected from liened property, like any loan recorded in a document. This means that the liened property worth five iselais available for one’s own redemption, but not for that of his son, as the sale of the property occurred before the birth of his firstborn. Consequently, bwith these five iselaupon which there is no lien bhe redeems his son, andthe bpriest goes and repossessesthe land worth bfive iselathat is blienedproperty bfor hisown redemption. In this manner one can fulfill both mitzvot., bAnd the Rabbis maintain: A loan that is written in the Torah is not considered as though it is written in a document,since buyers will not be aware of this obligation, so that they should be aware that the land may be repossessed. bAnd thereforethere is no advantage for this man to redeem his son with the five iselaupon which there is no lien, and bhis own mitzva is preferable,which means he redeems himself with the free land. With the liened property that is left he cannot redeem his son, as the land was sold before the birth of his firstborn., bThe Sages taught:If one has money bto redeem his son and to ascend toJerusalem on bthe pilgrimage Festival, he redeems his son and then ascendsto Jerusalem bon the pilgrimage Festival. Rabbi Yehuda says: He ascendsto Jerusalem bon the pilgrimage Festival and then redeems his son.His reasoning is bthat thistrip to Jerusalem for the pilgrimage Festival is ba mitzvawhose time soon bpasses, and this,the redemption of the firstborn son, is ba mitzvawhose time does bnotsoon bpass,as it can be fulfilled later.,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according tothe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,it is bas he statedin bhis reasoning,i.e., Rabbi Yehuda provided the rationale for his opinion. bBut what is the reasoning of the Rabbis,who say that he should first redeem his son? The Gemara answers that the reason is bthat the verse states: “All the firstborn of your sons you shall redeem”(Exodus 34:20), bandit bthenstates, in the same verse: b“And none shall appear before me empty,”referring to the pilgrimage Festival in Jerusalem. The order of the verse indicates that one should redeem his firstborn son before traveling to Jerusalem on the pilgrimage Festival., bThe Sages taught: From whereis it derived bthat if one had fivefirstborn bsons, from fivedifferent bwomen, he is obligated to redeem them all? The verse states: “All the firstborn of your sons you shall redeem”(Exodus 34:20), and the emphasis of “all” includes any of one’s firstborn sons. The Gemara asks: bIsn’tit bobviousthis is the case? After all, bthe Merciful One madethis mitzva bdependent upon the opening of the womb,as it states: “Sanctify to Me all the firstborn, whoever opens the womb” (Exodus 13:2). Since each of these sons is the firstborn of his mother, it is clear that the father is required to redeem each of them.,The Gemara answers that this ruling is necessary blest you saythat bwe should derivea verbal analogy between b“firstborn”stated here and b“firstborn” fromthe verses dealing with binheritance: Just as there,the verse describes a firstborn who receives a double portion of the inheritance as: b“The first fruit of his strength”(Deuteronomy 21:17), i.e., he is the firstborn son to his father, and not the first child born to his mother; bso too here,with regard to the redemption of the firstborn son, it is referring to the bfirst fruit of his strength,which would mean that the father need redeem only his oldest child. Therefore, this ibaraita bteaches usthat this is not the case. Rather, every firstborn son to his mother must be redeemed.,§ The ibaraitateaches that a father is obligated bto teachhis son bTorah.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this requirement? bAs it is written: “And you shall teach them [ ivelimadtem /i] to your sons”(Deuteronomy 11:19). bAndin a case bwhere his father did not teach him he is obligated to teach himself, as it is written,i.e., the verse can be read with a different vocalization: bAnd you shall study [ iulmadtem /i]. /b, bFrom where do wederive bthata woman bis not obligatedto teach her son Torah? bAs it is written: “And you shall teach [ ivelimadtem /i],”which can be read as: bAnd you shall study [ iulmadtem /i].This indicates that bwhoever is commanded to studyTorah bis commanded to teach, and whoever is not commanded to study is not commanded to teach.Since a woman is not obligated to learn Torah, she is likewise not obligated to teach it.,The Gemara asks: bAnd from where do wederive bthat she is not obligated to teach herself?The Gemara answers: bAs it is written: “And you shall teach [ ivelimadtem /i],”which can be read as: bAnd you shall study [ iulmadtem /i],which indicates that bwhoever others are commanded to teach is commanded to teach himself, and whoever others are not commanded to teach is not commanded to teach himself. And from whereis it derived bthat others are not commanded to teacha woman? bAs the verse states: “And you shall teach them to your sons”(Deuteronomy 11:19), which emphasizes: bYour sons and not your daughters. /b, bThe Sages taught:If bonewishes bto studyTorah himself band his sonalso wants bto study, he takes precedence over his son. Rabbi Yehuda says: If his son is diligent and sharp, and his study will endure, his son takes precedence over him.This is blike thatanecdote bwhichis told about bRav Ya’akov, son of Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov, whose father sent him to Abayeto study Torah. bWhenthe son bcamehome, his father bsaw that his studies were not sharp,as he was insufficiently bright. Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov bsaid tohis son: bI am preferable to you,and it is better that I go and study. Therefore, byou sitand handle the affairs of the house bso that I can goand study., bAbaye heardthat Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov bwas coming. There was a certain demon in the study hall of Abaye,which was so powerful bthat when twopeople would benter they would be harmed, even during the day.Abaye bsaid tothe people of the town: bDo not giveRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov blodging [ iushpiza /i]so that he will be forced to spend the night in the study hall. Since Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov is a righteous man, bperhaps a miracle will occuron his behalf and he will kill the demon.,Rav Aḥa found no place to spend the night, and bhe entered and spent the night in that study hallof bthe Sages.The demon bappeared to him like a serpentwith bseven heads.Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov began to pray, and with bevery bowthat bhe bowed oneof the demon’s bheads fell off,until it eventually died. The bnext dayRav Aḥa bsaid tothe townspeople: bIf a miracle had not occurred, you would have placed me in danger. /b, bThe Sages taught:If one has to decide whether bto study Torah or to marry a woman,which should he do first? bHe should study Torah and afterward marry a woman. And if it is impossible for himto be bwithout a wife, he should marry a woman and then study Torah. Rav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says:The ihalakha /iis that one should bmarry a woman and afterward study Torah. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa says:How can one do this? With ba millstonehanging bfrom his neck,i.e., with the responsibility of providing for his family weighing upon him, can bhe engage in Torahstudy? The Gemara comments: bAndthe iamora’im bdo not disagree; this is for us and that is for them.In other words, one statement applies to the residents of Babylonia, whereas the other is referring to those living in Eretz Yisrael.,§ With regard to marriage, the Gemara relates: bRav Ḥisda would praise Rav Hamnuna to Rav Hunaby saying bthat he is a great man.Rav Huna bsaid to him: When he comes to you, send him to me. WhenRav Hamnuna bcamebefore him, Rav Huna bsaw that he did not coverhis head with ba cloth,as Torah scholars did. Rav Huna bsaid to him: What is the reasonthat byou do not coveryour head bwith a cloth?Rav Hamnuna bsaid to him:The reason is bthat I am not married,and it was not customary for unmarried men to cover their heads with a cloth. Rav Huna bturned his face away from himin rebuke, and bhe said to him: Seeto it bthat you do not see my face until you marry. /b,The Gemara notes: bRav Hunaconforms bto hisstandard line of breasoning, as he says:If one is btwenty years old and has notyet bmarried a woman, all of his dayswill be bina state of bsinconcerning sexual matters. The Gemara asks: Can it benter your mindthat he will be bina state of bsinall of his days? bRather, saythat this means the following: bAll of his dayswill be bina state of bthoughts of sin,i.e., sexual thoughts. One who does not marry in his youth will become accustomed to thoughts of sexual matters, and the habit will remain with him the rest of his life., bRava said, and similarly, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Untilone reaches the age of btwenty years the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and waits for a man,saying: bWhen will he marry a woman? Once he reachesthe age of btwenty and has not married, He says: Let his bones swell,i.e., he is cursed and God is no longer concerned about him., bRav Ḥisda said:The fact bthat I am superior to my colleaguesis bbecause I marriedat the age of bsixteen, and if I would have married atthe age of bfourteen, /b
29. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

59b. והרי מילה שנאמרה לבני נח דכתיב (בראשית יז, ט) ואתה את בריתי תשמור ונשנית בסיני (ויקרא יב, ג) וביום השמיני ימול לישראל נאמרה ולא לבני נח,ההוא למישרי שבת הוא דאתא ביום ואפילו בשבת,והרי פריה ורביה שנאמרה לבני נח דכתיב (בראשית ט, ז) ואתם פרו ורבו ונשנית בסיני (דברים ה, כו) לך אמור להם שובו לכם לאהליכם לישראל נאמרה ולא לבני נח,ההוא לכל דבר שבמנין צריך מנין אחר להתירו הוא דאתא,אי הכי כל חדא וחדא נמי נימא משום מילתא איתני,הכי קאמר אזהרה מיהדר ומיתנא בה למה לי,ואין לנו אלא גיד הנשה בלבד ואליבא דר' יהודה הני נמי לא איתני,הני איתני לשום מילתא בעלמא הא לא איתני כלל,אי בעית אימא מילה מעיקר' לאברהם הוא דקא מזהר ליה רחמנא ואתה את בריתי תשמור אתה וזרעך אחריך לדורותם אתה וזרעך אין איניש אחרינא לא,אלא מעתה בני ישמעאל לחייבו (בראשית כא, יב) כי ביצחק יקרא לך זרע,בני עשו לחייבו ביצחק ולא כל יצחק,מתקיף לה רב אושעיא אלא מעתה בני קטורה לא לחייבו האמר ר' יוסי בר אבין ואיתימא ר' יוסי בר חנינא (בראשית יז, יד) את בריתי הפר לרבות בני קטורה,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון לא הותר לו בשר לאכילה דכתיב (בראשית א, כט) לכם יהיה לאכלה ולכל חית הארץ ולא חית הארץ לכם,וכשבאו בני נח התיר להם שנאמר (בראשית ט, ג) כירק עשב נתתי לכם את כל יכול לא יהא אבר מן החי נוהג בו ת"ל (בראשית ט, ד) אך בשר בנפשו דמו לא תאכלו יכול אף לשרצים ת"ל אך,ומאי תלמודא א"ר הונא דמו מי שדמו חלוק מבשרו יצאו שרצים שאין דמם חלוק מבשרם,מיתיבי (בראשית א, כו) ורדו בדגת הים מאי לאו לאכילה לא למלאכה,ודגים בני מלאכה נינהו אין כדרחבה דבעי רחבה הנהיג בעיזא ושיבוטא מאי,ת"ש (בראשית א, כו) ובעוף השמים מאי לאו לאכילה לא למלאכה,ועופות בני מלאכה נינהו אין כדבעי רבה בר רב הונא דש באווזין ותרנגולין לר' יוסי ברבי יהודה מאי,תא שמע (בראשית א, כח) ובכל חיה הרומשת על הארץ ההוא לאתויי נחש הוא דאתא,דתניא ר"ש בן מנסיא אומר חבל על שמש גדול שאבד מן העולם שאלמלא (לא) נתקלל נחש כל אחד ואחד מישראל היו מזדמנין לו שני נחשים טובים אחד משגרו לצפון ואחד משגרו לדרום להביא לו סנדלבונים טובים ואבנים טובות ומרגליות ולא עוד אלא שמפשילין רצועה תחת זנבו ומוציא בה עפר לגנתו ולחורבתו,מיתיבי היה ר' יהודה בן תימא אומר אדם הראשון מיסב בגן עדן היה והיו מלאכי השרת צולין לו בשר ומסננין לו יין הציץ בו נחש וראה בכבודו ונתקנא בו התם בבשר היורד מן השמים,מי איכא בשר היורד מן השמים אין כי הא דר"ש בן חלפתא הוה קאזיל באורחא פגעו בו הנך אריותא דהוו קא נהמי לאפיה אמר (תהלים קד, כא) הכפירים שואגים לטרף נחיתו ליה תרתי אטמתא חדא אכלוה וחדא שבקוה אייתיה ואתא לבי מדרשא בעי עלה דבר טמא הוא זה או דבר טהור א"ל אין דבר טמא יורד מן השמים,בעי מיניה ר' זירא מר' אבהו ירדה לו דמות חמור מהו א"ל יארוד נאלא הא אמרי ליה אין דבר טמא יורד מן השמים:,ר"ש אומר אף על הכישוף: מ"ט דר"ש דכתיב 59b. The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t therethe mitzva of bcircumcision, which was stated with regard to descendants of Noah,i.e., Abraham and his descendants, who had the status of descendants of Noah at that time? bAs it is writtenthat God said to Abraham with regard to the mitzva of circumcision: b“And as for you, you shall keep My covet,you and your offspring after you, throughout their generations” (Genesis 17:9). bAnd it was repeated at Sinaifor the Jewish people: b“And on the eighth daythe flesh of his foreskin bshall be circumcised”(Leviticus 12:3), and nevertheless bit was stated for the Jewish peoplealone band not for the descendants of Noah. /b,The Gemara answers: bThatverse stated at Sinai is not necessary for the mitzva itself, but rather bit comes to permitcircumcision on bShabbat.It is derived from the phrase b“on theeighth bday”that circumcision must always be performed on the eight day, bandthis is the ihalakha bevenif it falls bon Shabbat.Therefore the mitzva is not considered to have been repeated at Mount Sinai.,The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t therethe mitzva of bprocreation, which was stated with regard to the descendants of Noah? As it is written: “And you, be fruitful and multiply,swarm in the land and multiply in it” (Genesis 9:7). bAnd it was repeated at Sinai,in the verse: b“Go say to them: Return to your tents”(Deuteronomy 5:26), when the Jewish men were commanded to resume conjugal relations with their wives after having been commanded to separate from them in preparation for the giving of the Torah. Nevertheless, the mitzva of procreation bwas stated for the Jewish people and not for the descendants of Noah. /b,The Gemara answers: bThatverse stated at Sinai is not necessary for the mitzva itself, but rather bit comes toteach another ihalakha /i: bThat any matter thatwas prohibited bbyan official bvoteof the Sanhedrin brequires another vote to permit it.Even if a rabbinic prohibition is no longer relevant, it is not automatically canceled, but rather a special ruling is required to cancel it. This is derived from the fact that it was necessary for God to issue a declaration (Deuteronomy 5:26) specifically canceling the prohibition that had been issued before the giving of the Torah.,The Gemara asks: bIf so, let us saywith regard to beach and every oneof the seven Noahide mitzvot that bit was repeated because ofan additional bmatterthe Torah teaches, and the descendants of Noah are exempt from them all.,The Gemara answers that bthisis what Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, bis saying:After stating ba prohibitionwith regard to the descendants of Noah, bwhy do Ineed the Torah to bthen repeatthe prohibition itself for the Jewish people? If the only purpose is to teach an additional ihalakha /i, it is unnecessary to repeat it in the form of a prohibition, e.g., “You shall not murder…you shall not commit adultery” (Exodus 20:13). Therefore, it is derived from the fact that the entire prohibition is repeated, and not just the new details, that it applies both to Jews and to descendants of Noah.,It is stated in the ibaraita /i: bAnd we have onlythe prohibition against eating bthe sciatic nerveto which this classification applies, bandthis is baccording tothe opinion bof Rabbi Yehuda.The Gemara asks: But btheseaforementioned mitzvot balso,procreation and circumcision, bwere not repeatedat Sinai in order to teach that they apply to the descendants of Noah as well as to the Jewish people, but rather were mentioned for other purposes, and therefore, they apply only to the Jewish people, similar to the prohibition against eating the sciatic nerve.,The Gemara answers: bThesemitzvot bwere repeated for the sake ofteaching bsomeother bmatter.By contrast, bthisprohibition of eating the sciatic nerve bwas not repeated at all;it is mentioned only in Genesis. Therefore, circumcision and procreation are not included in the category of mitzvot that were given to the descendants of Noah and were not repeated at Sinai., bIf you wish, saythat there is another explanation for the fact that the mitzva of bcircumcisiondoes not apply to the descendants of Noah despite the fact that it was repeated for the Jewish people: bFrom the outset, it was Abraham,and not all the descendants of Noah, bthat the Merciful One commanded toperform this mitzva; as He said to him: b“And as for you, you shall keep My covet, you and your offspring after you, throughout their generations”(Genesis 17:9). The Gemara infers: b“You and your offspring,” yes; another person, no. /b,The Gemara challenges: bIf that is so, the descendants of Ishmael shouldalso bbe obligatedto observe circumcision, as they are also the offspring of Abraham. The Gemara explains: The verse states: b“For through Isaac, offspring shall be called yours”(Genesis 21:12), which means that Ishmael’s descendants are not called the offspring of Abraham.,The Gemara challenges: Granted, Ishmael’s descendants are not considered the offspring of Abraham, but at least bthe descendants of Esau,Isaac’s son, bshould be obligatedto observe circumcision. The Gemara explains: Since the term: b“Through Isaac [ ibeYitzḥak /i],”also means: of Isaac, it is derived that the mitzva applies to only some of Isaac’s offspring, bbut not allthe descendants of bIsaac.This serves to exclude the descendants of Esau., bRav Oshaya objects to this: If that is so, the descendants of Keturah,Abraham’s second wife, bshould not be obligatedto observe circumcision. The Gemara answers: bRabbi Yosei bar Avin says, and some saythat it is bRabbi Yosei bar Ḥaninawho says that the verse: “And the uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his people; bhe has broken My covet”(Genesis 17:14) is stated bto include the descendants of Keturahin the obligation to observe circumcision.,§ bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Meat was not permitted to Adam, the firstman, bfor consumption, as it is written:“And God said: Behold, I have given you every herb that brings forth seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in which is the fruit of a tree that gives forth seed; bfor you it shall be for food, and for every animal of the earth,and for every fowl of the air, and for everything that creeps upon the earth, in which there is a living soul, every green herb for food. And it was so” (Genesis 1:29–30). It is derived God told Adam: Eating vegetation is permitted to people and animals, bbuteating bthe animals of the earth is notpermitted bto you. /b, bBut when the children of Noah came,God bpermitted themto eat meat; bas it is stated:“Every moving thing that lives shall be for food for you; bas the green herb I have given you all”(Genesis 9:3). One bmighthave thought that accordingly, even the prohibition against eating ba limb from a livinganimal bdoes not apply tothe descendants of Noah; therefore bthe verse states: “Only flesh with its life, which is its blood, you shall not eat”(Genesis 9:4). One bmighthave thought that the prohibition against eating a limb from a living animal applies beven to creeping animals;therefore bthe verse states “only,”a term used for exclusion, indicating that creeping animals are not included.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what is the derivation?What is the proof that it is creeping animals that are excluded from this prohibition and not another type of animal? bRav Huna says:The term b“its blood”indicates that the prohibition pertains to animals bwhose blood ishalakhically considered bseparate from their flesh.This bexcludes creeping animals, whose blood is notconsidered bseparate from their flesh. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionto the assertion that eating meat was prohibited to Adam, from the verse: b“And have dominion over the fish of the sea,and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creeps upon the land” (Genesis 1:28). bWhat, is it notstated bwith regard to consumption,i.e., doesn’t this verse mean that people may eat the meat of animals? The Gemara answers: bNo,the verse is referring btousing animals for blabor. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut are fish capable ofperforming blabor?The Gemara answers: bYes,they are capable, bin accordance withthe statement bof Raḥava; as Raḥava askedthe following question: If one bdrovea wagon to which ba goat and a ishibbuta /ifish were harnessed together, bwhatis the ihalakha /i? Has he violated the prohibition of diverse kinds, in the same way that one does when plowing with an ox and a donkey together? In any event, Raḥava’s question indicates that there is a way, albeit far-fetched, for a fish to perform labor., bComeand bheara proof that it was permitted for Adam to eat meat, from the phrase in the aforementioned verse: “And have dominion… band over the fowl of the air.” What, is it notstated with regard bto consumption?The Gemara answers: bNo,it is referring bto labor. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut are birds capable ofperforming blabor?The Gemara answers: bYes,they are capable, bas Rabba bar Rav Huna raises a dilemma:If one bthreshed with geese and chickens, whatis the ihalakha baccording tothe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda?Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, derives from the verse: “You shall not muzzle an ox when it treads” (Deuteronomy 25:4), that a laborer in a field is entitled to eat from the produce during his work only if his work involves both his hands and his feet, like an ox, which treads with its forelegs as well as its hind legs. Rabba bar Rav Huna raises a dilemma as to whether the prohibition against muzzling an animal while it is being used for labor in the field applies to geese and chickens, which have only two feet. In any event, it is indicated in that dilemma that birds can perform labor., bComeand bheara proof from the phrase: “And have dominion… band over every living thing that creeps upon the land.”Creeping animals certainly cannot be used for labor. Apparently, the verse is referring to eating them. The Gemara answers: bThatphrase bcomes to includethe bsnake,which was capable of performing labor when it was created., bAs it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon ben Menasya says: Woe over a great attendant that has been lost to the world; as had the snake not been cursedthat it should go on its belly, bthere would have been two fine snakes at the disposal of each and every one of the Jewish people. One he would send to the north, andthe other bone he would send to the south, to bring him precious isandalbonim /i,a type of precious stone, bandother bprecious stones and pearls. Moreover,he would battach a strap underhis snake’s btaillike a harness to an animal, band use it to take dirt out to his garden and torebuild bhis ruin,as he does with other animals. This demonstrates that the snake was capable of performing labor.,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom a ibaraitato the assertion that eating meat was prohibited to Adam: bRabbi Yehuda ben Teima would say: Adam, the firstman, bwould dine in the Garden of Eden, and the ministering angels would roast meat for him and strain wine for him. The snake glanced at him and saw his glory, and was jealous of him,and for that reason the snake incited him to sin and caused his banishment from the Garden. According to this, evidently Adam would eat meat. The Gemara answers: bTherethe reference is bto meat that descended from heaven,which was created by a miracle and was not the meat of animals at all.,The Gemara asks: bIs theresuch a thing as bmeat that descends from heaven?The Gemara answers: bYes, it is like thisincident: bAs Rabbi Shimon ben Ḥalafta was walking along the way, he encountered those lions that were roaring at him,intending to eat him. bHe said: “The young lions roar after their prey,and seek their food from God” (Psalms 104:21), and they deserve to receive food. bTwo thighsof an animal bdescendedfrom heaven bfor him.The lions bate oneof these thighs, band they leftthe other bone. He took it and entered the study hall,and binquired about it: Is thisthigh ba kosher item or a non-kosher item?The Sages bsaid to him:Certainly it is kosher, as ba non-kosher item does not descend from heaven. /b,In connection to that story, it is related that bRabbi Zeira asked Rabbi Abbahu:If bthe likeness of a donkey had descended for him, whatwould the ihalakhahave been? Would it have been permitted? Rabbi Abbahu bsaid to him: Foolish bird [ iyarud nala /i].The Sages already bsaid to himthat ba non-kosher item does not descend from heaven;therefore, it must be kosher.,§ In the ibaraitathat lists the Noahide mitzvot (56a), it is stated that bRabbi Shimon saysthat the descendants of Noah were balsocommanded bconcerningthe prohibition against engaging in bsorcery.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasoningbehind the opinion bof Rabbi Shimon?The Gemara answers: bAs it is written: /b
30. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

25a. משום כיסופא הוה לה הך שיבבתא בישתא אמרה מכדי ידענא דלית להו ולא מידי מאי כולי האי אזלא וטרפא אבבא איכספא ועיילא לאינדרונא,איתעביד לה ניסא דחזיא לתנורא מלא לחמא ואגנא מלא לישא אמרה לה פלניתא פלניתא אייתי מסא דקא חריך לחמיך אמרה לה אף אנא להכי עיילי תנא אף היא להביא מרדה נכנסה מפני שמלומדת בנסים,אמרה ליה דביתהו עד אימת ניזיל ונצטער כולי האי אמר לה מאי נעביד בעי רחמי דניתבו לך מידי בעא רחמי יצתה כמין פיסת יד ויהבו ליה חד כרעא דפתורא דדהבא (חזאי) בחלמא עתידי צדיקי דאכלי אפתורא דדהבא דאית ליה תלת כרעי (ואת) אוכלת אפתורא דתרי כרעי,(אמרה ליה) ניחא לך דמיכל אכלי כולי עלמא אפתורא דמשלם ואנן אפתורא דמחסר אמרה ליה ומאי נעביד בעי רחמי דנשקלינהו מינך בעי רחמי ושקלוהו תנא גדול היה נס אחרון יותר מן הראשון דגמירי דמיהב יהבי מישקל לא שקלי,חד בי שמשי חזייה לברתיה דהוות עציבא אמר לה בתי למאי עציבת אמרה ליה כלי של חומץ נתחלף לי בכלי של שמן והדלקתי ממנו אור לשבת אמר לה בתי מאי איכפת לך מי שאמר לשמן וידלוק הוא יאמר לחומץ וידלוק תנא היה דולק והולך כל היום כולו עד שהביאו ממנו אור להבדלה,ר' חנינא בן דוסא הוו ליה הנך עיזי אמרו ליה קא מפסדן אמר אי קא מפסדן ניכלינהו דובי ואי לא כל חדא וחדא תיתי לאורתא דובא בקרנייהו לאורתא אייתי כל חדא וחדא דובא בקרנייהו,הוה ליה ההיא שיבבתא דקא בניא ביתא ולא מטו כשורי אתיא לקמיה אמרה ליה בניתי ביתי ולא קמטו כשוראי אמר לה מה שמך אמרה ליה איכו אמר איכו נימטו כשוריך,תנא הגיעו עד שיצאו אמה לכאן ואמה לכאן ויש אומרין סניפין עשאום תניא פלימו אומר אני ראיתי אותו הבית והיו קורותיו יוצאות אמה לכאן ואמה לכאן ואמרו לי בית זה שקירה ר' חנינא בן דוסא בתפלתו,ור' חנינא בן דוסא מהיכן הוו ליה עזים והא עני הוי ועוד אמרו חכמים אין מגדלין בהמה דקה בא"י אמר רב פנחס מעשה ועבר אדם אחד על פתח ביתו והניח שם תרנגולין ומצאתן אשתו של ר' חנינא בן דוסא,ואמר לה אל תאכלי מביציהן והרבו ביצים ותרנגולין והיו מצערין אותם ומכרן וקנה בדמיהן עזים פעם אחת עבר אותו אדם שאבדו ממנו התרנגולין ואמר לחבירו בכאן הנחתי התרנגולין שלי שמע ר' חנינא אמר לו יש לך בהן סימן אמר לו הן נתן לו סימן ונטל את העזין והן הן עיזי דאייתו דובי בקרנייהו,רבי אלעזר בן פדת דחיקא ליה מילתא טובא עבד מלתא ולא הוה ליה מידי למטעם שקל ברא דתומא ושדייה בפומיה חלש לביה ונים אזול רבנן לשיולי ביה חזיוהו דקא בכי וחייך ונפק צוציתא דנורא מאפותיה,כי אתער אמרו ליה מ"ט קבכית וחייכת אמר להו דהוה יתיב עמי הקב"ה ואמרי ליה עד מתי אצטער בהאי עלמא ואמר לי אלעזר בני ניחא לך דאפכיה לעלמא מרישא אפשר דמתילדת בשעתא דמזוני,אמרי לקמיה כולי האי ואפשר אמרי ליה דחיי טפי או דחיינא א"ל דחיית אמרי לקמיה א"כ לא בעינא,אמר לי בהאי אגרא דאמרת לא בעינא יהיבנא לך לעלמא דאתי תליסרי נהרוותא דמשחא אפרסמון דכיין כפרת ודיגלת דמענגת בהו אמרי לקמיה האי ותו לא אמר לי ולחברך מאי יהיבנא אמרי ליה ואנא מגברא דלית ליה בעינא מחיין באסקוטלא אפותאי ואמר לי אלעזר ברי גירי בך גירי,ר' חמא בר חנינא גזר תעניתא ולא אתא מיטרא אמרו ליה והא רבי יהושע בן לוי גזר תעניתא ואתי מיטרא אמר להו הא אנא הא בר ליואי אמרו ליה דניתי וניכוין דעתין איפשר דתברי ציבורא לבייהו דאתי מיטרא בעון רחמי ולא אתי מיטרא,אמר להו ניחא לכו שיבא מטר בשבילנו אמרו ליה הן אמר רקיע רקיע כסי פניך לא איכסי אמר כמה עזין פני רקיע איכסי ואתא מיטרא,לוי גזר תעניתא ולא אתא מיטרא אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם עלית וישבת במרום ואין אתה מרחם על בניך אתא מיטרא ואיטלע אמר רבי אלעזר לעולם אל יטיח אדם דברים כלפי מעלה שהרי אדם גדול הטיח דברים כלפי מעלה ואיטלע ומנו לוי,והא גרמא ליה והא לוי אחוי קידה קמיה דרבי ואיטלע הא והא גרמא ליה,רבי חייא בר לולייני שמעינהו להנך ענני דקאמרי ניתו וניתבי מיא בעמון ומואב אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם כשנתת תורה לעמך ישראל חזרת על כל אומות העולם ולא קיבלוה ועכשיו אתה נותן להם מטר שדו הכא שדיוה אדוכתיהו,דרש רבי חייא בר לולייני מאי דכתיב (תהלים צב, יג) צדיק כתמר יפרח כארז בלבנון ישגה אם נאמר תמר למה נאמר ארז ואם נאמר ארז למה נאמר תמר אילו נאמר תמר ולא נאמר ארז הייתי אומר מה תמר 25a. bdue to embarrassment,to make it appear that she was baking, despite the fact that there was no bread in her house. bShe had a certain evil neighborwho bsaidto herself: bNow, I know that they have nothing. What,then, bis all thissmoke? bShe went and knocked on the doorto find out what was in the oven. Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa’s wife was bembarrassed, and she ascended to an inner room [ iinderona /i]. /b, bA miracle was performed forRabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa’s wife, basher neighbor bsaw the oven filled with bread and the kneading basin filled with dough. She said toRabbi Ḥanina’s wife, calling her by name: bSo-and-so, so-and-so, bring a shovel, as your bread is burning. She said toher neighbor: bI too went inside for thatvery purpose. A itanna btaught: She too had enteredthe inner room bto bring a shovel, becauseshe was baccustomed to miraclesand anticipated that one would occur to spare her embarrassment.,The Gemara further relates: Rabbi Ḥanina’s bwife said to him: Until when will we continue to suffer thispoverty? bHe said to her: What can we do?She responded: bPray for mercy that something will be given to youfrom Heaven. bHe prayed for mercyand something blikethe bpalm of a hand emerged and gave him one leg of a golden table. That night, his wife saw in a dreamthat in bthe future,i.e., in the World-to-Come, bthe righteous will eat at a golden table that has three legs, butshe will be eating bon a table that has two legs. /b,When she told her husband this story, bhe said to her: Are you content that everyone will eat at a complete table and wewill eat bat a defective table? She said to him: But what can we do? Pray for mercy, thatthe leg of the golden table should bbe taken from you. He prayed for mercy, and it was takenfrom him. A itanna btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe last miracle was greater than the first, asit bis learnedas a tradition that Heaven gives but bdoes not take back. /b,The Gemara relates that boneShabbat bevening,Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa bsaw that his daughter was sad. He said to her: My daughter, why are you sad? She said to him: I confused a vessel of vinegar for a vessel of oil and I litthe bShabbat lamp withvinegar. Soon the lamp will be extinguished and we will be left in the dark. bHe said to her: My daughter, what are you concernedabout? bHe Who said to the oilthat it should bburn can say to the vinegarthat it should bburn.A itanna btaught:That lamp bburned continuously the entire day, until they brought from it light for ihavdala /i. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa had some goats.His neighbors bsaid to him:Your goats bare damagingour property by eating in our fields. bHe said to them: If they are causing damage, let them be eaten by bears. But ifthey are bnoteating your property, let beach of them,this bevening, bring a bearimpaled bbetween its horns.That bevening, each one brought in a bearimpaled bbetween its horns. /b,Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa bhad a certain neighbor who was building a house, but the ceiling beamswere bnotlong enough to breachfrom one wall to the other. bShe came beforeRabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa and bsaid to him: I built my house, but myceiling bbeams do not reach the walls. He said to her: What is your name? She said to him:My name is bIkku.He said: bIf so [ iikku /i], may your beams reachyour walls.,A itanna btaught:The beams were lengthened to such an extent that they not only breachedthe walls, but they continued buntil they jutted out a cubit from this side and a cubit from that side. And some saythat bthey extended with segments [ isenifin /i],adding new walls at both ends of the beams. bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat the Sage bPalaimo says: I saw that house, and its beams jutted out a cubit on this side and a cubit on that side. And they said to me: Thisis the bhouse that Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa roofed by means of his prayer. /b,The Gemara asks a question about one of the details of this story. bAnd Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa, from where did he have goats? Wasn’t he poor,as stated above? bAnd furthermore, the Sageshave bsaid: One may not raise small, domesticated animals in Eretz Yisrael,as they destroy the fields and property of others. How, then, could Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa raise goats? bRav Pineḥassaid that this is how it came to pass: bAn incidentoccurred in which ba certain man passed by the entrance ofRabbi Ḥanina’s bhouse and left chickens there. And Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa’s wife found themand cared for them., bAndRabbi Ḥanina bsaid her: Do not eat of their eggs,as they are not ours. bAndthe chickens blaid many eggs, and chickenshatched from the eggs. bAndas the noise and mess of the chickens bwere distressing them, they sold them and bought goats with their proceeds. Once that same man who lost the chickens passed by and said to his companion: Here is where I left my chickens. Rabbi Ḥanina heardthis and bsaid to him: Do you have a signby which to identify bthem? He said to him: Yes. He gave him the sign and took the goats.The Gemara concludes: bAnd these are the very goats that brought bearsimpaled bbetween their horns. /b,§ The Gemara relates more stories of desperately poor righteous individuals. bRabbi Elazar ben Pedat was hard-pressedfor money. Once ban actof bloodletting bwas performed on him, but he did not have anything to tasteafterward. bHe took a clove of garlic and put it in his mouth. His heart became weak and he fell asleep. The Sages came to inquireabout bhiswelfare. They bsaw him weeping and laughing, and a ray of light was shining from his forehead. /b, bWhen he awoke they said to him: What is the reason that you were laughing and crying? He said to them:The reason is bthatin my dream bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, was sitting with me, and I said to Him: Until when will I suffersuch poverty bin this world? And He said to me: Elazar, My son,is it more bconvenientfor byou that I return the world to itsvery bbeginning? Perhaps you will be born in an hour of susteceand not be poor., bI said before Him:You suggest doing ball this,to return the world to its beginning, bandeven then is it only ba possibilitythat things will be different, not a certainty? bI said to Him:Are the years bthat I havealready blived morenumerous, borare bthat I will livemore numerous? bHe said to me:Those years bthat you have livedare greater. bI said before Him: If so, I do not wantYou to recreate the world for the sake of a brief few years., bHe said to me: As a reward for saying: I do not want, I will give you in the World-to-Come thirteen rivers of pure balsam oil as large as the Euphrates and the Tigris for you to enjoy. I said before Him: This and no more? He said to me: Butif I give you more, bwhat will I give to your colleagues? I said to Him: And do I requestthis bfrom a person, who does not have enough?You are omnipotent. bHeplayfully bsnapped His finger [ iaskutla /i] on my forehead and said to me: Elazar, my son, My arrowsI cast bupon you, My arrows.This touch caused the ray of light to shine from his forehead.,The Gemara returns to the topic of fasting for rain. bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina decreed a fast but rain did not come. They said to him: Didn’t Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi decree a fast and rain came? He said to them: This is I; this is a son of a Levite,i.e., we are two different people of unequal stature. bThey said to him: Let us come and focus our minds. Perhaps the hearts ofthe members of bthe community will break and rain will come. They prayed for mercy, but rain did not come. /b,Rabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina bsaid to them: Are you content that rain should come on our account,and through our merit? bThey said to him: Yes. He said: Skies, skies, cover your facewith clouds. The sky was bnot coveredwith clouds. bHe saidin rebuke: bHow impudent is the face of the sky,to ignore me. The sky became bcoveredwith clouds band rain came. /b,The Gemara relates a similar story. bLevi decreed a fast but rain did not come. He said beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, You have ascended and sat up high, and You do not have mercy upon Your children. Rain came, butas a punishment for his harsh statement toward God, Levi bbecame lame.Consequently, bRav Elazar said: A person should never castharsh bstatements towardGod on bHigh, as a great person cast statements towardGod on bHigh, and he became lame. And who wasthis individual? bLevi. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnddid bthiscomment of Levi’s bcause himto become lame? bButit is stated that bLevi demonstrated ikidda /i,a particular type of bowing on one’s face, performed by the High Priest, bbefore RabbiYehuda HaNasi, band he became lameas a result (see iMegilla22b). The Gemara explains: Both bthis and that caused hislameness. As a punishment for acting improperly, he suffered an injury while he was attempting a difficult physical feat and was vulnerable.,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Lulyani heard these clouds saying to one another, let us go and bring water for Ammon and Moabin Transjordan. bHe said beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, when You gaveYour bTorah to Your nation Israel, You approached all the nations of the worldto see if they would accept the Torah, band they did not accept it. Andyet bnow You are giving them rain. Throwthe water bhere.The clouds bthrew the rain in their placein Eretz Yisrael.,Since the Gemara has mentioned Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Lulyani, it cites a statement in his name. bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Lulyani taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “The righteous shall flourish like the palm tree; he shall grow like a cedar in Lebanon”(Psalms 92:13)? bIf it is stated “palm tree” why does it state “cedar,” and if it is stated “cedar” why does it state “palm tree”?What is added by this double comparison? He explains: bWere it stated “palm tree” and were it not stated “cedar,” I would saythat bjust asin the case of ba palm tree, /b
31. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 13.12.10-13.12.14 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

32. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Truth, 18.21-18.31, 19.27-19.30, 20.3 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

33. Anon., Numbers Rabba, 11.2 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

11.2. דּוֹמֶה דוֹדִי לִצְבִי אוֹ לְעֹפֶר הָאַיָּלִים וגו' (שיר השירים ב, ט), אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמְרוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים אִן אַתְּ אֲתָא לְגַבָּן תְּחִלָּה, דּוֹמֶה דוֹדִי לִצְבִי, מַה הַצְּבִי הַזֶּה מְדַלֵּג כָּךְ הָיָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְדַלֵּג וּמְקַפֵּץ מִמִּצְרַיִם לַיָּם, וּמִן יָם לְסִינָי. בְּמִצְרַיִם (שמות יב, יב): וְעָבַרְתִּי בְאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם וגו'. בַּיָּם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות טו, ב): זֶה אֵלִי וְאַנְוֵהוּ. לְסִינַי (דברים לג, ב): וַיֹּאמַר ה' מִסִּינַי בָּא. אוֹ לְעֹפֶר הָאַיָּלִים, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן רַבִּי חֲנִינָא אָמַר לְאוּרְזִילָא דְאַיַּלְתָּא. (שיר השירים ב, ט): הִנֵּה זֶה עוֹמֵד אַחַר כָּתְלֵנוּ, זֶה מִדְבַּר סִינָי. (שיר השירים ב, ט): מַשְׁגִּיחַ מִן הַחֲלֹּנוֹת (שמות יט, כ): וַיֵּרֶד ה' עַל הַר סִינַי וגו'. (שיר השירים ב, ט): מֵצִיץ מִן הַחֲרַכִּים. (שמות כ, א): וַיְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים אֵת כָּל הַדְּבָרִים וגו'. (שיר השירים ב, י): עָנָה דוֹדִי וְאָמַר לִי (שמות כ, ב): אָנֹכִי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, דּוֹמֶה דוֹדִי לִצְבִי, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמְרוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים אַתְּ אֲמַרְתְּ לָנוּ אַתְּ אֲתָא לְגַבָּן תְּחִלָּה, דּוֹמֶה דוֹדִי לִצְבִי, מַה הַצְּבִי הַזֶּה נִגְלֶה וְחוֹזֵר וְנִכְסֶה, כָּךְ גּוֹאֵל הָרִאשׁוֹן נִגְלָה וְנִכְסָה. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר כַּגּוֹאֵל הָרִאשׁוֹן כָּךְ גּוֹאֵל הָאַחֲרוֹן, הַגּוֹאֵל הָרִאשׁוֹן זֶה משֶׁה נִגְלָה לָהֶם וְחָזַר וְנִכְסָה מֵהֶם, כַּמָּה נִכְסָה מֵהֶם, רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא אָמַר שְׁלשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שמות ה, כ): וַיִּפְגְּעוּ אֶת משֶׁה וְאֶת אַהֲרֹן וגו', אַף גּוֹאֵל הָאַחֲרוֹן נִגְלֶה לָהֶם וְחוֹזֵר וְנִכְסֶה מֵהֶם. כַּמָּה יְהֵא נִכְסֶה מֵהֶם, אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חָמָא בְּרַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא אַרְבָּעִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה יָמִים, הָדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דניאל יב, יא): וּמֵעֵת הוּסַר הַתָּמִיד וְלָתֵת שִׁקּוּץ שֹׁמֵם יָמִים אֶלֶף מָאתַים וְתִשְׁעִים, וּכְתִיב (דניאל יב, יב): אַשְׁרֵי הַמְחַכֶּה וְיַגִּיעַ לְיָמִים אֶלֶף שְׁלשׁ מֵאוֹת שְׁלשִׁים וַחֲמִשָּׁה, אִלֵּין מוֹתְרַיָּה כַּמָּה אִינּוּן, אַרְבָּעִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה יוֹם שֶׁהוּא נִכְסֶה מֵהֶן, וְחוֹזֵר וְנִגְלֶה לָהֶם. וּלְהֵיכָן מַעֲלֶה אוֹתָן, אִית דְּאָמְרִין לְמִדְבַּר יְהוּדָה וְאִית דְּאָמְרִין לְמִדְבַּר סִיחוֹן וְעוֹג, כָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא מַאֲמִינוֹ וְהוֹלֵךְ אַחֲרָיו, הוּא אוֹכֵל שָׁרְשֵׁי רְתָמִים וַעֲלֵי מְלוּחִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (איוב ל, ד): הַקֹּטְפִים מַלּוּחַ עֲלֵי שִׂיחַ וְשֹׁרֶשׁ רְתָמִים לַחְמָם. וְכָל מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ הוֹלֵךְ אַחֲרָיו הוּא הוֹלֵךְ וּמַשְׁלִים לְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, וּבַסּוֹף אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם הוֹרְגִין אוֹתוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק בַּר מַרְיוֹן לְסוֹף אַרְבָּעִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה יָמִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מוֹרִיד לָהֶם מָן, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (הושע יב, י): עֹד אוֹשִׁיבְךָ בָאֳהָלִים כִּימֵי מוֹעֵד. וְאוֹמֵר (דברים טז, ו): מוֹעֵד צֵאתְךָ מִמִּצְרָיִם, אוֹ לְעֹפֶר הָאַיָּלִים, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא לְאוּרְזִילָא דְאַיַּלְתָּא. הִנֵּה זֶה עוֹמֵד אַחַר כָּתְלֵנוּ, זֶה כֹּתֶל מַעֲרָבִי שֶׁל בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ שֶׁאֵינוֹ חָרֵב לְעוֹלָם, לָמָּה, שֶׁהַשְּׁכִינָה בַּמַּעֲרָב. מַשְׁגִּיחַ מִן הַחֲלֹּנוֹת בִּזְכוּת אָבוֹת. מֵצִיץ מִן הַחֲרַכִּים בִּזְכוּת אִמָּהוֹת. כְּשֵׁם שֶׁיֵּשׁ הֶפְרֵשׁ בֵּין חַלּוֹן לְחָרָךְ כָּךְ יֵשׁ הֶפְרֵשׁ בֵּין זְכוּת אָבוֹת לִזְכוּת אִמָּהוֹת. עָנָה דוֹדִי וְאָמַר לִי, מָה אָמַר (ישעיה מט, יח): חַי אָנִי נְאֻם ה' כִּי כֻלָּם כַּעֲדִי תִלְבָּשִׁי וּתְקַשְּׁרִים כַּכַּלָּה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, דּוֹמֶה דוֹדִי לִצְבִי, מַה הַצְּבִי הַזֶּה מְקַפֵּץ מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם וּמִגָּדֵר לְגָדֵר וּמֵאִילָן לְאִילָן וּמִסֻּכָּה לְסֻכָּה, כָּךְ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְדַלֵּג וּמְקַפֵּץ מִכְּנֶסֶת זוֹ לִכְנֶסֶת זוֹ, כָּל כָּךְ לָמָּה בִּשְׁבִיל לְבָרֵךְ אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כ, כד): בְּכָל הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אַזְכִּיר אֶת שְׁמִי וגו', בְּאֵי זוֹ זְכוּת בִּזְכוּת שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ, דִּכְתִיב: כֹּה תְבָרְכוּ, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (בראשית טו, ה): כֹּה יִהְיֶה זַרְעֶךָ. אוֹ לְעֹפֶר הָאַיָּלִים, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר לְאוּרְזִילָא דְאַיַּלְתָּא, הִנֵּה זֶה עוֹמֵד אַחַר כָּתְלֵנוּ, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְבַקֵּר אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ בְּיוֹם שְׁלִישִׁי לַמִּילָה, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (בראשית יח, א): וַיֵּרָא אֵלָיו ה' בְּאֵלֹנֵי מַמְרֵא וְהוּא ישֵׁב וגו', יָשַׁב כְּתִיב, בָּא לַעֲמֹד אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֵׁב אַבְרָהָם, אַתָּה סִימָן לְבָנֶיךָ שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּנֶיךָ נִכְנָסִין לְבָתֵּי כְנֵסִיּוֹת וּלְבָתֵּי מִדְרָשׁוֹת וְקוֹרְאִין אֶת שְׁמַע וְיוֹשְׁבִים וּכְבוֹדִי עוֹמֵד, וּמַה טַּעַם (תהלים פב, א): אֱלֹהִים נִצָּב בַּעֲדַת אֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי חַגַּאי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִצְחָק אֱלֹהִים עוֹמֵד אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא אֱלֹהִים נִצָּב, אֶטָיְמוֹס, הָא כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (ישעיה סה, כד): וְהָיָה טֶרֶם יִקְרָאוּ וַאֲנִי אֶעֱנֶה, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר: הִנֵּה זֶה עוֹמֵד אַחַר כָּתְלֵנוּ, אֵלּוּ בָּתֵּי כְנֵסִיּוֹת וּבָתֵּי מִדְרָשׁוֹת. מַשְׁגִּיחַ מִן הַחֲלֹּנוֹת, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו: כֹּה תְבָרְכוּ וגו', אָמְרוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים, לַכֹּהֲנִים אַתְּ אוֹמֵר שֶׁיְבָרְכוּ אוֹתָנוּ, אֵין אָנוּ צְרִיכִים אֶלָּא לְבִרְכוֹתֶיךָ, וְלִהְיוֹתֵינוּ מִתְבָּרְכִים מִפִּיךָ, הֲדָא הוּא דִּכְתִיב (דברים כו, טו): הַשְּׁקִיפָה מִמְּעוֹן קָדְשְׁךָ מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבָרֵךְ אֶת עַמְּךָ אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל. אָמַר לָהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמַרְתִּי לַכֹּהֲנִים שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מְבָרְכִין אֶתְכֶם, עִמָּהֶם אֲנִי עוֹמֵד וּמְבָרֵךְ אֶתְכֶם. לְפִיכָךְ הַכֹּהֲנִים פּוֹרְשִׂים אֶת כַּפֵּיהֶם, לוֹמַר שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹמֵד אַחֲרֵינוּ, וּלְכָךְ הוּא אוֹמֵר: מַשְׁגִּיחַ מִן הַחֲלֹּנוֹת, מִבֵּין כִּתְפוֹתֵיהֶם שֶׁל כֹּהֲנִים. מֵצִיץ מִן הַחֲרַכִּים, מִבֵּין אֶצְבְּעוֹתֵיהֶם שֶׁל כֹּהֲנִים. עָנָה דוֹדִי וְאָמַר לִי (במדבר ו, כז): וַאֲנִי אֲבָרֲכֵם. כֹּה תְבָרְכוּ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית יב, ב): וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָדוֹל וגו'. אָמַר רַבִּי פִּינְחָס בֶּן יָאִיר שֶׁבַע בְּרָכוֹת בֵּרַךְ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אַבְרָהָם, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן: וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל (בראשית יב, ב): וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ (בראשית יב, ב): וַאֲגַדְלָה שְׁמֶךָ (בראשית יב, ב): וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה (בראשית יב, ג): וַאֲבָרְכָה מְבָרְכֶיךָ (בראשית יב, ג): וּמְקַלֶּלְךָ אָאֹר (בראשית יב, ג): וְנִבְרְכוּ בְךָ. כְּנֶגֶד שִׁבְעָה פְּסוּקִים שֶׁבְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית שֶׁכָּתוּב בָּהֶן כִּי טוֹב. רַבִּי לֵוִי בַּר חַיָּתָא וְרַבִּי אַבָּא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא אָמַר שָׁלשׁ גְּדֻלּוֹת וְאַרְבַּע בְּרָכוֹת כְּתִיב כָּאן. בִּשֵֹּׂר שֶׁהֵן שְׁלשָׁה אָבוֹת וְאַרְבַּע אִמָּהוֹת. וַהֲלוֹא גְּדֻלּוֹת אֵינָן אֶלָּא שְׁתַּיִם, וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ, גְּדֻלָּה הִיא, דִּכְתִיב (שמואל א יב, ו): ה' אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה אֶת משֶׁה. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ: וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָדוֹל, זֶה שֶׁאוֹמְרִים אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם. וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ, זֶה שֶׁאוֹמְרִים אֱלֹהֵי יִצְחָק. וַאֲגַדְּלָה שְׁמֶךָ, זֶה שֶׁאוֹמְרִים אֱלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב. יָכוֹל יִהְיוּ חוֹתְמִין בְכֻלָּן, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, בְּךָ חוֹתְמִין וְאוֹמְרִים מָגֵן אַבְרָהָם, וְאֵין חוֹתְמִין בְּכֻלָּן. אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר זְעֵירָא וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, בִּרְכָתְךָ קוֹדֶמֶת לְבִרְכָתִי, שֶׁמִּשֶּׁהֵם אוֹמְרִים מָגֵן אַבְרָהָם, אַחַר כָּךְ אוֹמְרִים מְחַיֵּה הַמֵּתִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, וֶהְיֵה בְּרֵכָה, מָה הַבְּרֵכָה הַזּוֹ מְטַהֶרֶת אֶת הַטְּמֵאִים, אַף אַתָּה מְקָרֵב רְחוֹקִים תַּחַת כַּנְפֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה. וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָדוֹל, אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה, אֶתֶּנְךָ, אֲשִׂימְךָ, אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ, מִשֶּׁאֶבְרָא אוֹתְךָ בְּרִיָּה חֲדָשָׁה, וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א, ז): וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָרָקִיעַ, אַתְּ פָּרֶה וְרָבֶה. לְגוֹי גָדוֹל, אָמַר אַבְרָהָם לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, מִנֹּחַ לֹא הֶעֱמַדְתָּ שִׁבְעִים אֻמּוֹת, אָמַר לוֹ אוֹתָהּ אֻמָּה שֶׁכָּתוּב בָּהּ (דברים ד, ז): כִּי מִי גוֹי גָדוֹל, אֲנִי מַעֲמִידָהּ מִמְּךָ. אָמַר רַבִּי פִּנְחָס הַכֹּהֵן בַּר חָמָא אֵימָתַי עָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אַבְרָהָם לְגוֹי גָדוֹל, כְּשֶׁיָּצְאוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּצְרַיִם וּבָאוּ לְסִינַי וְקִבְּלוּ אֶת הַתּוֹרָה וְהִגִּיעוּ לְאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, הִבִּיט בָּהֶם משֶׁה וְאָמַר הֲרֵי הֵן עֲשׂוּיִים כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהִבְטִיחַ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַזָּקֵן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ד, ח): וּמִי גוֹי גָדוֹל. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לְגוֹי גָדוֹל, שֶׁאֶתֵּן לְבָנֶיךָ אֶת הַתּוֹרָה וּמִמֶּנָּהּ יִקָּרְאוּ גוֹי גָדוֹל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ד, ו): רַק עַם חָכָם וְנָבוֹן הַגּוֹי הַגָּדוֹל הַזֶּה. וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ, אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה לְפִי שֶׁהַדֶּרֶךְ גּוֹרֶמֶת לָאָדָם לִשְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים, מְמַעֶטֶת פְּרִיָּה וּרְבִיָּה, מְמַעֶטֶת אֶת הַיְצִיאָה, וּמְמַעֶטֶת אֶת הַשֵּׁם, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר לוֹ: וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָדוֹל, שֶׁאֵין הַדֶּרֶךְ מְמַעֶטֶת לְךָ פְּרִיָּה וּרְבִיָּה. וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ, שֶׁלֹא תְמַעֵט לְךָ הַדֶּרֶךְ אֶת הַיְצִיאָה. וַאֲגַדְּלָה שְׁמֶךָ, שֶׁלֹא תְמַעֵט לְךָ אֶת הַשֵּׁם. אָמְרֵי אִינְשֵׁי בְּמַתְלָא מִבֵּיתָא לְבֵיתָא חָלוּק, מֵאֲתַר לַאֲתַר נְפָשׁ. בְּרַם אַתְּ לָא נֶפֶשׁ חָסֵר וְלָא מָמוֹן אַתְּ חָסֵר. וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, כְּבָר כְּתִיב: וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ, מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מִשֶּׁבָּרָאתִי עוֹלָמִי וְעַד עַכְשָׁו הָיִיתִי זָקוּק לְבָרֵךְ אֶת בְּרִיּוֹתַי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א, כח): וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וגו', וְאוֹמֵר (בראשית ט, א): וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶת נֹחַ וְאֶת בָּנָיו, אֲבָל מִכָּאן וָאֵילָךְ הֲרֵי בְּרָכוֹת מְסוּרוֹת לָךְ, לְמַאן דְּהָנֵי לְךָ לִמְבָרְכָה בָּרֵךְ. וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא בֵּרַךְ אַבְרָהָם לְבָנָיו, לָמָּה כֵן, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ פַּרְדֵּס נְתָנוֹ לְאָרִיס, וְהָיָה בְּתוֹךְ אוֹתוֹ פַּרְדֵּס אִילָן אֶחָד שֶׁל סַם חַיִּים וְאִילָן אֶחָד שֶׁל סַם הַמָּוֶת, אָמַר הֶאָרִיס אֲנִי אֶעֱבֹד וְאַשְׁלִים וּמַה שֶּׁהַמֶּלֶךְ רוֹצֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ בְּפַרְדֵּסוֹ יַעֲשֶׂה. כָּךְ הַמֶּלֶךְ זֶה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, וְהַפַּרְדֵּס זֶה הָעוֹלָם, מְסָרוֹ לְאַבְרָהָם, שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ: וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, מֶה עָשָׂה אַבְרָהָם הָיוּ לוֹ שְׁנֵי בָנִים אֶחָד צַדִּיק וְאֶחָד רָשָׁע, יִצְחָק וְיִשְׁמָעֵאל, אָמַר אַבְרָהָם אִם מְבָרֵךְ אֲנִי אֶת יִצְחָק הֲרֵי יִשְׁמָעֵאל מְבַקֵּשׁ לְהִתְבָּרֵךְ וְהוּא רָשָׁע, אֶלָּא עֶבֶד אָנִי, בָּשָׂר וָדָם אָנִי, לְמָחָר אֶפָּטֵר מִן הָעוֹלָם וּמַה שֶּׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא חָפֵץ לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּעוֹלָמוֹ, יַעֲשֶׂה. כְּשֶׁנִּפְטַר אַבְרָהָם נִגְלָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל יִצְחָק וּבֵרֲכוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית כה, א): וַיְהִי אַחֲרֵי מוֹת אַבְרָהָם וגו', וְיִצְחָק בֵּרַךְ אֶת יַעֲקֹב, וְיַעֲקֹב בֵּרַךְ לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שְׁבָטִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית מט, כח): כָּל אֵלֶּה שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר וְזֹאת אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר לָהֶם אֲבִיהֶם וַיְבָרֶךְ אוֹתָם. מִכָּאן וָאֵילָךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי הַבְּרָכוֹת מְסוּרוֹת לָכֶם, הַכֹּהֲנִים יִהְיוּ מְבָרְכִים אֶת בָּנַי, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאָמַרְתִּי לְאַבְרָהָם אֲבִיהֶם וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר: כֹּה תְבָרְכוּ וגו'.
34. Anon., Gospel of Peter, 50



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 248
abiathar Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 293
abraham Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 293; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 432
achziv Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 418
acmonia, julia severa inscription Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
acts, archisynagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 418
acts, synagogues, synagogues, asia minor Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137, 418
acts, synagogues, synagogues, greece Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 418
acts Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 47
adjutant high priest (segan) Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 17
agency, of christ McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 28
akiva, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 432
antioch, synagogue, communal institution (first century c.e.) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 47
antioch-of-pisidia, archisynagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
antioch-of-pisidia, synagogue, synagogue, and paul Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 418
antioch of pisidia Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 16
apostles (apostoli), of patriarch Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46, 47
aramaic, inscriptions Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 47
archisynagogue, priests Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
archisynagogue, synagogue/proseuche Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 47
archon Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 16; Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137, 418
archon of the synagogue Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 16
art, pagan Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 47
barnabas Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 16, 17
blessings, and jesus Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 47
bread Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 199
capua Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 16
christ assembly (see also synagogue) Keith, The Gospel as Manuscript: An Early History of the Jesus Tradition as Material Artifact (2020) 213
christian clerics Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 248
church fathers, patriarchate Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46
church fathers, rabbis and synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 418
churches, building of Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46
comes Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46
community Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 199
corinth Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 16
creation Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 199
crispus Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 16, 17
crucifi xion Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 260
david Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 293
day of the lord or judgement, the Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 351
decorations (in synagogue) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46, 47
defensor civitatis Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 47
diakonia as hospitality Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 214
divine plan/βουλή Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 159
donor, donation, individuals Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
dream commands, transgressive, taboo-breaking Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 91
egypt Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 248
elders, dura europos Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
elders Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46, 47
eliezer, rabbi Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 293
epictetus Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 33
epiphanius of salamis Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 28
error Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 260
eschatology Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 260
essenes Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 257
eucharist Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 199
eulogies (in synagogue) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 47
exodus Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 199
exorcism, methods of Klutz, The Exorcism Stories in Luke-Acts: A Sociostylistic Reading (2004) 193
fate, εἱμαρμένη/fatum Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 159
father, heavenly Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 260
festivals, non-christian, in early christian literature Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 48
festivals, non-christian, in rabbinic literature Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 48
god, as creator McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 28
gospels McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 28
grace Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 248
gymnasiarch, and torah reading Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 418
gymnasiarch, antioch-of-pisidia Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 418
gymnasiarch, hadrian Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46
halakha, discourse Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 91
healing/healing/health , medicine Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 260
healing Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46, 47, 418
healings McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 28
herod, herod the great Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 350
hillel, rabbi Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 293
historical tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 432
hope Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 248; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 199
hospitality Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 214
hospitium Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46
hostel Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46
hypocrisy Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 48
idolatry Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 47
ignorance Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 260
intertexture Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 260
isaac Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 432
jacob Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 432
jesus Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 260
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 432
joanna Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 432
judaism/jewish, leadership/synagogues Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 260
judge Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 47
judgement, final Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 350
law, in early christian theology Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 48
laziness Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 38
leadership, priests Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
leadership, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137, 418
literary context Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 214
location of synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 47
lords day Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 199
love Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 248
luke, archisynagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 47, 137, 418
luke, archon of the synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 418
luke, jesus Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46, 47
luke-acts, martha in Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 214
malalas Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 47
maradata synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 47
mark, archisynagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 418
martha (sister of mary) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 432
martha lazarus), lukan portrait of Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 214
mary (mother of jesus) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 432
mary magdalene Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 432
mary of bethany Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 432
mary of james Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 432
masada, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46
matthew, jesus Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46, 418
matthew, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46
messianic woes Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 350
migdal (magdala) synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46
miracles McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 28
mishnah Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 199
modiin (khirbet umm el-umdan) synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46
naaran basilical synagogue, basilical synagogue, priests Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
naveh (hauran), priests Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
necessity, δεῖ Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 159
necessity Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 159
of jesus Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 350
pagan, pagans, leadership Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
paintings, wall Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 47
parables Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 260
parnas Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46
partitions Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 47
patriarch, patriarchate, appointments Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46, 47
patriarch, patriarchate, decline and disappearance Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 432
periodisation of history Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 350, 351
peter's vision, halakhic perspectives" Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 91
pharisees Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 48; Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 257, 293
philo of alexandria Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 33
pisidia, christians, sermons Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 418
pisidia, corinth Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 418
poor, the Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 432
prayer, instruction Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
prayer, priests Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
prayer, qumran Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
preacher, preaching Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46
priest, priests, donors Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
priest, priests, dura europos Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
priest, priests, first-century c.e. Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
priest, priests, instruction Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
priest, priests, pagan Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46
priest, priests, qumran Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
priest, priests, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 47, 137
pronomenos/pronoetes Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46
prophets Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 214
proseuche (prayer house), diaspora, black sea region Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 418
proseuche (prayer house), diaspora, delos Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 418
provincia arabia Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 418
purification, purity, and pharisees Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 47
qiryat sefer synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46
qumran, house of prostration Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46
r. abbahu Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 47
r. ami Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46
r. elazar (second century) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 47
r. hanina bar hama Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 47
r. hiyya bar abba Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 47
r. jeremiah, jericho Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46
r. joshua (b. hanania) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 418
r. joshua b. levi Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46
r. judah i (the prince), i Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 47
r. zeira Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 47
rabbinic, halakhic discourse Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 91
rava Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 47
religionum loca Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46
residence, synagogue as Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46
resurrection Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 432
rosh knesset, as archisynagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137, 418
rosh knesset, torah reading Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
sabbath' McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 28
sabbath, jesus in synagogues Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 47
sabbath, law Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 91
sabbath Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 260; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 199
sacrifice Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 199
salome (disciple of jesus) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 432
samaritan Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 432
sardis synagogue, priest Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
satan Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 293
scribe Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 418
scripture, debates over correct interpretation of, in late antiquity Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 48
scripture, false teaching of Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 48
sermon on the mount Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 48
sheep Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 260
shephelah, synagogues Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46
shepherd Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 260
son as christological title Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 260
sosthenes (archisynagogue in corinth) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 418
stobi synagogue, inscription Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46, 47
stobi synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46, 47
stone moldings/carvings Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46, 47
sunday Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 199
susiya synagogue, priests Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
synagoge Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 418
synagogue Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 199
synoptic gospels Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 260
temporal terminology\n, ἡμέρα Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 350, 351
text and history Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 214
theodosian code, archisynagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 418
theodotos inscription, leadership Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
thucydides Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 159
tiberias synagogues/proseuchai, rosh knesset Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 418
torah Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 199
valentinian i Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46
victory motif Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 260
wisdom Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 38
women, jewish fff Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 214
women, pauls missionary activity Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46, 47
women, position of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 432
women, synagogue attendance Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46, 47
women, text and historical reality of Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 214
women as disciples Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 214
worship Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 199
yochanan ben zakkai (jochanan ben zakkai), rabbi Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 293
yohanan ben matya Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 432
zacchaeus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 432
zealots Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 46
zodiac, synagogue mosaic floors Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 47
– performed by jesus Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 38