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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8255
New Testament, John, 3.13


καὶ οὐδεὶς ἀναβέβηκεν εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν εἰ μὴ ὁ ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καταβάς, ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου.No one has ascended into heaven, but he who descended out of heaven, the Son of Man, who is in heaven.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

46 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 18.15-18.18, 30.12-30.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.15. נָבִיא מִקִּרְבְּךָ מֵאַחֶיךָ כָּמֹנִי יָקִים לְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵלָיו תִּשְׁמָעוּן׃ 18.16. כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־שָׁאַלְתָּ מֵעִם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּחֹרֵב בְּיוֹם הַקָּהָל לֵאמֹר לֹא אֹסֵף לִשְׁמֹעַ אֶת־קוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי וְאֶת־הָאֵשׁ הַגְּדֹלָה הַזֹּאת לֹא־אֶרְאֶה עוֹד וְלֹא אָמוּת׃ 18.17. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלָי הֵיטִיבוּ אֲשֶׁר דִּבֵּרוּ׃ 18.18. נָבִיא אָקִים לָהֶם מִקֶּרֶב אֲחֵיהֶם כָּמוֹךָ וְנָתַתִּי דְבָרַי בְּפִיו וְדִבֶּר אֲלֵיהֶם אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר אֲצַוֶּנּוּ׃ 30.12. לֹא בַשָּׁמַיִם הִוא לֵאמֹר מִי יַעֲלֶה־לָּנוּ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וְיִקָּחֶהָ לָּנוּ וְיַשְׁמִעֵנוּ אֹתָהּ וְנַעֲשֶׂנָּה׃ 30.13. וְלֹא־מֵעֵבֶר לַיָּם הִוא לֵאמֹר מִי יַעֲבָר־לָנוּ אֶל־עֵבֶר הַיָּם וְיִקָּחֶהָ לָּנוּ וְיַשְׁמִעֵנוּ אֹתָהּ וְנַעֲשֶׂנָּה׃ 30.14. כִּי־קָרוֹב אֵלֶיךָ הַדָּבָר מְאֹד בְּפִיךָ וּבִלְבָבְךָ לַעֲשֹׂתוֹ׃ 18.15. A prophet will the LORD thy God raise up unto thee, from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken;" 18.16. according to all that thou didst desire of the LORD thy God in Horeb in the day of the assembly, saying: ‘Let me not hear again the voice of the LORD my God, neither let me see this great fire any more, that I die not.’" 18.17. And the LORD said unto me: ‘They have well said that which they have spoken." 18.18. I will raise them up a prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee; and I will put My words in his mouth, and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him." 30.12. It is not in heaven, that thou shouldest say: ‘Who shall go up for us to heaven, and bring it unto us, and make us to hear it, that we may do it?’" 30.13. Neither is it beyond the sea, that thou shouldest say: ‘Who shall go over the sea for us, and bring it unto us, and make us to hear it, that we may do it?’" 30.14. But the word is very nigh unto thee, in thy mouth, and in thy heart, that thou mayest do it."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 4.1-4.5, 14.31, 19.9, 33.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.1. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוָה בִּי אֲדֹנָי לֹא אִישׁ דְּבָרִים אָנֹכִי גַּם מִתְּמוֹל גַּם מִשִּׁלְשֹׁם גַּם מֵאָז דַּבֶּרְךָ אֶל־עַבְדֶּךָ כִּי כְבַד־פֶּה וּכְבַד לָשׁוֹן אָנֹכִי׃ 4.1. וַיַּעַן מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמֶר וְהֵן לֹא־יַאֲמִינוּ לִי וְלֹא יִשְׁמְעוּ בְּקֹלִי כִּי יֹאמְרוּ לֹא־נִרְאָה אֵלֶיךָ יְהוָה׃ 4.2. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאֶת־בָּנָיו וַיַּרְכִּבֵם עַל־הַחֲמֹר וַיָּשָׁב אַרְצָה מִצְרָיִם וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה אֶת־מַטֵּה הָאֱלֹהִים בְּיָדוֹ׃ 4.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו יְהוָה מזה [מַה־] [זֶּה] בְיָדֶךָ וַיֹּאמֶר מַטֶּה׃ 4.3. וַיְדַבֵּר אַהֲרֹן אֵת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וַיַּעַשׂ הָאֹתֹת לְעֵינֵי הָעָם׃ 4.3. וַיֹּאמֶר הַשְׁלִיכֵהוּ אַרְצָה וַיַּשְׁלִיכֵהוּ אַרְצָה וַיְהִי לְנָחָשׁ וַיָּנָס מֹשֶׁה מִפָּנָיו׃ 4.4. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה שְׁלַח יָדְךָ וֶאֱחֹז בִּזְנָבוֹ וַיִּשְׁלַח יָדוֹ וַיַּחֲזֶק בּוֹ וַיְהִי לְמַטֶּה בְּכַפּוֹ׃ 4.5. לְמַעַן יַאֲמִינוּ כִּי־נִרְאָה אֵלֶיךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתָם אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אֱלֹהֵי יִצְחָק וֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב׃ 14.31. וַיַּרְא יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַיָּד הַגְּדֹלָה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוָה בְּמִצְרַיִם וַיִּירְאוּ הָעָם אֶת־יְהוָה וַיַּאֲמִינוּ בַּיהוָה וּבְמֹשֶׁה עַבְדּוֹ׃ 19.9. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי בָּא אֵלֶיךָ בְּעַב הֶעָנָן בַּעֲבוּר יִשְׁמַע הָעָם בְּדַבְּרִי עִמָּךְ וְגַם־בְּךָ יַאֲמִינוּ לְעוֹלָם וַיַּגֵּד מֹשֶׁה אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הָעָם אֶל־יְהוָה׃ 4.1. And Moses answered and said: ‘But, behold, they will not believe me, nor hearken unto my voice; for they will say: The lord hath not appeared unto thee.’" 4.2. And the LORD said unto him: ‘What is that in thy hand?’ And he said: ‘A rod.’" 4.3. And He said: ‘Cast it on the ground.’ And he cast it on the ground, and it became a serpent; and Moses fled from before it." 4.4. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Put forth thy hand, and take it by the tail—and he put forth his hand, and laid hold of it, and it became a rod in his hand—" 4.5. that they may believe that the LORD, the God of their fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath appeared unto thee.’" 14.31. And Israel saw the great work which the LORD did upon the Egyptians, and the people feared the LORD; and they believed in the LORD, and in His servant Moses." 19.9. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Lo, I come unto thee in a thick cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with thee, and may also believe thee for ever.’ And Moses told the words of the people unto the LORD." 33.20. And He said: ‘Thou canst not see My face, for man shall not see Me and live.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.26-1.27, 2.7, 2.19, 5.24, 28.10-28.13, 28.16-28.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃ 2.19. וַיִּצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִן־הָאֲדָמָה כָּל־חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה וְאֵת כָּל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיָּבֵא אֶל־הָאָדָם לִרְאוֹת מַה־יִּקְרָא־לוֹ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִקְרָא־לוֹ הָאָדָם נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה הוּא שְׁמוֹ׃ 5.24. וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֵינֶנּוּ כִּי־לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים׃ 28.11. וַיִּפְגַּע בַּמָּקוֹם וַיָּלֶן שָׁם כִּי־בָא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וַיִּקַּח מֵאַבְנֵי הַמָּקוֹם וַיָּשֶׂם מְרַאֲשֹׁתָיו וַיִּשְׁכַּב בַּמָּקוֹם הַהוּא׃ 28.12. וַיַּחֲלֹם וְהִנֵּה סֻלָּם מֻצָּב אַרְצָה וְרֹאשׁוֹ מַגִּיעַ הַשָּׁמָיְמָה וְהִנֵּה מַלְאֲכֵי אֱלֹהִים עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בּוֹ׃ 28.13. וְהִנֵּה יְהוָה נִצָּב עָלָיו וַיֹּאמַר אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אָבִיךָ וֵאלֹהֵי יִצְחָק הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה שֹׁכֵב עָלֶיהָ לְךָ אֶתְּנֶנָּה וּלְזַרְעֶךָ׃ 28.16. וַיִּיקַץ יַעֲקֹב מִשְּׁנָתוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר אָכֵן יֵשׁ יְהוָה בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וְאָנֹכִי לֹא יָדָעְתִּי׃ 28.17. וַיִּירָא וַיֹּאמַר מַה־נּוֹרָא הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה אֵין זֶה כִּי אִם־בֵּית אֱלֹהִים וְזֶה שַׁעַר הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 28.18. וַיַּשְׁכֵּם יַעֲקֹב בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּקַּח אֶת־הָאֶבֶן אֲשֶׁר־שָׂם מְרַאֲשֹׁתָיו וַיָּשֶׂם אֹתָהּ מַצֵּבָה וַיִּצֹק שֶׁמֶן עַל־רֹאשָׁהּ׃ 28.19. וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שֵׁם־הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא בֵּית־אֵל וְאוּלָם לוּז שֵׁם־הָעִיר לָרִאשֹׁנָה׃ 28.21. וְשַׁבְתִּי בְשָׁלוֹם אֶל־בֵּית אָבִי וְהָיָה יְהוָה לִי לֵאלֹהִים׃ 28.22. וְהָאֶבֶן הַזֹּאת אֲשֶׁר־שַׂמְתִּי מַצֵּבָה יִהְיֶה בֵּית אֱלֹהִים וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר תִּתֶּן־לִי עַשֵּׂר אֲעַשְּׂרֶנּוּ לָךְ׃ 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." 2.19. And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto the man to see what he would call them; and whatsoever the man would call every living creature, that was to be the name thereof." 5.24. And Enoch walked with God, and he was not; for God took him." 28.10. And Jacob went out from Beer-sheba, and went toward Haran." 28.11. And he lighted upon the place, and tarried there all night, because the sun was set; and he took one of the stones of the place, and put it under his head, and lay down in that place to sleep." 28.12. And he dreamed, and behold a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven; and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it." 28.13. And, behold, the LORD stood beside him, and said: ‘I am the LORD, the God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac. The land whereon thou liest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed." 28.16. And Jacob awaked out of his sleep, and he said: ‘Surely the LORD is in this place; and I knew it not.’" 28.17. And he was afraid, and said: ‘How full of awe is this place! this is none other than the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven.’" 28.18. And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had put under his head, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it." 28.19. And he called the name of that place Beth-el, but the name of the city was Luz at the first." 28.20. And Jacob vowed a vow, saying: ‘If God will be with me, and will keep me in this way that I go, and will give me bread to eat, and raiment to put on," 28.21. so that I come back to my father’s house in peace, then shall the LORD be my God," 28.22. and this stone, which I have set up for a pillar, shall be God’s house; and of all that Thou shalt give me I will surely give the tenth unto Thee.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 14.11, 21.5-21.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.11. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עַד־אָנָה יְנַאֲצֻנִי הָעָם הַזֶּה וְעַד־אָנָה לֹא־יַאֲמִינוּ בִי בְּכֹל הָאֹתוֹת אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי בְּקִרְבּוֹ׃ 21.5. וַיְדַבֵּר הָעָם בֵּאלֹהִים וּבְמֹשֶׁה לָמָה הֶעֱלִיתֻנוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם לָמוּת בַּמִּדְבָּר כִּי אֵין לֶחֶם וְאֵין מַיִם וְנַפְשֵׁנוּ קָצָה בַּלֶּחֶם הַקְּלֹקֵל׃ 21.6. וַיְשַׁלַּח יְהוָה בָּעָם אֵת הַנְּחָשִׁים הַשְּׂרָפִים וַיְנַשְּׁכוּ אֶת־הָעָם וַיָּמָת עַם־רָב מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃ 21.7. וַיָּבֹא הָעָם אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמְרוּ חָטָאנוּ כִּי־דִבַּרְנוּ בַיהוָה וָבָךְ הִתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־יְהוָה וְיָסֵר מֵעָלֵינוּ אֶת־הַנָּחָשׁ וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל מֹשֶׁה בְּעַד הָעָם׃ 21.8. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עֲשֵׂה לְךָ שָׂרָף וְשִׂים אֹתוֹ עַל־נֵס וְהָיָה כָּל־הַנָּשׁוּךְ וְרָאָה אֹתוֹ וָחָי׃ 21.9. וַיַּעַשׂ מֹשֶׁה נְחַשׁ נְחֹשֶׁת וַיְשִׂמֵהוּ עַל־הַנֵּס וְהָיָה אִם־נָשַׁךְ הַנָּחָשׁ אֶת־אִישׁ וְהִבִּיט אֶל־נְחַשׁ הַנְּחֹשֶׁת וָחָי׃ 14.11. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘How long will this people despise Me? and how long will they not believe in Me, for all the signs which I have wrought among them?" 21.5. And the people spoke against God, and against Moses: ‘Wherefore have ye brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness? for there is no bread, and there is no water; and our soul loatheth this light bread.’" 21.6. And the LORD sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and much people of Israel died." 21.7. And the people came to Moses, and said: ‘We have sinned, because we have spoken against the LORD, and against thee; pray unto the LORD, that He take away the serpents from us.’ And Moses prayed for the people." 21.8. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole; and it shall come to pass, that every one that is bitten, when he seeth it, shall live.’" 21.9. And Moses made a serpent of brass, and set it upon the pole; and it came to pass, that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he looked unto the serpent of brass, he lived."
5. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 8.22-8.23, 8.31, 9.5-9.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.22. יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃ 8.23. מֵעוֹלָם נִסַּכְתִּי מֵרֹאשׁ מִקַּדְמֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 8.31. מְשַׂחֶקֶת בְּתֵבֵל אַרְצוֹ וְשַׁעֲשֻׁעַי אֶת־בְּנֵי אָדָם׃ 9.5. לְכוּ לַחֲמוּ בְלַחֲמִי וּשְׁתוּ בְּיַיִן מָסָכְתִּי׃ 9.6. עִזְבוּ פְתָאיִם וִחְיוּ וְאִשְׁרוּ בְּדֶרֶךְ בִּינָה׃ 8.22. The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old." 8.23. I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, Or ever the earth was." 8.31. Playing in His habitable earth, And my delights are with the sons of men." 9.5. 'Come, eat of my bread, and drink of the wine which I have mingled." 9.6. Forsake all thoughtlessness, and live; and walk in the way of understanding."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 32.1-32.2, 88.29, 107.23-107.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

32.1. רַבִּים מַכְאוֹבִים לָרָשָׁע וְהַבּוֹטֵחַ בַּיהוָה חֶסֶד יְסוֹבְבֶנּוּ׃ 32.1. לְדָוִד מַשְׂכִּיל אַשְׁרֵי נְשׂוּי־פֶּשַׁע כְּסוּי חֲטָאָה׃ 107.23. יוֹרְדֵי הַיָּם בָּאֳנִיּוֹת עֹשֵׂי מְלָאכָה בְּמַיִם רַבִּים׃ 107.24. הֵמָּה רָאוּ מַעֲשֵׂי יְהוָה וְנִפְלְאוֹתָיו בִּמְצוּלָה׃ 107.25. וַיֹּאמֶר וַיַּעֲמֵד רוּחַ סְעָרָה וַתְּרוֹמֵם גַּלָּיו׃ 107.26. יַעֲלוּ שָׁמַיִם יֵרְדוּ תְהוֹמוֹת נַפְשָׁם בְּרָעָה תִתְמוֹגָג׃ 107.27. יָחוֹגּוּ וְיָנוּעוּ כַּשִּׁכּוֹר וְכָל־חָכְמָתָם תִּתְבַּלָּע׃ 107.28. וַיִּצְעֲקוּ אֶל־יְהוָה בַּצַּר לָהֶם וּמִמְּצוּקֹתֵיהֶם יוֹצִיאֵם׃ 107.29. יָקֵם סְעָרָה לִדְמָמָה וַיֶּחֱשׁוּ גַּלֵּיהֶם׃ 32.1. [A Psalm] of David. Maschil. Happy is he whose transgression is forgiven, whose sin is pardoned." 107.23. They that go down to the sea in ships, That do business in great waters—" 107.24. These saw the works of the LORD, And His wonders in the deep;" 107.25. For He commanded, and raised the stormy wind, Which lifted up the waves thereof;" 107.26. They mounted up to the heaven, they went down to the deeps; Their soul melted away because of trouble;" 107.27. They reeled to and fro, and staggered like a drunken man, And all their wisdom was swallowed up—" 107.28. They cried unto the LORD in their trouble, And He brought them out of their distresses." 107.29. He made the storm a calm, So that the waves thereof were still." 107.30. Then were they glad because they were quiet, And He led them unto their desired haven."
7. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 2.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.11. וַיְהִי הֵמָּה הֹלְכִים הָלוֹךְ וְדַבֵּר וְהִנֵּה רֶכֶב־אֵשׁ וְסוּסֵי אֵשׁ וַיַּפְרִדוּ בֵּין שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיַּעַל אֵלִיָּהוּ בַּסְעָרָה הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 2.11. And it came to pass, as they still went on, and talked, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, which parted them both assunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven."
8. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.9-6.10, 27.9, 59.20-59.21, 65.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.9. וַיֹּאמֶר לֵךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ לָעָם הַזֶּה שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמוֹעַ וְאַל־תָּבִינוּ וּרְאוּ רָאוֹ וְאַל־תֵּדָעוּ׃ 27.9. לָכֵן בְּזֹאת יְכֻפַּר עֲוֺן־יַעֲקֹב וְזֶה כָּל־פְּרִי הָסִר חַטָּאתוֹ בְּשׂוּמוֹ כָּל־אַבְנֵי מִזְבֵּחַ כְּאַבְנֵי־גִר מְנֻפָּצוֹת לֹא־יָקֻמוּ אֲשֵׁרִים וְחַמָּנִים׃ 59.21. וַאֲנִי זֹאת בְּרִיתִי אוֹתָם אָמַר יְהוָה רוּחִי אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיךָ וּדְבָרַי אֲשֶׁר־שַׂמְתִּי בְּפִיךָ לֹא־יָמוּשׁוּ מִפִּיךָ וּמִפִּי זַרְעֲךָ וּמִפִּי זֶרַע זַרְעֲךָ אָמַר יְהוָה מֵעַתָּה וְעַד־עוֹלָם׃ 65.7. עֲוֺנֹתֵיכֶם וַעֲוֺנֹת אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם יַחְדָּו אָמַר יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר קִטְּרוּ עַל־הֶהָרִים וְעַל־הַגְּבָעוֹת חֵרְפוּנִי וּמַדֹּתִי פְעֻלָּתָם רִאשֹׁנָה על־[אֶל־] חֵיקָם׃ 6.9. And He said: ‘Go, and tell this people: Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not." 6.10. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they, seeing with their eyes, and hearing with their ears, and understanding with their heart, return, and be healed.’" 27.9. Therefore by this shall the iniquity of Jacob be expiated, And this is all the fruit of taking away his sin: When he maketh all the stones of the altar as chalkstones that are beaten in pieces, So that the Asherim and the sun-images shall rise no more." 59.20. And a redeemer will come to Zion, And unto them that turn from transgression in Jacob, Saith the LORD." 59.21. And as for Me, this is My covet with them, saith the LORD; My spirit that is upon thee, and My words which I have put in thy mouth, shall not depart out of thy mouth, nor out of the mouth of thy seed, nor out of the mouth of thy seed’s seed, saith the LORD, from henceforth and for ever." 65.7. Your own iniquities, and the iniquities of your fathers together, saith the LORD, that have offered upon the mountains, and blasphemed Me upon the hills; therefore will I first measure their wage into their bosom."
9. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 43.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

43.6. אֶת־הַגְּבָרִים וְאֶת־הַנָּשִׁים וְאֶת־הַטַּף וְאֶת־בְּנוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאֵת כָּל־הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר הִנִּיחַ נְבוּזַרְאֲדָן רַב־טַבָּחִים אֶת־גְּדַלְיָהוּ בֶּן־אֲחִיקָם בֶּן־שָׁפָן וְאֵת יִרְמְיָהוּ הַנָּבִיא וְאֶת־בָּרוּךְ בֶּן־נֵרִיָּהוּ׃ 43.6. the men, and the women, and the children, and the king’s daughters, and every person that Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard had left with Gedaliah the son of Ahikam, the son of Shaphan, and Jeremiah the prophet, and Baruch the son of Neriah;"
10. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 1.26, 24.16 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.26. וּמִמַּעַל לָרָקִיעַ אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשָׁם כְּמַרְאֵה אֶבֶן־סַפִּיר דְּמוּת כִּסֵּא וְעַל דְּמוּת הַכִּסֵּא דְּמוּת כְּמַרְאֵה אָדָם עָלָיו מִלְמָעְלָה׃ 24.16. בֶּן־אָדָם הִנְנִי לֹקֵחַ מִמְּךָ אֶת־מַחְמַד עֵינֶיךָ בְּמַגֵּפָה וְלֹא תִסְפֹּד וְלֹא תִבְכֶּה וְלוֹא תָבוֹא דִּמְעָתֶךָ׃ 1.26. And above the firmament that was over their heads was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone; and upon the likeness of the throne was a likeness as the appearance of a man upon it above." 24.16. ’Son of man, behold, I take away from thee the desire of thine eyes with a stroke; yet neither shalt thou make lamentation nor weep, neither shall thy tears run down."
11. Anon., 1 Enoch, 1.9, 14.5, 69.27 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.9. And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly:And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him. 14.5. has been finally passed upon you: yea (your petition) will not be granted unto you. And from henceforth you shall not ascend into heaven unto all eternity, and in bonds of the earth the decree 69.27. And he sat on the throne of his glory, And the sum of judgement was given unto the Son of Man, And he caused the sinners to pass away and be destroyed from off the face of the earth, And those who have led the world astray.
12. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 24.8, 39.1, 39.8, 44.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

24.8. Then the Creator of all things gave me a commandment,and the one who created me assigned a place for my tent. And he said, `Make your dwelling in Jacob,and in Israel receive your inheritance. 39.1. On the other hand he who devotes himself to the study of the law of the Most High will seek out the wisdom of all the ancients,and will be concerned with prophecies; 39.1. Nations will declare his wisdom,and the congregation will proclaim his praise; 39.8. He will reveal instruction in his teaching,and will glory in the law of the Lords covet. 44.16. Enoch pleased the Lord, and was taken up;he was an example of repentance to all generations.
13. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 6.22, 9.10, 9.16-9.17, 16.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6.22. I will tell you what wisdom is and how she came to be,and I will hide no secrets from you,but I will trace her course from the beginning of creation,and make knowledge of her clear,and I will not pass by the truth; 9.10. Send her forth from the holy heavens,and from the throne of thy glory send her,that she may be with me and toil,and that I may learn what is pleasing to thee. 9.16. We can hardly guess at what is on earth,and what is at hand we find with labor;but who has traced out what is in the heavens? 9.17. Who has learned thy counsel, unless thou hast given wisdom and sent thy holy Spirit from on high? 16.26. so that thy sons, whom thou didst love, O Lord, might learn that it is not the production of crops that feeds man,but that thy word preserves those who trust in thee.
14. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 41, 146 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

146. And even if there be not as yet any one who is worthy to be called a son of God, nevertheless let him labour earnestly to be adorned according to his first-born word, the eldest of his angels, as the great archangel of many names; for he is called, the authority, and the name of God, and the Word, and man according to God's image, and he who sees Israel.
15. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.31-1.32, 2.4-2.5 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1.31. And God created man, taking a lump of clay from the earth, and breathed into his face the breath of life: and man became a living soul." The races of men are twofold; for one is the heavenly man, and the other the earthly man. Now the heavenly man, as being born in the image of God, has no participation in any corruptible or earthlike essence. But the earthly man is made of loose material, which he calls a lump of clay. On which account he says, not that the heavenly man was made, but that he was fashioned according to the image of God; but the earthly man he calls a thing made, and not begotten by the maker. 1.32. And we must consider that the man who was formed of earth, means the mind which is to be infused into the body, but which has not yet been so infused. And this mind would be really earthly and corruptible, if it were not that God had breathed into it the spirit of genuine life; for then it "exists," and is no longer made into a soul; and its soul is not inactive, and incapable of proper formation, but a really intellectual and living one. "For man," says Moses, "became a living soul." XIII.
16. Mishnah, Berachot, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.5. One who is praying and makes a mistake, it is a bad sign for him. And if he is the messenger of the congregation (the prayer leader) it is a bad sign for those who have sent him, because one’s messenger is equivalent to one’s self. They said about Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa that he used to pray for the sick and say, “This one will die, this one will live.” They said to him: “How do you know?” He replied: “If my prayer comes out fluently, I know that he is accepted, but if not, then I know that he is rejected.”"
17. New Testament, 1 John, 1.1, 1.9, 2.12, 3.1-3.2, 3.8-3.10, 4.7-4.9, 5.1-5.4, 5.18-5.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. That which was from the beginning, that which we have heard, that which we have seen with our eyes, that which we saw, and our hands touched, concerning the Word of life 1.9. If we confess our sins, he is faithful and righteous to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. 2.12. I write to you, little children, because your sins are forgiven you for his name's sake. 3.1. Behold, how great a love the Father has bestowed on us, that we should be called children of God! For this cause the world doesn't know us, because it didn't know him. 3.2. Beloved, now we are children of God, and it is not yet revealed what we will be. But we know that, when he is revealed, we will be like him; for we will see him just as he is. 3.8. He who sins is of the devil, for the devil has been sinning from the beginning. To this end the Son of God was revealed, that he might destroy the works of the devil. 3.9. Whoever is born of God doesn't commit sin, because his seed remains in him; and he can't sin, because he is born of God. 3.10. In this the children of God are revealed, and the children of the devil. Whoever doesn't do righteousness is not of God, neither is he who doesn't love his brother. 4.7. Beloved, let us love one another, for love is of God; and everyone who loves is born of God, and knows God. 4.8. He who doesn't love doesn't know God, for God is love. 4.9. By this was God's love revealed in us, that God has sent his one and only Son into the world that we might live through him. 5.1. Whoever believes that Jesus is the Christ is born of God. Whoever loves the father also loves the child who is born of him. 5.2. By this we know that we love the children of God, when we love God and keep his commandments. 5.3. For this is the love of God, that we keep his commandments. His commandments are not grievous. 5.4. For whatever is born of God overcomes the world. This is the victory that has overcome the world: your faith. 5.18. We know that whoever is born of God doesn't sin, but he who was born of God keeps himself, and the evil one doesn't touch him. 5.19. We know that we are of God, and the whole world lies in the power of the evil one. 5.20. We know that the Son of God has come, and has given us an understanding, that we know him who is true, and we are in him who is true, in his Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God, and eternal life.
18. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.11-1.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.11. searching for who or what kind of time the Spirit of Christ, which was in them, pointed to, when he predicted the sufferings of Christ, and the glories that would follow them. 1.12. To them it was revealed, that not to themselves, but to you, did they minister these things, which now have been announced to you through those who preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent out from heaven; which things angels desire to look into.
19. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 15.3, 15.17, 15.56 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.3. For I delivered to youfirst of all that which I also received: that Christ died for our sinsaccording to the Scriptures 15.17. If Christ has not been raised, your faithis vain; you are still in your sins. 15.56. The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law.
20. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 2.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.16. forbidding us to speak to the Gentiles that they may be saved; to fill up their sins always. But wrath has come on them to the uttermost.
21. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 1.12, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.12. And I thank him who enabled me, Christ Jesus our Lord, because he counted me faithful, appointing me to service; 3.1. This is a faithful saying: if a man seeks the office of an overseer, he desires a good work.
22. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 5.10, 5.21, 11.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

23. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 2.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.3. Let no one deceive you in any way. For it will not be, unless the falling away comes first, and the man of sin is revealed, the son of destruction
24. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 2.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. This saying is faithful: For if we died with him, We will also live with him.
25. New Testament, Acts, 1.11, 2.38, 5.31, 7.56, 10.11, 10.43, 13.38, 26.18 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.11. who also said, "You men of Galilee, why do you stand looking into the sky? This Jesus, who was received up from you into the sky will come back in the same way as you saw him going into the sky. 2.38. Peter said to them, "Repent, and be baptized, everyone of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. 5.31. God exalted him with his right hand to be a Prince and a Savior, to give repentance to Israel, and remission of sins. 7.56. and said, "Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of Man standing on the right hand of God! 10.11. He saw heaven opened and a certain container descending to him, like a great sheet let down by four corners on the earth 10.43. All the prophets testify about him, that through his name everyone who believes in him will receive remission of sins. 13.38. Be it known to you therefore, brothers, that through this man is proclaimed to you remission of sins 26.18. to open their eyes, that they may turn from darkness to light and from the power of Satan to God, that they may receive remission of sins and an inheritance among those who are sanctified by faith in me.'
26. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.7, 4.2, 22.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. Behold, he is coming with the clouds, and every eye will see him, including those who pierced him. All the tribes of the earth will mourn over him. Even so, Amen. 4.2. Immediately I was in the Spirit. Behold, there was a throne set in heaven, and one sitting on the throne 22.4. They will see his face, and his name will be on their foreheads.
27. New Testament, Jude, 14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

28. New Testament, Colossians, 1.14-1.16, 2.3, 3.1-3.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.14. in whom we have our redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our sins; 1.15. who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. 1.16. For by him were all things created, in the heavens and on the earth, things visible and things invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers; all things have been created through him, and for him. 2.3. in whom are all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge hidden. 3.1. If then you were raised together with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated on the right hand of God. 3.2. Set your mind on the things that are above, not on the things that are on the earth. 3.3. For you died, and your life is hidden with Christ in God. 3.4. When Christ, our life, is revealed, then you will also be revealed with him in glory. 3.5. Put to death therefore your members which are on the earth: sexual immorality, uncleanness, depraved passion, evil desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry;
29. New Testament, Ephesians, 4.7-4.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.7. But to each one of us was the grace given according to the measure of the gift of Christ. 4.8. Therefore he says, "When he ascended on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts to men. 4.9. Now this, "He ascended," what is it but that he also first descended into the lower parts of the earth? 4.10. He who descended is the one who also ascended far above all the heavens, that he might fill all things. 4.11. He gave some to be apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, shepherds and teachers; 4.12. for the perfecting of the saints, to the work of serving, to the building up of the body of Christ; 4.13. until we all attain to the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to a full grown man, to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ; 4.14. that we may no longer be children, tossed back and forth and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the trickery of men, in craftiness, after the wiles of error; 4.15. but speaking truth in love, we may grow up in all things into him, who is the head, Christ; 4.16. from whom all the body, being fitted and knit together through that which every joint supplies, according to the working in measure of each individual part, makes the body increase to the building up of itself in love.
30. New Testament, Galatians, 1.4, 2.17, 3.22, 3.26-3.27, 4.5-4.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us out of this present evil age, according to the will of our God and Father -- 2.17. But if, while we sought to be justified in Christ, we ourselvesalso were found sinners, is Christ a servant of sin? Certainly not! 3.22. But the Scriptures shut up all things undersin, that the promise by faith in Jesus Christ might be given to thosewho believe. 3.26. For you are all sons ofGod, through faith in Christ Jesus. 3.27. For as many of you as werebaptized into Christ have put on Christ. 4.5. thathe might redeem those who were under the law, that we might receive theadoption of sons. 4.6. And because you are sons, God sent out theSpirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, "Abba, Father! 4.7. Soyou are no longer a bondservant, but a son; and if a son, then an heirof God through Christ.
31. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.14, 2.5-2.10, 11.5-11.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.14. Aren't they all ministering spirits, sent out to do service for the sake of those who will inherit salvation? 2.5. For he didn't subject the world to come, whereof we speak, to angels. 2.6. But one has somewhere testified, saying, "What is man, that you think of him? Or the son of man, that you care for him? 2.7. You made him a little lower than the angels; You crowned him with glory and honor. 2.8. You have put all things in subjection under his feet."For in that he subjected all things to him, he left nothing that is not subject to him. But now we don't see all things subjected to him, yet. 2.9. But we see him who has been made a little lower than the angels, Jesus, because of the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor, that by the grace of God he should taste of death for everyone. 2.10. For it became him, for whom are all things, and through whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to make the author of their salvation perfect through sufferings. 11.5. By faith, Enoch was taken away, so that he wouldn't see death, and he was not found, because God translated him. For he has had testimony given to him that before his translation he had been well pleasing to God. 11.6. Without faith it is impossible to be well pleasing to him, for he who comes to God must believe that he exists, and that he is a rewarder of those who seek him.
32. New Testament, Philippians, 2.5-2.11, 3.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.5. Have this in your mind, which was also in Christ Jesus 2.6. who, existing in the form of God, didn't consider it robbery to be equal with God 2.7. but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of men. 2.8. And being found in human form, he humbled himself, becoming obedient to death, yes, the death of the cross. 2.9. Therefore God also highly exalted him, and gave to him the name which is above every name; 2.10. that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those in heaven, those on earth, and those under the earth 2.11. and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. 3.21. who will change the body of our humiliation to be conformed to the body of his glory, according to the working by which he is able even to subject all things to himself.
33. New Testament, Romans, 3.25, 4.7, 5.14, 6.2, 7.5, 8.10-8.13, 8.15, 8.23, 10.4, 10.6-10.7, 11.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.25. whom God set forth to be an atoning sacrifice, through faith in his blood, for a demonstration of his righteousness through the passing over of prior sins, in God's forbearance; 4.7. Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven, Whose sins are covered. 5.14. Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those whose sins weren't like Adam's disobedience, who is a foreshadowing of him who was to come. 6.2. May it never be! We who died to sin, how could we live in it any longer? 7.5. For when we were in the flesh, the sinful passions which were through the law, worked in our members to bring forth fruit to death. 8.10. If Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the spirit is alive because of righteousness. 8.11. But if the Spirit of him who raised up Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised up Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit who dwells in you. 8.12. So then, brothers, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live after the flesh. 8.13. For if you live after the flesh, you must die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live. 8.15. For you didn't receive the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you received the Spirit of adoption, by whom we cry, "Abba! Father! 8.23. Not only so, but ourselves also, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for adoption, the redemption of our body. 10.4. For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to everyone who believes. 10.6. But the righteousness which is of faith says this, "Don't say in your heart, 'Who will ascend into heaven?' (that is, to bring Christ down); 10.7. or, 'Who will descend into the abyss?' (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead.) 11.27. This is my covet to them, When I will take away their sins.
34. New Testament, Titus, 3.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.8. This saying is faithful, and concerning these things I desire that you affirm confidently, so that those who have believed God may be careful to maintain good works. These things are good and profitable to men;
35. New Testament, John, 1.1-1.18, 1.29, 1.31-1.34, 1.36, 1.41, 1.45, 1.47-1.51, 2.2, 2.11, 2.22-2.24, 3.1-3.12, 3.14-3.22, 3.26, 3.29, 3.31, 3.34-3.36, 4.9, 4.11, 4.13-4.15, 4.19, 4.22, 4.24-4.25, 4.29, 4.34, 4.39, 4.42, 4.48, 5.5, 5.25, 5.27, 5.31, 5.33-5.39, 5.45-5.47, 6.12, 6.26, 6.29-6.30, 6.33-6.42, 6.44-6.58, 6.62, 6.68, 7.16-7.17, 7.37, 7.50, 8.12, 8.14, 8.16, 8.28, 8.39-8.47, 8.56, 10.24-10.26, 10.30, 11.7-11.17, 11.22, 11.24, 12.16, 12.23, 12.32, 12.34, 12.37-12.41, 12.44, 13.19, 13.31-13.32, 14.9, 14.19, 14.28-14.29, 16.24, 16.28, 17.5, 17.8, 17.24, 18.36-18.37, 19.30, 19.39, 20.22, 20.30-20.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 1.2. The same was in the beginning with God. 1.3. All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made. 1.4. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. 1.5. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness hasn't overcome it. 1.6. There came a man, sent from God, whose name was John. 1.7. The same came as a witness, that he might testify about the light, that all might believe through him. 1.8. He was not the light, but was sent that he might testify about the light. 1.9. The true light that enlightens everyone was coming into the world. 1.10. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, and the world didn't recognize him. 1.11. He came to his own, and those who were his own didn't receive him. 1.12. But as many as received him, to them he gave the right to become God's children, to those who believe in his name: 1.13. who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. 1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. 1.15. John testified about him. He cried out, saying, "This was he of whom I said, 'He who comes after me has surpassed me, for he was before me.' 1.16. From his fullness we all received grace upon grace. 1.17. For the law was given through Moses. Grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. 1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. 1.29. The next day, he saw Jesus coming to him, and said, "Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world! 1.31. I didn't know him, but for this reason I came baptizing in water: that he would be revealed to Israel. 1.32. John testified, saying, "I have seen the Spirit descending like a dove out of heaven, and it remained on him. 1.33. I didn't recognize him, but he who sent me to baptize in water, he said to me, 'On whomever you will see the Spirit descending, and remaining on him, the same is he who baptizes in the Holy Spirit.' 1.34. I have seen, and have testified that this is the Son of God. 1.36. and he looked at Jesus as he walked, and said, "Behold, the Lamb of God! 1.41. He first found his own brother, Simon, and said to him, "We have found the Messiah!" (which is, being interpreted, Christ). 1.45. Philip found Nathanael, and said to him, "We have found him, of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, wrote: Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph. 1.47. Jesus saw Nathanael coming to him, and said about him, "Behold, an Israelite indeed, in whom is no deceit! 1.48. Nathanael said to him, "How do you know me?"Jesus answered him, "Before Philip called you, when you were under the fig tree, I saw you. 1.49. Nathanael answered him, "Rabbi, you are the Son of God! You are King of Israel! 1.50. Jesus answered him, "Because I told you, 'I saw you underneath the fig tree,' do you believe? You will see greater things than these! 1.51. He said to him, "Most assuredly, I tell you, hereafter you will see heaven opened, and the angels of God ascending and descending on the Son of Man. 2.2. Jesus also was invited, with his disciples, to the marriage. 2.11. This beginning of his signs Jesus did in Cana of Galilee, and revealed his glory; and his disciples believed in him. 2.22. When therefore he was raised from the dead, his disciples remembered that he said this, and they believed the Scripture, and the word which Jesus had said. 2.23. Now when he was in Jerusalem at the Passover, during the feast, many believed in his name, observing his signs which he did. 2.24. But Jesus didn't trust himself to them, because he knew everyone 3.1. Now there was a man of the Pharisees named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews. 3.2. The same came to him by night, and said to him, "Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher come from God, for no one can do these signs that you do, unless God is with him. 3.3. Jesus answered him, "Most assuredly, I tell you, unless one is born anew, he can't see the Kingdom of God. 3.4. Nicodemus said to him, "How can a man be born when he is old? Can he enter a second time into his mother's womb, and be born? 3.5. Jesus answered, "Most assuredly I tell you, unless one is born of water and spirit, he can't enter into the Kingdom of God! 3.6. That which is born of the flesh is flesh. That which is born of the Spirit is spirit. 3.7. Don't marvel that I said to you, 'You must be born anew.' 3.8. The wind blows where it wants to, and you hear its sound, but don't know where it comes from and where it is going. So is everyone who is born of the Spirit. 3.9. Nicodemus answered him, "How can these things be? 3.10. Jesus answered him, "Are you the teacher of Israel, and don't understand these things? 3.11. Most assuredly I tell you, we speak that which we know, and testify of that which we have seen, and you don't receive our witness. 3.12. If I told you earthly things and you don't believe, how will you believe if I tell you heavenly things? 3.14. As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of Man be lifted up 3.15. that whoever believes in him should not perish, but have eternal life. 3.16. For God so loved the world, that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish, but have eternal life. 3.17. For God didn't send his Son into the world to judge the world, but that the world should be saved through him. 3.18. He who believes in him is not judged. He who doesn't believe has been judged already, because he has not believed in the name of the only born Son of God. 3.19. This is the judgment, that the light has come into the world, and men loved the darkness rather than the light; for their works were evil. 3.20. For everyone who does evil hates the light, and doesn't come to the light, lest his works would be exposed. 3.21. But he who does the truth comes to the light, that his works may be revealed, that they have been done in God. 3.22. After these things, Jesus came with his disciples into the land of Judea. He stayed there with them, and baptized. 3.26. They came to John, and said to him, "Rabbi, he who was with you beyond the Jordan, to whom you have testified, behold, the same baptizes, and everyone is coming to him. 3.29. He who has the bride is the bridegroom; but the friend of the bridegroom, who stands and hears him, rejoices greatly because of the bridegroom's voice. This, my joy, therefore is made full. 3.31. He who comes from above is above all. He who is from the Earth belongs to the Earth, and speaks of the Earth. He who comes from heaven is above all. 3.34. For he whom God has sent speaks the words of God; for God gives the Spirit without measure. 3.35. The Father loves the Son, and has given all things into his hand. 3.36. One who believes in the Son has eternal life, but one who disobeys the Son won't see life, but the wrath of God remains on him. 4.9. The Samaritan woman therefore said to him, "How is it that you, being a Jew, ask for a drink from me, a Samaritan woman?" (For Jews have no dealings with Samaritans.) 4.11. The woman said to him, "Sir, you have nothing to draw with, and the well is deep. From where then have you that living water? 4.13. Jesus answered her, "Everyone who drinks of this water will thirst again 4.14. but whoever drinks of the water that I will give him will never thirst again; but the water that I will give him will become in him a well of water springing up to eternal life. 4.15. The woman said to him, "Sir, give me this water, so that I don't get thirsty, neither come all the way here to draw. 4.19. The woman said to him, "Sir, I perceive that you are a prophet. 4.22. You worship that which you don't know. We worship that which we know; for salvation is from the Jews. 4.24. God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth. 4.25. The woman said to him, "I know that Messiah comes," (he who is called Christ). "When he has come, he will declare to us all things. 4.29. Come, see a man who told me everything that I did. Can this be the Christ? 4.34. Jesus said to them, "My food is to do the will of him who sent me, and to accomplish his work. 4.39. From that city many of the Samaritans believed in him because of the word of the woman, who testified, 'He told me everything that I did. 4.42. They said to the woman, "Now we believe, not because of your speaking; for we have heard for ourselves, and know that this is indeed the Christ, the Savior of the world. 4.48. Jesus therefore said to him, "Unless you see signs and wonders, you will in no way believe. 5.5. A certain man was there, who had been sick for thirty-eight years. 5.25. Most assuredly, I tell you, the hour comes, and now is, when the dead will hear the Son of God's voice; and those who hear will live. 5.27. He also gave him authority to execute judgment, because he is a son of man. 5.31. If I testify about myself, my witness is not valid. 5.33. You have sent to John, and he has testified to the truth. 5.34. But the testimony which I receive is not from man. However, I say these things that you may be saved. 5.35. He was the burning and shining lamp, and you were willing to rejoice for a while in his light. 5.36. But the testimony which I have is greater than that of John, for the works which the Father gave me to accomplish, the very works that I do, testify about me, that the Father has sent me. 5.37. The Father himself, who sent me, has testified about me. You have neither heard his voice at any time, nor seen his form. 5.38. You don't have his word living in you; because you don't believe him whom he sent. 5.39. You search the Scriptures, because you think that in them you have eternal life; and these are they which testify about me. 5.45. Don't think that I will accuse you to the Father. There is one who accuses you, even Moses, on whom you have set your hope. 5.46. For if you believed Moses, you would believe me; for he wrote about me. 5.47. But if you don't believe his writings, how will you believe my words? 6.12. When they were filled, he said to his disciples, "Gather up the broken pieces which are left over, that nothing be lost. 6.26. Jesus answered them, "Most assuredly I tell you, you seek me, not because you saw signs, but because you ate of the loaves, and were filled. 6.29. Jesus answered them, "This is the work of God, that you believe in him whom he has sent. 6.30. They said therefore to him, "What then do you do for a sign, that we may see, and believe you? What work do you do? 6.33. For the bread of God is that which comes down out of heaven, and gives life to the world. 6.34. They said therefore to him, "Lord, always give us this bread. 6.35. Jesus said to them. "I am the bread of life. He who comes to me will not be hungry, and he who believes in me will never be thirsty. 6.36. But I told you that you have seen me, and yet you don't believe. 6.37. All those who the Father gives me will come to me. Him who comes to me I will in no way throw out. 6.38. For I have come down from heaven, not to do my own will, but the will of him who sent me. 6.39. This is the will of my Father who sent me, that of all he has given to me I should lose nothing, but should raise him up at the last day. 6.40. This is the will of the one who sent me, that everyone who sees the Son, and believes in him, should have eternal life; and I will raise him up at the last day. 6.41. The Jews therefore murmured concerning him, because he said, "I am the bread which came down out of heaven. 6.42. They said, "Isn't this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? How then does he say, 'I have come down out of heaven?' 6.44. No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him, and I will raise him up in the last day. 6.45. It is written in the prophets, 'They will all be taught by God.' Therefore everyone who hears from the Father, and has learned, comes to me. 6.46. Not that anyone has seen the Father, except he who is from God. He has seen the Father. 6.47. Most assuredly, I tell you, he who believes in me has eternal life. 6.48. I am the bread of life. 6.49. Your fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, and they died. 6.50. This is the bread which comes down out of heaven, that anyone may eat of it and not die. 6.51. I am the living bread which came down out of heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. Yes, the bread which I will give for the life of the world is my flesh. 6.52. The Jews therefore contended with one another, saying, "How can this man give us his flesh to eat? 6.53. Jesus therefore said to them, "Most assuredly I tell you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you don't have life in yourselves. 6.54. He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day. 6.55. For my flesh is food indeed, and my blood is drink indeed. 6.56. He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood lives in me, and I in him. 6.57. As the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father; so he who feeds on me, he will also live because of me. 6.58. This is the bread which came down out of heaven -- not as our fathers ate the manna, and died. He who eats this bread will live forever. 6.62. Then what if you would see the Son of Man ascending to where he was before? 6.68. Simon Peter answered him, "Lord, to whom would we go? You have the words of eternal life. 7.16. Jesus therefore answered them, "My teaching is not mine, but his who sent me. 7.17. If anyone desires to do his will, he will know about the teaching, whether it is from God, or if I am speaking from myself. 7.37. Now on the last and greatest day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried out, "If anyone is thirsty, let him come to me and drink! 7.50. Nicodemus (he who came to him by night, being one of them) said to them 8.12. Again, therefore, Jesus spoke to them, saying, "I am the light of the world. He who follows me will not walk in the darkness, but will have the light of life. 8.14. Jesus answered them, "Even if I testify about myself, my testimony is true, for I know where I came from, and where I am going; but you don't know where I came from, or where I am going. 8.16. Even if I do judge, my judgment is true, for I am not alone, but I am with the Father who sent me. 8.28. Jesus therefore said to them, "When you have lifted up the Son of Man, then you will know that I am he, and I do nothing of myself, but as my Father taught me, I say these things. 8.39. They answered him, "Our father is Abraham."Jesus said to them, "If you were Abraham's children, you would do the works of Abraham. 8.40. But now you seek to kill me, a man who has told you the truth, which I heard from God. Abraham didn't do this. 8.41. You do the works of your father."They said to him, "We were not born of sexual immorality. We have one Father, God. 8.42. Therefore Jesus said to them, "If God were your Father, you would love me, for I came out and have come from God. For I haven't come of myself, but he sent me. 8.43. Why don't you understand my speech? Because you can't hear my word. 8.44. You are of your Father, the devil, and you want to do the desires of your father. He was a murderer from the beginning, and doesn't stand in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaks a lie, he speaks on his own; for he is a liar, and the father of it. 8.45. But because I tell the truth, you don't believe me. 8.46. Which of you convicts me of sin? If I tell the truth, why do you not believe me? 8.47. He who is of God hears the words of God. For this cause you don't hear, because you are not of God. 8.56. Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my day. He saw it, and was glad. 10.24. The Jews therefore came around him and said to him, "How long will you hold us in suspense? If you are the Christ, tell us plainly. 10.25. Jesus answered them, "I told you, and you don't believe. The works that I do in my Father's name, these testify about me. 10.26. But you don't believe, because you are not of my sheep, as I told you. 10.30. I and the Father are one. 11.7. Then after this he said to the disciples, "Let's go into Judea again. 11.8. The disciples told him, "Rabbi, the Jews were just trying to stone you, and are you going there again? 11.9. Jesus answered, "Aren't there twelve hours of daylight? If a man walks in the day, he doesn't stumble, because he sees the light of this world. 11.10. But if a man walks in the night, he stumbles, because the light isn't in him. 11.11. He said these things, and after that, he said to them, "Our friend, Lazarus, has fallen asleep, but I am going so that I may awake him out of sleep. 11.12. The disciples therefore said, "Lord, if he has fallen asleep, he will recover. 11.13. Now Jesus had spoken of his death, but they thought that he spoke of taking rest in sleep. 11.14. So Jesus said to them plainly then, "Lazarus is dead. 11.15. I am glad for your sakes that I was not there, so that you may believe. Nevertheless, let's go to him. 11.16. Thomas therefore, who is called Didymus, said to his fellow disciples, "Let's go also, that we may die with him. 11.17. So when Jesus came, he found that he had been in the tomb four days already. 11.22. Even now I know that, whatever you ask of God, God will give you. 11.24. Martha said to him, "I know that he will rise again in the resurrection at the last day. 12.16. His disciples didn't understand these things at first, but when Jesus was glorified, then they remembered that these things were written about him, and that they had done these things to him. 12.23. Jesus answered them, "The time has come for the Son of Man to be glorified. 12.32. And I, if I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all people to myself. 12.34. The multitude answered him, "We have heard out of the law that the Christ remains forever. How do you say, 'The Son of Man must be lifted up?' Who is this Son of Man? 12.37. But though he had done so many signs before them, yet they didn't believe in him 12.38. that the word of Isaiah the prophet might be fulfilled, which he spoke, "Lord, who has believed our report? To whom has the arm of the Lord been revealed? 12.39. For this cause they couldn't believe, for Isaiah said again 12.40. He has blinded their eyes and he hardened their heart, Lest they should see with their eyes, And perceive with their heart, And would turn, And I would heal them. 12.41. Isaiah said these things when he saw his glory, and spoke of him. 12.44. Jesus cried out and said, "Whoever believes in me, believes not in me, but in him who sent me. 13.19. From now on, I tell you before it happens, that when it happens, you may believe that I AM. 13.31. When he had gone out, Jesus said, "Now the Son of Man has been glorified, and God has been glorified in him. 13.32. If God has been glorified in him, God will also glorify him in himself, and he will glorify him immediately. 14.9. Jesus said to him, "Have I been with you such a long time, and do you not know me, Philip? He who has seen me has seen the Father. How do you say, 'Show us the Father?' 14.19. Yet a little while, and the world will see me no more; but you will see me. Because I live, you will live also. 14.28. You heard how I told you, 'I go away, and I come to you.' If you loved me, you would have rejoiced, because I said 'I am going to my Father;' for the Father is greater than I. 14.29. Now I have told you before it happens so that, when it happens, you may believe. 16.24. Until now, you have asked nothing in my name. Ask, and you will receive, that your joy may be made full. 16.28. I came out from the Father, and have come into the world. Again, I leave the world, and go to the Father. 17.5. Now, Father, glorify me with your own self with the glory which I had with you before the world existed. 17.8. for the words which you have given me I have given to them, and they received them, and knew for sure that I came forth from you, and they have believed that you sent me. 17.24. Father, I desire that they also whom you have given me be with me where I am, that they may see my glory, which you have given me, for you loved me before the foundation of the world. 18.36. Jesus answered, "My kingdom is not of this world. If my kingdom were of this world, then my servants would fight, that I wouldn't be delivered to the Jews. But now my kingdom is not from here. 18.37. Pilate therefore said to him, "Are you a king then?"Jesus answered, "You say that I am a king. For this reason I have been born, and for this reason I have come into the world, that I should testify to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth listens to my voice. 19.30. When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, "It is finished." He bowed his head, and gave up his spirit. 19.39. Nicodemus, who at first came to Jesus by night, also came bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about a hundred Roman pounds. 20.22. When he had said this, he breathed on them, and said to them, "Receive the Holy Spirit! 20.30. Therefore Jesus did many other signs in the presence of his disciples, which are not written in this book; 20.31. but these are written, that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in his name.
36. New Testament, Luke, 1.77, 3.3, 3.22, 4.32, 8.8-8.10, 9.37, 9.51, 10.25-10.28, 14.35, 22.61, 24.6-24.8, 24.32, 24.44-24.45, 24.47 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.77. To give knowledge of salvation to his people by the remission of their sins 3.3. He came into all the region around the Jordan, preaching the baptism of repentance for remission of sins. 3.22. and the Holy Spirit descended in a bodily form as a dove on him; and a voice came out of the sky, saying "You are my beloved Son. In you I am well pleased. 4.32. and they were astonished at his teaching, for his word was with authority. 8.8. Other fell into the good ground, and grew, and brought forth fruit one hundred times." As he said these things, he called out, "He who has ears to hear, let him hear! 8.9. Then his disciples asked him, "What does this parable mean? 8.10. He said, "To you it is given to know the mysteries of the Kingdom of God, but to the rest in parables; that 'seeing they may not see, and hearing they may not understand.' 9.37. It happened on the next day, when they had come down from the mountain, that a great multitude met him. 9.51. It came to pass, when the days were near that he should be taken up, he intently set his face to go to Jerusalem 10.25. Behold, a certain lawyer stood up and tested him, saying, "Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life? 10.26. He said to him, "What is written in the law? How do you read it? 10.27. He answered, "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength, and with all your mind; and your neighbor as yourself. 10.28. He said to him, "You have answered correctly. Do this, and you will live. 14.35. It is fit neither for the soil nor for the manure pile. It is thrown out. He who has ears to hear, let him hear. 22.61. The Lord turned, and looked at Peter. Then Peter remembered the Lord's word, how he said to him, "Before the rooster crows you will deny me three times. 24.6. He isn't here, but is risen. Remember what he told you when he was still in Galilee 24.7. saying that the Son of Man must be delivered up into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again? 24.8. They remembered his words 24.32. They said one to another, "Weren't our hearts burning within us, while he spoke to us along the way, and while he opened the Scriptures to us? 24.44. He said to them, "This is what I told you, while I was still with you, that all things which are written in the law of Moses, the prophets, and the psalms, concerning me must be fulfilled. 24.45. Then he opened their minds, that they might understand the Scriptures. 24.47. and that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name to all the nations, beginning at Jerusalem.
37. New Testament, Mark, 1.10, 1.21, 1.25, 1.34, 1.43-1.44, 3.12, 4.9-4.12, 4.23, 5.43, 6.32-6.33, 8.26, 8.30, 12.28-12.34, 14.72 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. Immediately coming up from the water, he saw the heavens parting, and the Spirit descending on him like a dove. 1.21. They went into Capernaum, and immediately on the Sabbath day he entered into the synagogue and taught. 1.25. Jesus rebuked him, saying, "Be quiet, and come out of him! 1.34. He healed many who were sick with various diseases, and cast out many demons. He didn't allow the demons to speak, because they knew him. 1.43. He strictly warned him, and immediately sent him out 1.44. and said to him, "See you say nothing to anybody, but go show yourself to the priest, and offer for your cleansing the things which Moses commanded, for a testimony to them. 3.12. He sternly warned them that they should not make him known. 4.9. He said, "Whoever has ears to hear, let him hear. 4.10. When he was alone, those who were around him with the twelve asked him about the parables. 4.11. He said to them, "To you is given the mystery of the Kingdom of God, but to those who are outside, all things are done in parables 4.12. that 'seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest perhaps they should turn again, and their sins should be forgiven them.' 4.23. If any man has ears to hear, let him hear. 5.43. He strictly ordered them that no one should know this, and commanded that something should be given to her to eat. 6.32. They went away in the boat to a desert place by themselves. 6.33. They saw them going, and many recognized him and ran there on foot from all the cities. They arrived before them and came together to him. 8.26. He sent him away to his house, saying, "Don't enter into the village, nor tell anyone in the village. 8.30. He charged them that they should tell no one about him. 12.28. One of the scribes came, and heard them questioning together. Knowing that he had answered them well, asked him, "Which commandment is the greatest of all? 12.29. Jesus answered, "The greatest is, 'Hear, Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one: 12.30. you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.' This is the first commandment. 12.31. The second is like this, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' There is no other commandment greater than these. 12.32. The scribe said to him, "Truly, teacher, you have said well that he is one, and there is none other but he 12.33. and to love him with all the heart, and with all the understanding, with all the soul, and with all the strength, and to love his neighbor as himself, is more important than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices. 12.34. When Jesus saw that he answered wisely, he said to him, "You are not far from the Kingdom of God."No one dared ask him any question after that. 14.72. The cock crowed the second time. Peter remembered the word, how that Jesus said to him, "Before the cock crows twice, you will deny me three times." When he thought about that, he wept.
38. New Testament, Matthew, 3.16, 5.17, 7.28, 8.23-8.27, 11.15, 13.9-13.17, 13.43, 19.16-19.19, 22.34, 23.3, 25.31-25.32, 26.75 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.16. Jesus, when he was baptized, went up directly from the water: and behold, the heavens were opened to him. He saw the Spirit of God descending as a dove, and coming on him. 5.17. Don't think that I came to destroy the law or the prophets. I didn't come to destroy, but to fulfill. 7.28. It happened, when Jesus had finished saying these things, that the multitudes were astonished at his teaching 8.23. When he got into a boat, his disciples followed him. 8.24. Behold, a great tempest arose in the sea, so much that the boat was covered with the waves, but he was asleep. 8.25. They came to him, and woke him up, saying, "Save us, Lord! We are dying! 8.26. He said to them, "Why are you fearful, oh you of little faith?" Then he got up, rebuked the wind and the sea, and there was a great calm. 8.27. The men marveled, saying, "What kind of man is this, that even the wind and the sea obey him? 11.15. He who has ears to hear, let him hear. 13.9. He who has ears to hear, let him hear. 13.10. The disciples came, and said to him, "Why do you speak to them in parables? 13.11. He answered them, "To you it is given to know the mysteries of the Kingdom of Heaven, but it is not given to them. 13.12. For whoever has, to him will be given, and he will have abundance, but whoever doesn't have, from him will be taken away even that which he has. 13.13. Therefore I speak to them in parables, because seeing they don't see, and hearing, they don't hear, neither do they understand. 13.14. In them the prophecy of Isaiah is fulfilled, which says, 'By hearing you will hear, And will in no way understand; Seeing you will see, And will in no way perceive: 13.15. For this people's heart has grown callous, Their ears are dull of hearing, They have closed their eyes; Or else perhaps they might perceive with their eyes, Hear with their ears, Understand with their heart, And should turn again; And I would heal them.' 13.16. But blessed are your eyes, for they see; and your ears, for they hear. 13.17. For most assuredly I tell you that many prophets and righteous men desired to see the things which you see, and didn't see them; and to hear the things which you hear, and didn't hear them. 13.43. Then the righteous will shine forth like the sun in the kingdom of their Father. He who has ears to hear, let him hear. 19.16. Behold, one came to him and said, "Good teacher, what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life? 19.17. He said to him, "Why do you call me good? No one is good but one, that is, God. But if you want to enter into life, keep the commandments. 19.18. He said to him, "Which ones?"Jesus said, "'You shall not murder.' 'You shall not commit adultery.' 'You shall not steal.' 'You shall not offer false testimony.' 19.19. 'Honor your father and mother.' And, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' 22.34. But the Pharisees, when they heard that he had put the Sadducees to silence, gathered themselves together. 23.3. All things therefore whatever they tell you to observe, observe and do, but don't do their works; for they say, and don't do. 25.31. But when the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then he will sit on the throne of his glory. 25.32. Before him all the nations will be gathered, and he will separate them one from another, as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats. 26.75. Peter remembered the word which Jesus had said to him, "Before the cock crows, you will deny me three times." He went out and wept bitterly.
39. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 1.4, 14.8, 25.1, 47.6, 69.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.4. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, שִׁשָּׁה דְבָרִים קָדְמוּ לִבְרִיאַת הָעוֹלָם, יֵשׁ מֵהֶן שֶׁנִּבְרְאוּ, וְיֵשׁ מֵהֶן שֶׁעָלוּ בַּמַּחֲשָׁבָה לְהִבָּרְאוֹת. הַתּוֹרָה וְהַכִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד, נִבְרְאוּ. תּוֹרָה מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ. כִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד מִנַּיִן, דִּכְתִיב (תהלים צג, ב): נָכוֹן כִּסְאֲךָ מֵאָז וגו'. הָאָבוֹת וְיִשְׂרָאֵל וּבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וּשְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ, עָלוּ בַּמַּחֲשָׁבָה לְהִבָּרְאוֹת, הָאָבוֹת מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (הושע ט, י): כַּעֲנָבִים בַּמִּדְבָּר וגו'. יִשְׂרָאֵל מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עד, ב): זְכֹר עֲדָתְךָ קָנִיתָ קֶדֶם. בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה יז, יב): כִּסֵּא כָבוֹד מָרוֹם מֵרִאשׁוֹן וגו'. שְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עב, יז): יְהִי שְׁמוֹ לְעוֹלָם וגו'. רַבִּי אַהֲבָה בְּרַבִּי זְעִירָא אָמַר אַף הַתְּשׁוּבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים צ, ב): בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים יֻלָּדוּ, וְאוֹתָהּ הַשָּׁעָה תָּשֵׁב אֱנוֹשׁ עַד דַּכָּא וגו', אֲבָל אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ אֵיזֶה מֵהֶם קֹדֶם, אִם הַתּוֹרָה קָדְמָה לְכִסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד וְאִם כִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד קֹדֶם לַתּוֹרָה, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא הַתּוֹרָה קָדְמָה לְכִסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ וגו', קוֹדֵם לְאוֹתוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ (תהלים צג, ב): נָכוֹן כִּסְאֲךָ מֵאָז. רַבִּי הוּנָא וְרַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמְרוּ, מַחְשַׁבְתָּן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל קָדְמָה לְכָל דָּבָר, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה נָשׂוּי לְמַטְרוֹנָה אַחַת, וְלֹא הָיָה לוֹ מִמֶּנָּה בֵּן, פַּעַם אַחַת נִמְצָא הַמֶּלֶךְ עוֹבֵר בַּשּׁוּק, אָמַר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין זוֹ לִבְנִי, וְהָיוּ הַכֹּל אוֹמְרִין, בֵּן אֵין לוֹ וְהוּא אוֹמֵר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין זוֹ לִבְנִי, חָזְרוּ וְאָמְרוּ הַמֶּלֶךְ אַסְטְרוֹלוֹגוּס גָּדוֹל הוּא, אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁצָּפָה הַמֶּלֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עָתִיד לְהַעֲמִיד מִמֶּנָּה בֵּן לֹא הָיָה אוֹמֵר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין לִבְנִי. כָּךְ אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁצָּפָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁאַחַר עֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁשָּׁה דּוֹרוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲתִידִין לְקַבֵּל אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, לֹא הָיָה כּוֹתֵב בַּתּוֹרָה צַו אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי בַּנָאי, הָעוֹלָם וּמְלוֹאוֹ לֹא נִבְרָא אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ג, יט): ה' בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד אֶרֶץ וגו'. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אָמַר בִּזְכוּת משֶׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים לג, כא): וַיַּרְא רֵאשִׁית לוֹ. רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַב מַתְנָה אָמַר, בִּזְכוּת שְׁלשָׁה דְּבָרִים נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם, בִּזְכוּת חַלָּה, וּבִזְכוּת מַעַשְׂרוֹת, וּבִזְכוּת בִּכּוּרִים, וּמַה טַּעַם, בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָא חַלָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר טו, כ): רֵאשִׁית עֲרִסֹתֵיכֶם, אֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא מַעַשְׂרוֹת, הֵיךְ דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (דברים יח, ד): רֵאשִׁית דְּגָנְךָ, וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא בִּכּוּרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג, יט): רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ וגו'. 14.8. מִן הָאֲדָמָה (בראשית ב, ז), רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמְרוּ, מִמָּקוֹם כַּפָּרָתוֹ נִבְרָא, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות כ, כז): מִזְבַּח אֲדָמָה תַּעֲשֶׂה לִּי, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ מִמְּקוֹם כַּפָּרָתוֹ וְהַלְּוַאי יַעֲמֹד. וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו (בראשית ב, ז), מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהֶעֱמִידוֹ גֹּלֶם מִן הָאָרֶץ וְעַד הָרָקִיעַ, וְזָרַק בּוֹ אֶת הַנְּשָׁמָה, לְפִי שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה בִּנְפִיחָה, לְפִיכָךְ מֵת, אֲבָל לֶעָתִיד בִּנְתִינָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יחזקאל לז, יד): וְנָתַתִּי רוּחִי בָּכֶם וִחְיִיתֶם. 25.1. וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֵינֶנּוּ כִּי לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים (בראשית ה, כד), אָמַר רַבִּי חָמָא בַּר הוֹשַׁעְיָא אֵינוֹ נִכְתַּב בְּתוֹךְ טִימוֹסָן שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים אֶלָּא בְּתוֹךְ טִימוֹסָן שֶׁל רְשָׁעִים. אָמַר רַבִּי אַיְבוּ חֲנוֹךְ חָנֵף הָיָה, פְּעָמִים צַדִּיק פְּעָמִים רָשָׁע, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַד שֶׁהוּא בְּצִדְקוֹ אֲסַלְּקֶנּוּ. אָמַר רַבִּי אַיְבוּ בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה דָּנוֹ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא דָן כָּל בָּאֵי עוֹלָם. אֶפִּיקוֹרְסִים שָׁאֲלוּ לְרַבִּי אַבָּהוּ אָמְרוּ לוֹ אֵין אָנוּ מוֹצְאִין מִיתָה לַחֲנוֹךְ, אָמַר לָהֶם לָמָּה, אָמְרוּ לוֹ נֶאֶמְרָה כָּאן לְקִיחָה וְנֶאֶמְרָה לְהַלָּן (מלכים ב ב, ה): כִּי הַיּוֹם ה' לֹקֵחַ אֶת אֲדֹנֶיךָ מֵעַל רֹאשֶׁךָ, אָמַר לָהֶם אִם לִלְּקִיחָה אַתֶּם דּוֹרְשִׁים, נֶאֱמַר כָּאן לְקִיחָה וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן (יחזקאל כד, טז): הִנְנִי לֹקֵחַ מִמְּךָ אֶת מַחְמַד עֵינֶיךָ, אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא יָפֶה הֵשִׁיבָן רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ. מַטְרוֹנָה שָׁאֲלָה אֶת רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אָמְרָה לוֹ אֵין אָנוּ מוֹצְאִין מִיתָה בַּחֲנוֹךְ, אָמַר לָהּ אִלּוּ נֶאֱמַר (בראשית ה, כד): וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת הָאֱלֹהִים וְשָׁתַק, הָיִיתִי אוֹמֵר כִּדְבָרַיִךְ, כְּשֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר וְאֵינֶנּוּ כִּי לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים, וְאֵינֶנּוּ בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה כִּי לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים. 47.6. וַיְכַל לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ (בראשית יז, כב), תָּנֵי הַנִּפְטָר מֵחֲבֵרוֹ בֵּין גָּדוֹל בֵּין קָטָן צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל מִמֶּנּוּ רְשׁוּת, מִמִּי אַתְּ לָמֵד, מֵאַבְרָהָם, פַּעַם אַחַת הָיָה אַבְרָהָם מְדַבֵּר עִם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בָּאוּ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת לְדַבֵּר עִמּוֹ, אָמַר לָהֶן נִפָּטֵר מִן הַשְּׁכִינָה שֶׁהִיא גְדוֹלָה מִכֶּם תְּחִלָּה, אַחַר כָּךְ אֲנִי מְדַבֵּר עִמָּכֶם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁדִּבֵּר עִם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא כָּל צָרְכּוֹ, אָמַר לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים צָרִיךְ אֲנִי לְדָבָר, אָמַר לוֹ הִפָּטֵר בְּשָׁלוֹם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית יז, כב): וַיַּעַל אֱלֹהִים מֵעַל אַבְרָהָם. אָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ הָאָבוֹת הֵן הֵן הַמֶּרְכָּבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיַּעַל אֱלֹהִים מֵעַל אַבְרָהָם, (בראשית לה, יג): וַיַּעַל מֵעָלָיו אֱלֹהִים, (בראשית כח, יג): וְהִנֵּה ה' נִצָּב עָלָיו. 69.3. אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ, מָשָׁל לְבֶן מְלָכִים שֶׁהָיָה יָשֵׁן עַל גַּבֵּי עֲרִיסָה וְהָיוּ זְבוּבִים שׁוֹכְנִים עָלָיו, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁבָּא מֵנִיקְתּוֹ שָׁחָה עָלָיו מֵנִיקְתּוֹ וּבָרְחוּ מֵעָלָיו, כָּךְ בַּתְּחִלָּה וְהִנֵּה מַלְאֲכֵי אֱלֹהִים עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בּוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּתְגַּלֶּה עָלָיו הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בָּרְחוּ מֵעָלָיו. רַבִּי חִיָּא רַבָּה וְרַבִּי יַנַּאי, חַד אָמַר, עָלָיו, עַל סֻלָּם. וְחַד אָמַר, עָלָיו, עַל יַעֲקֹב. מַאן דְּאָמַר עָלָיו, עַל הַסֻּלָּם, נִיחָא, אֶלָּא לְמַאן דְּאָמַר עָלָיו, עַל יַעֲקֹב, מִי מִתְקַיֵּם עָלָיו, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן הָרְשָׁעִים מִתְקַיְּמִין עַל אֱלֹהֵיהֶם, (בראשית מא, א): וּפַרְעֹה חֹלֵם וְהִנֵּה עֹמֵד עַל הַיְאֹר, אֲבָל הַצַּדִּיקִים אֱלֹהֵיהֶם מִתְקַיֵּם עֲלֵיהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְהִנֵּה ה' נִצָּב עָלָיו וַיֹּאמֶר אֲנִי ה' אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם. 1.4. \"In the beginning of God's creating...\" - Six things preceded the creation of the world; some of them were created and some of them were decided to be created. The Torah and the Throne of Glory were created. How do we know the Torah was? As it says (Proverbs 8:22): \"God made me at the beginning of his way.\" How do we know the Throne of Glory was? As it says (Psalms 93:2): \"Your throne is established as of old etc.\" The Patriarchs, Israel, the Temple, and the name of the Messiah were decided to be created. How do we know the Patriarchs were? As it says (Hosea 9:10): \"Like grapes in the wilderness etc.\" How do we know Israel was? As it says (Psalms 74:2): \"Remember your congregation, whom you purchased from old.\" How do we know the Temple was? As it says (Jeremiah 17:12): \"Your throne of glory, on high from the beginning etc.\" How do we know the name of the Messiah was? As it says (Psalms 72:17): \"May his name exist forever etc. [his name shall be Yinnon as long as the sun].\" Rabbi Ahavah said in the name of Rabbi Ze'ira: Even repentance was, as it says (Psalms 90:2): \"Before the mountains were birthed,\" and at the same time (Psalms 90:3), \"You turned man to contrition etc.\" However, I do not know which was first--if the Torah preceded the Throne of Glory or the Throne of Glory preceded the Torah. Rabbi Abba Bar Cahana said: The Torah preceded the Throne of Glory, as it says (Proverbs 8:22): \"God made me at the beginning of his way, the first of his works of old.\" This is before that of which it is written (Psalms 93:2): \"Your throne is established as of old.\" Rabbi Hunna and Rabbi Yirmiyah in the name of Rabbi Shmuel the son of Rabbi Yitzchak said: The thought of Israel was before everything. This is like a king who was married to a woman and did not have a son. One time the king was in the market and said: \"Take this ink and pen for my son.\" They said: \"He does not have a son.\" He replied: \"Take them; the king must expect a son, because otherwise he would not command that the ink and pen be taken.\" Similarly, if there was no expectation of Israel receiving it after 26 generations, God would not have written in the Torah: \"Command the children of Israel\" or \"Speak to the children of Israel.\" Rabbi Bannai said: The world and its contents were only created in the merit of the Torah, as it says (Proverbs 3:19): \"God founded the world with wisdom etc.\" Rabbi Berachiyah said: In the merit of Moses, as it says (Deuteronomy 33:21): \"He saw a first part for himself.\" Rabbi Hunna said in the name of Rabbi Matanah: The world was created in the merit of three things--challah, tithes, and first fruits. The verse \"In the beginning God created\" refers to challah, as it says (Numbers 15:20): \"The beginning of your doughs.\" It also refers to tithes, as it says (Deuteronomy 18:4): \"The beginning of your grains.\" It also refers to first fruits, as it says (Exodus 23:19): \"The beginning of the fruits of the land.\"" 14.8. ... ‘And He blew into his nostrils’—This teaches that He stood him up as a golem stretching from earth to the firmament and then threw breath/n’shamah into him." 69.3. ... ... Rabbi Yocha said: The wicked, their existence depends on their gods. As it says \"And Pharaoh dreamt; and he was standing upon the river\" (Genesis 41:1). But the righteous, their G-d's existence depends on them. As it says \"Behold G-d stood upon him\" (Genesis 38:13). Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: The patriarchs they themselves were the Divine Chariot, As it says \"And G-d ascended from upon Abraham\" (Genesis 17:22). \"And G-d ascended from upon him\" and \"Behold G-d stood upon him\"."
40. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 3.20.4, 3.22.1, 4.22.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

41. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

58a. למדורה וקדרות מקיפות אותה,מטה של תלמידי חכמים כיצד כל שאין תחתיה אלא סנדלין בימות החמה ומנעלין בימות הגשמים ושל עם הארץ דומה לאוצר בלוס:,ר' בנאה הוה קא מציין מערתא כי מטא למערתא דאברהם אשכחיה לאליעזר עבד אברהם דקאי קמי בבא א"ל מאי קא עביד אברהם א"ל גאני בכנפה דשרה וקא מעיינא ליה ברישיה,א"ל זיל אימא ליה בנאה קאי אבבא א"ל ליעול מידע ידיע דיצר בהאי עלמא ליכא עייל עיין ונפק,כי מטא למערתא דאדם הראשון יצתה בת קול ואמרה נסתכלת בדמות דיוקני בדיוקני עצמה אל תסתכל הא בעינא לציוני מערתא כמדת החיצונה כך מדת הפנימית ולמ"ד שני בתים זו למעלה מזו כמדת עליונה כך מדת התחתונה,א"ר בנאה נסתכלתי בשני עקיביו ודומים לשני גלגלי חמה הכל בפני שרה כקוף בפני אדם שרה בפני חוה כקוף בפני אדם חוה בפני אדם כקוף בפני אדם אדם בפני שכינה כקוף בפני אדם,שופריה דרב כהנא (מעין שופריה דרב שופריה דרב) מעין שופריה דרבי אבהו שופריה דר' אבהו מעין שופריה דיעקב אבינו שופריה דיעקב אבינו מעין שופריה דאדם הראשון,ההוא אמגושא דהוה חטיט שכבי כי מטא אמערתא דרב טובי בר מתנה תפשיה בדיקניה אתא אביי א"ל במטותא מינך שבקיה לשנה אחריתי הדר אתא תפשיה בדיקניה אתא אביי לא שבקיה עד דאייתי מספרא וגזיא לדיקניה,ההוא דאמר להו חביתא דעפרא לחד בראי חביתא דגרמי לחד בראי חביתא דאודרא לחד בראי לא הוו ידעי מאי קאמר להו אתו לקמיה דרבי בנאה אמר להו אית לכו ארעא אמרו ליה אין אית לכו חיותא אין אית לכו בסתרקי אין אי הכי הכי קאמר לכו,ההוא גברא דשמעה לדביתהו דקא אמרה לברתה אמאי לא צניעת באיסורא הך איתתא עשרה בני אית לה ולית לי מאבוך אלא חד כי שכיב אמר להו כל נכסי לחד ברא,לא ידעי להי מינייהו אתו לקמיה דרבי בנאה אמר להו זילו חבוטו קברא דאבוכון עד דקאי ומגלי לכו להי מינייכו שבקא אזלו כולהו ההוא דבריה הוה לא אזל אמר להו כולהו נכסי דהאי אזלו אכלו קורצא בי מלכא אמרי איכא גברא חד ביהודאי דקא מפיק ממונא מאנשי בלא סהדי ובלא מידי אתיוהו חבשוהו,אזלא דביתהו אמרה להו עבדא חד הוה לי פסקו לרישיה ופשטו למשכיה ואכלו בישריה וקא מלו ביה מיא ומשקו ביה לחברייא ולא קא יהבי לי דמי ולא אגריה,לא ידעי מאי קא אמרה להו אמרי ניתו לחכימא דיהודאי ולימא קריוהו לר' בנאה אמר להו זרנוקא אמרה לכו אמרי הואיל וחכים כולי האי ליתיב אבבא ונידון דינא,חזא דהוה כתיב באבולא כל דיין דמתקרי לדין לא שמיה דיין אמר להו אלא מעתה אתא איניש מעלמא 58a. bto a bonfire,where the fire is in the center band pots surround it.Similarly, the table of an ignoramus is arranged with the food in the center and is surrounded by plates.,Rabbi Yoḥa asked: bHowshould bthe bed of Torah scholarsbe kept? He replied: It is acceptable bas long as thereis bnothing except sandals beneath it during the summer, and shoesbeneath it bduring the rainy season,i.e., winter. bAndthe bed bof an ignoramusis bsimilar to a cluttered [ ibalus /i] storehouse,as he keeps a wide array of items beneath it.,§ Having mentioned Rabbi Bena’a, the Gemara relates an incident in which he was involved. bRabbi Bena’a was markingburial bcavesfor the purpose of helping to prevent the contracting of ritual impurity. bWhen he arrived at the cave of Abraham,i.e., the Cave of Machpelah, bhe encountered Eliezer,the bservantof bAbraham, who was standing before the entrance.Rabbi Bena’a bsaid to him: What is Abraham doingat this moment? Eliezer bsaid to him:He is blying in the arms of Sarah, and she is examining his head. /b,Rabbi Bena’a bsaid to him: Go tell himthat bBena’a is standing at the entrance,so that he should assume an appropriate position to receive a visitor. Eliezer bsaid to him: Lethim, i.e., Rabbi Bena’a, benter,since bit is known that there is noevil binclination in thishigher bworld,so it is not inappropriate for Rabbi Bena’a to see Abraham and Sarah in this position. He bentered, examinedthe cave in order to measure it, band exited. /b, bWhen he arrived at the cave of Adam the firstman, who is buried in the same area, ba Divine Voice emerged and said: You gazed upon the likeness of My image,i.e., Abraham, who is similar to the image of Adam the first man. bDo not gaze upon My image itself,i.e., Adam the first man, about whom the verse states that he was formed in the image of God (see Genesis 1:27). Rabbi Bena’a said: bBut I need to mark the cave.The voice said to him: bAsthe measurements of the bdimensions of the outercave where Abraham is buried, bsoare the measurements of the bdimensions of the innercave, where Adam is buried. The Gemara notes: bAnd according to the one who saysthat the Cave of Machpelah consists of btwo chambers, thisone babove thatone, not two adjacent chambers, the voice said: bAsthe measurements of the bdimensions of the uppercave where Abraham is buried, bsoare the measurements of the bdimensions of the lowercave. Therefore, there is no need to measure it., bRabbi Bena’a says: I gazed at his,Adam’s, btwo heels, andthey shone so brightly that bthey are similar to two suns.Along these lines, the Gemara states that ballpeople bcompared to Sarahare blike a monkey compared to a human,as Sarah was exceedingly beautiful; bSarah compared to Eveis blike a monkey compared to a human; Eve compared to Adamis blike a monkey compared to a human;and bAdam compared to the Divine Presenceis blike a monkey compared to a human. /b,It was also stated that bthe beauty of Rav Kahana is a semblance of the beauty of Rav. The beauty of Rav is a semblance of the beauty of Rabbi Abbahu. The beauty of Rabbi Abbahu is a semblance of the beauty of Jacob our forefather. The beauty of Jacob our forefather is a semblance of the beauty of Adam the firstman.,On the topic of burial caves, the Gemara relates that there was ba certain magus [ iamgusha /i] who was rummagingthrough the graves of the bdead. Whenhe barrived at theburial bcave of Rav Tovi bar Mattana,Rav Tovi bgrabbed him by his beardand would not release him. bAbaye came and said toRav Tovi: bI beg of youto brelease him.The magus bcame again in another year,and Rav Tovi bgrabbed him by his beard. Abaye cameand requested that he release him, but Rav Tovi bdid not release him, untilAbaye bbrought a scissors and cut his beard. /b,§ The Gemara relates additional incidents involving Rabbi Bena’a: There was ba certainindividual bwho said tohis family before he died: bA barrel of earth to one of my sons, a barrel of bones to one of my sons,and ba barrel of wadsof wool bto one of my sons. They did not know what he was saying to them. They came before Rabbi Bena’afor guidance. Rabbi Bena’a bsaid to them: Do you have landthat your father left as an inheritance? bThey said to him: Yes.He asked: bDo you have livestockthat your father left as an inheritance? They said: bYes.He asked: bDo you have quilts [ ibistarkei /i]that your father left as an inheritance? They said: bYes.He said to them: bIf so, this is what he said to you,i.e., he meant that he is bequeathing land to one son, livestock to the second, and quilts to the third.,There was ba certain man who heard his wife saying to her daughter: Why do you not act clandestinelywhen you engage bin forbiddensexual intercourse? bThat woman has,i.e., I have, bten sons, and I have only one from your father,and no one knows. So too, you must be careful so that no one will discover your illicit behavior. Having overheard that only one son was his, bwhenthat man bwas dying he said tohis family: bAll of my propertyis left bto one son. /b, bThey did not knowto bwhich of themhe intended to leave his property. bThey came before Rabbi Bena’afor guidance, and bhe said tothe sons: bGo strike your father’s grave, until he rises and reveals to you to which of you he lefthis property. bThey all went,but bthatone bwho was his son did not go.Rabbi Bena’a bsaid to them: All ofthe bproperty belongs to thisson who did not go. The other brothers were angry. bThey went and slandered [ iakhlu kuretza /i]Rabbi Bena’a in bthe king’s house. They said: There is one man among the Jews who removes money from people without witnesses and without anyevidence. The king’s guards bbroughtRabbi Bena’a band imprisoned him. /b, bThe wife ofRabbi Bena’a bwentand bsaid tothe guards: bI had one servant. They cut off his head, and skinned him and ate his flesh, and they fill him with water andgive their bfriends to drink from him, and they have not paid mehis bvalue nor have they rented him. /b, bThey did not know what she was saying to them. They said: Let us bring the wiseman bof the Jews, and let him saywhat she meant. bThey called Rabbi Bena’a,and bhe said to them: She spoke to you of a water skin [ izarnuka /i].In other words, she was referring to a goat she owned that was slaughtered, its meat eaten, and its skin made into a water skin that could be filled with drinking water. bThey said: Sincehe is bso wise, lethim bsit at the gatewhere the judges congregate band render judgment. /b,Rabbi Bena’a bsaw that it was written upon the gate [ ibe’abbula /i]: Any judge who is summoned to judgment is not considered a judge,as judges must be above reproach. bHe said to them: If that is so,then if ba person comes from elsewhere /b
42. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

91b. הנה הוא זורה את גורן השעורים,רבי אבהו אמר מהכא (בראשית כב, ג) וישכם אברהם בבקר ויחבוש את וגו',ורבנן אמרי מהכא (בראשית לז, יד) לך נא ראה את שלום אחיך ואת שלום וגו',רב אמר מהכא (בראשית לב, לב) ויזרח לו השמש,אמר ר' עקיבא שאלתי את רבן גמליאל ואת רבי יהושע באיטליז של אימאום שהלכו ליקח בהמה למשתה בנו של רבן גמליאל כתיב ויזרח לו השמש וכי שמש לו לבד זרחה והלא לכל העולם זרחה,אמר ר' יצחק שמש הבאה בעבורו זרחה בעבורו דכתיב (בראשית כח, י) ויצא יעקב מבאר שבע וילך חרנה וכתיב ויפגע במקום כי מטא לחרן אמר אפשר עברתי על מקום שהתפללו אבותי ואני לא התפללתי כד יהיב דעתיה למיהדר קפצה ליה ארעא מיד ויפגע במקום,כד צלי בעי למיהדר אמר הקב"ה צדיק זה בא לבית מלוני ויפטר בלא לינה מיד בא השמש,כתיב (בראשית כח, יא) ויקח מאבני המקום וכתיב ויקח את האבן אמר רבי יצחק מלמד שנתקבצו כל אותן אבנים למקום אחד וכל אחת ואחת אומרת עלי יניח צדיק זה ראשו תנא וכולן נבלעו באחד,(בראשית כח, יב) ויחלום והנה סולם מוצב ארצה תנא כמה רחבו של סולם שמונת אלפים פרסאות דכתיב (בראשית כח, יב) והנה מלאכי אלהים עולים ויורדים בו עולים שנים ויורדים שנים וכי פגעו בהדי הדדי הוו להו ארבעה,וכתיב ביה במלאך (דניאל י, ו) וגויתו כתרשיש וגמירי דתרשיש תרי אלפי פרסי הוו,תנא עולין ומסתכלין בדיוקנו של מעלה ויורדין ומסתכלין בדיוקנו של מטה בעו לסכוניה מיד (בראשית כח, יג) והנה ה' נצב עליו אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש אלמלא מקרא כתוב אי אפשר לאמרו כאדם שמניף על בנו,(בראשית כח, יג) הארץ אשר אתה שוכב עליה וגו' מאי רבותיה אמר רבי יצחק מלמד שקפלה הקב"ה לכל ארץ ישראל והניחה תחת יעקב אבינו שתהא נוחה ליכבש לבניו,(בראשית כח, א) ויאמר שלחני כי עלה השחר אמר לו גנב אתה או קוביוסטוס אתה שמתיירא מן השחר אמר לו מלאך אני ומיום שנבראתי לא הגיע זמני לומר שירה עד עכשיו,מסייע ליה לרב חננאל אמר רב דאמר רב חננאל אמר רב שלש כתות של מלאכי השרת אומרות שירה בכל יום אחת אומרת קדוש ואחת אומרת קדוש ואחת אומרת קדוש ה' צבאות,מיתיבי חביבין ישראל לפני הקב"ה יותר ממלאכי השרת שישראל אומרים שירה בכל שעה ומלאכי השרת אין אומרים שירה אלא פעם אחת ביום ואמרי לה פעם אחת בשבת ואמרי לה פעם אחת בחודש ואמרי לה פעם אחת בשנה ואמרי לה פעם אחת בשבוע ואמרי לה פעם אחת ביובל ואמרי לה פעם אחת בעולם,וישראל מזכירין את השם אחר שתי תיבות שנאמר (דברים ו, ד) שמע ישראל ה' וגו' ומלאכי השרת אין מזכירין את השם אלא לאחר ג' תיבות כדכתיב (ישעיהו ו, ג) קדוש קדוש קדוש ה' צבאות,ואין מה"ש אומרים שירה למעלה עד שיאמרו ישראל למטה שנאמר (איוב לח, ז) ברן יחד כוכבי בקר והדר ויריעו כל בני אלהים,אלא אחת אומרת קדוש ואחת אומרת קדוש קדוש ואחת אומרת קדוש קדוש קדוש ה' צבאות והאיכא ברוך 91b. “And now is there not Boaz our kinsman, whose maidens you were with? bBehold, he winnows barley tonight in the threshing floor /b…and it shall be, when he lies down, that you shall mark the place where he shall lie” (Ruth 3:2–3). This teaches that the reason Boaz did not return home from the threshing floor was that a Torah scholar should not go out alone at night., bRabbi Abbahu saidthat the source is bfrom here: “And Abraham rose early in the morning, and saddledhis donkey, and took two of his young men with him and Isaac his son; and he split the wood for the burnt offering, and rose up, and went to the place that God had told him” (Genesis 22:3). The fact that Abraham waited until morning and did not set off at night, even though others were traveling with him, indicates that a Torah scholar should not go out at night at all, and certainly not alone., bAnd the Rabbis saythat the source is bfrom here,the verse that describes when Jacob sent Joseph to his brothers: “And he said to him: bGo now, see whether it is well with you brothers and wellwith the flock; and bring me back word. So he sent him out of the valley of Hebron, and he came to Shechem” (Genesis 37:14). The verse indicates that Jacob sent Joseph at a time when he could see his brothers, i.e., during the day. This shows that a Torah scholar should not go out alone at night., bRav saidthat the source is bfrom here: “And the sun rose for himas he passed over Peniel, and he limped upon his thigh” (Genesis 32:32). This indicates that Jacob remained where he was all night and left in the morning, because a Torah scholar should not go out alone at night.,The Gemara cites an incident involving the final verse cited above. bRabbi Akiva says: I askedthe following question of bRabban Gamliel and Rabbi Yehoshua in the meat market [ ibe’itliz /i] ofthe town bEmmaus, where they went to purchase an animal for thewedding bfeast of Rabban Gamliel’s son: It is writtenin the verse: b“And the sun shone for himwhen he passed Peniel, and he limped upon his thigh” (Genesis 32:32). bBut did the sun shine only for him? Didn’t it shine for the entire world? /b, bRabbi Yitzḥak says:The verse means that bthe sun, which setearly exclusively bfor him,also bshoneearly exclusively bfor himin order to rectify the disparity created by the premature sunset. The Gemara explains when the sun set early for him: bAs it is written: “And Jacob went out from Beersheba and went toward Haran”(Genesis 28:10). bAnd it is writtenthereafter: b“And he encountered the place,and he slept there, because the sun had set” (Genesis 28:11). bWhenJacob barrived at Haran, he said:Is it bpossiblethat bI passed a place where my fathers prayed and I did not praythere? bWhen he set his mind to return, the land contracted for him. Immediatelythe verse states: b“And he encountered the place,”indicating that he arrived there miraculously., bWhen hehad finished bprayingand bhe wanted to returnto Haran, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: This righteous man came to my lodging place and he will depart without remaining overnight? Immediately, the sun setbefore its proper time so that Jacob would stay overnight in that place.,The Gemara cites another exposition of Rabbi Yitzḥak to explain an apparent contradiction between two verses pertaining to this incident. bIt is written: “And he took of the stones of the place,and placed them under his head, and lay down in that place to sleep” (Genesis 28:11). bAnd it is written:“And Jacob rose up early in the morning, band he took the stonethat he had placed under his head, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it” (Genesis 28:18). The first verse indicates that Jacob took several stones, whereas the latter verse indicates that he took only one stone. bRabbi Yitzḥak says:This bteaches that all those stones gathered to one place and each one said:Let bthis righteous man place his head upon me.And it was btaught: And all of them were absorbed into onelarge rock.,The Gemara expounds other verses pertaining to the same incident. The verse states: b“And he dreamed, and behold a ladder set up on the earth,and the top of it reached to heaven; and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it” (Genesis 28:12). It was btaught: How wide was the ladder?It was beight thousand parasangs [ iparsaot /i], as it is written: “And behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it.”The word b“ascending [ iolim /i],”written in plural, indicates that there were btwoangels ascending simultaneously. Likewise, the term b“and descending [ iveyordim /i],”also in the plural, indicates that btwoangels were descending simultaneously. bAnd when they met one another they werea total of bfourin one place, so the ladder must have been wide enough to accommodate four angels., bAnd it is writtenin a verse bwith regard to an angel: “His body was like Tarshish”(Daniel 10:6). bAndit bis learnedas a tradition bthatthe city of bTarshish was two thousand parasangs.Consequently, in order to accommodate four angels, the ladder must have been eight thousands parasangs wide.,It was btaughtthat the angels were bascending and gazing at the image of [ ibidyokeno /i]Jacob babove,engraved on the Throne of Glory, band descending and gazing at his image below.The angels subsequently became jealous of Jacob, and bwanted to endangerhis life. bImmediatelyJacob received divine protection, as the verse states: b“And behold, the Lord stood over him”(Genesis 28:13). bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: Were it not writtenin a bverse it would be impossible to utter it,in deference to God, since it describes God as standing over Jacob to protect him from the angels blike a man who wavesa fan bover his sonto cool him down.,The Gemara explains another verse from Jacob’s dream. “And behold, the Lord stood over him and said: I am the Lord, the God of Abraham your father and the God of Isaac. bThe land upon which you lie,to you will I give it, and to your seed” (Genesis 28:13). The Gemara asks: bWhat is the greatnessof this promise, i.e., why is it expressed in this way despite the fact that in a literal sense Jacob was lying on a very small amount of land? bRabbi Yitzḥak says:This bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, foldedup bthe entirety of Eretz Yisrael and placed it under Jacob, our patriarch, so that it would be easy for his children to conquer. /b,The Gemara returns to the verses that describe Jacob wrestling with the angel. b“And he said: Let me go, for the dawn has risen.And he said: I will not let you go until you bless me” (Genesis 32:27). Jacob bsaid tothe angel: bAre you a thief, or are you a gambler [ ikuveyustus /i], who is afraid of dawn?The angel bsaid to him: I am an angel, and from the day I was created my time to recite a songbefore God bhas not arrived, until now.Now I must ascend so that I can sing songs of praise to God.,The Gemara comments: This bsupportsthe opinion bof Rav Ḥaelwhen he related what bRav said. As Rav Ḥael saidthat bRav said: Three groups of ministering angels recite a song every dayfrom the verse “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord”; bone says: “Holy,” andanother bone says: “Holy,” andanother bone says: “Holy is the Lord of hosts;the whole earth is full of His glory” (Isaiah 6:3).,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom the following ibaraita /i: bThe Jewish people are more dear to the Holy One, Blessed be He, than the ministering angels, as the Jewish peoplemay brecite a songof praise to God bat any time, but ministering angels recite a songof praise bonly one time per day. And some saythat the ministering angels recite a song of praise bone time per week. And some saythat they recite a song of praise bone time per month. And some saythat they recite a song of praise bone time per year. And some saythat they recite a song of praise bone time inevery bseven years. And some saythat they recite a song of praise bone time per Jubilee. And some saythat they recite a song of praise bone time inthe entire history of bthe world. /b, bAndfurthermore, bthe Jewish people mention the nameof God bafter two words, as it is stated: “Hear, Israel: The Lordour God, the Lord is one” (Deuteronomy 6:4). bBut the ministering angels mention the nameof God bonly after three words, as it is written:“And one called unto another, and said: b“Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts;the whole earth is full of His glory” (Isaiah 6:3)., bAnd the ministering angels do not recitetheir bsong above until the Jewish people recitetheir song bbelow,on earth, bas it is stated: “When the morning stars sang together”(Job 38:7), referring to the Jewish people, who are compared to stars; bandonly bthendoes the verse state: b“And all the sons of God shouted for joy,”which is a reference to the angels. This ibaraitateaches that the angels mention the name of God only after three words, i.e., after saying the word “holy” three times, whereas according to what Rav Ḥael stated that Rav said, the third group of angels says the word “holy” once and then immediately mentions the name of God.,The Gemara emends Rav Ḥael’s statement citing Rav: bRather,Rav said that bonegroup of ministering angels bsays: “Holy,” andanother bone says: “Holy, holy,” andanother bone says: “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts.”The Gemara challenges the statement of the ibaraitathat the angels mention the name of God only after three words: bBut there isthe verse: “Then a spirit lifted me up, and I heard behind me the voice of a great rushing: bBlessed bethe glory of the Lord from His place” (Ezekiel 3:12). In this praise, “Blessed be the glory of the Lord,” the word “Lord” appears as the third Hebrew word, apparently uttered by the ministering angels.
43. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

5a. ותניא ר' יוסי אומר מעולם לא ירדה שכינה למטה ולא עלו משה ואליהו למרום שנאמר (תהלים קטו, טז) השמים שמים לה' והארץ נתן לבני אדם,ולא ירדה שכינה למטה והכתיב (שמות יט, כ) וירד ה' על הר סיני למעלה מעשרה טפחים והכתיב (זכריה יד, ד) ועמדו רגליו ביום ההוא על הר הזיתים למעלה מעשרה טפחים,ולא עלו משה ואליהו למרום והכתיב (שמות יט, ג) ומשה עלה אל האלהים למטה מעשרה והכתיב (מלכים ב ב, יא) ויעל אליהו בסערה השמים למטה מעשרה והכתיב (איוב כו, ט) מאחז פני כסא פרשז עליו עננו ואמר ר' תנחום מלמד שפירש שדי מזיו שכינתו ועננו עליו למטה מעשרה,מכל מקום מאחז פני כסא כתיב אישתרבובי אישתרבב ליה כסא עד עשרה ונקט ביה,בשלמא ארון תשעה דכתיב (שמות כה, י) ועשו ארון עצי שטים אמתים וחצי ארכו ואמה וחצי רחבו ואמה וחצי קומתו אלא כפורת טפח מנלן דתני רבי חנינא כל הכלים שעשה משה נתנה בהן תורה מדת ארכן ומדת רחבן ומדת קומתן כפורת מדת ארכה ומדת רחבה נתנה מדת קומתה לא נתנה,צא ולמד מפחות שבכלים שנאמר (שמות כה, כה) ועשית לו מסגרת טפח סביב מה להלן טפח אף כאן טפח ונילף מכלים גופייהו תפשת מרובה לא תפשת תפשת מועט תפשת,ונילף מציץ דתניא ציץ דומה כמין טס של זהב ורחב ב' אצבעות ומוקף מאזן לאזן וכתוב עליו ב' שיטין יו"ד ה"א מלמעלה וקדש למ"ד מלמטה וא"ר אליעזר בר' יוסי אני ראיתיו ברומי וכתוב עליו קדש לה' בשיטה אחת,דנין כלי מכלי ואין דנין כלי מתכשיט,ונילף מזר דאמר מר זר משהו דנין כלי מכלי ואין דנין כלי מהכשר כלי אי הכי מסגרת נמי הכשר כלי הוא מסגרתו למטה היתה,הניחא למאן דאמר מסגרתו למטה היתה אלא למאן דאמר מסגרתו למעלה היתה מאי איכא למימר האי הכשר כלי הוא,אלא דנין דבר שנתנה בו תורה מדה מדבר שנתנה בו תורה מדה ואל יוכיחו ציץ וזר שלא נתנה בהן תורה מדה כלל,רב הונא אמר מהכא (ויקרא טז, יד) על פני הכפורת קדמה ואין פנים פחות מטפח,ואימא כאפי 5a. band it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei says: The Divine Presence neveractually bdescended below, and Moses and Elijah neveractually bascended toheaven bon high, as it is stated: “The heavens are the heavens of the Lord, and the earth He gave to the children of man”(Psalms 115:16), indicating that these are two distinct domains. Apparently, from ten handbreadths upward is considered a separate domain. Consequently, any isukkathat is not at least ten handbreadths high is not considered an independent domain and is unfit.,The Gemara asks: bAnd did the Divine Presence never descend belowten handbreadths? bBut isn’t it written: “And God descended onto Mount Sinai”(Exodus 19:20)? brThe Gemara answers: Although God descended below, He always remained bten handbreadths abovethe ground. Since from ten handbreadths and above it is a separate domain, in fact, the Divine Presence never descended to the domain of this world. brThe Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it written: “And on that day His feet will stand on the Mount of Olives”(Zechariah 14:4)? The Gemara answers: Here, too, He will remain bten handbreadths abovethe ground.,The Gemara asks: bAnd did Moses and Elijah never ascend tothe heavens bon high? But isn’t it written: “And Moses went up to God”(Exodus 19:3)? brThe Gemara answers: Nevertheless, he remained bbelow tenhandbreadths adjacent to the ground. brThe Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it written: “And Elijah went up by a whirlwind heavenward”(II Kings 2:11)? brThe Gemara answers: Here, too, it was bbelow tenhandbreadths. brThe Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it written: “He grasps the face of the throne, and spreads His cloud upon him”(Job 26:9)? bAnd Rabbi Tanḥum said:This bteaches that the Almighty spread of the radiance of His Divine Presence and of His cloud upon him.Apparently, Moses was in the cloud with God. brThe Gemara answers: Here, too, it was bbelow tenhandbreadths.,The Gemara asks: bIn any case: “He grasps the face of the throne,” is written,indicating that Moses took hold of the Throne of Glory. The Gemara rejects this: bThe throne was extended for him down to tenhandbreadths bandMoses bgrasped it;however, he remained below ten handbreadths. And since the Divine Presence speaks to Moses from above the Ark cover ten handbreadths above the ground, clearly a height of ten handbreadths is a distinct domain.,The Gemara wonders about the proof offered: bGranted,the height of the bArkwas bninehandbreadths, bas it is written: “And they shall make an Ark of acacia wood; two cubits and a half shall be its length, and a cubit and a half its breadth, and a cubit and a half its height”(Exodus 25:10), and one and a half cubits equal nine handbreadths. bHowever, from where do wederive the fact that the thickness of the bArk coverwas one bhandbreadth?The Torah never states its dimensions explicitly, bas Rabbi Ḥanina taught:For ball the vessels that Moses craftedfor the Tabernacle, bthe Torah providedin btheirregard bthe dimension of their length, the dimension of their width, and the dimension of their height.However, for the bArk cover,the Torah bprovided the dimension of its length and the dimension of its width;but the Torah bdid not provide the dimension of its height. /b,The Gemara answers: bGo out and learn from the smallestdimension mentioned in connection with any bof theTabernacle bvessels, as it is statedwith regard to the shewbread table: b“And you shall make unto it a border of a handbreadth around”(Exodus 25:25). bJust as there,the frame measures one bhandbreadth, so too, here,the thickness of the Ark cover measures a single bhandbreadth.The Gemara asks: bAnd let us derivethe thickness of the Ark cover bfromthe bvessels themselves,the smallest of which measures a cubit. The Gemara answers: bIf you grasped many, you did not grasp anything; if you grasped few, you grasped something.If there are two possible sources from which to derive the dimension of the Ark cover, then without conclusive proof one may not presume that the Torah intended to teach the larger dimension. Rather, the presumption is that the Torah is teaching the smaller dimension, which is included in the larger measure.,The Gemara asks: If so, blet us derivethe thickness of the Ark cover bfrom the frontplate,which is even smaller than a handbreadth, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: The bfrontplate is a type of platemade bof gold that is two fingerbreadths wide and stretches from ear to ear. And written upon it are two lines:The letters iyod /i, iheh /i, ivav /i, iheh /i, the name of God, babove;and the word ikodesh /i,spelled ikuf /i, idalet /i, ishin /i, followed by the letter ilamed /i, below.Together it spelled ikodesh laHashem /i, meaning: Sacred to the Lord, with iyod /i, iheh /i, ivav /i, ihehwritten on the upper line in deference to the name of God. bRabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, said: I sawthe frontplate in the emperor’s treasury bin Rome,where it was taken together with the other Temple vessels when the Temple was destroyed, band upon it was written: Sacred to the Lord, on one line.Why not derive the thickness of the Ark cover from the frontplate and say that it was only two fingerbreadths?,The Gemara answers: bOne derivesthe dimension of ba vessel fromthe dimension of ba vessel, and one does not derivethe dimension of ba vessel fromthe dimension of ban ornament.The frontplate is not one of the Tabernacle vessels but one of the ornaments of the High Priest.,The Gemara suggests: bLet us derivethe thickness of the Ark cover bfrom the crownfeatured atop several of the Tabernacle vessels, bas the Master said:This bcrown,with regard to which the Torah did not specify its dimensions, could be bany size.The Gemara answers: bOne derivesthe dimension of ba vessel fromthe dimension of ba vessel, and one does not derivethe dimension of ba vessel fromthe dimension of the bfinish of a vesselthat serves decorative purposes. The Gemara asks: bIfit is bsothat one does not derive the dimensions of a vessel from the dimensions of the finish of a vessel, then how can dimensions be derived from bthe borderof the table, which bis alsothe bfinish of a vesseland not an integral part of the table? The Gemara answers: The bborderof the table bwas below,between the legs of the table, and the tabletop rested upon it. As it supports the table, it is an integral part of the table and not merely decoration.,The Gemara asks: bThisworks out bwell according to the one who saidthat bits border was belowthe tabletop; bhowever, according to the one who saidthat bits border was abovethe tabletop, bwhat can be said?According to that opinion, bthisborder bisindeed the bfinish of a vessel. /b, bRather,the thickness of the Ark cover must be derived from a different source. bOne derivesthe missing dimensions of ban object for which the Torah providedpart of its bdimension,e.g., the Ark cover, for which the Torah provided the dimensions of length and width, bfrom an object for which the Torah providedits bdimension,e.g., the border of the table. bAnd the frontplate and the crown, for which the Torah did not provide any dimension at all,and their dimensions were determined by the Sages, bwill not proveanything. It is certainly appropriate to derive the dimension of the thickness of the Ark cover from that which was stated clearly in the Torah., bRav Huna saidthat the thickness of the Ark cover is derived bfrom here: “Upon the face of [ ipenei /i] the Ark cover on the east”(Leviticus 16:14), band there is no face [ ipanim /i]of a person that measures bless thanone bhandbreadth. /b,The Gemara asks: And why say that the face in the verse is specifically the face of a person? bSaythat the Ark cover is blike the face /b
44. Origen, Against Celsus, 4.4 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.4. The argument which Celsus employs against us and the Jews will be turned against himself thus: My good sir, does the God who is over all things know what takes place among men, or does He not know? Now if you admit the existence of a God and of providence, as your treatise indicates, He must of necessity know. And if He does know, why does He not make (men) better? Is it obligatory, then, on us to defend God's procedure in not making men better, although He knows their state, but not equally binding on you, who do not distinctly show by your treatise that you are an Epicurean, but pretend to recognise a providence, to explain why God, although knowing all that takes place among men, does not make them better, nor by divine power liberate all men from evil? We are not ashamed, however, to say that God is constantly sending (instructors) in order to make men better; for there are to be found among men reasons given by God which exhort them to enter on a better life. But there are many diversities among those who serve God, and they are few in number who are perfect and pure ambassadors of the truth, and who produce a complete reformation, as did Moses and the prophets. But above all these, great was the reformation effected by Jesus, who desired to heal not only those who lived in one corner of the world, but as far as in Him lay, men in every country, for He came as the Saviour of all men.
45. Anon., 4 Ezra, 7.28-7.29, 8.21, 13.32, 13.37, 13.52

7.28. For my son the Messiah shall be revealed with those who are with him, and those who remain shall rejoice four hundred years. 7.29. And after these years my son the Messiah shall die, and all who draw human breath. 8.21. whose throne is beyond measure and whose glory is beyond comprehension, before whom the hosts of angels stand trembling 13.32. And when these things come to pass and the signs occur which I showed you before, then my Son will be revealed, whom you saw as a man coming up from the sea. 13.37. And he, my Son, will reprove the assembled nations for their ungodliness (this was symbolized by the storm) 13.52. He said to me, "Just as no one can explore or know what is in the depths of the sea, so no one on earth can see my Son or those who are with him, except in the time of his day.
46. Anon., Ascension of Isaiah, 11.1-11.11



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abbahu Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 102
abraham DeJong (2022), A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession, 314; Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 141
acts of the apostles Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 57, 126
adoption metaphor and ebionites Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 146
adoption metaphor in pauline epistles Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 146
angel Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 203
angels Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 57, 126, 128, 131
apocalyptic Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 102
appropriation Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 102
archangel,interpreters,as Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 170
ascend,ascension,ascent Werline et al. (2008), Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity, 110
ascension Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 102
ascent to heaven Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 57, 126, 128, 131
augustus worship of Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 141, 144, 145, 146
baptism,filial identity Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 555
baptism,forgiveness of sins Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 555
baptism,paul Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 555
baptism of jesus in gospel of john Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 146
baptism of jesus in pauline epistles Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 146
baptism of jesus uniting christ with christians in Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 146
baptism uniting christ with christians in Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 146
begotten metaphor and john's master-metaphor of divine sonship" Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 141, 144, 145
ben sira Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 399
bible Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 102
binitarian Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 219
body,views of Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 132
caesarea Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 102
children Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 57
christian Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 102
christianity and hermetism Bull, Lied and Turner (2011), Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty, 232, 235
city Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 102
colossians,letter to Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 131
community Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 102
concealment Bull, Lied and Turner (2011), Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty, 227
conception and birth,genealogy Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 141
cosmology Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 219
creation,creator Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 131
creation,of the world Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 399
creator,creation Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 219
cross Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 128
death Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 102
death of christ Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 57
delimitation Osborne (2010), Clement of Alexandria, 128
delphi Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 399
disciple Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 399
divine sonship and women Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 145
divine sonship baptism central to Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 146
divine sonship begotten metaphors for Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 22, 141
divine sonship john's master-metaphor of begotten" Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 141, 144, 145
divine sonship mixed metaphors for Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 145, 146
divine sonship of jesus adoptive metaphors for Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 146
divine sonship of jesus as unique Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 22, 144, 145
divine sonship of jesus begotten metaphors for Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 141, 144
divine sonship of jesus eschatological power of Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 22, 144, 145
divine sonship of jesus mixed metaphors for Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 145, 146
divine sonship of jesus uniting christ with christians through Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 145, 146
divine sonship uniting with christ Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 145, 146
dreams Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 399
ecclesiasticus Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 57
elchesai Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 57
elijah Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 102
enoch Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 102
enoch xviii,xix Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 57, 128
eschatology Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 131
evil Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 256
ezekiel Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 102
faith and knowledge Bull, Lied and Turner (2011), Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty, 227
father Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 219
fear (negatively marked) Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 213, 256, 257
feast of taberoacles Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 399
ferguson,e. Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 555
from cave Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 57
god,secrets/mysteries of Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 399
gospels,new testament Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 57, 126, 128, 131
grace Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 209, 210, 213, 256, 257
heaven Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 203; Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 102
hiddenness Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 126
history-of-religion method bousset's analysis" Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 22
history-of-religion method dunn's analysis" Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 22
hope Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 257
human/humankind Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 399
identity Osborne (2010), Clement of Alexandria, 128
inspiration Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 399
instruction Bull, Lied and Turner (2011), Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty, 227, 232, 235
intermediary theology Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 126
isaiah,book of Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 131
jacob Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 128, 131
jesus,as prophet like moses DeJong (2022), A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession, 314
jesus,exaltation of deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 205
jesus christ,in the fourth gospel Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 399
jew/jewish,literature/ authors Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 399
jews Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 102
johannine Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 203, 219
john,fourth gospel' "151.0_399.0@law,god's" Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 399
john,gospel of Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 57, 126, 128, 131
john Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 102
judaism and christianity Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 132
jude,letter of Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 57
knowledge,divine Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 209, 210
knowledge Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 131
lectionary manuscripts Doble and Kloha (2014), Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott, 370
literature Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 399
logos of god Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 399
logos theology DeJong (2022), A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession, 314
luke,gospel of Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 57
martha,at raising of lazarus Ernst (2009), Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition, 33
martha canonical,confession of Ernst (2009), Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition, 33
mary Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 145
merkava xiii–xvi,xix Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 128
messiah Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 203
messianism,messianic Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 203
mixed metaphors in early christianity Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 145, 146
modern scholarship on divine sonship history-of-religion analyses Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 22
modern scholarship on divine sonship platonic frameworks for Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 22
monogenes\u2003 Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 219
monotheism Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 219
moses,as paradigm of trust Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 213
moses Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 102; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 57
mystery Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 57, 131
name Bull, Lied and Turner (2011), Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty, 227
nestle-aland (nt) Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 144
nicodemus Ernst (2009), Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition, 33; Hellholm et al. (2010), Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity, 722; Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 22, 141, 144
oligopistos Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 213
paraclete Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 399
paradise Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 102
passion Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 399
paul,baptismal theology Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 555
pauline epistles adoption metaphors in Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 146
pauline epistles baptism central to Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 146
pauline epistles family lineage of jesus Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 141
pauline epistles primitive christology of Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 146
perseverance Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 256, 257
philo judaeus Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 399
philosophy Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 219
pistos ho logos (the saying is trustworthy) Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 210
platonism Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 219
prayer of joseph Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 128
pre-election Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 257
pre-existence Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 126
promises of god Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 213
prophecy,of jesus,relation to pistis Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 210
q source Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 22
rabbi Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 102
rebirth Bull, Lied and Turner (2011), Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty, 232, 235
reliability Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 210
religionsgeschichtliche schule bousset's analysis" Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 22
resurrection,ancient views of Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 132
resurrection,uniting christ with christians Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 145
resurrection Werline et al. (2008), Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity, 110
revelation,the apocalypse of jesus christ Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 126, 128, 131
revelation Bull, Lied and Turner (2011), Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty, 235
rhetoric and trust Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 210
rhetorical devices Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 132
salvation Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 370
scepticism Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 213, 257
scripture DeJong (2022), A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession, 314
scriptures,interpretation of,as basis for pistis Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 209, 210, 213
scriptures,jewish,as source of new testament ideas about pistis Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 213
seckler,max Edmunds (2021), Greek Myth, 74
secrecy Bull, Lied and Turner (2011), Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty, 225; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 57, 128
see also raising of lazarus,martha in Ernst (2009), Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition, 33
seeing Werline et al. (2008), Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity, 110
social status Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 132
son Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 370
son of man' Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 22
son of man,sons of men Werline et al. (2008), Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity, 110
soteriology Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 57
spirit,characterizations as,breath (life itself) Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 399
spirit,characterizations as,truth Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 399
spirit,effects of,knowledge/understanding Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 399
spirit,modes of presence,guiding Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 399
spirit,modes of presence,indwelling Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 399
spirit,modes of presence,receiving of Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 399
spirit Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 370
subordination Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 219
substance Osborne (2010), Clement of Alexandria, 128
synaxarion readings Doble and Kloha (2014), Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott, 370
targumim Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 126, 128
teaching,relation to trust Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 209, 210
textual variants deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 205
throne,enthroned Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 126, 131
tomb Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 170
transfiguration Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 370
trust,growth in Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 209, 213
uncreated Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 219
virgin birth Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 370
vision Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 126, 128, 131
vision of christ Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 126
vocation Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 399
voice,divine Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 399
voice Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 102
wisdom Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 219; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 131
witness,as basis of belief or trust Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 256
word/light incarnation Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 144, 145
words,as basis of trust Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 210
zion Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 170