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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8255
New Testament, John, 18.13-18.14


καὶ ἤγαγον πρὸς Ἅνναν πρῶτον· ἦν γὰρ πενθερὸς τοῦ Καιάφα, ὃς ἦν ἀρχιερεὺς τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ ἐκείνου·and led him to Annas first, for he was father-in-law to Caiaphas, who was high priest that year.


ἦν δὲ Καιάφας ὁ συμβουλεύσας τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις ὅτι συμφέρει ἕνα ἄνθρωπον ἀποθανεῖν ὑπὲρ τοῦ λαοῦ.Now it was Caiaphas who advised the Jews that it was expedient that one man should perish for the people.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

22 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 3.13-3.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.13. בֵּאדַיִן נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר בִּרְגַז וַחֲמָה אֲמַר לְהַיְתָיָה לְשַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ בֵּאדַיִן גֻּבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ הֵיתָיוּ קֳדָם מַלְכָּא׃ 3.14. עָנֵה נְבֻכַדְנֶצַּר וְאָמַר לְהוֹן הַצְדָּא שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ לֵאלָהַי לָא אִיתֵיכוֹן פָּלְחִין וּלְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא דִּי הֲקֵימֶת לָא סָגְדִין׃ 3.15. כְּעַן הֵן אִיתֵיכוֹן עֲתִידִין דִּי בְעִדָּנָא דִּי־תִשְׁמְעוּן קָל קַרְנָא מַשְׁרוֹקִיתָא קיתרס [קַתְרוֹס] שַׂבְּכָא פְּסַנְתֵּרִין וְסוּמְפֹּנְיָה וְכֹל זְנֵי זְמָרָא תִּפְּלוּן וְתִסְגְּדוּן לְצַלְמָא דִי־עַבְדֵת וְהֵן לָא תִסְגְּדוּן בַּהּ־שַׁעֲתָה תִתְרְמוֹן לְגוֹא־אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא וּמַן־הוּא אֱלָהּ דֵּי יְשֵׁיזְבִנְכוֹן מִן־יְדָי׃ 3.16. עֲנוֹ שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ וְאָמְרִין לְמַלְכָּא נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר לָא־חַשְׁחִין אֲנַחְנָה עַל־דְּנָה פִּתְגָם לַהֲתָבוּתָךְ׃ 3.17. הֵן אִיתַי אֱלָהַנָא דִּי־אֲנַחְנָא פָלְחִין יָכִל לְשֵׁיזָבוּתַנָא מִן־אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא וּמִן־יְדָךְ מַלְכָּא יְשֵׁיזִב׃ 3.18. וְהֵן לָא יְדִיעַ לֶהֱוֵא־לָךְ מַלְכָּא דִּי לאלהיך [לֵאלָהָךְ] לָא־איתינא [אִיתַנָא] פָלְחִין וּלְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא דִּי הֲקֵימְתָּ לָא נִסְגֻּד׃ 3.13. Then Nebuchadnezzar in his rage and fury commanded to bring Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego. Then were these men brought before the king." 3.14. Nebuchadnezzar spoke and said unto them: ‘Is it true, O Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, that ye serve not my gods, nor worship the golden image which I have set up?" 3.15. Now if ye be ready that at what time ye hear the sound of the horn, pipe, harp, trigon, psaltery, and bagpipe, and all kinds of music, ye fall down and worship the image which I have made, well; but if ye worship not, ye shall be cast the same hour into the midst of a burning fiery furnace; and who is the god that shall deliver you out of my hands?’" 3.16. Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, answered and said to the king: ‘O Nebuchadnezzar, we have no need to answer thee in this matter." 3.17. If our God whom we serve is able to deliver us, He will deliver us from the burning fiery furnace, and out of thy hand, O king." 3.18. But if not, be it known unto thee, O king, that we will not serve thy gods, nor worship the golden image which thou hast set up.’"
2. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 6.21-6.28, 7.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.21. Those who were in charge of that unlawful sacrifice took the man aside, because of their long acquaintance with him, and privately urged him to bring meat of his own providing, proper for him to use, and pretend that he was eating the flesh of the sacrificial meal which had been commanded by the king,' 6.22. o that by doing this he might be saved from death, and be treated kindly on account of his old friendship with them.' 6.23. But making a high resolve, worthy of his years and the dignity of his old age and the gray hairs which he had reached with distinction and his excellent life even from childhood, and moreover according to the holy God-given law, he declared himself quickly, telling them to send him to Hades.' 6.24. Such pretense is not worthy of our time of life, he said, 'lest many of the young should suppose that Eleazar in his ninetieth year has gone over to an alien religion,' 6.25. and through my pretense, for the sake of living a brief moment longer, they should be led astray because of me, while I defile and disgrace my old age.' 6.26. For even if for the present I should avoid the punishment of men, yet whether I live or die I shall not escape the hands of the Almighty.' 6.27. Therefore, by manfully giving up my life now, I will show myself worthy of my old age' 6.28. and leave to the young a noble example of how to die a good death willingly and nobly for the revered and holy laws.'When he had said this, he went at once to the rack.' 7.1. It happened also that seven brothers and their mother were arrested and were being compelled by the king, under torture with whips and cords, to partake of unlawful swine's flesh.'
3. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 5, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 6.19, 6.20, 6.21, 6.22, 6.23, 8.1-9.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 17.78, 18.35, 18.95, 18.123, 19.297, 20.197-20.203, 20.206, 20.223 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

17.78. The high priest’s daughter also, who was the king’s wife, was accused to have been conscious of all this, and had resolved to conceal it; for which reason Herod divorced her, and blotted her son out of his testament, wherein he had been mentioned as one that was to reign after him; and he took the high priesthood away from his father-in-law, Simeon the son of Boethus, and appointed Matthias the son of Theophilus, who was born at Jerusalem, to be high priest in his room. 18.35. and when he had possessed that dignity no longer than a year, Joseph Caiaphas was made his successor. When Gratus had done those things, he went back to Rome, after he had tarried in Judea eleven years, when Pontius Pilate came as his successor. 18.35. Now Asineus was sensible of his brother’s offense, that it had been already the cause of great mischiefs, and would be so for the time to come; yet did he tolerate the same from the good-will he had to so near a relation, and forgiving it to him, on account that his brother was quite overborne by his wicked inclinations. 18.95. but Vitellius put those garments into our own power, as in the days of our forefathers, and ordered the captain of the guard not to trouble himself to inquire where they were laid, or when they were to be used; and this he did as an act of kindness, to oblige the nation to him. Besides which, he also deprived Joseph, who was also called Caiaphas, of the high priesthood, and appointed Jonathan the son of Aus, the former high priest, to succeed him. After which, he took his journey back to Antioch. 18.123. and when he had been there, and been honorably entertained by the multitude of the Jews, he made a stay there for three days, within which time he deprived Jonathan of the high priesthood, and gave it to his brother Theophilus. 19.297. 2. And when Agrippa had entirely finished all the duties of the divine worship, he removed Theophilus, the son of Aus, from the high priesthood, and bestowed that honor of his on Simon the son of Boethus, whose name was also Cantheras whose daughter king Herod married, as I have related above. 20.197. 1. And now Caesar, upon hearing the death of Festus, sent Albinus into Judea, as procurator. But the king deprived Joseph of the high priesthood, and bestowed the succession to that dignity on the son of Aus, who was also himself called Aus. 20.198. Now the report goes that this eldest Aus proved a most fortunate man; for he had five sons who had all performed the office of a high priest to God, and who had himself enjoyed that dignity a long time formerly, which had never happened to any other of our high priests. 20.199. But this younger Aus, who, as we have told you already, took the high priesthood, was a bold man in his temper, and very insolent; he was also of the sect of the Sadducees, who are very rigid in judging offenders, above all the rest of the Jews, as we have already observed; 20.201. but as for those who seemed the most equitable of the citizens, and such as were the most uneasy at the breach of the laws, they disliked what was done; they also sent to the king [Agrippa], desiring him to send to Aus that he should act so no more, for that what he had already done was not to be justified; 20.202. nay, some of them went also to meet Albinus, as he was upon his journey from Alexandria, and informed him that it was not lawful for Aus to assemble a sanhedrim without his consent. 20.203. Whereupon Albinus complied with what they said, and wrote in anger to Aus, and threatened that he would bring him to punishment for what he had done; on which king Agrippa took the high priesthood from him, when he had ruled but three months, and made Jesus, the son of Damneus, high priest. 20.206. he also had servants who were very wicked, who joined themselves to the boldest sort of the people, and went to the thrashing-floors, and took away the tithes that belonged to the priests by violence, and did not refrain from beating such as would not give these tithes to them. 20.223. He also deprived Jesus, the son of Gamaliel, of the high priesthood, and gave it to Matthias, the son of Theophilus, under whom the Jews’ war with the Romans took its beginning.
5. Mishnah, Avot, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. Moses received the torah at Sinai and transmitted it to Joshua, Joshua to the elders, and the elders to the prophets, and the prophets to the Men of the Great Assembly. They said three things: Be patient in [the administration of] justice, raise many disciples and make a fence round the Torah."
6. Mishnah, Bikkurim, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.4. The flute would play before them, until they reached the Temple Mount. When they reached the Temple Mount even King Agrippas would take the basket and place it on his shoulder and walk as far as the Temple Court. When he got to the Temple Court, the Levites would sing the song: “I will extol You, O Lord, for You have raised me up, and You have not let my enemies rejoice over me” (Psalms 30:2)."
7. Mishnah, Parah, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.5. If they did not find the residue of the ashes of the seven [red cows] they performed the sprinkling with those of six, of five, of four, of three, of two or of one. And who prepared these? Moses prepared the first, Ezra prepared the second, and five were prepared from the time of Ezra, the words of Rabbi Meir. But the sages say: seven from the time of Ezra. And who prepared them? Shimon the Just and Yoha the high priest prepared two; Elihoenai the son of Ha-Kof and Hanamel the Egyptian and Ishmael the son of Piabi prepared one each."
8. Mishnah, Sotah, 7.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.8. How was the procedure in connection with the portion read by the king?At the conclusion of the first day of the festival (Sukkot) in the eighth [year], at the end of the seventh year, they erect a wooden platform in the Temple court, and he sits upon it, as it is said, “At the end of seven years, in the set time” etc (Deuteronomy 31:10). The synagogue attendant takes a Torah scroll and hands it to the head of the synagogue, the head of the synagogue hands it to the deputy and he hands it to the high priest, and the high priest hands it to the king and the king stands and receives it, but reads it while sitting. King Agrippa stood and received it and read standing, and the sages praised him. When he reached, “You shall not place a foreigner over you” (ibid 17:15) his eyes ran with tears. They said to him, “Fear not, Agrippas, you are our brother, you are our brother!” [The king] reads from the beginning of “These are the words” (ibid 1:1) until the Shema ((ibid 6:4-9), and the Shema, and “It will come to pass if you hear” (ibid 11:13-21 the second part of the Shema), and “You shall surely tithe” (ibid 14:22-29), and “When you have finished tithing” (ibid 26:12-15) and the portion of the king (ibid 17:14-20) and the blessings and curses (ibid, until he finishes all the section. The blessings that the high priest recites, the king recites, except that he substitutes one for the festivals instead of one for the pardon of sin."
9. New Testament, Acts, 4.6, 6.7, 12.24, 19.20, 23.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.6. Annas the high priest was there, with Caiaphas, John, Alexander, and as many as were relatives of the high priest. 6.7. The word of God increased and the number of the disciples multiplied in Jerusalem exceedingly. A great company of the priests were obedient to the faith. 12.24. But the word of God grew and multiplied. 19.20. So the word of the Lord was growing and becoming mighty. 23.9. A great clamor arose, and some of the scribes of the Pharisees part stood up, and contended, saying, "We find no evil in this man. But if a spirit or angel has spoken to him, let's not fight against God!
10. New Testament, Hebrews, 3.1-3.6, 4.14-4.15, 7.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. Therefore, holy brothers, partakers of a heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our confession, Jesus; 3.2. who was faithful to him who appointed him, as also was Moses in all his house. 3.3. For he has been counted worthy of more glory than Moses, inasmuch as he who built the house has more honor than the house. 3.4. For every house is built by someone; but he who built all things is God. 3.5. Moses indeed was faithful in all his house as a servant, for a testimony of those things which were afterward to be spoken 3.6. but Christ is faithful as a Son over his house; whose house we are, if we hold fast our confidence and the glorying of our hope firm to the end. 4.14. Having then a great high priest, who has passed through the heavens, Jesus, the Son of God, let us hold tightly to our confession. 4.15. For we don't have a high priest who can't be touched with the feeling of our infirmities, but one who has been in all points tempted like we are, yet without sin. 7.12. For the priesthood being changed, there is of necessity a change made also in the law.
11. New Testament, John, 11.49, 18.14-18.39, 19.1-19.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.49. But a certain one of them, Caiaphas, being high priest that year, said to them, "You know nothing at all 18.14. Now it was Caiaphas who advised the Jews that it was expedient that one man should perish for the people. 18.15. Simon Peter followed Jesus, as did another disciple. Now that disciple was known to the high priest, and entered in with Jesus into the court of the high priest; 18.16. but Peter was standing at the door outside. So the other disciple, who was known to the high priest, went out and spoke to her who kept the door, and brought in Peter. 18.17. Then the maid who kept the door said to Peter, "Are you also one of this man's disciples?"He said, "I am not. 18.18. Now the servants and the officers were standing there, having made a fire of coals, for it was cold. They were warming themselves. Peter was with them, standing and warming himself. 18.19. The high priest therefore asked Jesus about his disciples, and about his teaching. 18.20. Jesus answered him, "I spoke openly to the world. I always taught in synagogues, and in the temple, where the Jews always meet. I said nothing in secret. 18.21. Why do you ask me? Ask those who have heard me what I said to them. Behold, these know the things which I said. 18.22. When he had said this, one of the officers standing by slapped Jesus with his hand, saying, "Do you answer the high priest like that? 18.23. Jesus answered him, "If I have spoken evil, testify of the evil; but if well, why do you beat me? 18.24. Annas sent him bound to Caiaphas, the high priest. 18.25. Now Simon Peter was standing and warming himself. They said therefore to him, "You aren't also one of his disciples, are you?"He denied it, and said, "I am not. 18.26. One of the servants of the high priest, being a relative of him whose ear Peter had cut off, said, "Didn't I see you in the garden with him? 18.27. Peter therefore denied it again, and immediately the rooster crowed. 18.28. They led Jesus therefore from Caiaphas into the Praetorium. It was early, and they themselves didn't enter into the Praetorium, that they might not be defiled, but might eat the Passover. 18.29. Pilate therefore went out to them, and said, "What accusation do you bring against this man? 18.30. They answered him, "If this man weren't an evildoer, we wouldn't have delivered him up to you. 18.31. Pilate therefore said to them, "Take him yourselves, and judge him according to your law."Therefore the Jews said to him, "It is not lawful for us to put anyone to death 18.32. that the word of Jesus might be fulfilled, which he spoke, signifying by what kind of death he should die. 18.33. Pilate therefore entered again into the Praetorium, called Jesus, and said to him, "Are you the King of the Jews? 18.34. Jesus answered him, "Do you say this by yourself, or did others tell you about me? 18.35. Pilate answered, "I'm not a Jew, am I? Your own nation and the chief priests delivered you to me. What have you done? 18.36. Jesus answered, "My kingdom is not of this world. If my kingdom were of this world, then my servants would fight, that I wouldn't be delivered to the Jews. But now my kingdom is not from here. 18.37. Pilate therefore said to him, "Are you a king then?"Jesus answered, "You say that I am a king. For this reason I have been born, and for this reason I have come into the world, that I should testify to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth listens to my voice. 18.38. Pilate said to him, "What is truth?"When he had said this, he went out again to the Jews, and said to them, "I find no basis for a charge against him. 18.39. But you have a custom, that I should release someone to you at the Passover. Therefore do you want me to release to you the King of the Jews? 19.1. So Pilate then took Jesus, and flogged him. 19.2. The soldiers twisted thorns into a crown, and put it on his head, and dressed him in a purple garment. 19.3. They kept saying, "Hail, King of the Jews!" and they kept slapping him. 19.4. Then Pilate went out again, and said to them, "Behold, I bring him out to you, that you may know that I find no basis for a charge against him. 19.5. Jesus therefore came out, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple garment. Pilate said to them, "Behold, the man!
12. New Testament, Luke, 3.2, 22.54, 22.59-22.71, 23.1-23.25, 23.35-23.39, 24.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.2. in the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas, the word of God came to John, the son of Zacharias, in the wilderness. 22.54. They seized him, and led him away, and brought him into the high priest's house. But Peter followed from a distance. 22.59. After about one hour passed, another confidently affirmed, saying, "Truly this man also was with him, for he is a Galilean! 22.60. But Peter said, "Man, I don't know what you are talking about!" Immediately, while he was still speaking, a rooster crowed. 22.61. The Lord turned, and looked at Peter. Then Peter remembered the Lord's word, how he said to him, "Before the rooster crows you will deny me three times. 22.62. He went out, and wept bitterly. 22.63. The men who held Jesus mocked him and beat him. 22.64. Having blindfolded him, they struck him on the face and asked him, "Prophesy! Who is the one who struck you? 22.65. They spoke many other things against him, insulting him. 22.66. As soon as it was day, the assembly of the elders of the people was gathered together, both chief priests and scribes, and they led him away into their council, saying 22.67. If you are the Christ, tell us."But he said to them, "If I tell you, you won't believe 22.68. and if I ask, you will in no way answer me or let me go. 22.69. From now on, the Son of Man will be seated at the right hand of the power of God. 22.70. They all said, "Are you then the Son of God?"He said to them, "You say it, because I AM. 22.71. They said, "Why do we need any more witness? For we ourselves have heard from his own mouth! 23.1. The whole company of them rose up and brought him before Pilate. 23.2. They began to accuse him, saying, "We found this man perverting the nation, forbidding paying taxes to Caesar, and saying that he himself is Christ, a king. 23.3. Pilate asked him, "Are you the King of the Jews?"He answered him, "So you say. 23.4. Pilate said to the chief priests and the multitudes, "I find no basis for a charge against this man. 23.5. But they insisted, saying, "He stirs up the people, teaching throughout all Judea, beginning from Galilee even to this place. 23.6. But when Pilate heard Galilee mentioned, he asked if the man was a Galilean. 23.7. When he found out that he was in Herod's jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod, who was also in Jerusalem during those days. 23.8. Now when Herod saw Jesus, he was exceedingly glad, for he had wanted to see him for a long time, because he had heard many things about him. He hoped to see some miracle done by him. 23.9. He questioned him with many words, but he gave no answers. 23.10. The chief priests and the scribes stood, vehemently accusing him. 23.11. Herod with his soldiers humiliated him and mocked him. Dressing him in luxurious clothing, they sent him back to Pilate. 23.12. Herod and Pilate became friends with each other that very day, for before that they were enemies with each other. 23.13. Pilate called together the chief priests and the rulers and the people 23.14. and said to them, "You brought this man to me as one that perverts the people, and see, I have examined him before you, and found no basis for a charge against this man concerning those things of which you accuse him. 23.15. Neither has Herod, for I sent you to him, and see, nothing worthy of death has been done by him. 23.16. I will therefore chastise him and release him. 23.17. Now he had to release one prisoner to them at the feast. 23.18. But they all cried out together, saying, "Away with this man! Release to us Barabbas!" -- 23.19. one who was thrown into prison for a certain revolt in the city, and for murder. 23.20. Then Pilate spoke to them again, wanting to release Jesus 23.21. but they shouted, saying, "Crucify! Crucify him! 23.22. He said to them the third time, "Why? What evil has this man done? I have found no capital crime in him. I will therefore chastise him and release him. 23.23. But they were urgent with loud voices, asking that he might be crucified. Their voices and the voices of the chief priests prevailed. 23.24. Pilate decreed that what they asked for should be done. 23.25. He released him who had been thrown into prison for insurrection and murder, for whom they asked, but he delivered Jesus up to their will. 23.35. The people stood watching. The rulers with them also scoffed at him, saying, "He saved others. Let him save himself, if this is the Christ of God, his chosen one! 23.36. The soldiers also mocked him, coming to him and offering him vinegar 23.37. and saying, "If you are the King of the Jews, save yourself! 23.38. An inscription was also written over him in letters of Greek, Latin, and Hebrew: "THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS. 23.39. One of the criminals who was hanged insulted him, saying, "If you are the Christ, save yourself and us! 24.27. Beginning from Moses and from all the prophets, he explained to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself.
13. New Testament, Mark, 9.5, 14.53, 14.55-14.65, 15.1-15.5, 15.16-15.20, 15.29-15.32 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah. 14.53. They led Jesus away to the high priest. All the chief priests, the elders, and the scribes came together with him. 14.55. Now the chief priests and the whole council sought witnesses against Jesus to put him to death, and found none. 14.56. For many gave false testimony against him, and their testimony didn't agree with each other. 14.57. Some stood up, and gave false testimony against him, saying 14.58. We heard him say, 'I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and in three days I will build another made without hands.' 14.59. Even so, their testimony did not agree. 14.60. The high priest stood up in the midst, and asked Jesus, "Have you no answer? What is it which these testify against you? 14.61. But he stayed quiet, and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, "Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed? 14.62. Jesus said, "I AM. You will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of the sky. 14.63. The high priest tore his clothes, and said, "What further need have we of witnesses? 14.64. You have heard the blasphemy! What do you think?" They all condemned him to be worthy of death. 14.65. Some began to spit on him, and to cover his face, and to beat him with fists, and to tell him, "Prophesy!" The officers struck him with the palms of their hands. 15.1. Immediately in the morning the chief priests, with the elders and scribes, and the whole council, held a consultation, and bound Jesus, and carried him away, and delivered him up to Pilate. 15.2. Pilate asked him, "Are you the King of the Jews?"He answered, "So you say. 15.3. The chief priests accused him of many things. 15.4. Pilate again asked him, "Have you no answer? See how many things they testify against you! 15.5. But Jesus made no further answer, so that Pilate marveled. 15.16. The soldiers led him away within the court, which is the Praetorium; and they called together the whole cohort. 15.17. They clothed him with purple, and weaving a crown of thorns, they put it on him. 15.18. They began to salute him, "Hail, King of the Jews! 15.19. They struck his head with a reed, and spat on him, and bowing their knees, did homage to him. 15.20. When they had mocked him, they took the purple off of him, and put his own garments on him. They led him out to crucify him. 15.29. Those who passed by blasphemed him, wagging their heads, and saying, "Ha! You who destroy the temple, and build it in three days 15.30. save yourself, and come down from the cross! 15.31. Likewise, also the chief priests mocking among themselves with the scribes said, "He saved others. He can't save himself. 15.32. Let the Christ, the King of Israel, now come down from the cross, that we may see and believe him." Those who were crucified with him insulted him.
14. New Testament, Matthew, 26.57-26.68, 26.73-26.75, 27.1, 27.11-27.31, 27.39-27.43 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

26.57. Those who had taken Jesus led him away to Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and the elders were gathered together. 26.58. But Peter followed him from a distance, to the court of the high priest, and entered in and sat with the officers, to see the end. 26.59. Now the chief priests, the elders, and the whole council sought false testimony against Jesus, that they might put him to death; 26.60. and they found none. Even though many false witnesses came forward, they found none. But at last two false witnesses came forward 26.61. and said, "This man said, 'I am able to destroy the temple of God, and to build it in three days.' 26.62. The high priest stood up, and said to him, "Have you no answer? What is this that these testify against you? 26.63. But Jesus held his peace. The high priest answered him, "I adjure you by the living God, that you tell us whether you are the Christ, the Son of God. 26.64. Jesus said to him, "You have said it. Nevertheless, I tell you, henceforth you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming on the clouds of the sky. 26.65. Then the high priest tore his clothing, saying, "He has spoken blasphemy! Why do we need any more witnesses? Behold, now you have heard his blasphemy. 26.66. What do you think?"They answered, "He is worthy of death! 26.67. Then they spit in his face and beat him with their fists, and some slapped him 26.68. saying, "Prophesy to us, you Christ! Who hit you? 26.73. After a little while those who stood by came and said to Peter, "Surely you are also one of them, for your speech makes you known. 26.74. Then he began to curse and to swear, "I don't know the man!"Immediately the cock crowed. 26.75. Peter remembered the word which Jesus had said to him, "Before the cock crows, you will deny me three times." He went out and wept bitterly. 27.1. Now when morning had come, all the chief priests and the elders of the people took counsel against Jesus to put him to death: 27.11. Now Jesus stood before the governor: and the governor asked him, saying, "Are you the King of the Jews?"Jesus said to him, "So you say. 27.12. When he was accused by the chief priests and elders, he answered nothing. 27.13. Then Pilate said to him, "Don't you hear how many things they testify against you? 27.14. He gave him no answer, not even one word, so that the governor marveled greatly. 27.15. Now at the feast the governor was accustomed to release to the multitude one prisoner, whom they desired. 27.16. They had then a notable prisoner, called Barabbas. 27.17. When therefore they were gathered together, Pilate said to them, "Whom do you want me to release to you? Barabbas, or Jesus, who is called Christ? 27.18. For he knew that because of envy they had delivered him up. 27.19. While he was sitting on the judgment seat, his wife sent to him, saying, "Have nothing to do with that righteous man, for I have suffered many things this day in a dream because of him. 27.20. Now the chief priests and the elders persuaded the multitudes to ask for Barabbas, and destroy Jesus. 27.21. But the governor answered them, "Which of the two do you want me to release to you?"They said, "Barabbas! 27.22. Pilate said to them, "What then shall I do to Jesus, who is called Christ?"They all said to him, "Let him be crucified! 27.23. But the governor said, "Why? What evil has he done?"But they cried out exceedingly, saying, "Let him be crucified! 27.24. So when Pilate saw that nothing was being gained, but rather that a disturbance was starting, he took water, and washed his hands before the multitude, saying, "I am innocent of the blood of this righteous person. You see to it. 27.25. All the people answered, "May his blood be on us, and on our children! 27.26. Then he released to them Barabbas, but Jesus he flogged and delivered to be crucified. 27.27. Then the governor's soldiers took Jesus into the Praetorium, and gathered the whole garrison together against him. 27.28. They stripped him, and put a scarlet robe on him. 27.29. They braided a crown of thorns and put it on his head, and a reed in his right hand; and they kneeled down before him, and mocked him, saying, "Hail, King of the Jews! 27.30. They spat on him, and took the reed and struck him on the head. 27.31. When they had mocked him, they took the robe off of him, and put his clothes on him, and led him away to crucify him. 27.39. Those who passed by blasphemed him, wagging their heads 27.40. and saying, "You who destroy the temple, and build it in three days, save yourself! If you are the Son of God, come down from the cross! 27.41. Likewise the chief priests also mocking, with the scribes, the Pharisees, and the elders, said 27.42. He saved others, but he can't save himself. If he is the King of Israel, let him come down from the cross now, and we will believe in him. 27.43. He trusts in God. Let God deliver him now, if he wants him; for he said, 'I am the Son of God.'
15. Tosefta, Menachot, 13.21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16. Tosefta, Pesahim, 4.15 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. Tosefta, Sotah, 7.16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 157 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

19. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

57a. נימא תלתא תנאי הוו לא תרי תנאי הוו ותנא קמא דר' שמעון היינו ר' יוסי ותנא קמא דר' יוסי היינו ר' שמעון ומאי אף אקמייתא,ת"ר בן בוהיין נתן פיאה לירק ובא אביו ומצאן לעניים שהיו טעונין ירק ועומדין על פתח הגינה אמר להם בני השליכו מעליכם ואני נותן לכם כפליים במעושר לא מפני שעיני צרה אלא מפני שאמרו חכמים אין נותנין פיאה לירק,למה ליה למימרא להו לא מפני שעיני צרה כי היכי דלא לימרו דחויי קא מדחי לן,ת"ר בראשונה היו מניחין עורות קדשים בלשכת בית הפרוה לערב היו מחלקין אותן לאנשי בית אב והיו בעלי זרועות נוטלין אותן בזרוע התקינו שיהיו מחלקין אותן מערב שבת לע"ש דאתיין כולהו משמרות ושקלן בהדדי,ועדיין היו גדולי כהונה נוטלין אותן בזרוע עמדו בעלים והקדישום לשמים,אמרו לא היו ימים מועטים עד שחיפו את ההיכל כולו בטבלאות של זהב שהן אמה על אמה כעובי דינר זהב ולרגל היו מקפלין אותן ומניחין אותן על גב מעלה בהר הבית כדי שיהו עולי רגלים רואין שמלאכתם נאה ואין בה דלם,תנא אבא שאול אומר קורות של שקמה היו ביריחו והיו בעלי זרועות נוטלין אותן בזרוע עמדו בעלים והקדישום לשמים,עליהם ועל כיוצא בהם אמר אבא שאול בן בטנית משום אבא יוסף בן חנין אוי לי מבית בייתוס אוי לי מאלתן אוי לי מבית חנין אוי לי מלחישתן אוי לי מבית קתרוס אוי לי מקולמוסן אוי לי מבית ישמעאל בן פיאכי אוי לי מאגרופן שהם כהנים גדולים ובניהן גיזברין וחתניהם אמרכלין ועבדיהן חובטין את העם במקלות,תנו רבנן ארבע צווחות צוחה עזרה ראשונה צאו מכאן בני עלי שטימאו היכל ה' ועוד צווחה צא מיכן יששכר איש כפר ברקאי שמכבד את עצמו ומחלל קדשי שמים דהוה כריך ידיה בשיראי ועביד עבודה,ועוד צווחה העזרה שאו שערים ראשיכם ויכנס ישמעאל בן פיאכי תלמידו של פנחס וישמש בכהונה גדולה ועוד צווחה העזרה שאו שערים ראשיכם ויכנס יוחנן בן נרבאי תלמידו של פנקאי וימלא כריסו מקדשי שמים,אמרו עליו על יוחנן בן נרבאי שהיה אוכל ג' מאות עגלים ושותה ג' מאות גרבי יין ואוכל ארבעים סאה גוזלות בקינוח סעודה אמרו כל ימיו של יוחנן בן נרבאי לא נמצא נותר במקדש מאי סלקא ביה ביששכר איש כפר ברקאי אמרי מלכא ומלכתא הוו יתבי מלכא אמר גדיא יאי ומלכתא אמרה אימרא יאי אמרו מאן מוכח כהן גדול דקא מסיק קרבנות כל יומא אתא איהו 57a. bLet us saythat bthere are three itanna’im /iwho dispute this point: The two unattributed opinions, each of which is referring to two vegetables, and the opinion common to Rabbi Yosei and Rabbi Shimon that includes all three vegetables. The Gemara rejects this: bNo, there areonly btwo itanna’im /iwho dispute the point, band the first itanna /iwhose opinion appears before the opinion of bRabbi Shimon is Rabbi Yosei. And the first itanna /iwhose opinion appears before the opinion of bRabbi Yosei is Rabbi Shimon. And whatis the meaning of the word bevenin both their statements? They agree with regard to bthe firstvegetable, turnips; however, they disagree with regard to the second, and replace it with another vegetable.,The Gemara cites an episode from the iTosefta /i. bThe Sages taught: The sonof a man named bBohayan designatedfor the poor btheproduce in the bcornerin a garden bof vegetables, and his fatherBohayan bfound the poor ladenwith bvegetables and standing at the opening of the gardenon their way out. bHe said to them: My sons, castthe vegetables that you have gathered bfrom upon yourselves and I will give you twicethe amount in btithedproduce, and you will be no worse off. bNot because I begrudgeyou what you have taken. bRather, it is because the Sages say: One does not designatefor the poor btheproduce in the bcornerin a garden bof vegetables.Therefore, the vegetables that you took require tithing.,The Gemara asks: bWhywas it necessary bfor him to say to them: Not because I begrudgeyou what you have taken? It would have been sufficient to offer them tithed produce. The Gemara answers that he said it bso they would not say: He is putting us off,taking what we collected now, but later he will not fulfill his commitment.,Apropos the people of Jericho, the Gemara relates that powerful people would steal wood from them. bThe Sages taught: Initially,the priests bwould place the hidesthat were flayed from animals bconsecratedas offerings of the most sacred order, which were given to the priests, bin the Parva chamber. In the evening, they would distribute them to the members of the familyof priests serving in the Temple that day. bAnd the powerfulpriests among them would btake them by forcebefore they could be distributed. The Rabbis bdecreed that they would distribute them each Shabbat eve,because then ball thefamilies of both priestly bwatches came and tooktheir part btogether.All the families from both the watch that was beginning its service and the one ending its service were together when they divided the hides. The powerful priests were unable to take the hides by force., bYet still the prominent priestsby virtue of their lineage bwould take them by force.Due to their prominence, the members of the rest of the watch dared not challenge them. When they realized that there was no equitable distribution, bthe ownersof the sacrifices ( iMe’iri /i) barose and consecratedthe hides bto Heavenso the priests could not take them.,The Sages bsaid: Not a few days passed before they had plated the entire sanctuary with golden tabletswith the proceeds from the redemption and sale of the hides. These plates bwere one cubit by one cubit and as thick as a golden dinar. Andwhen the people assembled bfor theFestival bpilgrimage they would removethe tablets band place them on a stair of the Temple Mount so that the pilgrims would see that the craftsmanshipof the tablets bwas beautiful and without flaw [ idalam /i].Afterward they replaced the tablets in the Sanctuary., bIt wassimilarly btaughtthat bAbba Shaul says: There were sycamore tree trunks in Jericho, and powerful people would take themfrom their owners bby force. The owners stood and consecratedthese trunks bto Heaven.It was with regard to these trunks and the branches that grew from them that the residents of Jericho acted against the will of the Sages., bWith regard tothe prominent priests band those like them, Abba Shaul ben Batnit said in the name of Abba Yosef ben Ḥanin: Woe is me due tothe High Priests of bthe house of Baitos, woe is me due to their clubs. Woe is me due tothe High Priests of bthe house of Ḥanin; woe is me due to their whispersand the rumors they spread. bWoe is me due tothe High Priests of bthe house of Katros; woe is me due to their pensthat they use to write lies. bWoe is me due tothe servants of the High Priests of bthe house of Yishmael ben Piakhi; woe is me due to their fists.The power of these households stemmed from the fact bthatthe fathers bwere High Priests, and their sons werethe Temple btreasurers, and their sons-in-law wereTemple boverseers [ iamarkalin /i]. And their servants strike the people with clubs,and otherwise act inappropriately.,Apropos the critique of several prominent priests, the Gemara relates that bthe Sages taught:The people in btheTemple bcourtyardall bcried four cries,as they were in agreement over various issues ( iPardes Rimonim /i). The bfirstcry was: bLeave here, sons of Eli, who defiled God’s Sanctuary(see I Samuel 2:22). Subsequently the priesthood was transferred to the house of Zadok. bAnd an additional cry: Leave here, Yissakhar of Kfar Barkai, who honors himself and desecratesthe items bconsecratedto bHeaven.Due to his delicate nature and his disrespect for the Temple service, he would bwraphis hands bin silk [ ishirai /i] and perform the service.This would invalidate the service because the silk was an interposition between his hands and the Temple vessels. Furthermore, his conduct demeaned the Temple service, as he demonstrated that he was unwilling to dirty his hands for it., bAndthe people in btheTemple bcourtyard cried additionally: Lift your heads, O gates, and letthe righteous bYishmael ben Piakhi, the student of Pinehasben Elazar the priest, benter and serve as High Priest,although the members of this family were violent. bAndthe people in btheTemple bcourtyard cried additionally: Lift your heads, O gates, and let Yoḥa ben Narbbai, the student of Pinkai, enter and fill his belly withmeat bof offeringsconsecrated to bHeaven,as he is worthy to eat offerings., bThey said about Yoḥa ben Narbbai that heand his household bwould eat three hundred calves, and drink three hundred jugs of wine, and eat forty ise’aof doves for dessert. They said:Throughout ball the days of Yoḥa ben Narbbai there was no leftoversacrificial meat bin the Temple,as he would make certain that someone ate it. The Gemara asks: bWhatultimately bhappened to Yissakhar of Kfar Barkai? They said: The king and the queen were sittingand talking. bThe king saidthat bgoatmeat bis betterfood, band the queen said lambmeat is bbetterfood. bThey said: Who can provewhich one of us is correct? bThe High Priestcan, bas he offers sacrifices all dayand tastes their meat. The High Priest had the right to take a portion from any sacrifice offered in the Temple, and therefore was well acquainted with the tastes of different meat. Yissakhar of Kfar Barkai bcame,and when they asked him this question
20. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

41a. (נחמיה ח, ג) ויקרא בו לפני הרחוב אשר לפני שער המים אמר רב חסדא בעזרת נשים,וקורא אחרי מות ואך בעשור ורמינהי מדלגין בנביא ואין מדלגין בתורה,אמר אביי לא קשיא כאן בכדי שיפסוק התורגמן כאן בכדי שלא יפסוק התורגמן,והא עלה קתני מדלגין בנביא ואין מדלגין בתורה ועד כמה מדלגין עד כדי שלא יפסוק התורגמן מכלל דבתורה כלל כלל לא,אלא אמר אביי לא קשיא כאן בענין אחד כאן בשני עניינין,והתניא מדלגין בתורה בענין אחד ובנביא בשני עניינין וכאן וכאן בכדי שלא יפסוק התורגמן,ואין מדלגין מנביא לנביא ובנביא של שנים עשר מדלגין ובלבד שלא ידלג מסוף הספר לתחילתו,וגולל את התורה ומניחה בחיקו כו' וכל כך למה שלא להוציא לעז על ס"ת,ובעשור שבחומש הפקודים קורא על פה וליכרכיה לספר וליקרי א"ר הונא בר יהודה א"ר ששת לפי שאין גוללין ס"ת בצבור,וליתי ס"ת אחרינא וליקרי רב הונא בר יהודה אמר משום פגמו של ראשון ר"ש בן לקיש אמר לפי שאין מברכין ברכה שאינה צריכה,ומי חיישינן לפגמא והאמר רבי יצחק נפחא ר"ח טבת שחל להיות בשבת מביא שלש תורות וקורא אחת מעניינו של יום ואחת של ר"ח ואחת בשל חנוכה,תלתא גברי בתלתא סיפרי ליכא פגמא חד גברא בתרי סיפרי איכא פגמא,ומברך עליה שמנה ברכות כו' ת"ר [מברכין] על התורה כדרך שמברכין בבהכ"נ ועל העבודה ועל ההודאה ועל מחילת עון כתיקנן על המקדש בפני עצמו ועל הכהנים בפני עצמן על ישראל בפני עצמן ועל ירושלים בפני עצמה,והשאר תפלה ת"ר השאר תפלה תחנה רנה ובקשה שעמך ישראל צריכין ליוושע וחותם בשומע תפלה מכאן ואילך כל אחד ואחד מביא ספר תורה מתוך ביתו וקורא בו וכל כך למה כדי להראות חזותו לרבים, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big פרשת המלך כיצד מוצאי יו"ט הראשון של חג בשמיני במוצאי שביעית עושין לו בימה של עץ בעזרה והוא יושב עליה שנאמר (דברים לא, י) מקץ שבע שנים במועד וגו,חזן הכנסת נוטל ס"ת ונותנה לראש הכנסת וראש הכנסת נותנה לסגן והסגן נותנה לכהן גדול וכ"ג נותנה למלך והמלך עומד ומקבל וקורא יושב,אגריפס המלך עמד וקבל וקרא עומד ושבחוהו חכמים וכשהגיע (דברים יז, טו) ללא תוכל לתת עליך איש נכרי זלגו עיניו דמעות אמרו לו אל תתירא אגריפס אחינו אתה אחינו אתה,וקורא מתחילת (דברים א, א) אלה הדברים עד (דברים ו, ד) שמע ושמע והיה אם שמוע עשר תעשר כי תכלה לעשר ופרשת המלך וברכות וקללות עד שגומר כל הפרשה,ברכות שכהן גדול מברך אותן המלך מברך אותן אלא שנותן של רגלים תחת מחילת העון, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big בשמיני סלקא דעתך אימא בשמינית,וכל הני למה לי,צריכי דאי כתב רחמנא מקץ הוה אמינא נימנו מהשתא ואע"ג דלא מתרמי בשמיטה כתב רחמנא שמיטה,ואי כתב רחמנא שמיטה ה"א בסוף שמיטה כתב רחמנא במועד,ואי כתב במועד ה"א מריש שתא כתב רחמנא בחג הסוכות,ואי כתב רחמנא בחג הסוכות הוה אמינא אפי' יו"ט אחרון כתב רחמנא בבוא כל ישראל 41a. b“And he read there before the broad place that was before the Gate of the Water”(Nehemiah 8:3). According to this opinion, the High Priest would read from the Torah in the Temple courtyard. bRav Ḥisda saysin response: The ibaraitaalso means that the reading takes place bin the women’s courtyard. /b,§ It is taught in the mishna that the High Priest receives the Torah scroll band readsthe Torah portion beginning with the verse: b“After the death”(Leviticus 16:1), bandthe portion beginning with the verse: b“But on the tenth”(Leviticus 23:26). Since these two portions are not adjacent to each other, the High Priest skips the section between the two portions. The Gemara braises a contradictionfrom a mishna ( iMegilla24a): bOne may skipsections when reading the ihaftara bin the Prophets, but one may not skipsections when reading bin the Torah. /b, bAbaye said:This is bnot difficult. There,in the mishna in tractate iMegillathat teaches that one may not skip, the intention is that one should not skip if the sections are so far apart from one another that the delay caused by doing so will be bof such length that the translatorwho recites the Aramaic translation bwill concludehis translation before the next section is reached. However, in the case of the mishna bhere,it is permitted to skip verses because the two passages are in close proximity to one another. The delay caused is bof suchshort blength that the translator willstill bnot concludehis translation.,The Gemara challenges this resolution: bBut isn’t it taught aboutthis mishna in a ibaraita /i: bOne may skipsections when reading bin the Prophets, but one may not skipsections when reading bin the Torah. And how much may one skipfrom one passage to another bin the Prophets?One may skip when the section skipped is bof suchshort blength thatwhen the furling of the scroll is completed bthe translator willstill bnot have concludedhis translation. bBy inference,when reading bin the Torahone may bnotskip bat all. /b, bRather, Abaye saidanother explanation: This is bnot difficult.In the mishna bhere,it is permitted to skip because both passages pertain bto a single topic. There,in the mishna in tractate iMegillathat teaches that one may not skip, the ihalakhais referring to a case where the passages pertain bto twodifferent btopics. /b, bAndthis is bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may skipsections when reading bin the Torahwhen both sections pertain bto a single topic, and in the Prophetsone may skip from one section to another even if they pertain bto twodifferent btopics. Andboth bhere and there,one may skip only bwhenthe section skipped is bof suchshort blength thatwhen the furling of the scroll is completed bthe translator willstill bnot have concludedhis translation., bAnd one may not skip fromone book of the bProphets toanother book of the bProphets,even if both pertain to the same topic. bBut amongthe books bof the Twelve Prophets one may skip, provided that one does not skip from the end of the book to its beginning.Rather, if one wishes to read from several of the Twelve Prophets, he must read the passages in the order that they are written.,§ It is taught in the mishna: bAnd he furls the Torahscroll, band places it on his bosom,and says: More than what I have read before you is written here. The Gemara comments: bAnd whymust he say ball of this?It is bso as to not cast aspersions onthe bTorah scroll,because people might think the portion that he read by heart is not written there.,It is stated in the mishna that bhe reads by heartthe portion beginning with: b“And on the tenth,” from the book of Numbers(29:7–11). The Gemara asks: bBut let him furl theTorah bscrollto that portion band readit from the text. bRav Huna bar Yehuda saysthat bRav Sheshet says:This is not done bbecause one may not furl a Torah scroll in public,out of respect for the congregation.,The Gemara asks: bButwhy not blet them bring another Torah scrollthat has previously been furled to that portion band readfrom it? bRav Huna bar Yehuda says:People might then mistakenly think that the second scroll was brought bdue to a flawthat was found binthe bfirstscroll. bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says:Another scroll is not brought bbecausethen the High Priest will need to recite an additional blessing over it, and bone may not recite a blessing that is unnecessary. /b,The Gemara questions Rav Huna bar Yehuda’s answer: bBut are wereally bconcerned thatpeople will think that there is ba flawin the first scroll? bBut didn’t Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa say:When bthe New Moon of Tevet,which always occurs during Hanukkah, boccurs on Shabbat, one brings three Torahscrolls. bAnd he reads from onescroll bthe topic of the day,i.e., the weekly portion; bandfrom bonescroll the portion bof the New Moon; andfrom bonescroll the portion bof Hanukkah.It is apparent from the statement of Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa that many Torah scrolls may be used, and there is no concern that people will mistakenly think that one or more has a flaw.,The Gemara answers: When bthree menread bfrom three scrolls, there is noconcern that people will think that one of the scrolls has ba flaw,since people assume that it is befitting for each individual to read from his own scroll. However, when bone manreads bfrom twodifferent Torah bscrolls, there isa concern that people will think that the first scroll has ba flaw,and they will not realize that this was done only to avoid forcing the community to wait while the scroll is furled.,§ It is taught in the mishna: bAndafter the reading the High Priest brecites eight blessings. The Sages taughtthat these are the eight blessings: bHe recites a blessing concerning the Torah in theusual bway one recitesa blessing in bthe synagogue, andhe recites the three blessings bconcerning theTemple bservice, and concerning thanksgiving, and concerning forgiveness for iniquity,and all are recited bin accordance with their established formsin the iAmidaprayer. He recites the blessing bconcerning the Temple in and of itself,the blessing bconcerning the priests in and of itself,the blessing bconcerning the Jewish people in and of itself, andthe blessing bconcerning Jerusalem in and of itself. /b,With regard to the end of the mishna, which states: bAnd the rest of the prayer, the Sages taught: Thetext of bthe rest of the prayeris as follows: bA supplication, a song, and a request that Your people, Israel, are in need of redemption. And he concludesthe blessing bwith:Blessed are You, Lord, bthe One Who hears prayer. From thispoint bforward, each and every personpresent bbrings a Torah scroll from his home and reads from it. And whydo ball thesepeople bring their personal Torah scrolls? Everyone brings his own bin order to show itsbeautiful bappearance to the public,as a way of showing fondness for the mitzva., strongMISHNA: /strong bHowis bthe portion ofthe Torah that is read by bthe kingrecited at the assembly, when all the Jewish people would assemble? At bthe conclusion of the first day of the festivalof iSukkot /i, bon the eighth,after bthe conclusion of the Sabbatical Year, they make a wooden platform forthe king bin theTemple bcourtyard, and he sits on it, as it is stated: “At the end of every seven years, in the Festivalof the Sabbatical Year” (Deuteronomy 31:10)., bThe synagogue attendant takes a Torah scroll and gives it to the head of the synagoguethat stands on the Temple Mount. bAnd the head of the synagogue gives it to the deputyHigh Priest, band the deputyHigh Priest bgives it to the High Priest, and the High priest gives it to the king. And the king stands, and receivesthe Torah scroll, band readsfrom it while bsitting. /b, bKing Agrippa arose, and receivedthe Torah scroll, band readfrom it while bstanding, and the Sages praised himfor this. bAnd whenAgrippa barrived atthe verse in the portion read by the king that states: b“You may not appoint a foreigner over you”(Deuteronomy 17:15), btears flowed from his eyes,because he was a descendant of the house of Herod and was not of Jewish origin. The entire nation bsaid to him: Fear not, Agrippa. You are our brother, you are our brother. /b, bAndthe king breads from the beginning ofDeuteronomy, from the verse that states: b“And these are the words”(Deuteronomy 1:1), buntilthe words: b“Hear,O Israel” (Deuteronomy 6:4). bAndhe then reads the sections beginning with: b“Hear,O Israel” (Deuteronomy 6:4–9), b“And it shall come to pass, if you shall hearken”(Deuteronomy 11:13–21), b“You shall tithe”(Deuteronomy 14:22–29), b“When you have made an end of the tithing”(Deuteronomy 26:12–15), band the passage concerning theappointment of ba king(Deuteronomy 17:14–20), band the blessings and curses(Deuteronomy 28), buntil he finishes the entire portion. /b,The same bblessings that the High Priest reciteson Yom Kippur, bthe king recitesat this ceremony, bbut he deliversa blessing bconcerning the Festivals in place ofthe blessing concerning bforgiveness for iniquity. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna states that the assembly takes place on the eighth. The Gemara asks: Does it benter your mindthat the assembly takes place bon the eighthday of the festival of iSukkot /i? The mishna clearly states that the ceremony takes place at the conclusion of the first day of the Festival. Rather, bsaythat it takes place bduring the eighthyear of the Sabbatical cycle.,The verse describes in detail when the assembly takes place: “At the end of every seven years, in the Festival of the Sabbatical Year, in the festival of iSukkot /i, when all Israel comes to appear before the Lord your God” (Deuteronomy 31:10–11). The Gemara asks: bAnd why do Ineed ball thesedetails?,The Gemara answers: All of these details bare necessary, as, if the Merciful One had writtenonly b“at the endof every seven years” (Deuteronomy 31:10), bI would have saidthat bwe count from now,i.e., from when this was said, bandthat the tally of years begins from the fortieth year in the wilderness, beven thoughby this calculation the assembly bwould not occur in the Sabbatical Year.Therefore, bthe Merciful One writes: “The Sabbatical Year.” /b, bAnd if the Merciful One had writtenonly the phrase: At the end of every seven years of the b“Sabbatical Year,” I would have saidthat it takes place bat the end of the Sabbatical Year.Therefore, bthe Merciful One writes: “In the Festival,”and the first Festival following the Sabbatical Year is in the month of Tishrei., bAnd ifthe Torah bhad writtenonly: “At the end of every seven years bin the Festivalof the Sabbatical Year,” bI would have saidthat it takes place bonthe festival of bRosh Hashanah,which is on the first day of Tishrei. Therefore, bthe Merciful Onealso bwrites: “In the festival of iSukkot /i.” /b, bAnd if the Merciful One had writtenonly: b“In the festival of iSukkot /i,” I would have saidthat it could refer bevento bthe lastday of the bFestival.Therefore, bthe Merciful Onealso bwrites: “When all Israel comes”(Deuteronomy 31:11)
21. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

20b. ואי סלקא דעתך מחצות דאורייתא היא היכי מקדמינן (והיכי מאחרינן),אלא אמר ר' יוחנן ממשמע שנא' כל הלילה איני יודע שהוא עד הבקר ומה ת"ל עד הבקר תן בקר לבקרו של לילה,הלכך בכל יום תורמין את המזבח בקריאת הגבר או סמוך לו בין מלפניו בין מלאחריו סגיא ביוה"כ דאיכא חולשא דכ"ג עבדינן מחצות וברגלים דנפישי ישראל ונפישי קרבנות עבדינן מאשמורת הראשונה כדקתני טעמא לא היתה קריאת הגבר מגעת עד שהית' עזרה מלאה מישראל,מאי קריאת הגבר רב אמר קרא גברא רבי שילא אמר קרא תרנגולא,רב איקלע לאתריה דרבי שילא לא הוה אמורא למיקם עליה דרבי שילא קם רב עליה וקא מפרש מאי קריאת הגבר קרא גברא אמר ליה רבי שילא ולימא מר קרא תרנגולא א"ל אבוב לחרי זמר לגרדאי לא מקבלוה מיניה,כי הוה קאימנא עליה דר' חייא ומפרישנא מאי קריאת הגבר קרא גברא ולא אמר לי ולא מידי ואת אמרת לי אימא קרא תרנגולא א"ל מר ניהו רב נינח מר א"ל אמרי אינשי אי תגרת ליה פוץ עמריה איכא דאמרי הכי א"ל מעלין בקדש ולא מורידין,תניא כותיה דרב תניא כותיה דרבי שילא תניא כותיה דרב גביני כרוז מהו אומר עמדו כהנים לעבודתכם ולוים לדוכנכם וישראל למעמדכם והיה קולו נשמע בשלש פרסאות,מעשה באגריפס המלך שהיה בא בדרך ושמע קולו בג' פרסאות וכשבא לביתו שיגר לו מתנות ואעפ"כ כ"ג משובח ממנו דאמר מר וכבר אמר אנא השם ונשמע קולו ביריחו ואמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן מירושלים ליריחו י' פרסי,ואע"ג דהכא איכא חולשא והכא ליכא חולשא והכא יממא והתם ליליא,דא"ר לוי מפני מה אין קולו של אדם נשמע ביום כדרך שנשמע בלילה מפני גלגל חמה שמנסר ברקיע כחרש המנסר בארזים והאי חירגא דיומא לא שמיה והיינו דקאמר נבוכדנצר (דניאל ד, לב) וכל דיירי ארעא (כלא) חשיבין,ת"ר אלמלא גלגל חמה נשמע קול המונה של רומי ואלמלא קול המונה של רומי נשמע קול גלגל חמה ת"ר שלש קולות הולכין מסוף העולם ועד סופו ואלו הן קול גלגל חמה וקול המונה של רומי וקול נשמה בשעה שיוצאה מן הגוף וי"א אף לידה 20b. bAnd if it enters your mindto say that the time for removal of the ashes is bfrom midnight by Torah law, how do weperform it bearlier and how do weperform it blaterthan the time established by Torah law?, bRather, Rabbi Yoḥa said:The fact that midnight is the deadline after which the limbs may not be burned is derived from a different source. bFromthe fact bthat it is statedwith regard to the burning of the limbs: bAll night, don’t I know that itmeans buntil morning? Andfor bwhatpurpose, then, bdoes the verse state: Until morning?It means: bAddanother bmorning to the morning of the night.Arise before dawn, and that is the time for removal of the ashes. Nevertheless, there is no specific hour fixed for performing this removal, and how much earlier than dawn it is performed depends on the need., bTherefore, every daythe priests bremove the ashes from the altar at the crow of the rooster or adjacent to it, whether before it or after it,as on a typical day removing the ashes just before dawn is bsufficient. On Yom Kippur, when,due to the fact that he performs the entire day’s service, bthere isan issue of bthe weakness of the High Priest,the ashes are removed earlier band we do so from midnight. And on the Festivals, when the Jewish peoplein Jerusalem bare numerous andthe bofferingsthat they bring to sacrifice during the Festival bare numerous,the ashes are removed even earlier, band we do so from the first watch, in accordance with the reason that is taughtin the mishna: bAnd the call of the rooster would not arriveon Festivals buntil theTemple bcourtyard was full with the Jewish people. /b,§ The term ikeriat hagever /i, translated above as the call of the rooster, is mentioned in the mishna as an indication of a certain time. The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the phrase ikeriat hagever /i? Rav said: It is the call of the man;the priest appointed for this task proclaimed that it was time for the priests to report for service. bRabbi Sheila said: It is the call of the rooster,which is also called igever /i., bRav happenedto come bto the placewhere bRabbi Sheilawas the most prominent local Torah scholar and Rav was not yet known. bThere was no disseminator to stand before Rabbi Sheilato disseminate his lecture to the public. bRav stood before himto disseminate the lecture, in the course of which Rabbi Sheila mentioned ikeriat hagever /i. Rav binterpretedthe concept for the audience and said: bWhatis the meaning of ikeriat hagever /i?It means bthe call of the man. Rabbi Sheila said to him: And let the Master sayit is bthe call of the rooster.Rav bsaid to him,quoting a folk saying: bA fluteplayed bfor noblemenis bmusic, butwhen played for bweavers,they breceive nopleasure bfrom it,due to their lack of sophistication. Similarly, the interpretation that I disseminated was accepted by Torah scholars greater than you. You, who lack their sophistication, cannot appreciate it., bWhen I stood before Rabbi Ḥiyya and interpreted: Whatis the meaning of ikeriat hagever /i?It means bthe call of the man, he did not say anything to mein response, band you,Rabbi Sheila, bsay to me: Sayit is bthe call of the rooster.As soon as Rabbi Sheila heard that, he knew at once who had been disseminating his lecture. bHe said to him: Is the Master Rav? Let the Master restand cease disseminating my lecture, as it is beneath your dignity to serve as my assistant. Rav bsaid to him: People saythis aphorism: bIf you hired yourself to him, comb his wool.Once one agrees to perform a task, he should bear its less pleasing aspects and complete the job. bSome say, this is whatRav bsaid to him: One elevatesto a higher level binmatters of bsanctity and one does not downgrade.Since the task of interpreting was undertaken by a man of my stature, it is not fitting that a lesser man will replace me. That would be a display of contempt for the Torah.,The Gemara comments: A ibaraita bwas taught in accordance withthe opinion bof Rav,and a ibaraita bwas taught in accordance withthe opinion bof Rabbi Sheila.The Gemara elaborates: A ibaraita bwas taught in accordance withthe opinion bof Rav: What did Gevinithe bCrier,who was an appointee in the Temple, bsayin his proclamation? bArise, priests, to your service, and Levites to your platform, and Israelites to yournon-priestly bwatch. Andthe Gemara relates: bHis voice wasso strong that it could bbe heard ata distance of bthree parasangs,slightly more than eight miles.,There was ban incident involving King Agrippa, who was coming down the road and heardGevini the Crier’s bvoice at a distance of three parasangs. And whenthe king bcame to his house he sent gifts to him,since he was so impressed with the man’s voice. The Gemara notes: bAnd even so,the voice of the bHigh Priestwas stronger and bsuperior to his, as the Master said: Andthere balready wasan incident where the High Priest recited, in his confession that accompanied the placing of hands on his bull on Yom Kippur: bPlease God, and his voice was heard in Jericho. And Rabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:The distance bfrom Jerusalem to Jerichois bten parasangs. /b,And not only was the distance greater in the case of the High Priest than in the case of Gevini the Crier, bhere, there isthe issue of bthe weaknessof the High Priest due to the fast and his obligation to perform the entire service, while bthere, there is noissue of bthe weakness ofGevini. bAndin addition, bhere it wasduring the bday,when sound does not travel as well, that the High Priest recited his confession; band there it wasduring the bnightwhen Gevini called the priests, Levites, and Israelites., bAs Rabbi Levi said: Why is a person’s voice not heard during the day in the manner that it is during the night?It is bdue tothe fact that the sound of the bsphere of the sun traversing the skygenerates noise blikethe noise generated by ba carpenter sawing cedars,and that noise drowns out other sounds. bAnd that sawdustthat is visible during bthe dayin the rays of the sun, ilais its name. This iswhat bNebuchadnezzar said: “And all the inhabitants of the world are considered like ila /i”(Daniel 4:32), i.e., all inhabitants of the earth are equivalent to specks of dust.,Apropos sounds, the Gemara cites that bthe Sages taught: Were it notfor the sound of the bsphere of the sun,the bsound ofthe bustle of bthe crowds of Romewould be bheardthroughout the world; band were it not for the sound ofthe bustle of bthe crowds of Rome, the sound of the sun’s spherewould be bheardthroughout the world. And bthe Sages taught: Three sounds travel from the end of the world to itsother bend, and these are: The sound of the sphere of the sun, andthe bsound ofthe bustle of bthe crowds of Rome, and the sound of the soul at the moment that it leaves the body,which should be audible throughout the world. bAnd some say: Eventhe sound of a woman giving bbirth. /b
22. Ambrose, Hymns, 1.27 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abu tor Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 233
agrippa i Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
agrippa ii Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
albinus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
ambrose of milan, aeterne rerum conditor Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 343
ambrose of milan Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 343
ananus (annas) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
ananus son of ananus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
barbarism Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 247
bernice (berenice) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
caiaphas Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
causes of corruption, unintentional alteration Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 27
chaucer Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 27
christianity, political and legal uses of hebrew scripture in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 361
elites, and burial Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 233
festus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
hellenism, hellenistic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
james (brother of jesus) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
jerusalem Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 233
jerusalem (yerushalmi) targum (targum pseudo-jonathan), scriptural authority associated with priests and temple Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 361
judaea (roman province; see also yehud) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
lazarus story Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 343
luke, gospel of Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 247
luke Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
martyr and martyrdom, jesus as Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 247
martyr and martyrdom, jewish Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 247
martyr and martyrdom, maccabean Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 247
martyr and martyrdom Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 247
messiah Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
moses Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
mount scopus Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 233
nero Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
ossuaries, epigraphy Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 233
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
peace forest Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 233
peter Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 771
peter (apostle) Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 343
pharisaic-rabbinic (tradition) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
political and legal uses of hebrew scripture, in christianity Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 361
political and legal uses of hebrew scripture Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 361
priestly elites, at the jerusalem temple' Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 233
priestly material (p), scriptural authority associated with priests and temple Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 361
priests and temple, association of scriptural authority with Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 361
public readings of the law, rabbinic sages, scriptural authority associated with Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 361
rabbi eleazar b. r. yose, 4 ezra Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 247
rabbinic exegesis, scriptural authority associated with Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 361
roman empire, judicial procedure Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 771
sadducean Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
sadducees Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
sanhedrin Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 771; Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 247
tannaim (early rabbis), tannaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
time Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 343