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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8245
New Testament, James, 5.16-5.17


ἐξομολογεῖσθε οὖν ἀλλήλοις τὰς ἁμαρτίας καὶ προσεύχεσθε ὑπὲρ ἀλλήλων, ὅπως ἰαθῆτε.Confess your offenses to one another, and pray one for another, that you may be healed. The effective, earnest prayer of a righteous man is powerfully effective.


πολὺ ἰσχύει δέησις δικαίου ἐνεργουμένη. Ἠλείας ἄνθρωπος ἦν ὁμοιοπαθὴς ἡμῖν, καὶ προσευχῇ προσηύξατο τοῦ μὴ βρέξαι, καὶ οὐκ ἔβρεξεν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἐνιαυτοὺς τρεῖς καὶ μῆνας ἕξ·Elijah was a man with a nature like ours, and he prayed earnestly that it might not rain, and it didn't rain on the earth for three years and six months.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

54 results
1. Septuagint, Baruch, 1.12-1.13 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2. Septuagint, Genesis, 7.1 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3. Septuagint, Numbers, 14.19 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4. Septuagint, Tobit, 13.10, 14.1 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

13.10. Give thanks worthily to the Lord,and praise the King of the ages,that his tent may be raised for you again with joy. May he cheer those within you who are captives,and love those within you who are distressed,to all generations for ever.
5. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 2.25, 9.25-9.29 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.25. הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה אָחֵל תֵּת פַּחְדְּךָ וְיִרְאָתְךָ עַל־פְּנֵי הָעַמִּים תַּחַת כָּל־הַשָּׁמָיִם אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁמְעוּן שִׁמְעֲךָ וְרָגְזוּ וְחָלוּ מִפָּנֶיךָ׃ 9.25. וָאֶתְנַפַּל לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֵת אַרְבָּעִים הַיּוֹם וְאֶת־אַרְבָּעִים הַלַּיְלָה אֲשֶׁר הִתְנַפָּלְתִּי כִּי־אָמַר יְהוָה לְהַשְׁמִיד אֶתְכֶם׃ 9.26. וָאֶתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־יְהוָה וָאֹמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אַל־תַּשְׁחֵת עַמְּךָ וְנַחֲלָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר פָּדִיתָ בְּגָדְלֶךָ אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵאתָ מִמִּצְרַיִם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה׃ 9.27. זְכֹר לַעֲבָדֶיךָ לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב אַל־תֵּפֶן אֶל־קְשִׁי הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאֶל־רִשְׁעוֹ וְאֶל־חַטָּאתוֹ׃ 9.28. פֶּן־יֹאמְרוּ הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתָנוּ מִשָּׁם מִבְּלִי יְכֹלֶת יְהוָה לַהֲבִיאָם אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר לָהֶם וּמִשִּׂנְאָתוֹ אוֹתָם הוֹצִיאָם לַהֲמִתָם בַּמִּדְבָּר׃ 9.29. וְהֵם עַמְּךָ וְנַחֲלָתֶךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתָ בְּכֹחֲךָ הַגָּדֹל וּבִזְרֹעֲךָ הַנְּטוּיָה׃ 2.25. This day will I begin to put the dread of thee and the fear of thee upon the peoples that are under the whole heaven, who, when they hear the report of thee, shall tremble, and be in anguish because of thee.’" 9.25. So I fell down before the LORD the forty days and forty nights that I fell down; because the LORD had said He would destroy you." 9.26. And I prayed unto the LORD, and said: ‘O Lord GOD, destroy not Thy people and Thine inheritance, that Thou hast redeemed through Thy greatness, that Thou hast brought forth out of Egypt with a mighty hand." 9.27. Remember Thy servants, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; look not unto the stubbornness of this people, nor to their wickedness, nor to their sin;" 9.28. lest the land whence Thou broughtest us out say: Because the LORD was not able to bring them into the land which He promised unto them, and because He hated them, He hath brought them out to slay them in the wilderness." 9.29. Yet they are Thy people and Thine inheritance, that Thou didst bring out by Thy great power and by Thy outstretched arm.’"
6. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 2.5, 3.7, 3.17, 13.3, 15.14, 32.32 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.5. וַתֵּרֶד בַּת־פַּרְעֹה לִרְחֹץ עַל־הַיְאֹר וְנַעֲרֹתֶיהָ הֹלְכֹת עַל־יַד הַיְאֹר וַתֵּרֶא אֶת־הַתֵּבָה בְּתוֹךְ הַסּוּף וַתִּשְׁלַח אֶת־אֲמָתָהּ וַתִּקָּחֶהָ 3.7. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה רָאֹה רָאִיתִי אֶת־עֳנִי עַמִּי אֲשֶׁר בְּמִצְרָיִם וְאֶת־צַעֲקָתָם שָׁמַעְתִּי מִפְּנֵי נֹגְשָׂיו כִּי יָדַעְתִּי אֶת־מַכְאֹבָיו׃ 3.17. וָאֹמַר אַעֲלֶה אֶתְכֶם מֵעֳנִי מִצְרַיִם אֶל־אֶרֶץ הַכְּנַעֲנִי וְהַחִתִּי וְהָאֱמֹרִי וְהַפְּרִזִּי וְהַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי אֶל־אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ׃ 13.3. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הָעָם זָכוֹר אֶת־הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר יְצָאתֶם מִמִּצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים כִּי בְּחֹזֶק יָד הוֹצִיא יְהֹוָה אֶתְכֶם מִזֶּה וְלֹא יֵאָכֵל חָמֵץ׃ 15.14. שָׁמְעוּ עַמִּים יִרְגָּזוּן חִיל אָחַז יֹשְׁבֵי פְּלָשֶׁת׃ 32.32. וְעַתָּה אִם־תִּשָּׂא חַטָּאתָם וְאִם־אַיִן מְחֵנִי נָא מִסִּפְרְךָ אֲשֶׁר כָּתָבְתָּ׃ 2.5. And the daughter of Pharaoh came down to bathe in the river; and her maidens walked along by the river-side; and she saw the ark among the flags, and sent her handmaid to fetch it." 3.7. And the LORD said: ‘I have surely seen the affliction of My people that are in Egypt, and have heard their cry by reason of their taskmasters; for I know their pains;" 3.17. And I have said: I will bring you up out of the affliction of Egypt unto the land of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite, unto a land flowing with milk and honey." 13.3. And Moses said unto the people: ‘Remember this day, in which ye came out from Egypt, out of the house of bondage; for by strength of hand the LORD brought you out from this place; there shall no leavened bread be eaten." 15.14. The peoples have heard, they tremble; Pangs have taken hold on the inhabitants of Philistia." 32.32. Yet now, if Thou wilt forgive their sin—; and if not, blot me, I pray Thee, out of Thy book which Thou hast written.’"
7. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 20.7, 20.17, 29.35 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.7. וְעַתָּה הָשֵׁב אֵשֶׁת־הָאִישׁ כִּי־נָבִיא הוּא וְיִתְפַּלֵּל בַּעַדְךָ וֶחְיֵה וְאִם־אֵינְךָ מֵשִׁיב דַּע כִּי־מוֹת תָּמוּת אַתָּה וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר־לָךְ׃ 20.17. וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל אַבְרָהָם אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים וַיִּרְפָּא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־אֲבִימֶלֶךְ וְאֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאַמְהֹתָיו וַיֵּלֵדוּ׃ 29.35. וַתַּהַר עוֹד וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתֹּאמֶר הַפַּעַם אוֹדֶה אֶת־יְהוָה עַל־כֵּן קָרְאָה שְׁמוֹ יְהוּדָה וַתַּעֲמֹד מִלֶּדֶת׃ 20.7. Now therefore restore the man’s wife; for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for thee, and thou shalt live; and if thou restore her not, know thou that thou shalt surely die, thou, and all that are thine.’" 20.17. And Abraham prayed unto God; and God healed Abimelech, and his wife, and his maid-servants; and they bore children." 29.35. And she conceived again, and bore a son; and she said: ‘This time will I praise the LORD.’ Therefore she called his name Judah; and she left off bearing."
8. Hebrew Bible, Job, 21.17, 42.7-42.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.17. כַּמָּה נֵר־רְשָׁעִים יִדְעָךְ וְיָבֹא עָלֵימוֹ אֵידָם חֲבָלִים יְחַלֵּק בְּאַפּוֹ׃ 42.7. וַיְהִי אַחַר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה אֶל־אִיּוֹב וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־אֱלִיפַז הַתֵּימָנִי חָרָה אַפִּי בְךָ וּבִשְׁנֵי רֵעֶיךָ כִּי לֹא דִבַּרְתֶּם אֵלַי נְכוֹנָה כְּעַבְדִּי אִיּוֹב׃ 42.8. וְעַתָּה קְחוּ־לָכֶם שִׁבְעָה־פָרִים וְשִׁבְעָה אֵילִים וּלְכוּ אֶל־עַבְדִּי אִיּוֹב וְהַעֲלִיתֶם עוֹלָה בַּעַדְכֶם וְאִיּוֹב עַבְדִּי יִתְפַּלֵּל עֲלֵיכֶם כִּי אִם־פָּנָיו אֶשָּׂא לְבִלְתִּי עֲשׂוֹת עִמָּכֶם נְבָלָה כִּי לֹא דִבַּרְתֶּם אֵלַי נְכוֹנָה כְּעַבְדִּי אִיּוֹב׃ 42.9. וַיֵּלְכוּ אֱלִיפַז הַתֵּימָנִי וּבִלְדַּד הַשּׁוּחִי צֹפַר הַנַּעֲמָתִי וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר אֲלֵיהֶם יְהוָה וַיִּשָּׂא יְהוָה אֶת־פְּנֵי אִיּוֹב׃ 21.17. How oft is it that the lamp of the wicked is put out? That their calamity cometh upon them? That He distributeth pains in His anger?" 42.7. And it was so, that after the LORD had spoken these words unto Job, the LORD said to Eliphaz the Temanite: ‘My wrath is kindled against thee, and against thy two friends; for ye have not spoken of Me the thing that is right, as My servant Job hath." 42.8. Now therefore, take unto you seven bullocks and seven rams, and go to My servant Job, and offer up for yourselves a burnt-offering; and My servant Job shall pray for you; for him will I accept, that I do not unto you aught unseemly; for ye have not spoken of Me the thing that is right, as my servant Job hath.’" 42.9. So Eliphaz the Temanite and Bildad the Shuhite and Zophar the Naamathite went, and did according as the LORD commanded them; and the LORD accepted Job."
9. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 4.31, 4.35 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.31. וְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבָּהּ יָסִיר כַּאֲשֶׁר הוּסַר חֵלֶב מֵעַל זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים וְהִקְטִיר הַכֹּהֵן הַמִּזְבֵּחָה לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 4.35. וְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבָּה יָסִיר כַּאֲשֶׁר יוּסַר חֵלֶב־הַכֶּשֶׂב מִזֶּבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים וְהִקְטִיר הַכֹּהֵן אֹתָם הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עַל אִשֵּׁי יְהוָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן עַל־חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָא וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 4.31. And all the fat thereof shall he take away, as the fat is taken away from off the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall make it smoke upon the altar for a sweet savour unto the LORD; and the priest shall make atonement for him, and he shall be forgiven." 4.35. And all the fat thereof shall he take away, as the fat of the lamb is taken away from the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall make them smoke on the altar, upon the offerings of the LORD made by fire; and the priest shall make atonement for him as touching his sin that he hath sinned, and he shall be forgiven."
10. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 15.25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.25. וְכִפֶּר הַכֹּהֵן עַל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנִסְלַח לָהֶם כִּי־שְׁגָגָה הִוא וְהֵם הֵבִיאוּ אֶת־קָרְבָּנָם אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה וְחַטָּאתָם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה עַל־שִׁגְגָתָם׃ 15.25. And the priest shall make atonement for all the congregation of the children of Israel, and they shall be forgiven; for it was an error, and they have brought their offering, an offering made by fire unto the LORD, and their sin-offering before the LORD, for their error."
11. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 15.29 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.29. רָחוֹק יְהוָה מֵרְשָׁעִים וּתְפִלַּת צַדִּיקִים יִשְׁמָע׃ 15.29. The LORD is far from the wicked; But He heareth the prayer of the righteous."
12. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 6.6, 7.18, 27.7, 29.5, 29.10, 32.2, 34.18, 42.4, 44.18, 51.2, 51.9, 51.11-51.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.6. כִּי אֵין בַּמָּוֶת זִכְרֶךָ בִּשְׁאוֹל מִי יוֹדֶה־לָּךְ׃ 27.7. שְׁמַע־יְהוָה קוֹלִי אֶקְרָא וְחָנֵּנִי וַעֲנֵנִי׃ 29.5. קוֹל יְהוָה שֹׁבֵר אֲרָזִים וַיְשַׁבֵּר יְהוָה אֶת־אַרְזֵי הַלְּבָנוֹן׃ 34.18. צָעֲקוּ וַיהוָה שָׁמֵעַ וּמִכָּל־צָרוֹתָם הִצִּילָם׃ 42.4. הָיְתָה־לִּי דִמְעָתִי לֶחֶם יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה בֶּאֱמֹר אֵלַי כָּל־הַיּוֹם אַיֵּה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 44.18. כָּל־זֹאת בָּאַתְנוּ וְלֹא שְׁכַחֲנוּךָ וְלֹא־שִׁקַּרְנוּ בִּבְרִיתֶךָ׃ 51.2. הֵיטִיבָה בִרְצוֹנְךָ אֶת־צִיּוֹן תִּבְנֶה חוֹמוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 51.2. בְּבוֹא־אֵלָיו נָתָן הַנָּבִיא כַּאֲשֶׁר־בָּא אֶל־בַּת־שָׁבַע׃ 51.9. תְּחַטְּאֵנִי בְאֵזוֹב וְאֶטְהָר תְּכַבְּסֵנִי וּמִשֶּׁלֶג אַלְבִּין׃ 51.11. הַסְתֵּר פָּנֶיךָ מֵחֲטָאָי וְכָל־עֲוֺנֹתַי מְחֵה׃ 51.12. לֵב טָהוֹר בְּרָא־לִי אֱלֹהִים וְרוּחַ נָכוֹן חַדֵּשׁ בְּקִרְבִּי׃ 6.6. For in death there is no remembrance of Thee; In the nether-world who will give Thee thanks?" 27.7. Hear, O LORD, when I call with my voice, And be gracious unto me, and answer me." 29.5. The voice of the LORD breaketh the cedars; yea, the LORD breaketh in pieces the cedars of Lebanon." 29.10. The LORD sat enthroned at the flood; Yea, the LORD sitteth as King for ever." 34.18. They cried, and the LORD heard, And delivered them out of all their troubles." 42.4. My tears have been my food day and night, while they say unto me all the day: 'Where is Thy God?'" 44.18. All this is come upon us; yet have we not forgotten Thee, neither have we been false to Thy covet." 51.2. when Nathan the prophet came unto him, after he had gone in to Bath-sheba." 51.9. Purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean; wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow." 51.11. Hide Thy face from my sins, and blot out all mine iniquities." 51.12. Create me a clean heart, O God; and renew a stedfast spirit within me."
13. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 8.28-8.54 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.28. וּפָנִיתָ אֶל־תְּפִלַּת עַבְדְּךָ וְאֶל־תְּחִנָּתוֹ יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי לִשְׁמֹעַ אֶל־הָרִנָּה וְאֶל־הַתְּפִלָּה אֲשֶׁר עַבְדְּךָ מִתְפַּלֵּל לְפָנֶיךָ הַיּוֹם׃ 8.29. לִהְיוֹת עֵינֶךָ פְתֻחוֹת אֶל־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה לַיְלָה וָיוֹם אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אָמַרְתָּ יִהְיֶה שְׁמִי שָׁם לִשְׁמֹעַ אֶל־הַתְּפִלָּה אֲשֶׁר יִתְפַּלֵּל עַבְדְּךָ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 8.31. אֵת אֲשֶׁר יֶחֱטָא אִישׁ לְרֵעֵהוּ וְנָשָׁא־בוֹ אָלָה לְהַאֲלֹתוֹ וּבָא אָלָה לִפְנֵי מִזְבַּחֲךָ בַּבַּיִת הַזֶּה׃ 8.32. וְאַתָּה תִּשְׁמַע הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעָשִׂיתָ וְשָׁפַטְתָּ אֶת־עֲבָדֶיךָ לְהַרְשִׁיעַ רָשָׁע לָתֵת דַּרְכּוֹ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וּלְהַצְדִּיק צַדִּיק לָתֶת לוֹ כְּצִדְקָתוֹ׃ 8.33. בְּהִנָּגֵף עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל לִפְנֵי אוֹיֵב אֲשֶׁר יֶחֶטְאוּ־לָךְ וְשָׁבוּ אֵלֶיךָ וְהוֹדוּ אֶת־שְׁמֶךָ וְהִתְפַּלְלוּ וְהִתְחַנְּנוּ אֵלֶיךָ בַּבַּיִת הַזֶּה׃ 8.34. וְאַתָּה תִּשְׁמַע הַשָּׁמַיִם וְסָלַחְתָּ לְחַטַּאת עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל וַהֲשֵׁבֹתָם אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נָתַתָּ לַאֲבוֹתָם׃ 8.35. בְּהֵעָצֵר שָׁמַיִם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה מָטָר כִּי יֶחֶטְאוּ־לָךְ וְהִתְפַּלְלוּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וְהוֹדוּ אֶת־שְׁמֶךָ וּמֵחַטָּאתָם יְשׁוּבוּן כִּי תַעֲנֵם׃ 8.36. וְאַתָּה תִּשְׁמַע הַשָּׁמַיִם וְסָלַחְתָּ לְחַטַּאת עֲבָדֶיךָ וְעַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי תוֹרֵם אֶת־הַדֶּרֶךְ הַטּוֹבָה אֲשֶׁר יֵלְכוּ־בָהּ וְנָתַתָּה מָטָר עַל־אַרְצְךָ אֲשֶׁר־נָתַתָּה לְעַמְּךָ לְנַחֲלָה׃ 8.37. רָעָב כִּי־יִהְיֶה בָאָרֶץ דֶּבֶר כִּי־יִהְיֶה שִׁדָּפוֹן יֵרָקוֹן אַרְבֶּה חָסִיל כִּי יִהְיֶה כִּי יָצַר־לוֹ אֹיְבוֹ בְּאֶרֶץ שְׁעָרָיו כָּל־נֶגַע כָּל־מַחֲלָה׃ 8.38. כָּל־תְּפִלָּה כָל־תְּחִנָּה אֲשֶׁר תִהְיֶה לְכָל־הָאָדָם לְכֹל עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יֵדְעוּן אִישׁ נֶגַע לְבָבוֹ וּפָרַשׂ כַּפָּיו אֶל־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה׃ 8.39. וְאַתָּה תִּשְׁמַע הַשָּׁמַיִם מְכוֹן שִׁבְתֶּךָ וְסָלַחְתָּ וְעָשִׂיתָ וְנָתַתָּ לָאִישׁ כְּכָל־דְּרָכָיו אֲשֶׁר תֵּדַע אֶת־לְבָבוֹ כִּי־אַתָּה יָדַעְתָּ לְבַדְּךָ אֶת־לְבַב כָּל־בְּנֵי הָאָדָם׃ 8.41. וְגַם אֶל־הַנָּכְרִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־מֵעַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל הוּא וּבָא מֵאֶרֶץ רְחוֹקָה לְמַעַן שְׁמֶךָ׃ 8.42. כִּי יִשְׁמְעוּן אֶת־שִׁמְךָ הַגָּדוֹל וְאֶת־יָדְךָ הַחֲזָקָה וּזְרֹעֲךָ הַנְּטוּיָה וּבָא וְהִתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה׃ 8.43. אַתָּה תִּשְׁמַע הַשָּׁמַיִם מְכוֹן שִׁבְתֶּךָ וְעָשִׂיתָ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יִקְרָא אֵלֶיךָ הַנָּכְרִי לְמַעַן יֵדְעוּן כָּל־עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ אֶת־שְׁמֶךָ לְיִרְאָה אֹתְךָ כְּעַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלָדַעַת כִּי־שִׁמְךָ נִקְרָא עַל־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר בָּנִיתִי׃ 8.44. כִּי־יֵצֵא עַמְּךָ לַמִּלְחָמָה עַל־אֹיְבוֹ בַּדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁלָחֵם וְהִתְפַּלְלוּ אֶל־יְהוָה דֶּרֶךְ הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר בָּחַרְתָּ בָּהּ וְהַבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר־בָּנִתִי לִשְׁמֶךָ׃ 8.45. וְשָׁמַעְתָּ הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶת־תְּפִלָּתָם וְאֶת־תְּחִנָּתָם וְעָשִׂיתָ מִשְׁפָּטָם׃ 8.46. כִּי יֶחֶטְאוּ־לָךְ כִּי אֵין אָדָם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יֶחֱטָא וְאָנַפְתָּ בָם וּנְתַתָּם לִפְנֵי אוֹיֵב וְשָׁבוּם שֹׁבֵיהֶם אֶל־אֶרֶץ הָאוֹיֵב רְחוֹקָה אוֹ קְרוֹבָה׃ 8.47. וְהֵשִׁיבוּ אֶל־לִבָּם בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבּוּ־שָׁם וְשָׁבוּ וְהִתְחַנְּנוּ אֵלֶיךָ בְּאֶרֶץ שֹׁבֵיהֶם לֵאמֹר חָטָאנוּ וְהֶעֱוִינוּ רָשָׁעְנוּ׃ 8.48. וְשָׁבוּ אֵלֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבָם וּבְכָל־נַפְשָׁם בְּאֶרֶץ אֹיְבֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר־שָׁבוּ אֹתָם וְהִתְפַּלְלוּ אֵלֶיךָ דֶּרֶךְ אַרְצָם אֲשֶׁר נָתַתָּה לַאֲבוֹתָם הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר בָּחַרְתָּ וְהַבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר־בנית [בָּנִיתִי] לִשְׁמֶךָ׃ 8.49. וְשָׁמַעְתָּ הַשָּׁמַיִם מְכוֹן שִׁבְתְּךָ אֶת־תְּפִלָּתָם וְאֶת־תְּחִנָּתָם וְעָשִׂיתָ מִשְׁפָּטָם׃ 8.51. כִּי־עַמְּךָ וְנַחֲלָתְךָ הֵם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתָ מִמִּצְרַיִם מִתּוֹךְ כּוּר הַבַּרְזֶל׃ 8.52. לִהְיוֹת עֵינֶיךָ פְתֻחוֹת אֶל־תְּחִנַּת עַבְדְּךָ וְאֶל־תְּחִנַּת עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל לִשְׁמֹעַ אֲלֵיהֶם בְּכֹל קָרְאָם אֵלֶיךָ׃ 8.53. כִּי־אַתָּה הִבְדַּלְתָּם לְךָ לְנַחֲלָה מִכֹּל עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ בְּיַד מֹשֶׁה עַבְדֶּךָ בְּהוֹצִיאֲךָ אֶת־אֲבֹתֵינוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 8.54. וַיְהִי כְּכַלּוֹת שְׁלֹמֹה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־יְהוָה אֵת כָּל־הַתְּפִלָּה וְהַתְּחִנָּה הַזֹּאת קָם מִלִּפְנֵי מִזְבַּח יְהוָה מִכְּרֹעַ עַל־בִּרְכָּיו וְכַפָּיו פְּרֻשׂוֹת הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 8.28. Yet have Thou respect unto the prayer of Thy servant, and to his supplication, O LORD my God, to hearken unto the cry and to the prayer which Thy servant prayeth before Thee this day;" 8.29. that Thine eyes may be open toward this house night and day, even toward the place whereof Thou hast said: My name shall be there; to hearken unto the prayer which Thy servant shall pray toward this place." 8.30. And hearken Thou to the supplication of Thy servant, and of Thy people Israel, when they shall pray toward this place; yea, hear Thou in heaven Thy dwelling-place; and when Thou hearest, forgive." 8.31. If a man sin against his neighbour, and an oath be exacted of him to cause him to swear, and he come and swear before Thine altar in this house;" 8.32. then hear Thou in heaven, and do, and judge Thy servants, condemning the wicked, to bring his way upon his own head; and justifying the righteous, to give him according to his righteousness." 8.33. When Thy people Israel are smitten down before the enemy, when they do sin against Thee, if they turn again to Thee, and confess Thy name, and pray and make supplication unto Thee in this house;" 8.34. then hear Thou in heaven, and forgive the sin of Thy people Israel, and bring them back unto the land which Thou gavest unto their fathers." 8.35. When heaven is shut up, and there is no rain, when they do sin against Thee; if they pray toward this place, and confess Thy name, and turn from their sin, when Thou dost afflict them;" 8.36. then hear Thou in heaven, and forgive the sin of Thy servants, and of Thy people Israel, when Thou teachest them the good way wherein they should walk; and send rain upon Thy land, which Thou hast given to Thy people for an inheritance." 8.37. If there be in the land famine, if there be pestilence, if there be blasting or mildew, locust or caterpillar; if their enemy besiege them in the land of their cities; whatsoever plague, whatsoever sickness there be;" 8.38. what prayer and supplication soever be made by any man of all Thy people Israel, who shall know every man the plague of his own heart, and spread forth his hands toward this house;" 8.39. then hear Thou in heaven Thy dwelling-place, and forgive, and do, and render unto every man according to all his ways, whose heart Thou knowest—for Thou, even Thou only, knowest the hearts of all the children of men—" 8.40. that they may fear Thee all the days that they live in the land which Thou gavest unto our fathers." 8.41. Moreover concerning the stranger that is not of Thy people Israel, when he shall come out of a far country for Thy name’s sake—" 8.42. for they shall hear of Thy great name, and of Thy mighty hand, and of Thine outstretched arm—when he shall come and pray toward this house;" 8.43. hear Thou in heaven Thy dwelling-place, and do according to all that the stranger calleth to Thee for; that all the peoples of the earth may know Thy name, to fear Thee, as doth Thy people Israel, and that they may know that Thy name is called upon this house which I have built." 8.44. If Thy people go out to battle against their enemy, by whatsoever way Thou shalt send them, and they pray unto the LORD toward the city which Thou hast chosen, and toward the house which I have built for Thy name;" 8.45. then hear Thou in heaven their prayer and their supplication, and maintain their cause." 8.46. If they sin against Thee—for there is no man that sinneth not—and Thou be angry with them, and deliver them to the enemy, so that they carry them away captive unto the land of the enemy, far off or near;" 8.47. yet if they shall bethink themselves in the land whither they are carried captive, and turn back, and make supplication unto Thee in the land of them that carried them captive, saying: We have sinned, and have done iniquitously, we have dealt wickedly;" 8.48. if they return unto Thee with all their heart and with all their soul in the land of their enemies, who carried them captive, and pray unto Thee toward their land, which Thou gavest unto their fathers, the city which Thou hast chosen, and the house which I have built for Thy name;" 8.49. then hear Thou their prayer and their supplication in heaven Thy dwelling-place, and maintain their cause;" 8.50. and forgive Thy people who have sinned against Thee, and all their transgressions wherein they have transgressed against Thee; and give them compassion before those who carried them captive, that they may have compassion on them;" 8.51. for they are Thy people, and Thine inheritance, which Thou broughtest forth out of Egypt, from the midst of the furnace of iron;" 8.52. that Thine eyes may be open unto the supplication of Thy servant, and unto the supplication of Thy people Israel, to hearken unto them whensoever they cry unto Thee." 8.53. For Thou didst set them apart from among all the peoples of the earth, to be Thine inheritance, as Thou didst speak by the hand of Moses Thy servant, when Thou broughtest our fathers out of Egypt, O Lord GOD.’" 8.54. And it was so, that when Solomon had made an end of praying all this prayer and supplication unto the LORD, he arose from before the altar of the LORD, from kneeling on his knees with his hands spread forth toward heaven."
14. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 1.10, 1.26-1.27, 7.5-7.6, 9.16, 12.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.26. וַתֹּאמֶר בִּי אֲדֹנִי חֵי נַפְשְׁךָ אֲדֹנִי אֲנִי הָאִשָּׁה הַנִּצֶּבֶת עִמְּכָה בָּזֶה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־יְהוָה׃ 1.27. אֶל־הַנַּעַר הַזֶּה הִתְפַּלָּלְתִּי וַיִּתֵּן יְהוָה לִי אֶת־שְׁאֵלָתִי אֲשֶׁר שָׁאַלְתִּי מֵעִמּוֹ׃ 7.5. וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל קִבְצוּ אֶת־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל הַמִּצְפָּתָה וְאֶתְפַּלֵּל בַּעַדְכֶם אֶל־יְהוָה׃ 7.6. וַיִּקָּבְצוּ הַמִּצְפָּתָה וַיִּשְׁאֲבוּ־מַיִם וַיִּשְׁפְּכוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וַיָּצוּמוּ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וַיֹּאמְרוּ שָׁם חָטָאנוּ לַיהוָה וַיִּשְׁפֹּט שְׁמוּאֵל אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּמִּצְפָּה׃ 9.16. כָּעֵת מָחָר אֶשְׁלַח אֵלֶיךָ אִישׁ מֵאֶרֶץ בִּנְיָמִן וּמְשַׁחְתּוֹ לְנָגִיד עַל־עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהוֹשִׁיעַ אֶת־עַמִּי מִיַּד פְּלִשְׁתִּים כִּי רָאִיתִי אֶת־עַמִּי כִּי בָּאָה צַעֲקָתוֹ אֵלָי׃ 12.19. וַיֹּאמְרוּ כָל־הָעָם אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵל הִתְפַּלֵּל בְּעַד־עֲבָדֶיךָ אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְאַל־נָמוּת כִּי־יָסַפְנוּ עַל־כָּל־חַטֹּאתֵינוּ רָעָה לִשְׁאֹל לָנוּ מֶלֶךְ׃ 1.10. And she was in bitterness of soul, and prayed to the Lord, and wept bitterly." 1.26. And she said, O my lord, as thy soul lives, my lord, I am the woman that stood by thee here, praying to the Lord." 1.27. For this child I prayed; and the Lord has given me my petition which I asked of him:" 7.5. And Shemu᾽el said, Gather all Yisra᾽el to Miżpa, and I will pray for you to the Lord." 7.6. And they gathered together to Miżpa, and drew water, and poured it out before the Lord, and fasted on that day, and said there, We have sinned against the Lord. And Shemu᾽el judged the children of Yisra᾽el in Miżpa." 9.16. To morrow about this time I will send thee a man out of the land of Binyamin, and thou shalt anoint him to be a prince over my people Yisra᾽el, that he may save my people out of the hand of the Pelishtim: for I have looked upon my people, because their cry is come to me." 12.19. And all the people said to Shemu᾽el, Pray for thy servants to the Lord thy God, that we die not: for we have added to all our sins this evil, to ask for a king for ourselves."
15. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 4.33 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.33. וַיָּבֹא וַיִּסְגֹּר הַדֶּלֶת בְּעַד שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־יְהוָה׃ 4.33. He went in therefore, and shut the door upon them twain, and prayed unto the LORD."
16. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.16-1.17, 45.23, 62.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.16. רַחֲצוּ הִזַּכּוּ הָסִירוּ רֹעַ מַעַלְלֵיכֶם מִנֶּגֶד עֵינָי חִדְלוּ הָרֵעַ׃ 1.17. לִמְדוּ הֵיטֵב דִּרְשׁוּ מִשְׁפָּט אַשְּׁרוּ חָמוֹץ שִׁפְטוּ יָתוֹם רִיבוּ אַלְמָנָה׃ 45.23. בִּי נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי יָצָא מִפִּי צְדָקָה דָּבָר וְלֹא יָשׁוּב כִּי־לִי תִּכְרַע כָּל־בֶּרֶךְ תִּשָּׁבַע כָּל־לָשׁוֹן׃ 62.1. לְמַעַן צִיּוֹן לֹא אֶחֱשֶׁה וּלְמַעַן יְרוּשָׁלִַם לֹא אֶשְׁקוֹט עַד־יֵצֵא כַנֹּגַהּ צִדְקָהּ וִישׁוּעָתָהּ כְּלַפִּיד יִבְעָר׃ 62.1. עִבְרוּ עִבְרוּ בַּשְּׁעָרִים פַּנּוּ דֶּרֶךְ הָעָם סֹלּוּ סֹלּוּ הַמְסִלָּה סַקְּלוּ מֵאֶבֶן הָרִימוּ נֵס עַל־הָעַמִּים׃ 1.16. Wash you, make you clean, Put away the evil of your doings From before Mine eyes, Cease to do evil;" 1.17. Learn to do well; Seek justice, relieve the oppressed, Judge the fatherless, plead for the widow." 45.23. By Myself have I sworn, The word is gone forth from My mouth in righteousness, And shall not come back, That unto Me every knee shall bow, Every tongue shall swear." 62.1. For Zion’s sake will I not hold My peace, And for Jerusalem’s sake I will not rest, Until her triumph go forth as brightness, And her salvation as a torch that burneth."
17. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 6.24, 7.16, 11.14, 15.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.24. שָׁמַעְנוּ אֶת־שָׁמְעוֹ רָפוּ יָדֵינוּ צָרָה הֶחֱזִיקַתְנוּ חִיל כַּיּוֹלֵדָה׃ 7.16. וְאַתָּה אַל־תִּתְפַּלֵּל בְּעַד־הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאַל־תִּשָּׂא בַעֲדָם רִנָּה וּתְפִלָּה וְאַל־תִּפְגַּע־בִּי כִּי־אֵינֶנִּי שֹׁמֵעַ אֹתָךְ׃ 11.14. וְאַתָּה אַל־תִּתְפַּלֵּל בְּעַד־הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאַל־תִּשָּׂא בַעֲדָם רִנָּה וּתְפִלָּה כִּי אֵינֶנִּי שֹׁמֵעַ בְּעֵת קָרְאָם אֵלַי בְּעַד רָעָתָם׃ 15.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלַי אִם־יַעֲמֹד מֹשֶׁה וּשְׁמוּאֵל לְפָנַי אֵין נַפְשִׁי אֶל־הָעָם הַזֶּה שַׁלַּח מֵעַל־פָּנַי וְיֵצֵאוּ׃ 15.1. אוֹי־לִי אִמִּי כִּי יְלִדְתִּנִי אִישׁ רִיב וְאִישׁ מָדוֹן לְכָל־הָאָרֶץ לֹא־נָשִׁיתִי וְלֹא־נָשׁוּ־בִי כֻּלֹּה מְקַלְלַונִי׃ 6.24. ’We have heard the fame thereof, our hands wax feeble, Anguish hath taken hold of us, And pain, as of a woman in travail.’" 7.16. Therefore pray not thou for this people, neither lift up cry nor prayer for them, neither make intercession to Me; for I will not hear thee." 11.14. Therefore pray not thou for this people, neither lift up cry nor prayer for them; for I will not hear them in the time that they cry unto Me for their trouble.’" 15.1. Then said the LORD unto me: ‘Though Moses and Samuel stood before Me, yet My mind could not be toward this people; cast them out of My sight, and let them go forth."
18. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 3.49 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.49. עֵינִי נִגְּרָה וְלֹא תִדְמֶה מֵאֵין הֲפֻגוֹת׃ 3.49. Mine eye is poured out, and ceaseth not, Without any intermission,"
19. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 10.1-10.9, 10.12, 10.14-10.19 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.1. וּמַרְאֵיהֶם דְּמוּת אֶחָד לְאַרְבַּעְתָּם כַּאֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה הָאוֹפַן בְּתוֹךְ הָאוֹפָן׃ 10.1. וָאֶרְאֶה וְהִנֵּה אֶל־הָרָקִיעַ אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשׁ הַכְּרֻבִים כְּאֶבֶן סַפִּיר כְּמַרְאֵה דְּמוּת כִּסֵּא נִרְאָה עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 10.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָאִישׁ לְבֻשׁ הַבַּדִּים וַיֹּאמֶר בֹּא אֶל־בֵּינוֹת לַגַּלְגַּל אֶל־תַּחַת לַכְּרוּב וּמַלֵּא חָפְנֶיךָ גַחֲלֵי־אֵשׁ מִבֵּינוֹת לַכְּרֻבִים וּזְרֹק עַל־הָעִיר וַיָּבֹא לְעֵינָי׃ 10.2. הִיא הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתִי תַּחַת אֱלֹהֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּנְהַר־כְּבָר וָאֵדַע כִּי כְרוּבִים הֵמָּה׃ 10.3. וְהַכְּרֻבִים עֹמְדִים מִימִין לַבַּיִת בְּבֹאוֹ הָאִישׁ וְהֶעָנָן מָלֵא אֶת־הֶחָצֵר הַפְּנִימִית׃ 10.4. וַיָּרָם כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה מֵעַל הַכְּרוּב עַל מִפְתַּן הַבָּיִת וַיִּמָּלֵא הַבַּיִת אֶת־הֶעָנָן וְהֶחָצֵר מָלְאָה אֶת־נֹגַהּ כְּבוֹד יְהוָה׃ 10.5. וְקוֹל כַּנְפֵי הַכְּרוּבִים נִשְׁמַע עַד־הֶחָצֵר הַחִיצֹנָה כְּקוֹל אֵל־שַׁדַּי בְּדַבְּרוֹ׃ 10.6. וַיְהִי בְּצַוֺּתוֹ אֶת־הָאִישׁ לְבֻשׁ־הַבַּדִּים לֵאמֹר קַח אֵשׁ מִבֵּינוֹת לַגַּלְגַּל מִבֵּינוֹת לַכְּרוּבִים וַיָּבֹא וַיַּעֲמֹד אֵצֶל הָאוֹפָן׃ 10.7. וַיִּשְׁלַח הַכְּרוּב אֶת־יָדוֹ מִבֵּינוֹת לַכְּרוּבִים אֶל־הָאֵשׁ אֲשֶׁר בֵּינוֹת הַכְּרֻבִים וַיִּשָּׂא וַיִּתֵּן אֶל־חָפְנֵי לְבֻשׁ הַבַּדִּים וַיִּקַּח וַיֵּצֵא׃ 10.8. וַיֵּרָא לַכְּרֻבִים תַּבְנִית יַד־אָדָם תַּחַת כַּנְפֵיהֶם׃ 10.9. וָאֶרְאֶה וְהִנֵּה אַרְבָּעָה אוֹפַנִּים אֵצֶל הַכְּרוּבִים אוֹפַן אֶחָד אֵצֶל הַכְּרוּב אֶחָד וְאוֹפַן אֶחָד אֵצֶל הַכְּרוּב אֶחָד וּמַרְאֵה הָאוֹפַנִּים כְּעֵין אֶבֶן תַּרְשִׁישׁ׃ 10.12. וְכָל־בְּשָׂרָם וְגַבֵּהֶם וִידֵיהֶם וְכַנְפֵיהֶם וְהָאוֹפַנִּים מְלֵאִים עֵינַיִם סָבִיב לְאַרְבַּעְתָּם אוֹפַנֵּיהֶם׃ 10.14. וְאַרְבָּעָה פָנִים לְאֶחָד פְּנֵי הָאֶחָד פְּנֵי הַכְּרוּב וּפְנֵי הַשֵּׁנִי פְּנֵי אָדָם וְהַשְּׁלִישִׁי פְּנֵי אַרְיֵה וְהָרְבִיעִי פְּנֵי־נָשֶׁר׃ 10.15. וַיֵּרֹמּוּ הַכְּרוּבִים הִיא הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתִי בִּנְהַר־כְּבָר׃ 10.16. וּבְלֶכֶת הַכְּרוּבִים יֵלְכוּ הָאוֹפַנִּים אֶצְלָם וּבִשְׂאֵת הַכְּרוּבִים אֶת־כַּנְפֵיהֶם לָרוּם מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ לֹא־יִסַּבּוּ הָאוֹפַנִּים גַּם־הֵם מֵאֶצְלָם׃ 10.17. בְּעָמְדָם יַעֲמֹדוּ וּבְרוֹמָם יֵרוֹמּוּ אוֹתָם כִּי רוּחַ הַחַיָּה בָּהֶם׃ 10.18. וַיֵּצֵא כְּבוֹד יְהוָה מֵעַל מִפְתַּן הַבָּיִת וַיַּעֲמֹד עַל־הַכְּרוּבִים׃ 10.19. וַיִּשְׂאוּ הַכְּרוּבִים אֶת־כַּנְפֵיהֶם וַיֵּרוֹמּוּ מִן־הָאָרֶץ לְעֵינַי בְּצֵאתָם וְהָאוֹפַנִּים לְעֻמָּתָם וַיַּעֲמֹד פֶּתַח שַׁעַר בֵּית־יְהוָה הַקַּדְמוֹנִי וּכְבוֹד אֱלֹהֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲלֵיהֶם מִלְמָעְלָה׃ 10.1. Then I looked, and, behold, upon the firmament that was over the head of the cherubim, there appeared above them as it were a sapphire stone, as the appearance of the likeness of a throne." 10.2. And He spoke unto the man clothed in linen, and said: ‘Go in between the wheelwork, even under the cherub, and fill both thy hands with coals of fire from between the cherubim, and dash them against the city.’ And he went in in my sight." 10.3. Now the cherubim stood on the right side of the house, when the man went in; and the cloud filled the inner court." 10.4. And the glory of the LORD mounted up from the cherub to the threshold of the house; and the house was filled with the cloud, and the court was full of the brightness of the LORD’S glory." 10.5. And the sound of the wings of the cherubim was heard even to the outer court, as the voice of God Almighty when He speaketh." 10.6. And it came to pass, when He commanded the man clothed in linen, saying: ‘Take fire from between the wheelwork, from between the cherubim’, that he went in, and stood beside a wheel." 10.7. And the cherub stretched forth his hand from between the cherubim unto the fire that was between the cherubim, and took thereof, and put it into the hands of him that was clothed in linen, who took it and went out." 10.8. And there appeared in the cherubim the form of a man’s hand under their wings." 10.9. And I looked, and behold four wheels beside the cherubim, one wheel beside one cherub, and another wheel beside another cherub; and the appearance of the wheels was as the colour of a beryl stone." 10.12. And their whole body, and their backs, and their hands, and their wings, and the wheels were full of eyes round about, even the wheels that they four had." 10.14. And every one had four faces: the first face was the face of the cherub, and the second face was the face of a man, and the third the face of a lion, and the fourth the face of an eagle." 10.15. And the cherubim mounted up—this is the living creature that I saw by the river Chebar." 10.16. And when the cherubim went, the wheels went beside them; and when the cherubim lifted up their wings to mount up from the earth, the same wheels also turned not from beside them." 10.17. When they stood, these stood, and when they mounted up, these mounted up with them; for the spirit of the living creature was in them." 10.18. And the glory of the LORD went forth from off the threshold of the house, and stood over the cherubim." 10.19. And the cherubim lifted up their wings, and mounted up from the earth in my sight when they went forth, and the wheels beside them; and they stood at the door of the east gate of the LORD’S house; and the glory of the God of Israel was over them above."
20. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 16.8, 16.34 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.8. הוֹדוּ לַיהוָה קִרְאוּ בִשְׁמוֹ הוֹדִיעוּ בָעַמִּים עֲלִילֹתָיו׃ 16.34. הוֹדוּ לַיהוָה כִּי טוֹב כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 16.8. O give thanks unto the LORD, call upon His name; Make known His doings among the peoples." 16.34. O give thanks unto the LORD; for He is good; For His mercy endureth for ever."
21. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 6 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

22. Septuagint, Tobit, 13.10, 14.1 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

13.10. Give thanks worthily to the Lord,and praise the King of the ages,that his tent may be raised for you again with joy. May he cheer those within you who are captives,and love those within you who are distressed,to all generations for ever.
23. Anon., Testament of Joseph, 18.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

18.2. And if any one seeketh to do evil unto you, do well unto him, and pray for him, and ye shall be redeemed of the Lord from all evil.
24. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 9.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.20. And while I was speaking, and praying, and confessing my sin and the sin of my people Israel, and presenting my supplication before the LORD my God for the holy mountain of my God;"
25. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 8.27 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

8.27. In the same way, if war comes first to the nation of the Jews, the Romans shall willingly act as their allies, as the occasion may indicate to them.
26. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 7.27, 51.1-51.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.27. With all your heart honor your father,and do not forget the birth pangs of your mother. 51.1. I will give thanks to thee, O Lord and King,and will praise thee as God my Savior. I give thanks to thy name 51.1. I appealed to the Lord, the Father of my lord,not to forsake me in the days of affliction,at the time when there is no help against the proud. 51.2. for thou hast been my protector and helper and hast delivered my body from destruction and from the snare of a slanderous tongue,from lips that utter lies. Before those who stood by thou wast my helper 51.2. I directed my soul to her,and through purification I found her. I gained understanding with her from the first,therefore I will not be forsaken.
27. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 7.27 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7.27. Though she is but one, she can do all things,and while remaining in herself, she renews all things;in every generation she passes into holy souls and makes them friends of God, and prophets;
28. Anon., 2 Baruch, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

29. Anon., Didache, 11.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

30. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 25.2 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

31. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 9.3, 59.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.3. λάβωμεν Ἐνώχ, ὃς ἐν ὑπακοῇ δίκαιος εὑρεθεὶς Gen,6,8;1,7; Heb. 11, 7; 11 Pet 2, 5 μετετέθη, καὶ οὐχ εὑρέθη αὐτοῦ θάνατος. 59.4. ἀξιοῦμέν σε, δέσποτα, βοηθὸν γενέσθαι καὶ ἀντιλήπτορα ἡμῶν. τοὺς ἐν θλίψει ἡμῶν σῶσον, τοὺς ταπεινοὺς ἐλέησον, τοὺς πεπτωκότας ἔγειρον, τοῖς δεομένοις ἐπιφάνηθι, τοὺς ἀσθενεῖς ἴασαι, τοὺς πλανωμένους τοῦ λαοῦ σου ἐπίστρεψον: χόρτασον τοὺς πεινῶντας, λύτρωσαι τοὺς δεσμίους ἡμῶν, ἐξανάστησον τοὺς ἀσθενοῦντας, παρακάλεσον τοὺς ὀλιγοψυχοῦντας: I Kings 3, 60; II Kings 19, 19; Ezek. 86, 23 Ps. 78, 13; 94, 7; 99, 8 γνώτωσάν σε ἅπαντα τὰ ἔθνη. ὅτι σὺ εἶ ὁ θεὸς μόνος καὶ Ἰησοῦς Χριστὸς ὁ παῖς σου καὶ ἡμεῖς λαός σου καὶ πρόβατα τῆς νομῆς σου. 51. Let us therefore implore forgiveness for all those transgressions which through any [suggestion] of the adversary we have committed. And these who have been the leaders of sedition and disagreement ought to have respect to the common hope. For such as live in fear and love would rather that they themselves than their neighbours should be involved in suffering. And they prefer to bear blame themselves, rather than that the concord which has been well and piously handed down to us should suffer. For it is better that a man should acknowledge his transgressions than that he should harden his heart, as the hearts of those were hardened who stirred up sedition against Moses the servant of God, and whose condemnation was made manifest [unto all]. For they went down alive into Hades, and death swallowed them up. Pharaoh with his army and all the princes of Egypt, and the chariots with their riders, were sunk in the depths of the Red Sea, and perished, Exodus xiv for no other reason than that their foolish hearts were hardened, after so many signs and wonders had been wrought in the land of Egypt by Moses the servant of God.
32. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 2.268 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.268. and he foretold to him, that he should have glory and honor among men, by the blessing of God upon him. He also commanded him to go away thence with confidence to Egypt, in order to his being the commander and conductor of the body of the Hebrews, and to his delivering his own people from the injuries they suffered there:
33. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 5.420, 6.113-6.118 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.113. yet did that discourse influence a great many of the better sort; and truly some of them were so afraid of the guards sent by the seditious, that they tarried where they were, but still were satisfied that both they and the city were doomed to destruction. Some also there were who, watching for a proper opportunity when they might quietly get away, fled to the Romans 6.114. of whom were the high priests Joseph and Jesus, and of the sons of high priests three, whose father was Ishmael, who was beheaded in Cyrene, and four sons of Matthias, as also one son of the other Matthias, who ran away after his father’s death, and whose father was slain by Simon the son of Gioras, with three of his sons, as I have already related; many also of the other nobility went over to the Romans, together with the high priests. 6.115. Now Caesar not only received these men very kindly in other respects, but, knowing they would not willingly live after the customs of other nations, he sent them to Gophna, and desired them to remain there for the present, and told them, that when he was gotten clear of this war, he would restore each of them to their possessions again; 6.116. o they cheerfully retired to that small city which was allotted them, without fear of any danger. But as they did not appear, the seditious gave out again that these deserters were slain by the Romans,—which was done in order to deter the rest from running away, by fear of the like treatment. 6.117. This trick of theirs succeeded now for a while, as did the like trick before; for the rest were hereby deterred from deserting, by fear of the like treatment. 6.118. 3. However, when Titus had recalled those men from Gophna, he gave orders that they should go round the wall, together with Josephus, and show themselves to the people; upon which a great many fled to the Romans.
34. New Testament, 1 John, 5.16-5.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.16. If anyone sees his brother sinning a sin not leading to death, he shall ask, and God will give him life for those who sin not leading to death. There is a sin leading to death. I don't say that he should make a request concerning this. 5.17. All unrighteousness is sin, and there is a sin not leading to death.
35. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 4.2, 12.8-12.10, 12.28-12.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.2. Here, moreover, it is required of stewards, thatthey be found faithful. 12.8. For to one is given through theSpirit the word of wisdom, and to another the word of knowledge,according to the same Spirit; 12.9. to another faith, by the sameSpirit; and to another gifts of healings, by the same Spirit; 12.10. and to another workings of miracles; and to another prophecy; and toanother discerning of spirits; to another different kinds of languages;and to another the interpretation of languages. 12.28. God has set some in the assembly: first apostles, secondprophets, third teachers, then miracle workers, then gifts of healings,helps, governments, and various kinds of languages. 12.29. Are allapostles? Are all prophets? Are all teachers? Are all miracle workers?
36. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 7.9-7.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

37. New Testament, Acts, 2.19-2.20, 7.34, 8.22, 16.31 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.19. I will show wonders in the the sky above, And signs on the earth beneath; Blood, and fire, and billows of smoke. 2.20. The sun will be turned into darkness, And the moon into blood, Before the great and glorious day of the Lord comes. 7.34. I have surely seen the affliction of my people that is in Egypt , and have heard their groaning. I have come down to deliver them. Now come, I will send you into Egypt.' 8.22. Repent therefore of this, your wickedness, and ask God if perhaps the thought of your heart may be forgiven you. 16.31. They said, "Believe in the Lord Jesus Christ, and you will be saved, you and your household.
38. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.5, 2.16, 2.22, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.5. Remember therefore from where you have fallen, and repent and do the first works; or else I am coming to you swiftly, and will move your lampstand out of its place, unless you repent. 2.16. Repent therefore, or else I am coming to you quickly, and I will make war against them with the sword of my mouth. 2.22. Behold, I will throw her into a bed, and those who commit adultery with her into great oppression, unless they repent of her works. 3.3. Remember therefore how you have received and heard. Keep it, and repent. If therefore you won't watch, I will come as a thief, and you won't know what hour I will come upon you.
39. New Testament, James, 1.27, 2.2, 2.7-2.8, 2.14-2.20, 2.23, 2.26, 3.16-3.17, 4.1-4.11, 5.7, 5.10, 5.13-5.15, 5.17-5.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.27. Pure religion and undefiled before our God and Father is this: to visit the fatherless and widows in their affliction, and to keep oneself unstained by the world. 2.2. For if a man with a gold ring, in fine clothing, comes into your assembly, and a poor man in filthy clothing also comes in; 2.7. Don't they blaspheme the honorable name by which you are called? 2.8. However, if you fulfill the royal law, according to the Scripture, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself," you do well. 2.14. What good is it, my brothers, if a man says he has faith, but has no works? Can that faith save him? 2.15. And if a brother or sister is naked and in lack of daily food 2.16. and one of you tells them, "Go in peace, be warmed and filled;" and yet you didn't give them the things the body needs, what good is it? 2.17. Even so faith, if it has no works, is dead in itself. 2.18. Yes, a man will say, "You have faith, and I have works." Show me your faith from your works, and I by my works will show you my faith. 2.19. You believe that God is one. You do well. The demons also believe, and shudder. 2.20. But do you want to know, vain man, that faith apart from works is dead? 2.23. and the Scripture was fulfilled which says, "Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him as righteousness;" and he was called the friend of God. 2.26. For as the body apart from the spirit is dead, even so faith apart from works is dead. 3.16. For where jealousy and selfish ambition are, there is confusion and every evil deed. 3.17. But the wisdom that is from above is first pure, then peaceful, gentle, reasonable, full of mercy and good fruits, without partiality, and without hypocrisy. 4.1. Where do wars and fightings among you come from? Don't they come from your pleasures that war in your members? 4.2. You lust, and don't have. You kill, covet, and can't obtain. You fight and make war. Yet you don't have, because you don't ask. 4.3. You ask, and don't receive, because you ask amiss, so that you may spend it for your pleasures. 4.4. You adulterers and adulteresses, don't you know that friendship with the world is enmity with God? Whoever therefore wants to be a friend of the world makes himself an enemy of God. 4.5. Or do you think that the Scripture says in vain, "The Spirit who lives in us yearns jealously"? 4.6. But he gives more grace. Therefore it says, "God resists the proud, but gives grace to the humble. 4.7. Be subject therefore to God. But resist the devil, and he will flee from you. 4.8. Draw near to God, and he will draw near to you. Cleanse your hands, you sinners; and purify your hearts, you double-minded. 4.9. Lament, mourn, and weep. Let your laughter be turned to mourning, and your joy to gloom. 4.10. Humble yourselves in the sight of the Lord, and he will exalt you. 4.11. Don't speak against one another, brothers. He who speaks against a brother and judges his brother, speaks against the law and judges the law. But if you judge the law, you are not a doer of the law, but a judge. 5.7. Be patient therefore, brothers, until the coming of the Lord. Behold, the farmer waits for the precious fruit of the earth, being patient over it, until it receives the early and late rain. 5.10. Take, brothers, for an example of suffering and of patience, the prophets who spoke in the name of the Lord. 5.13. Is any among you suffering? Let him pray. Is any cheerful? Let him sing praises. 5.14. Is any among you sick? Let him call for the elders of the assembly, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord 5.15. and the prayer of faith will heal him who is sick, and the Lord will raise him up. If he has committed sins, he will be forgiven. 5.17. Elijah was a man with a nature like ours, and he prayed earnestly that it might not rain, and it didn't rain on the earth for three years and six months. 5.18. He prayed again, and the sky gave rain, and the earth brought forth its fruit. 5.19. Brothers, if any among you wanders from the truth, and someone turns him back 5.20. let him know that he who turns a sinner from the error of his way will save a soul from death, and will cover a multitude of sins.
40. New Testament, Galatians, 2.12, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.12. For before some people came fromJames, he ate with the Gentiles. But when they came, he drew back andseparated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision. 3.5. He therefore who supplies the Spirit to you, and worksmiracles among you, does he do it by the works of the law, or byhearing of faith?
41. New Testament, Hebrews, 5.1, 6.4-6.8, 7.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.1. For every high priest, being taken from among men, is appointed for men in things pertaining to God, that he may offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins. 6.4. For concerning those who were once enlightened and tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Spirit 6.5. and tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the age to come 6.6. and then fell away, it is impossible to renew them again to repentance; seeing they crucify the Son of God for themselves again, and put him to open shame. 6.7. For the land which has drunk the rain that comes often on it, and brings forth a crop suitable for them for whose sake it is also tilled, receives blessing from God; 6.8. but if it bears thorns and thistles, it is rejected and near being cursed, whose end is to be burned. 7.27. who doesn't need, like those high priests, to daily offer up sacrifices, first for his own sins, and then for the sins of the people. For this he did once for all, when he offered up himself.
42. New Testament, Philippians, 2.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.
43. New Testament, Romans, 2.4, 12.6-12.7, 15.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.4. Or do you despise the riches of his goodness, forbearance, and patience, not knowing that the goodness of God leads you to repentance? 12.6. Having gifts differing according to the grace that was given to us, if prophecy, let us prophesy according to the proportion of our faith; 12.7. or service, let us give ourselves to service; or he who teaches, to his teaching; 15.9. and that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy. As it is written, "Therefore will I give praise to you among the Gentiles, And sing to your name.
44. New Testament, Luke, 7.50, 8.48, 10.21, 17.19, 17.24, 21.21, 22.6, 23.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.50. He said to the woman, "Your faith has saved you. Go in peace. 8.48. He said to her, "Daughter, cheer up. Your faith has made you well. Go in peace. 10.21. In that same hour Jesus rejoiced in the Holy Spirit, and said, "I thank you, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that you have hidden these things from the wise and understanding, and revealed them to little children. Yes, Father, for so it was well-pleasing in your sight. 17.19. Then he said to him, "Get up, and go your way. Your faith has healed you. 17.24. for as the lightning, when it flashes out of the one part under the sky, shines to the other part under the sky; so will the Son of Man be in his day. 21.21. Then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains. Let those who are in the midst of her depart. Let those who are in the country not enter therein. 22.6. He consented, and sought an opportunity to deliver him to them in the absence of the multitude. 23.34. Jesus said, "Father, forgive them, for they don't know what they are doing."Dividing his garments among them, they cast lots.
45. New Testament, Mark, 1.5, 2.10, 5.34, 10.52 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. All the country of Judea and all those of Jerusalem went out to him. They were baptized by him in the Jordan river, confessing their sins. 2.10. But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins" -- he said to the paralytic -- 5.34. He said to her, "Daughter, your faith has made you well. Go in peace, and be cured of your disease. 10.52. Jesus said to him, "Go your way. Your faith has made you well." Immediately he received his sight, and followed Jesus in the way.
46. New Testament, Matthew, 3.16, 6.1-6.10, 9.2, 9.22, 11.25, 12.40, 24.27, 24.37, 25.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.16. Jesus, when he was baptized, went up directly from the water: and behold, the heavens were opened to him. He saw the Spirit of God descending as a dove, and coming on him. 6.1. Be careful that you don't do your charitable giving before men, to be seen by them, or else you have no reward from your Father who is in heaven. 6.2. Therefore when you do merciful deeds, don't sound a trumpet before yourself, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may get glory from men. Most assuredly I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.3. But when you do merciful deeds, don't let your left hand know what your right hand does 6.4. so that your merciful deeds may be in secret, then your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly. 6.5. When you pray, you shall not be as the hypocrites, for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen by men. Most assuredly, I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.6. But you, when you pray, enter into your inner chamber, and having shut your door, pray to your Father who is in secret, and your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly. 6.7. In praying, don't use vain repetitions, as the Gentiles do; for they think that they will be heard for their much speaking. 6.8. Therefore don't be like them, for your Father knows what things you need, before you ask him. 6.9. Pray like this: 'Our Father in heaven, may your name be kept holy. 6.10. Let your kingdom come. Let your will be done, as in heaven, so on earth. 9.2. Behold, they brought to him a man who was paralyzed, lying on a bed. Jesus, seeing their faith, said to the paralytic, "Son, cheer up! Your sins are forgiven you. 9.22. But Jesus, turning around and seeing her, said, "Daughter, cheer up! Your faith has made you well." And the woman was made well from that hour. 11.25. At that time, Jesus answered, "I thank you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that you hid these things from the wise and understanding, and revealed them to infants. 12.40. For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the whale, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. 24.27. For as the lightning comes forth from the east, and is seen even to the west, so will be the coming of the Son of Man. 24.37. As the days of Noah were, so will be the coming of the Son of Man. 25.14. For it is like a man, going into another country, who called his own servants, and entrusted his goods to them.
47. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

32a. דכתיב (מיכה ד, ו) ואשר הרעותי:,אמר רבי חמא ברבי חנינא אלמלא שלש מקראות הללו נתמוטטו רגליהם של שונאי ישראל,חד דכתיב ואשר הרעותי וחד דכתיב (ירמיהו יח, ו) הנה כחומר ביד היוצר כן אתם בידי בית ישראל וחד דכתיב (יחזקאל לו, כו) והסירותי את לב האבן מבשרכם ונתתי לכם לב בשר,רב פפא אמר מהכא (יחזקאל לו, כז) ואת רוחי אתן בקרבכם ועשיתי את אשר בחקי תלכו,ואמר רבי אלעזר משה הטיח דברים כלפי מעלה שנאמר (במדבר יא, ב) ויתפלל משה אל ה' אל תקרי אל ה' אלא על ה',שכן דבי רבי אליעזר בן יעקב קורין לאלפין עיינין ולעיינין אלפין,דבי רבי ינאי אמרי מהכא (דברים א, א) ודי זהב,מאי ודי זהב אמרי דבי ר' ינאי כך אמר משה לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם בשביל כסף וזהב שהשפעת להם לישראל עד שאמרו די הוא גרם שעשו את העגל,אמרי דבי ר' ינאי אין ארי נוהם מתוך קופה של תבן אלא מתוך קופה של בשר,אמר רבי אושעיא משל לאדם שהיתה לו פרה כחושה ובעלת אברים האכילה כרשינין והיתה מבעטת בו אמר לה מי גרם ליך שתהא מבעטת בי אלא כרשינין שהאכלתיך,אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר ר' יוחנן משל לאדם אחד שהיה לו בן הרחיצו וסכו והאכילו והשקהו ותלה לו כיס על צוארו והושיבו על פתח של זונות מה יעשה אותו הבן שלא יחטא,אמר רב אחא בריה דרב הונא אמר רב ששת היינו דאמרי אינשי מלי כריסיה זני בישי שנאמר (הושע יג, ו) כמרעיתם וישבעו שבעו וירם לבם על כן שכחוני רב נחמן אמר מהכא (דברים ח, יד) ורם לבבך ושכחת את ה' ורבנן אמרי מהכא (דברים לא, כ) ואכל ושבע ודשן ופנה,ואי בעית אימא מהכא (דברים לב, טו) וישמן ישרון ויבעט אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן מנין שחזר הקדוש ברוך הוא והודה לו למשה שנאמר (הושע ב, י) וכסף הרביתי להם וזהב עשו לבעל:,(שמות לב, ז) וידבר ה' אל משה לך רד מאי לך רד אמר רבי אלעזר אמר לו הקדוש ב"ה למשה משה רד מגדולתך כלום נתתי לך גדולה אלא בשביל ישראל ועכשיו ישראל חטאו אתה למה לי מיד תשש כחו של משה ולא היה לו כח לדבר וכיון שאמר (דברים ט, יד) הרף ממני ואשמידם אמר משה דבר זה תלוי בי מיד עמד ונתחזק בתפלה ובקש רחמים,משל למלך שכעס על בנו והיה מכהו מכה גדולה והיה אוהבו יושב לפניו ומתירא לומר לו דבר אמר המלך אלמלא אוהבי זה שיושב לפני הרגתיך אמר דבר זה תלוי בי מיד עמד והצילו:,(שמות לב, י) ועתה הניחה לי ויחר אפי בהם ואכלם ואעשה אותך לגוי גדול וגו' אמר רבי אבהו אלמלא מקרא כתוב אי אפשר לאומרו מלמד שתפסו משה להקדוש ברוך הוא כאדם שהוא תופס את חבירו בבגדו ואמר לפניו רבונו של עולם אין אני מניחך עד שתמחול ותסלח להם:,(שמות לב, י) ואעשה אותך לגוי גדול וגו' אמר רבי אלעזר אמר משה לפני הקדוש ב"ה רבונו של עולם ומה כסא של שלש רגלים אינו יכול לעמוד לפניך בשעת כעסך כסא של רגל אחד על אחת כמה וכמה,ולא עוד אלא שיש בי בושת פנים מאבותי עכשיו יאמרו ראו פרנס שהעמיד עליהם בקש גדולה לעצמו ולא בקש עליהם רחמים:,(שמות לב, יא) ויחל משה את פני ה' אמר רבי אלעזר מלמד שעמד משה בתפלה לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא עד שהחלהו ורבא אמר עד שהפר לו נדרו כתיב הכא ויחל וכתיב התם (במדבר ל, ג) לא יחל דברו ואמר מר הוא אינו מיחל אבל אחרים מחלין לו,ושמואל אמר מלמד שמסר עצמו למיתה עליהם שנאמר (שמות לב, לב) ואם אין מחני נא מספרך,אמר רבא אמר רב יצחק מלמד שהחלה עליהם מדת רחמים,ורבנן אמרי מלמד שאמר משה לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע חולין הוא לך מעשות כדבר הזה,ויחל משה את פני ה' תניא רבי אליעזר הגדול אומר מלמד שעמד משה בתפלה לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא עד שאחזתו אחילו מאי אחילו אמר רבי אלעזר אש של עצמות מאי אש של עצמות אמר אביי אשתא דגרמי,(שמות לב, יג) זכור לאברהם ליצחק ולישראל עבדיך אשר נשבעת להם בך מאי בך אמר רבי אלעזר אמר משה לפני הקדוש ב"ה רבונו של עולם אלמלא נשבעת להם בשמים ובארץ הייתי אומר כשם ששמים וארץ בטלים כך שבועתך בטלה ועכשיו שנשבעת להם בשמך הגדול מה שמך הגדול חי וקיים לעולם ולעולמי עולמים כך שבועתך קיימת לעולם ולעולמי עולמים:,(שמות לב, יג) ותדבר אליהם ארבה את זרעכם ככוכבי השמים וכל הארץ הזאת אשר אמרתי האי אשר אמרתי אשר אמרת מיבעי ליה,אמר רבי אלעזר עד כאן דברי תלמיד מכאן ואילך דברי הרב ורבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר אלו ואלו דברי תלמיד אלא כך אמר משה לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא רבונו של עולם דברים שאמרת לי לך אמור להם לישראל בשמי הלכתי ואמרתי להם בשמך עכשיו מה אני אומר להם:,(במדבר יד, טז) מבלתי יכולת ה' יכול ה' מיבעי ליה,אמר רבי אלעזר אמר משה לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע עכשיו יאמרו אומות העולם תשש כחו כנקבה ואינו יכול להציל אמר הקב"ה למשה והלא כבר ראו נסים וגבורות שעשיתי להם על הים אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם עדיין יש להם לומר למלך אחד יכול לעמוד לשלשים ואחד מלכים אינו יכול לעמוד,אמר ר' יוחנן מנין שחזר הקדוש ברוך הוא והודה לו למשה שנאמר (במדבר יד, כ) ויאמר ה' סלחתי כדברך תני דבי רבי ישמעאל כדבריך עתידים אוה"ע לומר כן,אשרי תלמיד שרבו מודה לו,(במדבר יד, כא) ואולם חי אני אמר רבא אמר רב יצחק מלמד שאמר לו הקדוש ב"ה למשה משה החייתני בדבריך:,דרש רבי שמלאי לעולם יסדר אדם שבחו של הקב"ה ואחר כך יתפלל מנלן ממשה דכתיב (דברים ג, כג) ואתחנן אל ה' בעת ההיא וכתיב ה' אלהים אתה החלות להראות את עבדך את גדלך ואת ידך החזקה אשר מי אל בשמים ובארץ אשר יעשה כמעשיך וכגבורותיך וכתיב בתריה אעברה נא ואראה את הארץ הטובה וגו':,(סימן מעשי"ם צדק"ה קרב"ן כה"ן תעני"ת מנע"ל ברז"ל): 32a. bAs it is writtenin a future prophecy: “In that day, says the Lord, I will assemble the lame, and I will gather those who are abandoned and bthose with whom I have dealt in wickedness”(Micah 4:6). God states that He caused Israel to act wickedly.,Similarly, bRabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: Had it not been for these three verses, the legs of the enemies of Israel,a euphemism for Israel itself, bwould have collapsed, asIsrael would have been unable to withstand God’s judgment., bOneis the verse just mentioned in which bit is written: “Those whom I have dealt in wickedness.” And oneis the verse in which bit is written: “Behold, like clay in the potter’s hand, so are you in My hand, house of Israel”(Jeremiah 18:6). bAnd oneis the verse in which bit is written:“And I will give you a new heart and a new spirit I will place within you, band I will remove the heart of stone from your flesh and I will give you a heart of flesh”(Ezekiel 36:26). These three verses indicate that God influences a person’s decisions, and therefore one does not have sole responsibility for his actions., bRav Pappa saidthere is a clearer proof bfrom here: “And I will place My spirit within you and I will cause you to walk in My statutes,and you will observe My decrees and do them” (Ezekiel 36:27)., bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: Mosesalso bspoke impertinently towardGod bon High, as it is statedin the verse following the sin of those who murmured against God in the desert: b“And Moses prayed to the Lordand the fire subsided” (Numbers 11:2), and this verse is interpreted homiletically: bDo not read to [ iel /i] the Lord,but rather bonto [ ial /i] the Lord,which indicates that he spoke impertinently.,The Gemara explains the basis for this interpretation: bAsthe Sages bof the school of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov wouldindiscriminately bread ialefas iayinand iayinas ialef /iand in this case transforming ielinto ial /i.,The Sages of bthe school of Rabbi Yannai,however, bsayproof that Moses spoke impertinently toward God on High is derived bfrom here,Moses’ rebuke at the beginning of Deuteronomy: b“And Di Zahav”(Deuteronomy 1:1). This is an entry in a list of places where Moses had spoken to Israel. As there was no place encountered by that name, it is interpreted as an allusion to another matter.,We must clarify: bWhat isthe meaning of band Di Zahav?The Sages of bthe school of Rabbi Yannai said that Moses said the following before the Holy One, Blessed be He,to atone for Israel after the sin of the Golden Calf: bMaster of the Universe, because of the gold and silver that you lavished upon Israelduring the exodus from Egypt buntil they said enough [ idai /i];it was this wealth bthat causedIsrael bto make theGolden bCalf. /b,Establishing a general moral principle, the Sages bthe school of Rabbi Yannai said: A lion does not roarstanding bover a basket of strawfrom which he derives no pleasure, bbuthe roars standing bover a basket of meat,as he only roars when satiated.,Similarly, bRabbi Oshaya said:This is bcomparable to a person who had a lean, but large-limbed cow.At one point, bhe fed it lupines,a choice food, bandsoon thereafter the cow bwas kicking him. He said tothe cow: bWho caused youto begin bkicking me if not the lupines I fed you?Here, too, the sin was caused by an abundance of good.,The Gemara offers another analogy: bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:This is bcomparable to a person who had a son; he bathed him and anointed himwith oil, bfed him and gave him drink, and hung a purseof money baround his neck.Then, he bbroughthis son bto the entrance of a brothel. What could the son do to avoid sinning? /b,On a similar note, bRav Aḥa, son of Rav Huna, saidthat bRav Sheshet said: That is what people sayin a popular maxim: bFilling his stomach is a type of sin, as it is stated: “When they were fed and became full they were sated, and their hearts were lifted and they have forgotten Me”(Hosea 13:6). bRav Naḥman said:This principle is derived not from the verse in Hosea, but bfrom here: “And your heart is lifted and you forget the Lord”(Deuteronomy 8:14). bAnd the Rabbis saythat this principle is derived bfrom here: “And they will have eaten and been sated and fattened, and they will turnto other gods” (Deuteronomy 31:20)., bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that it is derived bfrom here: “And Jeshurun grew fat and kicked”(Deuteronomy 32:15). bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: From wherein the Torah is it derived that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, ultimately conceded to Mosesthat the reason for the sin of the Golden Calf was indeed the riches lavished upon Israel? bAs it is stated: “And I gave them an abundance of silver and gold, which they used for the Ba’al”(Hosea 2:10).,The Gemara elaborates upon additional aspects of the sin of the Golden Calf. It is stated: b“And the Lord said to Moses: Go and descend,for your people whom you have lifted out of the land of Egypt have been corrupted” (Exodus 32:7). bWhat isthe meaning of b“go and descend”? Rabbi Elazar said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: Moses, descend from your greatness. Isn’t it only for the sake of Israel,so that you may serve as an emissary, bthat I granted you prominence; and now that Israel has sinned, why do Ineed byou?There is no need for an emissary. bImmediately, Moses’ strength waned and he was powerless to speakin defense of Israel. bAnd onceGod bsaidto Moses: b“Leave Me be, that I may destroy them”(Deuteronomy 9:14), bMoses saidto himself: If God is telling me to let Him be, it must be because bthis matter is dependent upon me. Immediately Moses stood and was strengthened in prayer, and askedthat God have bmercyon the nation of Israel and forgive them for their transgression.,The Gemara says: This is bcomparable to a king who became angry at his sonwho had sinned against him, band beat him,administering ba severe beating.At that moment, ba well-wisherof the king bwas sitting before himand witnessed the entire event, band was afraid to say anything tothe king about the excessive beating. Meanwhile, bthe king saidto his son: bWere it not for this well-wisher of mine who is sitting before me, I would have killed you.Upon hearing this, the king’s friend bsaidto himself: This is clearly a sign that bthis matter,rescuing the son from the hands of his father, bis dependent upon me. Immediately he stood and rescued himfrom the king.,In an additional aspect of the sin of the Golden Calf, God told Moses: b“Now leave Me be, that My wrath will be enraged against them and I will consume them; and I will make of you a great nation”(Exodus 32:10). Explaining this verse, bRabbi Abbahu said: Were the verse not writtenin this manner, bit would be impossible to utterit, in deference to God. The phrase: Leave Me be, bteaches that Moses grabbed the Holy One, Blessed be He, as a person who grabs his friend by his garmentwould, band he said before Him: Master of the Universe, I will not leave You be until You forgive and pardon them. /b,In the same verse, God promised Moses: b“And I will make of you a great nation.”What was Moses’ response? bRabbi Elazar said: Moses said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, if a chair with three legs,the collective merit of the three forefathers, bis unable to stand before You in Your moment of wrath, all the more sothat ba chair with one leg,my merit alone, will be unable to withstand your wrath., bMoreover, but I havea sense of bshame before my forefathers. Nowthey will bsay: Seethis bleader thatGod bplaced overIsrael. bHe requested greatness for himself but did not pray forGod to have bmercy upon themin their troubled time.,The Torah continues: b“And Moses beseeched [ ivayḥal /i] before the Lord”(Exodus 32:11). Many interpretations were given for this uncommon term, ivayḥal /i: bRabbi Elazar said:It bteaches that Moses stood in prayer before the Holy One, Blessed be He, until it made him ill [iheḥelahub]from overexertion. bAnd Rava said:Moses stood in prayer buntil he nullified His vow,as the term ivayḥalalludes to nullification of an oath. bHere it is written ivayḥal /i, and therereferring to vows, bit is written: “He shall not nullify [ ilo yaḥel /i] his word”(Numbers 30:3). bAndwith regard to vows, bthe Master said: Hewho vowed bcannot nullifyhis vow, bbut others,the court, bcan nullifyhis vow bfor him.Here, it is as if Moses nullified the Lord’s vow to destroy Israel., bAnd Shmuel said:The term ivayḥal bteaches thatMoses bgave his life,from the term iḥalal /i, a dead person, bforIsrael, bas it is stated: “And if not, erase me, please, from Your book”(Exodus 32:32)., bRava,also interpreting this verse, bsaidthat bRav Yitzḥak said:The term ivayḥal bteaches that he caused the Divine Attribute of Mercy to take effect [ iheḥela /i] upon them. /b, bAnd the Rabbis saythat this term constitutes the essence of Moses’ claim: bIt teaches that Moses said before the Holy One Blessed be He: Master of the Universe! It is a sacrilege [ iḥullin /i] for You to do something like this. /b,And another interpretation of the verse, b“And Moses beseeched [ ivayḥal /i] before the Lord.” It was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer the Great says: Thisterm bteaches that Moses stood in prayer before the Holy One, Blessed be He, until he was overcome by iaḥilu /i.Even the Sages were unfamiliar with this term. Therefore, the Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of iaḥilu /i? Rabbi Elazar,an iamoraof Eretz Yisrael, bsaidthat iaḥiluis bfire in the bones.However, this expression was familiar in Eretz Yisrael but not in Babylonia. They asked in Babylonia: bWhat isthe disease that they called bfire of the bones? Abaye saidthat is a disease known in Babylonia as ieshta degarmei /i,which in Aramaic means bfire of the bones;in other words, a fever.,As Moses continues his prayer, he says: b“Remember Abraham, Isaac and Israel Your servants, to whom You swore in Your name”(Exodus 32:13). bWhat isthe meaning of bin Your name? Rabbi Elazar said: Moses said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, had You sworn to them by the heavens and the earth, I would say: Just as the heavens and the earth willultimately bbe no more, so too Your oath will be null and void. Now that You swore to them by Your great name, just as Your name lives and stands for all eternity, so too does Your oath live and stand for all eternity. /b,In this verse, Moses continues: b“And You said to them: I will make your offspring as numerous as the stars of heaven, and all this land of which I have spokenI will give to your offspring that they shall inherit it forever.” The Gemara clarifies a puzzling phrase in this verse. bThatphrase bof which I have spoken, it shouldhave said: bof which You have spoken,as Moses is referring to God’s promise to the forefathers., bRabbi Elazar said: To thispoint, the verse cites bthe words of the student,Moses; bfrom this point,and all this land of which I have spoken, the verse cites bthe words of the Master,God. bAnd Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: These and those are the words of the student;Moses spoke the entire verse. bRather, Moses said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, those matters which You told me to go and say to Israel in My name, I went and toldit bto them in Your name.I have already told Israel of God’s promise to the forefathers. bNow what do I say to them? /b,The Gemara moves to a discussion of additional prayers offered by Moses. Moses said that if God fails to bring the Jewish people into Eretz Yisrael, the nations of the world will say: b“The Lord did not have the ability [ iyekholet /i]to bring this people into the land which He swore to them, and He killed them in the desert” (Numbers 14:16). The Gemara examines this verse closely: The verse should not have utilized the term iyekholet /i, an abstract feminine noun, but rather, bit should have said: “The Lordwas not bable [ iyakhol /i],”a masculine verb., bRabbi Elazar said: Mosesphrased it that way because he bsaid before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, now the nations of the world will say that His strength weakened like a female and He is unable to rescuethe nation of Israel. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: And didthe nations of the world bnot already see the miracles and the mightyacts bthat I performed on behalf ofIsrael bat theRed bSea?Moses bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, they can still say:The Lord bcan standup bto a single kinglike Pharaoh and defeat him, but bHe is unable to standup bto the thirty-one kingsin the land of Canaan., bRabbi Yoḥa said: From whereis it derived that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, ultimately conceded to Moses? As it is said: “And the Lord said: I have forgiven according to your word”(Numbers 14:20). The Sages bof the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: According to your word,it will be, as indeed bin the future the nations of the world will say this. /b,The Gemara concludes: bHappy is the student whose teacher concedes to himas the Lord conceded to Moses.,Explaining the next verse, b“Nevertheless, as I live,and the glory of the Lord fills the entire world” (Numbers 14:21), bRava saidthat bRav Yitzḥak said:This bteachesthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: Moses, you have given Me life with your words.I am happy that on account of your arguments, I will forgive Israel.,Based on Moses’ prayers, bRabbi Simlai taught: One should always set forth praise of the Holy One, Blessed be He, and then prayfor his own needs. bFrom where do wederive that one should conduct himself in this manner? bFrom Moses, as it is writtenin his prayer: b“And I beseeched the Lord at that time”(Deuteronomy 3:23). bAndimmediately afterward in his prayer, bit is written: “Lord, God, You have begun to show Your servant Your greatness and Your strong hand, for what God is there in the heavens or on earth who can perform deeds such as Yours and Your might”(Deuteronomy 3:24)? Here, Moses began with praise of God, band it isonly bthereafterthat bit is written: “Please, let me pass over and see the good landthat is beyond the Jordan, that good hill country and the Lebanon” (Deuteronomy 3:25). Only after his praise did Moses make his personal request.,The Gemara prefaces the next discourse with ba mnemonic symbol: Deeds, charity, offering, priest, fast, shoe, iron. /b
48. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

56b. איברא מלכא את דאי לאו מלכא את לא מימסרא ירושלים בידך דכתיב (ישעיהו י, לד) והלבנון באדיר יפול ואין אדיר אלא מלך דכתיב (ירמיהו ל, כא) והיה אדירו ממנו וגו' ואין לבנון אלא ביהמ"ק שנאמר (דברים ג, כה) ההר הטוב הזה והלבנון ודקאמרת אי מלכא אנא אמאי לא קאתית לגבאי עד האידנא בריוני דאית בן לא שבקינן,אמר ליה אילו חבית של דבש ודרקון כרוך עליה לא היו שוברין את החבית בשביל דרקון אישתיק קרי עליה רב יוסף ואיתימא רבי עקיבא (ישעיהו מד, כה) משיב חכמים אחור ודעתם יסכל איבעי ליה למימר ליה שקלינן צבתא ושקלינן ליה לדרקון וקטלינן ליה וחביתא שבקינן לה,אדהכי אתי פריסתקא עליה מרומי אמר ליה קום דמית ליה קיסר ואמרי הנהו חשיבי דרומי לאותיבך ברישא הוה סיים חד מסאני בעא למסיימא לאחרינא לא עייל בעא למשלפא לאידך לא נפק אמר מאי האי,אמר ליה לא תצטער שמועה טובה אתיא לך דכתיב (משלי טו, ל) שמועה טובה תדשן עצם אלא מאי תקנתיה ליתי איניש דלא מיתבא דעתך מיניה ולחליף קמך דכתיב (משלי יז, כב) ורוח נכאה תיבש גרם עבד הכי עייל אמר ליה ומאחר דחכמיתו כולי האי עד האידנא אמאי לא אתיתו לגבאי אמר ליה ולא אמרי לך אמר ליה אנא נמי אמרי לך,אמר ליה מיזל אזילנא ואינש אחרינא משדרנא אלא בעי מינאי מידי דאתן לך אמר ליה תן לי יבנה וחכמיה ושושילתא דרבן גמליאל ואסוותא דמסיין ליה לרבי צדוק קרי עליה רב יוסף ואיתימא רבי עקיבא (ישעיהו מד, כה) משיב חכמים אחור ודעתם יסכל איבעי למימר ליה לשבקינהו הדא זימנא,והוא סבר דלמא כולי האי לא עביד והצלה פורתא נמי לא הוי,אסוותא דמסיין ליה לרבי צדוק מאי היא יומא קמא אשקיוה מיא דפארי למחר מיא דסיפוקא למחר מיא דקימחא עד דרווח מיעיה פורתא פורתא,אזל שדריה לטיטוס ואמר (דברים לב, לז) אי אלהימו צור חסיו בו זה טיטוס הרשע שחירף וגידף כלפי מעלה,מה עשה תפש זונה בידו ונכנס לבית קדשי הקדשים והציע ספר תורה ועבר עליה עבירה ונטל סייף וגידר את הפרוכת ונעשה נס והיה דם מבצבץ ויוצא וכסבור הרג את עצמו שנאמר (תהלים עד, ד) שאגו צורריך בקרב מועדיך שמו אותותם אותות,אבא חנן אומר (תהלים פט, ט) מי כמוך חסין יה מי כמוך חסין וקשה שאתה שומע ניאוצו וגידופו של אותו רשע ושותק דבי רבי ישמעאל תנא (שמות טו, יא) מי כמוכה באלים ה' מי כמוכה באלמים,מה עשה נטל את הפרוכת ועשאו כמין גרגותני והביא כל כלים שבמקדש והניחן בהן והושיבן בספינה לילך להשתבח בעירו שנאמר (קהלת ח, י) ובכן ראיתי רשעים קבורים ובאו וממקום קדוש יהלכו וישתכחו בעיר אשר כן עשו אל תיקרי קבורים אלא קבוצים אל תיקרי וישתכחו אלא וישתבחו,איכא דאמרי קבורים ממש דאפילו מילי דמטמרן איגלייא להון,עמד עליו נחשול שבים לטובעו אמר כמדומה אני שאלהיהם של אלו אין גבורתו אלא במים בא פרעה טבעו במים בא סיסרא טבעו במים אף הוא עומד עלי לטובעני במים אם גבור הוא יעלה ליבשה ויעשה עמי מלחמה יצתה בת קול ואמרה לו רשע בן רשע בן בנו של עשו הרשע בריה קלה יש לי בעולמי ויתוש שמה,אמאי קרי לה בריה קלה דמעלנא אית לה ומפקנא לית לה,עלה ליבשה ותעשה עמה מלחמה עלה ליבשה בא יתוש ונכנס בחוטמו ונקר במוחו שבע שנים יומא חד הוה קא חליף אבבא דבי נפחא שמע קל ארזפתא אישתיק אמר איכא תקנתא כל יומא מייתו נפחא ומחו קמיה לנכרי יהיב ליה ארבע זוזי לישראל אמר ליה מיסתייך דקא חזית בסנאך עד תלתין יומין עבד הכי מכאן ואילך כיון דדש דש,תניא אמר רבי פנחס בן ערובא אני הייתי בין גדולי רומי וכשמת פצעו את מוחו ומצאו בו כצפור דרור משקל שני סלעים במתניתא תנא כגוזל בן שנה משקל שני ליטרין,אמר אביי נקטינן פיו של נחושת וצפורניו של ברזל כי הוה קא מיית אמר להו ליקליוה לההוא גברא ולבדרי לקיטמיה אשב ימי דלא לשכחיה אלהא דיהודאי ולוקמיה בדינא,אונקלוס בר קלוניקוס בר אחתיה דטיטוס הוה בעי לאיגיורי אזל אסקיה לטיטוס בנגידא אמר ליה מאן חשיב בההוא עלמא אמר ליה ישראל מהו לאידבוקי בהו אמר ליה מילייהו נפישין ולא מצית לקיומינהו זיל איגרי בהו בההוא עלמא והוית רישא דכתיב (איכה א, ה) היו צריה לראש וגו' כל המיצר לישראל נעשה ראש אמר ליה דיניה דההוא גברא במאי א"ל 56b. bin truth, you are a king,if not now, then in the future. bAs if you are not a king, Jerusalem will not be handed over into your hand, as it is written: “And the Lebanon shall fall by a mighty one”(Isaiah 10:34). bAnd “mighty one”means bonly a king, as it is written: “And their mighty one shall be of themselves,and their ruler shall proceed from the midst of them” (Jeremiah 30:21), indicating that “mighty one” parallels “ruler.” bAnd “Lebanon”means bonly the Temple, as it is stated: “That good mountain and the Lebanon”(Deuteronomy 3:25). bAndas for bwhat you saidwith your second comment: bIf I am a king why didn’t you come to me until now, there are zealots among uswho bdid not allow usto do this.,Understanding that Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai was prepared to ask him not to destroy the Temple, Vespasian bsaid to him: Ifthere is ba barrel of honey and a snake [ iderakon /i] is wrapped around it, wouldn’t they break the barrel in order tokill bthe snake?In similar fashion, I am forced to destroy the city of Jerusalem in order to kill the zealots barricaded within it. Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bwas silentand did not answer. In light of this, bRav Yoseflater breadthe following verse babout him, and some saythat it was bRabbi Akivawho applied the verse to Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: “I am the Lord… bWho turns wise men backward and makes their knowledge foolish”(Isaiah 44:25). As Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bshould have saidthe following btoVespasian in response: In such a case, bwe take tongs, remove the snake, and kill it, andin this way bwe leave the barrelintact. So too, you should kill the rebels and leave the city as it is., bIn the meantime,as they were talking, ba messenger [ iferistaka /i] arrived from Rome,and bsaid to him: Rise, for the emperor has died, and the noblemen of Rome plan to appoint you astheir bleaderand make you the next emperor. At that time Vespasian bwas wearingonly bone shoe,and when bhe tried to put on the other one, it would not go onhis foot. bHethen btried to remove the othershoe that he was already wearing, but bit would not come off. He said: What is this? /b,Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: Be not distressedor troubled, for bgood tidings have reached you, as it is written: “Good tidings make the bone fat”(Proverbs 15:30), and your feet have grown fatter out of joy and satisfaction. Vespasian said to him: bBut what is the remedy?What must I do in order to put on my shoe? Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: Have someone with whom you are displeased come and pass before you, as it is written: “A broken spirit dries the bones”(Proverbs 17:22). bHe did this, andhis shoe bwent onhis foot. Vespasian bsaid to him: Since you are so wise, why didn’t you come tosee bme until now?Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: But didn’t Ialready btell you?Vespasian bsaid to him: I also told youwhat I had to say.,Vespasian then bsaid toRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: bI will be goingto Rome to accept my new position, band I will send someone elsein my place to continue besieging the city and waging war against it. bButbefore I leave, bask something of me that Ican bgive you.Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: Give me Yavne and its Sagesand do not destroy it, bandspare bthe dynasty of Rabban Gamlieland do not kill them as if they were rebels, bandlastly give me bdoctors to heal Rabbi Tzadok. Rav Yosef readthe following verse babout him, and some saythat it was bRabbi Akivawho applied the verse to Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: “I am the Lord… bWho turns wise men backward and makes their knowledge foolish”(Isaiah 44:25), as bhe should have said to him to leavethe Jews alone bthis time. /b, bAndwhy didn’t Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai make this request? bHe maintainedthat Vespasian bmight not do that muchfor him, band there would not be even a smallamount of bsalvation.Therefore, he made only a modest request, in the hope that he would receive at least that much.,The Gemara asks: bWhatwas he requesting when he asked for bdoctors to heal Rabbi Tzadok?How did they heal him? bThe first day they gave him water to drinkthat contained bbran [ iparei /i]. The nextday they gave him bwatercontaining bflour mixed with bran [ isipuka /i]. The following daythey gave him bwatercontaining bflour.In this way they slowly restored his ability to eat, allowing bhis stomach to broaden little by little. /b,§ Vespasian bwentback to Rome and bsent Titusin his place. The Gemara cites a verse that was expounded as referring to Titus: b“And he shall say: Where is their God, their rock in whom they trusted?”(Deuteronomy 32:37). bThis is the wicked Titus, who insulted and blasphemed God on High. /b, bWhat didTitus bdowhen he conquered the Temple? bHe took a prostitute with his hand, and entered the Holy of Holieswith her. bHethen bspread out a Torah scrollunderneath him band committed a sin,i.e., engaged in sexual intercourse, bon it.Afterward bhe took a sword and cut into the curtainseparating between the Sanctuary and the Holy of Holies. bAnd a miracle was performed and blood spurted forth.Seeing the blood, bhemistakenly bthoughtthat bhe had killed himself.Here, the term himself is a euphemism for God. Titus saw blood issuing forth from the curtain in God’s meeting place, the Temple, and he took it as a sign that he had succeeded in killing God Himself. bAs it is stated: “Your enemies roar in the midst of Your meeting place; they have set up their own signs for signs”(Psalms 74:4)., bAbba Ḥa says:The verse states: b“Who is strong like You, O Lord?”(Psalms 89:9). bWho is strong and indurate like You, as You hear the abuse and the blasphemy of that wicked man and remain silent.Similarly, bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taughtthat the verse: b“Who is like You, O Lord, among the gods [ ielim /i]”(Exodus 15:11), should be read as: bWho is like You among the mute [ iilmim /i],for You conduct Yourself like a mute and remain silent in the face of Your blasphemers., bWhatelse did Titus bdo? He took the curtain and formed it like a large basket, and brought all of thesacred bvessels of the Temple and placed them in it. And he put them on a ship to go and be praised in his citythat he had conquered Jerusalem, bas it is stated: “And so I saw the wicked buried, and come to their rest; but those that had done right were gone from the holy place, and were forgotten in the city; this also is vanity”(Ecclesiastes 8:10). bDo not readthe word bas “buried [ ikevurim /i].” Rather,read it as bcollected [ ikevutzim /i].And bdo not readthe word bas “and were forgotten [ iveyishtakeḥu /i].” Rather,read it as: bAnd they were praised [ iveyishtabeḥu /i].According to this interpretation, the verse speaks of those who will gather and collect items “from the holy place,” the Temple, and be praised in their city about what they had done., bThere arethose bwho saythat the verse is to be read as written, as it is referring to items that were bactually buried.This is because beven items that had been buried were revealed to them,i.e., Titus and his soldiers, as they found all of the sacred vessels.,It is further related about Titus that he was once traveling bat seaand ba wave rose up against himand threatened bto drown him.Titus bsaid: It seems to me that their God,the God of Israel, bhas power only in water. Pharaoh roseagainst them and bHe drowned him in water. Sisera roseagainst them and bHe drowned him in water.Here btoo, He has risen up against me to drown me in water. If He isreally bmighty, let Him go up on dry land andthere bwage war against me. A Divine Voice issued forth and said to him: Wicked one, son of a wicked one, grandson of Esau the wicked,for you are among his descendants and act just like him, bI have a lowly creature in My world and it is called a gnat. /b,The Gemara interjects: bWhy is it called a lowly creature?It is called this bbecause it has an entrancefor taking in food, bbut it does not have an exitfor excretion.,The Gemara resumes its story about Titus. The Divine Voice continued: bGo up on dry land and make war with it. He went up on dry land,and ba gnat came, entered his nostril, and picked at his brain for seven years.Titus suffered greatly from this until bone day he passed by the gate of a blacksmith’s shop.The gnat bheard the sound of a hammerand bwas silentand still. Titus bsaid:I see that bthere is a remedyfor my pain. bEvery day they would bring a blacksmith who hammered before him. He would give four dinarsas payment bto a gentileblacksmith, and bto a Jew he wouldsimply bsay: It is enough for you that you see your enemyin so much pain. bHe did this for thirty daysand it was effective until then. bFrom thatpoint bforward, sincethe gnat bbecame accustomedto the hammering, bit became accustomedto it, and once again it began to pick away at Titus’s brain., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Pineḥas ben Arova said: I wasat that time bamong the noblemen of Rome, and whenTitus bdied they split open his head and foundthat the gnat had grown to bthe size of a sparrow weighing two isela /i. It was taught inanother ibaraita /i:It was blikea one- byear-old pigeon weighing two ilitra /i. /b, bAbaye said: We have a traditionthat bits mouthwas made bof copper and its claws werefashioned of biron. WhenTitus bwas dying, he said tohis attendants: bBurn that man,i.e., me, band scatter his ashes across the seven seas, so that the God of the Jews should not find me and stand me for judgment. /b,§ The Gemara relates: bOnkelos bar Kalonikos, the son of Titus’s sister, wanted to convertto Judaism. bHe wentand braised Titusfrom the grave bthrough necromancy,and bsaid to him: Who ismost bimportant in that worldwhere you are now? Titus bsaid to him: The Jewish people.Onkelos asked him: bShould Ithen battachmyself bto themhere in this world? Titus bsaid to him: Their commandments are numerous, and you will not be able to fulfill them.It is best that you do as follows: bGoout and bbattle against them in that world, and you will become the chief, as it is written: “Her adversaries [ itzareha /i] have become the chief”(Lamentations 1:5), which means: bAnyone who distresses [ imeitzer /i] Israel will become the chief.Onkelos bsaid to him: What is the punishment of that man,a euphemism for Titus himself, in the next world? Titus bsaid to him: /b
49. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

66b. שחתן פוסק הוא פוסק פחות חומש:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנו רבנן אין צריך לומר ראשון תלמיד חכם ושני עם הארץ אלא אפילו ראשון עם הארץ ושני תלמיד חכם יכול לומר לאחיך הייתי רוצה ליתן לך אי אפשי ליתן:,פסקה להכניס לו אלף דינר כו': היינו רישא תנא שומא רבה וקתני שומא זוטא תנא שומא דידיה וקתני שומא דידה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big פסקה להכניס לו כספים סלעה נעשה ששה דינרין החתן מקבל עליו עשרה דינרים לקופה לכל מנה ומנה רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר הכל כמנהג המדינה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big היינו פוסק כנגדם חמשה עשר מנה,תנא עסקא רבה ותנא עסקא זוטא וצריכא דאי תנא עסקא רבה דנפיש רווחא אבל עסקא זוטא דזוטר רווחא אימא לא צריכא ואי אשמעינן עסקא זוטא דזוטר זיונא אבל עסקא רבה דנפיש זיונא אימא לא צריכא:,החתן מקבל עליו עשרה דינר לקופה: מאי קופה אמר רב אשי קופה של בשמים ואמר רב אשי לא נאמרו דברים הללו אלא בירושלים,בעי רב אשי במנה הנישום או במנה המתקבל,את"ל מנה המתקבל יום ראשון או כל יום ויום את"ל כל יום ויום שבת ראשונה או כל שבת ושבת את"ל כל שבת ושבת חדש ראשון או כל חדש וחדש את"ל כל חדש וחדש שנה ראשונה או כל שנה ושנה תיקו,א"ר יהודה אמר רב מעשה בבתו של נקדימון בן גוריון שפסקו לה חכמים ארבע מאות זהובים לקופה של בשמים לבו ביום אמרה להם כך תפסקו לבנותיכם וענו אחריה אמן:,ת"ר מעשה ברבן יוחנן בן זכאי שהיה רוכב על החמור והיה יוצא מירושלים והיו תלמידיו מהלכין אחריו ראה ריבה אחת שהיתה מלקטת שעורים מבין גללי בהמתן של ערביים כיון שראתה אותו נתעטפה בשערה ועמדה לפניו,אמרה לו רבי פרנסני אמר לה בתי מי את אמרה לו בת נקדימון בן גוריון אני אמר לה בתי ממון של בית אביך היכן הלך אמרה לו רבי לא כדין מתלין מתלא בירושלים מלח ממון חסר ואמרי לה חסד ושל בית חמיך היכן הוא אמרה לו בא זה ואיבד את זה,אמרה לו רבי זכור אתה כשחתמת על כתובתי אמר להן לתלמידיו זכור אני כשחתמתי על כתובתה של זו והייתי קורא בה אלף אלפים דינרי זהב מבית אביה חוץ משל חמיה בכה רבן יוחנן בן זכאי ואמר אשריכם ישראל בזמן שעושין רצונו של מקום אין כל אומה ולשון שולטת בהם ובזמן שאין עושין רצונו של מקום מוסרן ביד אומה שפלה ולא ביד אומה שפלה אלא ביד בהמתן של אומה שפלה,ונקדימון בן גוריון לא עבד צדקה והתניא אמרו עליו על נקדימון בן גוריון כשהיה יוצא מביתו לבית המדרש כלי מילת היו 66b. the bson-in-law pledgesaccording to the amount of the dowry that the bride brings, bhe pledges one-fifth lessin the marriage contract, which is the actual value of the property., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara cites a ibaraitato expand upon the mishna’s statement that the father is not required to give the second son-in-law the gift that he promised the first son-in-law, as follows. bThe Sages taught: Needless to say,this ruling applies when the bfirstis ba Torah scholar andthe bsecondis ban ignoramus,since the father-in-law has a reason to refuse to give the second a dowry like the first. bBut evenif the bfirstis ban ignoramus andthe bsecondis ba Torah scholar,the father-in-law bmay say: To your brother, I wanted to givethis dowry, but bto you I do not want to giveit, since the obligation incurred was to a specific individual.,The mishna discusses the relationship between the value of the dowry the bride brings in and the amount of money the groom records in the marriage contract, and various examples are illustrated, e.g., if the woman bpledged to bring him one thousanddinars. The Gemara asks: bTheselatter examples in the mishna bare the same as the first clause of the mishna,and they all illustrate the same ficial conditions. Why was it not sufficient to mention only the case of the thousand dinars? The Gemara explains: The itanna bteachesabout ba large appraisalof her substantial property, band healso bteachesabout ba small appraisalin a case where she has minimal property, to illustrate that there is no halakhic difference between them. Similarly, the itanna bteachesabout the husband’s own bappraisalof how to assess how much she must provide, band healso bteachesabout the wife’s own initial bappraisalthat she did and the corresponding amount that he must write., strongMISHNA: /strong If bshe pledged to bring him moneyand not articles to serve as a dowry, bher isela /i,i.e., four dinars, bbecomes sixdinars with respect to the husband’s obligation in the marriage contract. This follows the standard outlined in the previous mishna: The groom increases his obligation by one half since he will profit from this money. Additionally, the bgroom accepts upon himselfto give btendinars bto the accountfor her needs, bfor each and every hundred dinarsthat she brings. bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Everythingis bin accordance with the regional custom. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong Concerning the first clause, that her iselabecomes six dinars, the Gemara asks: bThis isidentical to that which was taught in the previous mishna, that if she brings one thousand dinars in her dowry, bhe pledges against them fifteen hundred dinars.Why does the mishna cite another example to demonstrate the same principle?,The Gemara responds: The itanna btaughtabout blargeinvestment bcapitaland btaughtabout bsmallinvestment bcapital. Andit is bnecessaryto relate to both situations, bbecause if he taughtonly the case of blarge capital, whichhas babundant profit,you might think that only then does the husband add one-half. bHowever,for bsmall capital, whichhas bsmall profit,you could bsaythat this is bnotthe case. Therefore, it is bnecessaryto also state the principle in this mishna. bAndconversely, bifthe itannahad btaught usonly about bsmall capital,then you might think that bbecauseit has blittle expense,one must add a half. bHowever,with regard to blarge capital,for bwhichthere is babundant expense,you could bsaythat the husband need bnotadd as much. Therefore, it is bnecessaryto state both cases to teach that the husband adds one-half to the sum in any case.,The mishna states that the bson-in-law accepts upon himselfto give bten dinars to the account.The Gemara asks: bWhatis this baccount? Rav Ashi said:It is ban accountfor expenses bof perfumesand cosmetics. bAnd Rav Ashi said: This statement was said onlyfor women bin Jerusalem,where the women are accustomed to using an abundance of perfume.,According to the mishna, the husband must give ten dinars for each and every hundred dinars that she brings. bRav Ashi raises a dilemma:Does this speak bofeach bhundred dinars that are appraisedin her dowry, bor ofeach bhundred dinars that are acceptedby the husband in the marriage contract, which is the appraisal reduced by one-fifth?, bIf you saythat the mishna speaks of each bhundred dinars that is accepted,is the intent that he gives a one-time sum only on the bfirst day oron beach day? If you saythat he gives it bevery day,does he give it only the bfirst weekof marriage bor each week? If you sayhe gives it beach week,does he give it only the bfirst month or each month? If you sayhe gives it beach month,does he give it only the bfirst yearof marriage bor each year?The Gemara does not determine how the calculation must be rendered and with what frequency the husband is required to provide for her cosmetics, and the dilemmas bshall standunresolved.,§ bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said:There was ban incident involvingthe bdaughter of Nakdimon ben Guryon. When the Sages designated for her four hundred goldcoins bfor her account of perfumes,from her late husband’s estate, bforuse bon that same day, sheblessed them and bsaid to them: Thisis how byoushould also bpledge for yourown bdaughters, and they answered after her: Amen. /b,Apropos the daughter of Nakdimon ben Guryon, the Gemara relates what later became of her: bThe Sages taught:There was ban incident involving Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai. When he was riding on a donkey and leaving Jerusalem, and his students were walking after himto learn from him, bhe saw a certain young woman who was gathering barley from among the dung of the animals of Arabs.She was so poor that she subsisted on the undigested barley within the dung. bWhen she saw him, she wrapped herself in her hair,as she had nothing else with which to cover herself, and bstood before him. /b, bShe said to him: My teacher, sustain me.He did not recognize her, so bhe said to her: My daughter, who are you? She said to him: I amthe bdaughter of Nakdimon ben Guryon. He said to her: My daughter, the money of your father’s household, where didit bgo?How did you become so poor? bShe said to him: My teacher, is it notthat they bsay such a proverb in Jerusalem: Salt for money is lacking [ iḥaser /i]?There is nothing with which to preserve it and prevent it from being lost. bAnd some saythe proverb asserts that bkindness [ iḥesed /i]is salt for money, i.e., using money for acts of kindness preserves it. He continued to ask her: bAndthe money bof your father-in-law’s house,which was used properly, for benevolent acts, bwhere is it? She said to him: This one came and destroyed that one;all the money was combined, and it was all lost together., bShe said to him: My teacher,do byou remember when you signed on my marriage contract? He said to his students: I remember that when I signed on the marriage contract of thiswoman, band I read in it,it listed ba thousand thousands,i.e., one million bgold dinarsas a dowry bfrom her father’s house, aside from thatwhich was promised her bfrom her father-in-law. Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai cried and said: How fortunate are you, Israel,for bwhenIsrael bperforms the will ofthe bOmnipresent, no nation or tonguecan brule over them; and whenIsrael bdoes not perform the will of the Omnipresent, He delivers them into the hand of a lowly nation. Notonly are they delivered binto the hand of a lowly nation, but even into the hand of the animals of a lowly nation,as in the pitiful instance of Nakdimon’s daughter.,The recorded incident implies that Nakdimon lost all of his wealth after having failed to use it for acts of kindness. The Gemara asks: bAnd did not Nakdimon ben Guryon perform charity? Isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThey said about Nakdimon ben Guryonthat bwhen he would leave his hometo go bto the study hall,there were bfine woolen garmentshis attendants bwould /b
50. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14a. יורדין לידי טומאה במחשבה ואין עולין מטומאתן אלא בשינוי מעשה מעשה מוציא מיד מעשה ומיד מחשבה מחשבה אינה מוציאה לא מיד מעשה ולא מיד מחשבה,וכי תימא הני מילי כלים דחשיבי אבל ידות דלצורך אכילה נינהו במחשבה נעשה ובמחשבה סלקא והתנן כל ידות האוכלין שבססן בגורן טהורות (ור' יוסי מטמא),בשלמא למאן דאמר בססן התיר אגודן שפיר אלא למאן דאמר מאי בססן בססן ממש מאי איכא למימר,הכא נמי שבססן ממש אי הכי מאי טעמייהו דאחרים דאמור כרבי יוסי דתנן רבי יוסי מטמא,האי מאי בשלמא התם טעמא דרבי יוסי חזיא לכדרבי שמעון בן לקיש דאמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש הואיל וראויות להופכן בעתר,אלא הכא למאי חזיא חזיא לכי סתר למנקט להו בגילייהו,גופא כל ידות האוכלין שבססן בגורן טהורות ורבי יוסי מטמא מאי בססן רבי יוחנן אמר בססן ממש ר' (אליעזר) אומר התיר אגדן,בשלמא לרבי (אליעזר) דאמר בססן התיר אגדן היינו דמטמא רבי יוסי אלא לרבי יוחנן דאמר בססן ממש אמאי מטמא רבי יוסי א"ר שמעון בן לקיש הואיל וראויות להופכן בעתר,א"ר (אליעזר) למה נמשלה תפלתן של צדיקים כעתר לומר לך מה עתר זה מהפך את התבואה בגורן ממקום למקום אף תפלתן של צדיקים מהפכת דעתו של הקב"ה ממדת אכזריות למדת רחמנות:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מסככין בנסרים דברי רבי יהודה ורבי מאיר אוסר נתן עליה נסר שהוא רחב ארבעה טפחים כשרה ובלבד שלא יישן תחתיו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר רב מחלוקת בנסרין שיש בהן ארבעה דרבי מאיר אית ליה גזרת תקרה ורבי יהודה לית ליה גזרת תקרה אבל בנסרין שאין בהן ארבעה דברי הכל כשרה ושמואל אמר בשאין בהן ארבעה מחלוקת אבל יש בהן ארבעה דברי הכל פסולה,אין בהן ארבעה ואפי' פחות משלשה הא קנים בעלמא נינהו,א"ר פפא הכי קאמר יש בהן ארבעה דברי הכל פסולה פחות משלשה דברי הכל כשרה מ"ט קנים בעלמא נינהו כי פליגי משלשה עד ארבעה מר סבר כיון דליתנהו שיעור מקום לא גזרינן ומר סבר כיון דנפקי להו מתורת לבוד גזרינן,תנן נתן עליה נסר שהוא רחב ארבעה טפחים כשרה ובלבד שלא יישן תחתיו בשלמא לשמואל דאמר בשאין בהן ארבעה מחלוקת אבל יש בהן ארבעה דברי הכל פסולה משום הכי לא יישן תחתיו אלא לרב דאמר בשיש בהן ארבעה מחלוקת אבל אין בהן ארבעה דברי הכל כשרה לר' יהודה אמאי לא יישן תחתיו,מי סברת דברי הכל היא סיפא אתאן לרבי מאיר,תא שמע שני סדינין מצטרפין 14a. bdescend into theirstate of britual impurity by means of thought?Although an unfinished vessel ordinarily cannot become ritually impure, if the craftsman decided to leave it in its unfinished state, it immediately assumes the legal status of a completed vessel and can become ritually impure. bHowever, they ascend from theirstate of britual impurity only by means of a changeresulting from an baction.Merely deciding to complete the unfinished vessel does not alter its status. It loses its status as a vessel only when he takes action to complete it. bAction negatesstatus created by baction andstatus created by bthought;however, bthought negates neitherstatus created by baction norstatus created by bthought.Therefore, once the straw of the grain harvested for food is considered a handle and is susceptible to ritual impurity, its status cannot be negated by thought alone., bAnd if you say:There is a distinction between the cases, as bthisprinciple bapplies onlyto bvessels, which are significant, butwith regard to bhandles that arenot independently significant but are merely bfor the purpose ofhandling bfood,perhaps bby means of thought they becomehandles band by means of thought they emergefrom that status; bbut didn’t we learnin the mishna to the contrary? bAll handles of food that one ibesasanon the threshing floor are ritually pure,as through one’s actions he indicated that has no use for them and does not consider them significant. bAnd Rabbi Yosei deemsthem capable of becoming britually impure. /b,The Gemara elaborates: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat ibesasan /imeans that bone untied their binding,it works out bwell.Although no action was performed on the sheaves, nevertheless, since their only purpose is to facilitate binding the sheaves, he indicated by unbinding them that the handles no longer suit his needs. bHowever, according to the one who said: What isthe meaning of ibesasan /i?It means bhe actually trampled them, what can be said?According to that opinion, only an action can negate the status of the handles. What, then, is the rationale for the opinion of the Rabbis, who hold that thought alone can negate their status?,The Gemara answers: bHere too,the dispute between the Rabbis and iAḥerimwith regard to using grain for roofing the isukkais in a case bwhere one actually trampled them,and that is the reason that they are no longer susceptible to ritual impurity. The Gemara asks: bIf so,and a change was made to the grain itself, bwhat is the rationalefor the opinion bof iAḥerim /i,who nevertheless prohibit their use as roofing? The Gemara answers: It is bbecause iAḥerim bstatetheir opinion bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, as we learnedin the previously cited mishna: bRabbi Yosei deemsthem capable of becoming britually impureeven after trampling.,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe basis of bthiscomparison between the cases? bGranted, there,in the dispute concerning the ritual impurity of the grain on the threshing floor, bthe rationalefor the opinion bof Rabbi Yosei,i.e., that the handles remain susceptible to ritual impurity, is that bthey are suitablefor use. This is bin accordance withthe statement of bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish, as Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said:Even after the grain is trampled the straw suits his needs, bsincethe straw bis suited tofacilitate bturning overthe grain bwith a pitchfork,as the straw prevents the grain from falling between the prongs of the pitchfork., bHowever, here,where one needs the straw only for roofing the isukka /i, for bwhat arethe handles bsuitedafter they have been trampled? They serve no purpose in terms of handling the grain. The Gemara answers: bThey are suited when one dismantlesthe roofing, in order bto holdthe grain bby the straw,so that it will scatter. Therefore, iAḥerimhold that the straw remains capable of contracting ritual impurity.,Apropos the dispute between the Rabbis and Rabbi Yosei, the Gemara discusses bthematter bitself: All handles of food that one ibesasanon the threshing floor are ritually pure, and Rabbi Yosei deemsthem capable of becoming britually impure.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of ibesasan /i? Rabbi Yoḥa said:It means that bone actually trampledthem under foot. bRabbi Elazar says:It means bhe untied their binding. /b,The Gemara notes: bGranted, according to Rabbi Elazar, who said that ibesasan /imeans that bhe untied their binding, this isthe reason bthat Rabbi Yosei deemsthe handles bcapable of contracting ritual impurity. However, according to Rabbi Yoḥa, who saidthat ibesasan /imeans that one bactually trampled them, why does Rabbi Yosei deemthe handles bcapable of contracting ritual impurity?Didn’t one thereby render them insignificant? bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said:Even after the grain is trampled, the straw suits his needs, bsincethe straw bis suited tofacilitate bturning overthe grain bwith a pitchfork. /b,Apropos a pitchfork, the Gemara cites a related aggadic teaching: bRabbi Elazar said: Why are the prayers of the righteous likened to a pitchfork [ ieter /i]?It is written: “And Isaac entreated [ ivayetar /i] the Lord for his wife, because she was barren” (Genesis 25:21), bto say to you: Just as this pitchfork overturns the grain on the threshing floor from place to place, so too, the prayers of the righteous overturn the mind of the Holy One, Blessed be He, from the attribute of cruelty to the attribute of mercy,and He accepts their prayers., strongMISHNA: /strong bOnemay broofthe isukka bwith boardslike those used in the ceiling of a house; this is bthe statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Meir prohibitstheir use. bIf one placed a board that is four handbreadths wide atopthe isukka /i, the isukka bis fit.He fulfills his obligation, bprovided he does not sleep beneaththe board., strongGEMARA: /strong bRav said: The dispute is with regard to boards that have fourhandbreadths bin theirwidth, the standard size for boards used in house ceilings, as bRabbi Meir is ofthe opinion that the Sages issued bthe decree of the roof.In that case, the roofing of the isukkawith boards that wide could be confused with a ceiling. If it were permitted to roof the isukkawith a board that size, one might come to sleep beneath the ceiling of his own home during the Festival. bAnd Rabbi Yehuda is not ofthe opinion that the Sages issued bthe decree of the roof. However, with regard to boards that do not have fourhandbreadths bin theirwidth, beveryone agrees thatthe isukka bis fit. And Shmuel said: The dispute is with regard to boards that do not have fourhandbreadths bin theirwidth; bhowever,if bthey have fourhandbreadths bin theirwidth, beveryone agrees that it is unfit. /b,The Gemara asks: According to Shmuel, the dispute is with regard to boards that bdo not have fourhandbreadths in their width, bandapparently the same would hold true bevenif their width were bless than threehandbreadths. In that case, baren’t they merely reeds;why would Rabbi Meir prohibit their use?, bRav Pappa saidthat bthis is whatShmuel bis saying:If bthey have fourhandbreadths bin theirwidth, beveryone agrees thatthe isukkais bunfit.If their width is bless than threehandbreadths, beveryone agrees thatthe isukkais bfit. What is the reason?It is because bthey are merely reeds. When they disagreein the mishna, their disagreement pertains to a case where the boards are bfrom three to fourhandbreadths wide. In that case, one bSage,Rabbi Yehuda, bholdsthat bsince they are not the measure ofa significant bplace, we do not issue a decreeprohibiting their use. bAndone bSage,Rabbi Meir, bholdsthat bsince they have departed from thehalakhic bstatus ofbeing bjoined [ ilavud /i],which applies only to gaps of less than three handbreadths, bwe issue a decreeprohibiting their use as roofing.,The Gemara cites proof with regard to the dispute between Rav and Shmuel. bWe learnedin the mishna: bIf one placed a board that is four handbreadths wide atopthe isukka /i, the isukka bis fit.He fulfills his obligation, bprovided he does not sleep beneaththe board. bGranted, according to Shmuel, who saidthat bthe dispute is with regard to boards that do not have fourhandbreadths bin theirwidth, bhowever,if bthey have fourhandbreadths bin theirwidth, beveryone agrees that it is unfitroofing, it is bdue to thatreason that bone should not sleep beneaththe board. bHowever, according to Rav,who bsaidthat bthe dispute is with regard to boards that have fourhandbreadths bin theirwidth, bhowever,if bthey do not have fourhandbreadths bin theirwidth, beveryone agrees that it is fit, according to Rabbi Yehuda, whymay bone not sleep beneath it? /b,The Gemara answers: bDo you holdthat this last ihalakhain the mishna, about not sleeping beneath the board, bisa ruling with which beveryone,including Rabbi Yehuda bagrees?Rather, in bthe latter clauseof the mishna bwe have come tothe opinion of bRabbi Meir.He alone, not Rabbi Yehuda, holds that one may not sleep beneath the board. Therefore, no proof can be cited from the mishna.,The Gemara cites an additional proof. bComeand bhear: Two sheetsplaced over the roofing of the isukka bjoin togetherto constitute four handbreadths, the measure of unfit roofing that renders a isukkaunfit.
51. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29a. הרהורי עבירה קשו מעבירה וסימניך ריחא דבישרא שילהי דקייטא קשיא מקייטא וסימניך תנורא שגירא,אישתא דסיתוא קשיא מדקייטא וסימניך תנורא קרירא מיגמר בעתיקתא קשיא מחדתא וסימניך טינא בר טינא,א"ר אבהו מ"ט דרבי דכתיב (תהלים כב, א) למנצח על אילת השחר מה אילה זו קרניה מפצילות לכאן ולכאן אף שחר זה מפציע לכאן ולכאן,א"ר זירא למה נמשלה אסתר לאילה לומר לך מה אילה רחמה צר וחביבה על בעלה כל שעה ושעה כשעה ראשונה אף אסתר היתה חביבה על אחשורוש כל שעה ושעה כשעה ראשונה א"ר אסי למה נמשלה אסתר לשחר לומר לך מה שחר סוף כל הלילה אף אסתר סוף כל הנסים,והא איכא חנוכה ניתנה לכתוב קא אמרינן הניחא למאן דאמר אסתר ניתנה לכתוב אלא למאן דאמר אסתר לא ניתנה לכתוב מאי איכא למימר,מוקים לה כר' בנימין בר יפת אמר ר' אלעזר דאמר רבי בנימין בר יפת אמר רבי אלעזר למה נמשלו תפלתן של צדיקים כאילת לומר לך מה אילה זו כל זמן שמגדלת קרניה מפצילות אף צדיקים כל זמן שמרבין בתפלה תפלתן נשמעת,שחטו את התמיד אימת אילימא בשאר ימות השנה לא סגיא דלאו כהן גדול אלא ביום הכפורים מאור הלבנה מי איכא,הכי קאמר וביום הכפורים כי אמר ברק ברקאי הורידו כ"ג לבית הטבילה,תני אבוה דרבי אבין לא זו בלבד אמרו אלא אף מליקת העוף וקמיצת מנחה בלילה תשרף בשלמא עולת העוף מאי דהוה הוה אלא קומץ 29a. bThoughts of transgression are worse than transgressionitself, band your mnemonic is the odor of meat.The smell of roasting meat is more appetizing than actually eating the meat. The heat of bthe end of summer is more oppressive than theheat of the bsummeritself, band your mnemonic is a heated oven.After an oven has been heated several times in the course of a day, lighting it again, even slightly, will produce powerful heat. So too, at the end of the summer, since everything is hot, the heat is more oppressive., bA fever inthe bwinter is more powerful thana fever binthe bsummer, and your mnemonic is a cold oven.Heating a cold oven requires greater heat than heating a hot oven. A fever that succeeds in raising the body temperature in the winter must be more powerful than a fever that raises the body temperature in the summer. bRelearning oldmaterial that was known and forgotten bis more difficult than learning from newmaterial. bAnd your mnemonic ismixing bmortar from mortar.It is harder to take hardened mortar, crush it, and mix new mortar than it is to simply mix new mortar.,Apropos moonlight and sunlight discussed previously, bRabbi Abbahu said: What is the rationalefor the statement of bRabbiYehuda HaNasi that sunlight diffuses and in that sense is dissimilar to moonlight? It is bas it is written: “For the leader, about the morning hind”(Psalms 22:1); bjust as the antlers of a hind branch out to here and to there, so too,the light of bdawn diffuses to here and to there. /b,In tractate iMegilla /i, the Gemara states that Queen Esther prophetically recited this Psalm in reference to her situation as she was about to come before King Ahasuerus without being summoned. bRabbi Zeira said: Why is Esther likened to a hind?It is bto tell you: Just asin the case of ba hind its womb is narrow and it is desirable to its mate at each and every hour likeit is at bthe first hour, so too, Esther was desirable to Ahasuerus at each and every hour likeshe was at bthe first hour. Rabbi Asi said: Why was Esther likened to the dawn?It is bto tell you: Just as the dawn is the conclusion of the entire night, so too, Esther was the conclusion of all miraclesperformed for the entire Jewish people.,The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t therethe miracle of bHanukkah,which was performed many years later? The Gemara answers: It is true that additional miracles were performed after the miracle of Purim; however, it is with regard to miracles for which permission bwas granted to writethem in the Bible that bwe are sayingthat the miracle of Purim was the last one. The Gemara asks: bThatworks out bwell according to the one who said:Permission bwas granted to writethe Scroll of bEstherin the Bible as a book whose sanctity equals that of the other books of the Bible. bHowever, according to the one who said:Permission bwas not granted to writethe Scroll of bEstherin the Bible, and its sanctity does not reach the level of the other books of the Bible, bwhat can be said? /b,The Gemara answers: Actually, Purim was not the conclusion of all miracles performed for the entire Jewish people, and the one who holds that permission was not granted for the Scroll of Esther to be written bestablishesthe analogy between Esther and the hind bin accordance withthe statement that bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefetsaid bthat Rabbi Elazar said; as Rabbi Binyamin bar Yefet saidthat bRabbi Elazar said: Why are the prayers of the righteous likened to a hind?It is bto tell you: Just aswith regard to ba hind, as long as it grows its antlers theycontinue to bbranch out; so too,with regard to bthe righteous, as long as theyengage bmore in prayer their prayer is heard. /b,§ The mishna relates that as a result of the confusion, bthey slaughtered the daily offeringbefore dawn. The Gemara asks: bWhendid this incident occur? bIf we sayit occurred bduring the rest of the days of the year, is there no alternativeto having the service performed by bthe High Priest?The mishna states that after slaughtering the daily offering, they led the High Priest down to the Hall of Immersion. On all the other days of the year, the High Priest need not perform the service and it may be performed by a common priest. bRather,it must be that this incident occurred bon Yom Kippur,when the service is performed exclusively by the High Priest. However, in that case, bis there moonlight?According to the lunar cycle, the moon never rises in the east adjacent to dawn on Yom Kippur.,The Gemara answers that bthis is whatthe mishna bis saying:The incident occurred during the rest of the year, at which point they instituted that the appointed priest announce the arrival of dawn in the Temple. bAnd on Yom Kippur, whenthe appointed priest bsaid: The light flashed, theyimmediately bled the High Priest down to the Hall of Immersion. /b,Apropos this fundamental ihalakha /i, bthe father of Rabbi Avin taughta ibaraita /i: bNot only this,that a daily offering slaughtered before dawn is disqualified and burned, bdid they say; rather, evenin the case of bthe pinching of theneck of ba bird and the taking of the handful of a meal-offeringthat are performed bat night,these items must bbe burned.The Gemara analyzes the ibaraita /i: bGranted, a birdsacrificed as ba burnt-offeringis disqualified if pinched before dawn; bwhat was, was.The situation can no longer be remedied, and the bird must be burned. bHowever,why should bthe handfulof a meal-offering be burned?
52. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 2.23.6, 3.5.3 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

2.23.6. He alone was permitted to enter into the holy place; for he wore not woolen but linen garments. And he was in the habit of entering alone into the temple, and was frequently found upon his knees begging forgiveness for the people, so that his knees became hard like those of a camel, in consequence of his constantly bending them in his worship of God, and asking forgiveness for the people. 3.5.3. But the people of the church in Jerusalem had been commanded by a revelation, vouchsafed to approved men there before the war, to leave the city and to dwell in a certain town of Perea called Pella. And when those that believed in Christ had come there from Jerusalem, then, as if the royal city of the Jews and the whole land of Judea were entirely destitute of holy men, the judgment of God at length overtook those who had committed such outrages against Christ and his apostles, and totally destroyed that generation of impious men.
53. Epiphanius, De Mensuris Et Ponderibus, 15, 14 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

54. Anon., 4 Baruch, 9.5

9.5. And may Michael, archangel of righteousness, who opens the gates to the righteous, be my guardian (?) until he causes the righteous to enter.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abimelech/ebed-melech Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 362
abraham Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201; Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 182
apostolic constitution Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 145
atonement Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 144
baptism Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 144
biblical interpretation Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 182
body, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 678
charismatic wonderworkers, elijah Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 145
cherubim Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 678
christ, mighty works of McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 44
church Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
communal settings Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 144, 145
community Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
confession, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 678
confession, of sin Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
confession Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 144; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 678
conversions linked to healing, authority Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 144
dead sea scrolls Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 144
desires Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 63
dipsychos Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 144
double Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 144
elijah Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201; Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 145
eucharist Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 145
excommunication Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 144
faith, prayer of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
faith Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 182, 183
fiction, pseudepigraphical Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 107
flesh, sin of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 678
forgiveness, of sins Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
forgiveness Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
god, all virtue, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 678
god, authoritative one, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 678
greece, greek Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 182
healing Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
healings McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 44
heart purity and impurity of Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 144
james, letter of Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 100, 107
jerome Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 145
knowledge Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 144
letters/epistles Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 362
lord Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 182, 183
maskil Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 144
miracle Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 145
miracles McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 44
moses Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 119
noah Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 352
obedience and disobedience Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 362
oil Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 144, 145
paradise, traveling (journey or foray) to/from Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 678
pella, flight to Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 98
penance, penitence Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 144
petitions of the lords prayer, fifth Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
prayer, effect of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
prayer, intercessory Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
prayer, petitionary Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
prayer, vocabulary Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
prayer Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 98, 119, 352, 362; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
prayers, communal Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 144, 145
prayers, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 678
prayers, sacramentary of serapion Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 145
priest and high priest Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 98, 119, 362
proseuche Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
rain miracles Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 145
repentance Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 144; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
resurrection McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 44
righteousness/the righteous/the just Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 352, 362
ritual actions Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 144, 145
ritual practitioners, with institutional authority Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 144
ritual practitioners Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 144, 145
romans/roman empire/rome Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 98
sacramentary of serapion Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 145
seal, baptismal Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 144
shema\u2003 Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 182
simplicity Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 144
sin/sinner, sin, forgiveness of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 119
sin/sinner Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 119, 362
sin Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
sinlessness Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 352
sinner Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 678
songs of the maskil Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 144
soteriology Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
souls Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 63
spirit, and messiah' McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 44
stewards, faithful and unfaithful Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 352
syria–palestine Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 100
teacher, appointment of Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 107
teacher, reputation of Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 107
temple in jerusalem, destruction of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 98
temple in jerusalem Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 362
tent Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 678
throne, immovable Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 678
throne Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 678
wisdom Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 183
worship Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 183
zimmermann, a.f. Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 100