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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8245
New Testament, James, 4.11-4.12


Μὴ καταλαλεῖτε ἀλλήλων, ἀδελφοί· ὁ καταλαλῶν ἀδελφοῦ ἢ κρίνων τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ καταλαλεῖ νόμου καὶ κρίνει νόμον· εἰ δὲ νόμον κρίνεις, οὐκ εἶ ποιητὴς νόμου ἀλλὰ κριτής.Don't speak against one another, brothers. He who speaks against a brother and judges his brother, speaks against the law and judges the law. But if you judge the law, you are not a doer of the law, but a judge.


εἷς ἔστιν νομοθέτης καὶ κριτής, ὁ δυνάμενος σῶσαι καὶ ἀπολέσαι· σὺ δὲ τίς εἶ, ὁ κρίνων τὸν πλησίον;Only one is the lawgiver, who is able to save and to destroy. But who are you to judge another?


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

19 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 15.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.6. וְהֶאֱמִן בַּיהוָה וַיַּחְשְׁבֶהָ לּוֹ צְדָקָה׃ 15.6. And he believed in the LORD; and He counted it to him for righteousness."
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.18. לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.18. Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD."
3. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 2.4 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

2.4. הִנֵּה עֻפְּלָה לֹא־יָשְׁרָה נַפְשׁוֹ בּוֹ וְצַדִּיק בֶּאֱמוּנָתוֹ יִחְיֶה׃ 2.4. Behold, his soul is puffed up, it is not upright in him; But the righteous shall live by his faith."
4. Anon., Didache, 11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. Whosoever, therefore, comes and teaches you all these things that have been said before, receive him. But if the teacher himself turn and teach another doctrine to the destruction of this, hear him not; but if he teach so as to increase righteousness and the knowledge of the Lord, receive him as the Lord. But concerning the apostles and prophets, according to the decree of the Gospel, thus do. Let every apostle that comes to you be received as the Lord. But he shall not remain except one day; but if there be need, also the next; but if he remain three days, he is a false prophet. And when the apostle goes away, let him take nothing but bread until he lodges; but if he ask money, he is a false prophet. And every prophet that speaks in the Spirit you shall neither try nor judge; for every sin shall be forgiven, but this sin shall not be forgiven. But not every one that speaks in the Spirit is a prophet; but only if he hold the ways of the Lord. Therefore from their ways shall the false prophet and the prophet be known. And every prophet who orders a meal in the Spirit eats not from it, except indeed he be a false prophet; and every prophet who teaches the truth, if he do not what he teaches, is a false prophet. And every prophet, proved true, working unto the mystery of the Church in the world, yet not teaching others to do what he himself does, shall not be judged among you, for with God he has his judgment; for so did also the ancient prophets. But whoever says in the Spirit, Give me money, or something else, you shall not listen to him; but if he says to you to give for others' sake who are in need, let no one judge him.
5. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 7 (1st cent. CE

6. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 4.159 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.159. and indeed they were Gorian the son of Josephus, and Symeon the son of Gamaliel, who encouraged them, by going up and down when they were assembled together in crowds, and as they saw them alone, to bear no longer, but to inflict punishment upon these pests and plagues of their freedom, and to purge the temple of these bloody polluters of it.
7. Josephus Flavius, Life, 309, 190 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Mishnah, Avot, 1.2, 1.17, 3.9, 3.11, 3.17, 5.6, 5.14, 6.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.2. Shimon the Righteous was one of the last of the men of the great assembly. He used to say: the world stands upon three things: the Torah, the Temple service, and the practice of acts of piety." 1.17. Shimon, his son, used to say: all my days I grew up among the sages, and I have found nothing better for a person than silence. Study is not the most important thing, but actions; whoever indulges in too many words brings about sin." 3.9. Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa said: anyone whose fear of sin precedes his wisdom, his wisdom is enduring, but anyone whose wisdom precedes his fear of sin, his wisdom is not enduring. He [also] used to say: anyone whose deeds exceed his wisdom, his wisdom is enduring, but anyone whose wisdom exceeds his deeds, his wisdom is not enduring." 3.11. Rabbi Elazar of Modiin said: one who profanes sacred things, and one who despises the festivals, and one who causes his fellow’s face to blush in public, and one who annuls the covet of our father Abraham, may he rest in peace, and he who is contemptuous towards the Torah, even though he has to his credit [knowledge of the] Torah and good deeds, he has not a share in the world to come." 3.17. ...Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah says: If there is no Torah, there is no worldly occupation, if there is no worldly occupation, there is no Torah. If there is no wisdom, there is no fear of God; if there is no fear of God, there is no wisdom. If there is no knowledge, there is no understanding; if there is no understanding, there is no knowledge. If there is no flour, there is no Torah; if there is no Torah, there is no flour. He used to say: Anyone whose wisdom exceeds his deeds, to what is he compared? To a tree who branches are many but whose roots are few; then the winds comes and uproots it and turns it upside down; as it is said; \"And he shall be like a lonely juniper tree in the wasteland and shall not see when good comes, but shall inhabit the parched places of the wilderness, a salt filled land which is uninhabitable.\" [Jeremiah 17:6]. But one whose deeds exceed one's wisdom, what is that person like? Like a tree whose branches are few, but whose roots are many; even if all the winds of the world were to come and blow upon it, they would not move it from its place, as it is said; \"He shall be like a tree planted by the waters, which spreads out its roots by the river, and shall not perceive when heat comes, but its leaf shall remain fresh; and it will not be troubled in the year of drought, nor will it cease to bear fruit.\" [Jeremiah 17:8]." 5.6. Ten things were created on the eve of the Sabbath at twilight, and these are they: [1] the mouth of the earth, [2] the mouth of the well, [3] the mouth of the donkey, [4] the rainbow, [5] the manna, [6] the staff [of Moses], [7] the shamir, [8] the letters, [9] the writing, [10] and the tablets. And some say: also the demons, the grave of Moses, and the ram of Abraham, our father. And some say: and also tongs, made with tongs." 5.14. There are four types among those who frequent the study-house (bet midrash):He who attends but does not practice: he receives a reward for attendance. He who practices but does not attend: he receives a reward for practice. He who attends and practices: he is a pious man; He who neither attends nor practices: he is a wicked man."
9. Mishnah, Sukkah, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.4. Men of piety and good deeds used to dance before them with lighted torches in their hands, and they would sing songs and praises. And Levites with innumerable harps, lyres, cymbals and trumpets and other musical instruments stood upon the fifteen steps leading down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, corresponding to the fifteen songs of ascents in the Psalms, and it was on these [steps] that the Levites stood with their musical instruments and sang their songs. Two priests stood by the upper gate which leads down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, with two trumpets in their hands. When the cock crowed they sounded a teki'ah [drawn-out blast], a teru'ah [staccato note] and again a teki'ah. When they reached the tenth step they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. When they reached the Court [of the Women] they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. They would sound their trumpets and proceed until they reached the gate which leads out to the east. When they reached the gate which leads out to the east, they turned their faces from east to west and said, “Our fathers who were in this place ‘their backs were toward the Temple of the Lord, and their faces toward the east, and they worshipped the sun toward the east’, but as for us, our eyes are turned to the Lord.” Rabbi Judah said: they used to repeat [the last words] and say “We are the Lord’s and our eyes are turned to the Lord.”"
10. New Testament, 1 John, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.2. By this you know the Spirit of God: every spirit who confesses that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is of God
11. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 9.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.20. To the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain Jews; to thosewho are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain those whoare under the law;
12. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13. New Testament, Acts, 15.23-15.29, 18.27, 21.5, 21.9-21.14, 21.16, 21.18-21.22, 23.26, 23.28 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15.23. They wrote these things by their hand: "The apostles, the elders, and the brothers, to the brothers who are of the Gentiles in Antioch, Syria, and Cilicia: greetings. 15.24. Because we have heard that some who went out from us have troubled you with words, unsettling your souls, saying, 'You must be circumcised and keep the law,' to whom we gave no commandment; 15.25. it seemed good to us, having come to one accord, to choose out men and send them to you with our beloved Barnabas and Paul 15.26. men who have risked their lives for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. 15.27. We have sent therefore Judas and Silas, who themselves will also tell you the same things by word of mouth. 15.28. For it seemed good to the Holy Spirit, and to us, to lay no greater burden on you than these necessary things: 15.29. that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality, from which if you keep yourselves, it will be well with you. Farewell. 18.27. When he had determined to pass over into Achaia, the brothers encouraged him, and wrote to the disciples to receive him. When he had come, he helped them much, who had believed through grace; 21.5. When it happened that we had accomplished the days, we departed and went on our journey. They all, with wives and children, brought us on our way until we were out of the city. Kneeling down on the beach, we prayed. 21.9. Now this man had four virgin daughters who prophesied. 21.10. As we stayed there some days, a certain prophet named Agabus came down from Judea. 21.11. Coming to us, and taking Paul's belt, he bound his own feet and hands, and said, "Thus says the Holy Spirit: 'So will the Jews at Jerusalem bind the man who owns this belt, and will deliver him into the hands of the Gentiles.' 21.12. When we heard these things, both we and they of that place begged him not to go up to Jerusalem. 21.13. Then Paul answered, "What are you doing, weeping and breaking my heart? For I am ready not only to be bound, but also to die at Jerusalem for the name of the Lord Jesus. 21.14. When he would not be persuaded, we ceased, saying, "The Lord's will be done. 21.16. Some of the disciples from Caesarea also went with us, bringing one Mnason of Cyprus, an early disciple, with whom we would stay. 21.18. The day following, Paul went in with us to James; and all the elders were present. 21.19. When he had greeted them, he reported one by one the things which God had worked among the Gentiles through his ministry. 21.20. They, when they heard it, glorified God. They said to him, "You see, brother, how many thousands there are among the Jews of those who have believed, and they are all zealous for the law. 21.21. They have been informed about you, that you teach all the Jews who are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, telling them not to circumcise their children neither to walk after the customs. 21.22. What then? The assembly must certainly meet, for they will hear that you have come. 23.26. Claudius Lysias to the most excellent governor Felix: Greetings. 23.28. Desiring to know the cause why they accused him, I brought him down to their council.
14. New Testament, James, 1.1, 1.5, 1.9-1.11, 1.17, 1.22-1.25, 1.27, 2.1-2.26, 3.13-3.17, 4.1-4.4, 4.8, 4.12, 5.1-5.6, 5.14-5.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, to the twelve tribes which are in the Dispersion: Greetings. 1.5. But if any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask of God, who gives to all liberally and without reproach; and it will be given to him. 1.9. But let the brother in humble circumstances glory in his high position; 1.10. and the rich, in that he is made humble, because like the flower in the grass, he will pass away. 1.11. For the sun arises with the scorching wind, and withers the grass, and the flower in it falls, and the beauty of its appearance perishes. So also will the rich man fade away in his pursuits. 1.17. Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of lights, with whom can be no variation, nor turning shadow. 1.22. But be doers of the word, and not only hearers, deluding your own selves. 1.23. For if anyone is a hearer of the word and not a doer, he is like a man beholding his natural face in a mirror; 1.24. for he sees himself, and goes away, and immediately forgets what kind of man he was. 1.25. But he who looks into the perfect law, the law of freedom, and continues, not being a hearer who forgets but a doer of the work, this man will be blessed in what he does. 1.27. Pure religion and undefiled before our God and Father is this: to visit the fatherless and widows in their affliction, and to keep oneself unstained by the world. 2.1. My brothers, don't hold the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ of glory with partiality. 2.2. For if a man with a gold ring, in fine clothing, comes into your assembly, and a poor man in filthy clothing also comes in; 2.3. and you pay special attention to him who wears the fine clothing, and say, "Sit here in a good place;" and you tell the poor man, "Stand there," or "Sit by my footstool; 2.4. haven't you shown partiality among yourselves, and become judges with evil thoughts? 2.5. Listen, my beloved brothers. Didn't God choose those who are poor in this world to be rich in faith, and heirs of the kingdom which he promised to those who love him? 2.6. But you have dishonored the poor man. Don't the rich oppress you, and personally drag you before the courts? 2.7. Don't they blaspheme the honorable name by which you are called? 2.8. However, if you fulfill the royal law, according to the Scripture, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself," you do well. 2.9. But if you show partiality, you commit sin, being convicted by the law as transgressors. 2.10. For whoever shall keep the whole law, and yet stumble in one point, he has become guilty of all. 2.11. For he who said, "Do not commit adultery," said also, "Do not commit murder." Now if you do not commit adultery, but murder, you have become a transgressor of the law. 2.12. So speak, and so do, as men who are to be judged by a law of freedom. 2.13. For judgment is without mercy to him who has shown no mercy. Mercy triumphs over judgment. 2.14. What good is it, my brothers, if a man says he has faith, but has no works? Can that faith save him? 2.15. And if a brother or sister is naked and in lack of daily food 2.16. and one of you tells them, "Go in peace, be warmed and filled;" and yet you didn't give them the things the body needs, what good is it? 2.17. Even so faith, if it has no works, is dead in itself. 2.18. Yes, a man will say, "You have faith, and I have works." Show me your faith from your works, and I by my works will show you my faith. 2.19. You believe that God is one. You do well. The demons also believe, and shudder. 2.20. But do you want to know, vain man, that faith apart from works is dead? 2.21. Wasn't Abraham our father justified by works, in that he offered up Isaac his son on the altar? 2.22. You see that faith worked with his works, and by works faith was perfected; 2.23. and the Scripture was fulfilled which says, "Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him as righteousness;" and he was called the friend of God. 2.24. You see then that by works, a man is justified, and not only by faith. 2.25. In like manner wasn't Rahab the prostitute also justified by works, in that she received the messengers, and sent them out another way? 2.26. For as the body apart from the spirit is dead, even so faith apart from works is dead. 3.13. Who is wise and understanding among you? Let him show by his good conduct that his deeds are done in gentleness of wisdom. 3.14. But if you have bitter jealousy and selfish ambition in your heart, don't boast and don't lie against the truth. 3.15. This wisdom is not that which comes down from above, but is earthly, sensual, and demonic. 3.16. For where jealousy and selfish ambition are, there is confusion and every evil deed. 3.17. But the wisdom that is from above is first pure, then peaceful, gentle, reasonable, full of mercy and good fruits, without partiality, and without hypocrisy. 4.1. Where do wars and fightings among you come from? Don't they come from your pleasures that war in your members? 4.2. You lust, and don't have. You kill, covet, and can't obtain. You fight and make war. Yet you don't have, because you don't ask. 4.3. You ask, and don't receive, because you ask amiss, so that you may spend it for your pleasures. 4.4. You adulterers and adulteresses, don't you know that friendship with the world is enmity with God? Whoever therefore wants to be a friend of the world makes himself an enemy of God. 4.8. Draw near to God, and he will draw near to you. Cleanse your hands, you sinners; and purify your hearts, you double-minded. 4.12. Only one is the lawgiver, who is able to save and to destroy. But who are you to judge another? 5.1. Come now, you rich, weep and howl for your miseries that are coming on you. 5.2. Your riches are corrupted and your garments are moth-eaten. 5.3. Your gold and your silver are corroded, and their corrosion will be for a testimony against you, and will eat your flesh like fire. You have laid up your treasure in the last days. 5.4. Behold, the wages of the laborers who mowed your fields, which you have kept back by fraud, cry out, and the cries of those who reaped have entered into the ears of the Lord of Hosts. 5.5. You have lived delicately on the earth, and taken your pleasure. You have nourished your hearts as in a day of slaughter. 5.6. You have condemned, you have murdered the righteous one. He doesn't resist you. 5.14. Is any among you sick? Let him call for the elders of the assembly, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord 5.15. and the prayer of faith will heal him who is sick, and the Lord will raise him up. If he has committed sins, he will be forgiven. 5.16. Confess your offenses to one another, and pray one for another, that you may be healed. The effective, earnest prayer of a righteous man is powerfully effective.
15. New Testament, Jude, 10-25, 4-9, 1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

16. New Testament, Galatians, 2.16, 3.10, 4.6, 5.2, 5.13, 5.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.16. yet knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law butthrough the faith of Jesus Christ, even we believed in Christ Jesus,that we might be justified by faith in Christ, and not by the works ofthe law, because no flesh will be justified by the works of the law. 3.10. For as many as are of the works of the law areunder a curse. For it is written, "Cursed is everyone who doesn'tcontinue in all things that are written in the book of the law, to dothem. 4.6. And because you are sons, God sent out theSpirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, "Abba, Father! 5.2. Behold, I, Paul, tell you that if you receive circumcision, Christ willprofit you nothing. 5.13. For you, brothers, were called for freedom. Only don't useyour freedom for gain to the flesh, but through love be servants to oneanother. 5.18. But if you are led by theSpirit, you are not under the law.
17. New Testament, Romans, 2.9, 2.12-2.15, 2.17, 3.1, 3.8, 3.20, 3.28, 4.6, 6.1, 6.14-6.15, 12.9-12.10, 12.13, 16.1-16.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.9. oppression and anguish, on every soul of man who works evil, on the Jew first, and also on the Greek. 2.12. For as many as have sinned without law will also perish without the law. As many as have sinned under the law will be judged by the law. 2.13. For it isn't the hearers of the law who are righteous before God, but the doers of the law will be justified 2.14. (for when Gentiles who don't have the law do by nature the things of the law, these, not having the law, are a law to themselves 2.15. in that they show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience testifying with them, and their thoughts among themselves accusing or else excusing them) 2.17. Indeed you bear the name of a Jew, and rest on the law, and glory in God 3.1. Then what advantage does the Jew have? Or what is the profit of circumcision? 3.8. Why not (as we are slanderously reported, and as some affirm that we say), "Let us do evil, that good may come?" Those who say so are justly condemned. 3.20. Because by the works of the law, no flesh will be justified in his sight. For through the law comes the knowledge of sin. 3.28. We maintain therefore that a man is justified by faith apart from the works of the law. 4.6. Even as David also pronounces blessing on the man to whom God counts righteousness apart from works 6.1. What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? 6.14. For sin will not have dominion over you. For you are not under law, but under grace. 6.15. What then? Shall we sin, because we are not under law, but under grace? May it never be! 12.9. Let love be without hypocrisy. Abhor that which is evil. Cling to that which is good. 12.10. In love of the brothers be tenderly affectionate one to another; in honor preferring one another; 12.13. contributing to the needs of the saints; given to hospitality. 16.1. I commend to you Phoebe, our sister, who is a servant of the assembly that is at Cenchreae 16.2. that you receive her in the Lord, in a way worthy of the saints, and that you assist her in whatever matter she may need from you, for she herself also has been a helper of many, and of my own self.
18. New Testament, Luke, 6.47-6.49 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.47. Everyone who comes to me, and hears my words, and does them, I will show you who he is like. 6.48. He is like a man building a house, who dug and went deep, and laid a foundation on the rock. When a flood arose, the stream broke against that house, and could not shake it, because it was founded on the rock. 6.49. But he who hears, and doesn't do, is like a man who built a house on the earth without a foundation, against which the stream broke, and immediately it fell, and the ruin of that house was great.
19. New Testament, Matthew, 5.17, 5.19-5.24, 5.32-5.37, 6.30, 7.21-7.27, 13.55, 16.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.17. Don't think that I came to destroy the law or the prophets. I didn't come to destroy, but to fulfill. 5.19. Whoever, therefore, shall break one of these least commandments, and teach others to do so, shall be called least in the Kingdom of Heaven; but whoever shall do and teach them shall be called great in the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.20. For I tell you that unless your righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, there is no way you will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.21. You have heard that it was said to the ancient ones, 'You shall not murder;' and 'Whoever shall murder shall be in danger of the judgment.' 5.22. But I tell you, that everyone who is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment; and whoever shall say to his brother, 'Raca!' shall be in danger of the council; and whoever shall say, 'You fool!' shall be in danger of the fire of Gehenna. 5.23. If therefore you are offering your gift at the altar, and there remember that your brother has anything against you 5.24. leave your gift there before the altar, and go your way. First be reconciled to your brother, and then come and offer your gift. 5.32. but I tell you that whoever who puts away his wife, except for the cause of sexual immorality, makes her an adulteress; and whoever marries her when she is put away commits adultery. 5.33. Again you have heard that it was said to them of old time, 'You shall not make false vows, but shall perform to the Lord your vows,' 5.34. but I tell you, don't swear at all: neither by heaven, for it is the throne of God; 5.35. nor by the earth, for it is the footstool of his feet; nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King. 5.36. Neither shall you swear by your head, for you can't make one hair white or black. 5.37. But let your 'Yes' be 'Yes' and your 'No' be 'no.' Whatever is more than these is of the evil one. 6.30. But if God so clothes the grass of the field, which today exists, and tomorrow is thrown into the oven, won't he much more clothe you, you of little faith? 7.21. Not everyone who says to me, 'Lord, Lord,' will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven; but he who does the will of my Father who is in heaven. 7.22. Many will tell me in that day, 'Lord, Lord, didn't we prophesy in your name, in your name cast out demons, and in your name do many mighty works?' 7.23. Then I will tell them, 'I never knew you. Depart from me, you who work iniquity.' 7.24. Everyone therefore who hears these words of mine, and does them, I will liken him to a wise man, who built his house on a rock. 7.25. The rain came down, the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat on that house; and it didn't fall, for it was founded on the rock. 7.26. Everyone who hears these words of mine, and doesn't do them will be like a foolish man, who built his house on the sand. 7.27. The rain came down, the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat on that house; and it fell -- and great was its fall. 13.55. Isn't this the carpenter's son? Isn't his mother called Mary, and his brothers, James, Joses, Simon, and Judas? 16.19. I will give to you the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven, and whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven; and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 182; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 367, 368
abuse, hospitality Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 753
anti-pauline Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 367
aramaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 367
biblical interpretation Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 182
christianity, early history Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 144
churches/tradition of paul pauline Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 363
circumcision Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 365, 368
culture, cultural affiliations in galilee Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 144
cynic (see also stoic) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 363
diaspora Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 365
dio chrysostom Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 753
elazar (lazar) ben azaria, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 363
faith Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 182
food (dietary) laws, kashrut Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 365
friday (fast/festival day) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 365
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 365, 367
giving of law at sinai Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 365
gospel of the circumcision Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 367
greece, greek Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 182
greek, language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 363
greek-jewish (graeco-jewish), literature and culture Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 363, 365
hanina ben dosa, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 363
hebrew language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 367
hospitality Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 753
instruction Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 753
james, term brothers in Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 229
james (brother of jesus), letter of Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 144
jewish-christian tradition, custom Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 365, 367
jewish christianity, literary productions Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 144
judaism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 753
jude, letter of Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 144
law, in letter of james Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 144
law in paul Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 363, 365, 367, 368
letter, of recommendation' Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 753
lord Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 182
martin, g. currie Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 229
midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 363, 365, 367
nehemia, r Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 365
observance of law Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 363, 367
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 363, 365, 367, 368
philo Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 365
qumran documents Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 363, 367
rabbis Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 365
roman catholic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 365
sabbath Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 365
shema\u2003 Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 182
shimon ben gamaliel the elder Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 363, 365
stoic(ism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 363, 365
synagogue, language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 368
synagogue Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 368
synoptic, tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 363
temple ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 365
tora (see also pentateuch) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 363, 367
works of law Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 363, 367, 368
yehuda (yuda), r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 365
yishmael son of r. levitas, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 363
yoshua ben levi, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 365