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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8245
New Testament, James, 1.4-1.5


ἡ δὲ ὑπομονὴ ἔργον τέλειον ἐχέτω, ἵνα ἦτε τέλειοι καὶ ὁλόκληροι, ἐν μηδενὶ λειπόμενοι.Let patience have its perfect work, that you may be perfect and complete, lacking in nothing.


Εἰ δέ τις ὑμῶν λείπεται σοφίας, αἰτείτω παρὰ τοῦ διδόντος θεοῦ πᾶσιν ἁπλῶς καὶ μὴ ὀνειδίζοντος, καὶ δοθήσεται αὐτῷ·But if any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask of God, who gives to all liberally and without reproach; and it will be given to him.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

22 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 4.8 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.8. If you have many possessions, make your gift from them in proportion; if few, do not be afraid to give according to the little you have.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 1.13, 1.15, 4.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.13. הָבוּ לָכֶם אֲנָשִׁים חֲכָמִים וּנְבֹנִים וִידֻעִים לְשִׁבְטֵיכֶם וַאֲשִׂימֵם בְּרָאשֵׁיכֶם׃ 1.15. וָאֶקַּח אֶת־רָאשֵׁי שִׁבְטֵיכֶם אֲנָשִׁים חֲכָמִים וִידֻעִים וָאֶתֵּן אֹתָם רָאשִׁים עֲלֵיכֶם שָׂרֵי אֲלָפִים וְשָׂרֵי מֵאוֹת וְשָׂרֵי חֲמִשִּׁים וְשָׂרֵי עֲשָׂרֹת וְשֹׁטְרִים לְשִׁבְטֵיכֶם׃ 4.6. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם וַעֲשִׂיתֶם כִּי הִוא חָכְמַתְכֶם וּבִינַתְכֶם לְעֵינֵי הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁמְעוּן אֵת כָּל־הַחֻקִּים הָאֵלֶּה וְאָמְרוּ רַק עַם־חָכָם וְנָבוֹן הַגּוֹי הַגָּדוֹל הַזֶּה׃ 1.13. Get you, from each one of your tribes, wise men, and understanding, and full of knowledge, and I will make them heads over you.’" 1.15. So I took the heads of your tribes, wise men, and full of knowledge, and made them heads over you, captains of thousands, and captains of hundreds, and captains of fifties, and captains of tens, and officers, tribe by tribe." 4.6. Observe therefore and do them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the peoples, that, when they hear all these statutes, shall say: ‘Surely this great nation is a wise and understanding people.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Zephaniah, 1.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.14. קָרוֹב יוֹם־יְהוָה הַגָּדוֹל קָרוֹב וּמַהֵר מְאֹד קוֹל יוֹם יְהוָה מַר צֹרֵחַ שָׁם גִּבּוֹר׃ 1.14. The great day of the LORD is near, It is near and hasteth greatly, Even the voice of the day of the LORD, Wherein the mighty man crieth bitterly."
4. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 29.8, 29.10, 29.13, 29.17-29.18, 29.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

29.8. כִּי כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אַל־יַשִּׁיאוּ לָכֶם נְבִיאֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וְקֹסְמֵיכֶם וְאַל־תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל־חֲלֹמֹתֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם מַחְלְמִים׃ 29.13. וּבִקַּשְׁתֶּם אֹתִי וּמְצָאתֶם כִּי תִדְרְשֻׁנִי בְּכָל־לְבַבְכֶם׃ 29.17. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת הִנְנִי מְשַׁלֵּחַ בָּם אֶת־הַחֶרֶב אֶת־הָרָעָב וְאֶת־הַדָּבֶר וְנָתַתִּי אוֹתָם כַּתְּאֵנִים הַשֹּׁעָרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תֵאָכַלְנָה מֵרֹעַ׃ 29.18. וְרָדַפְתִּי אַחֲרֵיהֶם בַּחֶרֶב בָּרָעָב וּבַדָּבֶר וּנְתַתִּים לזועה [לְזַעֲוָה] לְכֹל מַמְלְכוֹת הָאָרֶץ לְאָלָה וּלְשַׁמָּה וְלִשְׁרֵקָה וּלְחֶרְפָּה בְּכָל־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר־הִדַּחְתִּים שָׁם׃ 29.23. יַעַן אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ נְבָלָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וַיְנַאֲפוּ אֶת־נְשֵׁי רֵעֵיהֶם וַיְדַבְּרוּ דָבָר בִּשְׁמִי שֶׁקֶר אֲשֶׁר לוֹא צִוִּיתִם וְאָנֹכִי הוידע [הַיּוֹדֵעַ] וָעֵד נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 29.8. For thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: Let not your prophets that are in the midst of you, and your diviners, beguile you, neither hearken ye to your dreams which ye cause to be dreamed." 29.10. For thus saith the LORD: After seventy years are accomplished for Babylon, I will remember you, and perform My good word toward you, in causing you to return to this place." 29.13. And ye shall seek Me, and find Me, when ye shall search for Me with all your heart." 29.17. thus saith the LORD of hosts: Behold, I will send upon them the sword, the famine, and the pestilence, and will make them like vile figs, that cannot be eaten, they are so bad." 29.18. And I will pursue after them with the sword, with the famine, and with the pestilence, and will make them a horror unto all the kingdoms of the earth, a curse, and an astonishment, and a hissing, and a reproach, among all the nations whither I have driven them;" 29.23. because they have wrought vile deeds in Israel, and have committed adultery with their neighbours’wives, and have spoken words in My name falsely, which I commanded them not; but I am He that knoweth, and am witness, saith the LORD."
5. Septuagint, Tobit, 4.8 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.8. If you have many possessions, make your gift from them in proportion; if few, do not be afraid to give according to the little you have.
6. Anon., Testament of Levi, 3.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.2. And it has fire, snow, and ice made ready for the day of judgement, in the righteous judgement of God; for in it are all the spirits of the retributions for vengeance on men.
7. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 4.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Dead Sea Scrolls, Epistle of Jeremiah, 30, 4, 57, 11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 5.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.12. כָּל־קֳבֵל דִּי רוּחַ יַתִּירָה וּמַנְדַּע וְשָׂכְלְתָנוּ מְפַשַּׁר חֶלְמִין וַאַחֲוָיַת אֲחִידָן וּמְשָׁרֵא קִטְרִין הִשְׁתְּכַחַת בֵּהּ בְּדָנִיֵּאל דִּי־מַלְכָּא שָׂם־שְׁמֵהּ בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּר כְּעַן דָּנִיֵּאל יִתְקְרֵי וּפִשְׁרָה יְהַחֲוֵה׃ 5.12. forasmuch as a surpassing spirit, and knowledge, and understanding, interpreting of dreams, and declaring of riddles, and loosing of knots, were found in the same Daniel, whom the king named Belteshazzar. Now let Daniel be called, and he will declare the interpretation.’"
10. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.3, 1.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.3. He advanced to the ends of the earth, and plundered many nations. When the earth became quiet before him, he was exalted, and his heart was lifted up. 1.5. After this he fell sick and perceived that he was dying.
11. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10-2.18, 1.24, 1.25, 1.27, 1.28, 1.29, 2.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. The Jewish brethren in Jerusalem and those in the land of Judea, To their Jewish brethren in Egypt, Greeting, and good peace.'
12. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 15.11-15.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

15.11. Do not say, "Because of the Lord I left the right way";for he will not do what he hates. 15.12. Do not say, "It was he who led me astray";for he had no need of a sinful man. 15.13. The Lord hates all abominations,and they are not loved by those who fear him. 15.14. It was he who created man in the beginning,and he left him in the power of his own inclination. 15.15. If you will, you can keep the commandments,and to act faithfully is a matter of your own choice. 15.16. He has placed before you fire and water:stretch out your hand for whichever you wish. 15.17. Before a man are life and death,and whichever he chooses will be given to him. 15.18. For great is the wisdom of the Lord;he is mighty in power and sees everything; 15.19. his eyes are on those who fear him,and he knows every deed of man.
13. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 2.23-2.24, 15.1, 15.11-15.12, 15.14-15.19, 18.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.23. for God created man for incorruption,and made him in the image of his own eternity 2.24. but through the devils envy death entered the world,and those who belong to his party experience it. 15.1. But thou, our God, art kind and true,patient, and ruling all things in mercy. 15.11. because he failed to know the one who formed him and inspired him with an active soul and breathed into him a living spirit. 15.12. But he considered our existence an idle game,and life a festival held for profit,for he says one must get money however one can, even by base means. 15.14. But most foolish, and more miserable than an infant,are all the enemies who oppressed thy people. 15.15. For they thought that all their heathen idols were gods,though these have neither the use of their eyes to see with,nor nostrils with which to draw breath,nor ears with which to hear,nor fingers to feel with,and their feet are of no use for walking. 15.16. For a man made them,and one whose spirit is borrowed formed them;for no man can form a god which is like himself. 15.17. He is mortal, and what he makes with lawless hands is dead,for he is better than the objects he worships,since he has life, but they never have. 15.18. The enemies of thy people worship even the most hateful animals,which are worse than all others, when judged by their lack of intelligence; 15.19. and even as animals they are not so beautiful in appearance that one would desire them,but they have escaped both the praise of God and his blessing. 18.1. But for thy holy ones there was very great light. Their enemies heard their voices but did not see their forms,and counted them happy for not having suffered
14. Anon., 2 Baruch, 85.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 8.1-8.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.1. I therefore did my own part, as a man composed unto union. But where there is division and anger, there God abideth not. Now the Lord forgiveth all men when they repent, if repenting they return to the unity of God and to the council of the bishop. I have faith in the grace of Jesus Christ, who shall strike off every fetter from you; 8.2. and I entreat you, Do ye nothing in a spirit of factiousness but after the teaching of Christ. For I heard certain persons saying, If I find it not in the charters, I believe it not in the Gospel. And when I said to them, It is written, they answered me That is the question. But as for me, my charter is Jesus Christ, the inviolable charter is His cross and His death and His resurrection, and faith through Him; wherein I desire to be justified through your prayers.
16. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 8.1-8.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.1. I therefore did my own part, as a man composed unto union. But where there is division and anger, there God abideth not. Now the Lord forgiveth all men when they repent, if repenting they return to the unity of God and to the council of the bishop. I have faith in the grace of Jesus Christ, who shall strike off every fetter from you; 8.2. and I entreat you, Do ye nothing in a spirit of factiousness but after the teaching of Christ. For I heard certain persons saying, If I find it not in the charters, I believe it not in the Gospel. And when I said to them, It is written, they answered me That is the question. But as for me, my charter is Jesus Christ, the inviolable charter is His cross and His death and His resurrection, and faith through Him; wherein I desire to be justified through your prayers.
17. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.8, 2.21-2.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.8. whom not having known you love; in whom, though now you don't see him, yet believing, you rejoice greatly with joy unspeakable and full of glory -- 2.21. For to this you were called, because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example, that you should follow his steps 2.22. who did not sin, "neither was deceit found in his mouth. 2.23. Who, when he was reviled, didn't revile back. When he suffered, didn't threaten, but committed himself to him who judges righteously; 2.24. who his own self bore our sins in his body on the tree, that we, having died to sins, might live to righteousness; by whose stripes you were healed.
18. New Testament, James, 1.2-1.3, 1.5-1.8, 1.11-1.15, 1.17-1.19, 1.21-1.27, 2.5, 2.8-2.13, 3.1-3.6, 3.8-3.9, 3.13-3.18, 4.3-4.4, 4.6-4.9, 5.1-5.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. Count it all joy, my brothers, when you fall into various temptations 1.3. knowing that the testing of your faith produces patience. 1.5. But if any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask of God, who gives to all liberally and without reproach; and it will be given to him. 1.6. But let him ask in faith, without any doubting, for he who doubts is like a wave of the sea, driven by the wind and tossed. 1.7. For let that man not think that he will receive anything from the Lord. 1.8. He is a double-minded man, unstable in all his ways. 1.11. For the sun arises with the scorching wind, and withers the grass, and the flower in it falls, and the beauty of its appearance perishes. So also will the rich man fade away in his pursuits. 1.12. Blessed is the man who endures temptation, for when he has been approved, he will receive the crown of life, which the Lord promised to those who love him. 1.13. Let no man say when he is tempted, "I am tempted by God," for God can't be tempted by evil, and he himself tempts no one. 1.14. But each one is tempted, when he is drawn away by his own lust, and enticed. 1.15. Then the lust, when it has conceived, bears sin; and the sin, when it is full grown, brings forth death. 1.17. Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of lights, with whom can be no variation, nor turning shadow. 1.18. of his own will he brought us forth by the word of truth, that we should be a kind of first fruits of his creatures. 1.19. So, then, my beloved brothers, let every man be swift to hear, slow to speak, and slow to anger; 1.21. Therefore, putting away all filthiness and overflowing of wickedness, receive with humility the implanted word, which is able to save your souls. 1.22. But be doers of the word, and not only hearers, deluding your own selves. 1.23. For if anyone is a hearer of the word and not a doer, he is like a man beholding his natural face in a mirror; 1.24. for he sees himself, and goes away, and immediately forgets what kind of man he was. 1.25. But he who looks into the perfect law, the law of freedom, and continues, not being a hearer who forgets but a doer of the work, this man will be blessed in what he does. 1.26. If anyone among you thinks himself to be religious while he doesn't bridle his tongue, but deceives his heart, this man's religion is worthless. 1.27. Pure religion and undefiled before our God and Father is this: to visit the fatherless and widows in their affliction, and to keep oneself unstained by the world. 2.5. Listen, my beloved brothers. Didn't God choose those who are poor in this world to be rich in faith, and heirs of the kingdom which he promised to those who love him? 2.8. However, if you fulfill the royal law, according to the Scripture, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself," you do well. 2.9. But if you show partiality, you commit sin, being convicted by the law as transgressors. 2.10. For whoever shall keep the whole law, and yet stumble in one point, he has become guilty of all. 2.11. For he who said, "Do not commit adultery," said also, "Do not commit murder." Now if you do not commit adultery, but murder, you have become a transgressor of the law. 2.12. So speak, and so do, as men who are to be judged by a law of freedom. 2.13. For judgment is without mercy to him who has shown no mercy. Mercy triumphs over judgment. 3.1. Let not many of you be teachers, my brothers, knowing that we will receive heavier judgment. 3.2. For in many things we all stumble. If anyone doesn't stumble in word, the same is a perfect man, able to bridle the whole body also. 3.3. Indeed, we put bits into the horses' mouths so that they may obey us, and we guide their whole body. 3.4. Behold, the ships also, though they are so big and are driven by fierce winds, are yet guided by a very small rudder, wherever the pilot desires. 3.5. So the tongue is also a little member, and boasts great things. See how a small fire can spread to a large forest! 3.6. And the tongue is a fire. The world of iniquity among our members is the tongue, which defiles the whole body, and sets on fire the course of nature, and is set on fire by Gehenna. 3.8. But nobody can tame the tongue. It is a restless evil, full of deadly poison. 3.9. With it we bless our God and Father, and with it we curse men, who are made in the image of God. 3.13. Who is wise and understanding among you? Let him show by his good conduct that his deeds are done in gentleness of wisdom. 3.14. But if you have bitter jealousy and selfish ambition in your heart, don't boast and don't lie against the truth. 3.15. This wisdom is not that which comes down from above, but is earthly, sensual, and demonic. 3.16. For where jealousy and selfish ambition are, there is confusion and every evil deed. 3.17. But the wisdom that is from above is first pure, then peaceful, gentle, reasonable, full of mercy and good fruits, without partiality, and without hypocrisy. 3.18. Now the fruit of righteousness is sown in peace by those who make peace. 4.3. You ask, and don't receive, because you ask amiss, so that you may spend it for your pleasures. 4.4. You adulterers and adulteresses, don't you know that friendship with the world is enmity with God? Whoever therefore wants to be a friend of the world makes himself an enemy of God. 4.6. But he gives more grace. Therefore it says, "God resists the proud, but gives grace to the humble. 4.7. Be subject therefore to God. But resist the devil, and he will flee from you. 4.8. Draw near to God, and he will draw near to you. Cleanse your hands, you sinners; and purify your hearts, you double-minded. 4.9. Lament, mourn, and weep. Let your laughter be turned to mourning, and your joy to gloom. 5.1. Come now, you rich, weep and howl for your miseries that are coming on you. 5.2. Your riches are corrupted and your garments are moth-eaten. 5.3. Your gold and your silver are corroded, and their corrosion will be for a testimony against you, and will eat your flesh like fire. You have laid up your treasure in the last days. 5.4. Behold, the wages of the laborers who mowed your fields, which you have kept back by fraud, cry out, and the cries of those who reaped have entered into the ears of the Lord of Hosts. 5.5. You have lived delicately on the earth, and taken your pleasure. You have nourished your hearts as in a day of slaughter. 5.6. You have condemned, you have murdered the righteous one. He doesn't resist you. 5.7. Be patient therefore, brothers, until the coming of the Lord. Behold, the farmer waits for the precious fruit of the earth, being patient over it, until it receives the early and late rain. 5.8. You also be patient. Establish your hearts, for the coming of the Lord is at hand. 5.9. Don't grumble, brothers, against one another, so that you won't be judged. Behold, the judge stands at the door. 5.10. Take, brothers, for an example of suffering and of patience, the prophets who spoke in the name of the Lord. 5.11. Behold, we call them blessed who endured. You have heard of the patience of Job, and have seen the Lord in the outcome, and how the Lord is full of compassion and mercy.
19. New Testament, Romans, 2.4-2.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.4. Or do you despise the riches of his goodness, forbearance, and patience, not knowing that the goodness of God leads you to repentance? 2.5. But according to your hardness and unrepentant heart you are treasuring up for yourself wrath in the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God; 2.6. who "will pay back to everyone according to their works: 2.7. to those who by patience in well-doing seek for glory and honor and incorruptibility, eternal life; 2.8. but to those who are self-seeking, and don't obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, will be wrath and indignation 2.9. oppression and anguish, on every soul of man who works evil, on the Jew first, and also on the Greek. 2.10. But glory and honor and peace to every man who works good, to the Jew first, and also to the Greek. 2.11. For there is no partiality with God.
20. New Testament, Matthew, 5.39, 6.19, 16.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.39. But I tell you, don't resist him who is evil; but whoever strikes you on your right cheek, turn to him the other also. 6.19. Don't lay up treasures for yourselves on the earth, where moth and rust consume, and where thieves break through and steal; 16.9. Don't you yet perceive, neither remember the five loaves for the five thousand, and how many baskets you took up?
21. Tosefta, Peah, 4.18 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Hermas, Mandates, 9.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
alms(giving) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 355
desires Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 68, 69
devil Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 70
eschaton Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 68, 72
ethics Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 66, 68, 69
fiction, pseudepigraphical Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 106
friends, friendship Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 69
james, letter of Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 105, 106
jewish-christian tradition, custom Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 355
jews, jewish communities, jewish–christians Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 105
judgment Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 69
law in paul Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 355
letters/epistles Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 297
life after death Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 297
lords prayer Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 66
mastema Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 68
monbaz, monobazos Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 355
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 355
polycarp, use of 1 peter Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 107
proselyte, proselytism Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 355
satan Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 68, 69, 70
shepherd of hermas, use of james Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 107
souls Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 69
teacher, reputation of Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 106
teacher, role of Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 106
testing passim, agents of Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 68, 69, 70
testing passim, roles in Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 68, 69, 70
torah' Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 297
virtue Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 67
wisdom Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 66, 67