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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8251
New Testament, Hebrews, 5.1-5.3


Πᾶς γὰρ ἀρχιερεὺς ἐξ ἀνθρώπων λαμβανόμενος ὑπὲρ ἀνθρώπων καθίσταται τὰ πρὸς τὸν θεόν, ἵνα προσφέρῃ δῶρά [τε] καὶ θυσίας ὑπὲρ ἁμαρτιῶνFor every high priest, being taken from among men, is appointed for men in things pertaining to God, that he may offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins.


μετριοπαθεῖν δυνάμενος τοῖς ἀγνοοῦσι καὶ πλανωμένοις, ἐπεὶ καὶ αὐτὸς περίκειται ἀσθένειανThe high priest can deal gently with those who are ignorant and going astray, because he himself is also surrounded with weakness.


καὶ διʼ αὐτὴν ὀφείλει, καθὼς περὶ τοῦ λαοῦ, οὕτως καὶ περὶ ἑαυτοῦ προσφέρειν περὶ ἁμαρτιῶν.Because of this, he must offer sacrifices for sins for the people, as well as for himself.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

42 results
1. Septuagint, Numbers, 14.19 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 9.25-9.29, 25.4-25.11, 25.13, 33.8-33.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.25. וָאֶתְנַפַּל לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֵת אַרְבָּעִים הַיּוֹם וְאֶת־אַרְבָּעִים הַלַּיְלָה אֲשֶׁר הִתְנַפָּלְתִּי כִּי־אָמַר יְהוָה לְהַשְׁמִיד אֶתְכֶם׃ 9.26. וָאֶתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־יְהוָה וָאֹמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אַל־תַּשְׁחֵת עַמְּךָ וְנַחֲלָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר פָּדִיתָ בְּגָדְלֶךָ אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵאתָ מִמִּצְרַיִם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה׃ 9.27. זְכֹר לַעֲבָדֶיךָ לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב אַל־תֵּפֶן אֶל־קְשִׁי הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאֶל־רִשְׁעוֹ וְאֶל־חַטָּאתוֹ׃ 9.28. פֶּן־יֹאמְרוּ הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתָנוּ מִשָּׁם מִבְּלִי יְכֹלֶת יְהוָה לַהֲבִיאָם אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר לָהֶם וּמִשִּׂנְאָתוֹ אוֹתָם הוֹצִיאָם לַהֲמִתָם בַּמִּדְבָּר׃ 9.29. וְהֵם עַמְּךָ וְנַחֲלָתֶךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתָ בְּכֹחֲךָ הַגָּדֹל וּבִזְרֹעֲךָ הַנְּטוּיָה׃ 25.4. לֹא־תַחְסֹם שׁוֹר בְּדִישׁוֹ׃ 25.5. כִּי־יֵשְׁבוּ אַחִים יַחְדָּו וּמֵת אַחַד מֵהֶם וּבֵן אֵין־לוֹ לֹא־תִהְיֶה אֵשֶׁת־הַמֵּת הַחוּצָה לְאִישׁ זָר יְבָמָהּ יָבֹא עָלֶיהָ וּלְקָחָהּ לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה וְיִבְּמָהּ׃ 25.6. וְהָיָה הַבְּכוֹר אֲשֶׁר תֵּלֵד יָקוּם עַל־שֵׁם אָחִיו הַמֵּת וְלֹא־יִמָּחֶה שְׁמוֹ מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.7. וְאִם־לֹא יַחְפֹּץ הָאִישׁ לָקַחַת אֶת־יְבִמְתּוֹ וְעָלְתָה יְבִמְתּוֹ הַשַּׁעְרָה אֶל־הַזְּקֵנִים וְאָמְרָה מֵאֵין יְבָמִי לְהָקִים לְאָחִיו שֵׁם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא אָבָה יַבְּמִי׃ 25.8. וְקָרְאוּ־לוֹ זִקְנֵי־עִירוֹ וְדִבְּרוּ אֵלָיו וְעָמַד וְאָמַר לֹא חָפַצְתִּי לְקַחְתָּהּ׃ 25.9. וְנִגְּשָׁה יְבִמְתּוֹ אֵלָיו לְעֵינֵי הַזְּקֵנִים וְחָלְצָה נַעֲלוֹ מֵעַל רַגְלוֹ וְיָרְקָה בְּפָנָיו וְעָנְתָה וְאָמְרָה כָּכָה יֵעָשֶׂה לָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִבְנֶה אֶת־בֵּית אָחִיו 25.11. כִּי־יִנָּצוּ אֲנָשִׁים יַחְדָּו אִישׁ וְאָחִיו וְקָרְבָה אֵשֶׁת הָאֶחָד לְהַצִּיל אֶת־אִישָׁהּ מִיַּד מַכֵּהוּ וְשָׁלְחָה יָדָהּ וְהֶחֱזִיקָה בִּמְבֻשָׁיו׃ 25.13. לֹא־יִהְיֶה לְךָ בְּכִיסְךָ אֶבֶן וָאָבֶן גְּדוֹלָה וּקְטַנָּה׃ 33.8. וּלְלֵוִי אָמַר תֻּמֶּיךָ וְאוּרֶיךָ לְאִישׁ חֲסִידֶךָ אֲשֶׁר נִסִּיתוֹ בְּמַסָּה תְּרִיבֵהוּ עַל־מֵי מְרִיבָה׃ 33.9. הָאֹמֵר לְאָבִיו וּלְאִמּוֹ לֹא רְאִיתִיו וְאֶת־אֶחָיו לֹא הִכִּיר וְאֶת־בנו [בָּנָיו] לֹא יָדָע כִּי שָׁמְרוּ אִמְרָתֶךָ וּבְרִיתְךָ יִנְצֹרוּ׃ 9.25. So I fell down before the LORD the forty days and forty nights that I fell down; because the LORD had said He would destroy you." 9.26. And I prayed unto the LORD, and said: ‘O Lord GOD, destroy not Thy people and Thine inheritance, that Thou hast redeemed through Thy greatness, that Thou hast brought forth out of Egypt with a mighty hand." 9.27. Remember Thy servants, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; look not unto the stubbornness of this people, nor to their wickedness, nor to their sin;" 9.28. lest the land whence Thou broughtest us out say: Because the LORD was not able to bring them into the land which He promised unto them, and because He hated them, He hath brought them out to slay them in the wilderness." 9.29. Yet they are Thy people and Thine inheritance, that Thou didst bring out by Thy great power and by Thy outstretched arm.’" 25.4. Thou shalt not muzzle the ox when he treadeth out the corn." 25.5. If brethren dwell together, and one of them die, and have no child, the wife of the dead shall not be married abroad unto one not of his kin; her husband’s brother shall go in unto her, and take her to him to wife, and perform the duty of a husband’s brother unto her." 25.6. And it shall be, that the first-born that she beareth shall succeed in the name of his brother that is dead, that his name be not blotted out of Israel." 25.7. And if the man like not to take his brother’s wife, then his brother’s wife shall go up to the gate unto the elders, and say: ‘My husband’s brother refuseth to raise up unto his brother a name in Israel; he will not perform the duty of a husband’s brother unto me.’" 25.8. Then the elders of his city shall call him, and speak unto him; and if he stand, and say: ‘I like not to take her’;" 25.9. then shall his brother’s wife draw nigh unto him in the presence of the elders, and loose his shoe from off his foot, and spit in his face; and she shall answer and say: ‘So shall it be done unto the man that doth not build up his brother’s house.’" 25.10. And his name shall be called in Israel The house of him that had his shoe loosed." 25.11. When men strive together one with another, and the wife of the one draweth near to deliver her husband out of the hand of him that smiteth him, and putteth forth her hand, and taketh him by the secrets;" 25.13. Thou shalt not have in thy bag diverse weights, a great and a small." 33.8. And of Levi he said: Thy Thummim and Thy Urim be with Thy holy one, Whom Thou didst prove at Massah, With whom Thou didst strive at the waters of Meribah;" 33.9. Who said of his father, and of his mother: ‘I have not seen him’; Neither did he acknowledge his brethren, Nor knew he his own children; For they have observed Thy word, And keep Thy covet." 33.10. They shall teach Jacob Thine ordices, And Israel Thy law; They shall put incense before Thee, And whole burnt-offering upon Thine altar. ."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 24.3-24.8, 28.1, 28.3-28.4, 29.1, 32.29, 32.32 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.3. וַיָּבֹא מֹשֶׁה וַיְסַפֵּר לָעָם אֵת כָּל־דִּבְרֵי יְהוָה וְאֵת כָּל־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים וַיַּעַן כָּל־הָעָם קוֹל אֶחָד וַיֹּאמְרוּ כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה׃ 24.4. וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֵת כָּל־דִּבְרֵי יְהוָה וַיַּשְׁכֵּם בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּבֶן מִזְבֵּחַ תַּחַת הָהָר וּשְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה מַצֵּבָה לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.5. וַיִּשְׁלַח אֶת־נַעֲרֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲלוּ עֹלֹת וַיִּזְבְּחוּ זְבָחִים שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה פָּרִים׃ 24.6. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה חֲצִי הַדָּם וַיָּשֶׂם בָּאַגָּנֹת וַחֲצִי הַדָּם זָרַק עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 24.7. וַיִּקַּח סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית וַיִּקְרָא בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה וְנִשְׁמָע׃ 24.8. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַדָּם וַיִּזְרֹק עַל־הָעָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה דַם־הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַת יְהוָה עִמָּכֶם עַל כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 28.1. שִׁשָּׁה מִשְּׁמֹתָם עַל הָאֶבֶן הָאֶחָת וְאֶת־שְׁמוֹת הַשִּׁשָּׁה הַנּוֹתָרִים עַל־הָאֶבֶן הַשֵּׁנִית כְּתוֹלְדֹתָם׃ 28.1. וְאַתָּה הַקְרֵב אֵלֶיךָ אֶת־אַהֲרֹן אָחִיךָ וְאֶת־בָּנָיו אִתּוֹ מִתּוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְכַהֲנוֹ־לִי אַהֲרֹן נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא אֶלְעָזָר וְאִיתָמָר בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן׃ 28.3. וְאַתָּה תְּדַבֵּר אֶל־כָּל־חַכְמֵי־לֵב אֲשֶׁר מִלֵּאתִיו רוּחַ חָכְמָה וְעָשׂוּ אֶת־בִּגְדֵי אַהֲרֹן לְקַדְּשׁוֹ לְכַהֲנוֹ־לִי׃ 28.3. וְנָתַתָּ אֶל־חֹשֶׁן הַמִּשְׁפָּט אֶת־הָאוּרִים וְאֶת־הַתֻּמִּים וְהָיוּ עַל־לֵב אַהֲרֹן בְּבֹאוֹ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְנָשָׂא אַהֲרֹן אֶת־מִשְׁפַּט בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל־לִבּוֹ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה תָּמִיד׃ 28.4. וְלִבְנֵי אַהֲרֹן תַּעֲשֶׂה כֻתֳּנֹת וְעָשִׂיתָ לָהֶם אַבְנֵטִים וּמִגְבָּעוֹת תַּעֲשֶׂה לָהֶם לְכָבוֹד וּלְתִפְאָרֶת׃ 28.4. וְאֵלֶּה הַבְּגָדִים אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשׂוּ חֹשֶׁן וְאֵפוֹד וּמְעִיל וּכְתֹנֶת תַּשְׁבֵּץ מִצְנֶפֶת וְאַבְנֵט וְעָשׂוּ בִגְדֵי־קֹדֶשׁ לְאַהֲרֹן אָחִיךָ וּלְבָנָיו לְכַהֲנוֹ־לִי׃ 29.1. וְזֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־תַּעֲשֶׂה לָהֶם לְקַדֵּשׁ אֹתָם לְכַהֵן לִי לְקַח פַּר אֶחָד בֶּן־בָּקָר וְאֵילִם שְׁנַיִם תְּמִימִם׃ 29.1. וְהִקְרַבְתָּ אֶת־הַפָּר לִפְנֵי אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְסָמַךְ אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם עַל־רֹאשׁ הַפָּר׃ 32.29. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה מִלְאוּ יֶדְכֶם הַיּוֹם לַיהוָה כִּי אִישׁ בִּבְנוֹ וּבְאָחִיו וְלָתֵת עֲלֵיכֶם הַיּוֹם בְּרָכָה׃ 32.32. וְעַתָּה אִם־תִּשָּׂא חַטָּאתָם וְאִם־אַיִן מְחֵנִי נָא מִסִּפְרְךָ אֲשֶׁר כָּתָבְתָּ׃ 24.3. And Moses came and told the people all the words of the LORD, and all the ordices; and all the people answered with one voice, and said: ‘All the words which the Lord hath spoken will we do.’" 24.4. And Moses wrote all the words of the LORD, and rose up early in the morning, and builded an altar under the mount, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel." 24.5. And he sent the young men of the children of Israel, who offered burnt-offerings, and sacrificed peace-offerings of oxen unto the LORD." 24.6. And Moses took half of the blood, and put it in basins; and half of the blood he dashed against the altar." 24.7. And he took the book of the covet, and read in the hearing of the people; and they said: ‘All that the LORD hath spoken will we do, and obey.’" 24.8. And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said: ‘Behold the blood of the covet, which the LORD hath made with you in agreement with all these words.’" 28.1. And bring thou near unto thee Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him, from among the children of Israel, that they may minister unto Me in the priest’s office, even Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron’s sons." 28.3. And thou shalt speak unto all that are wise-hearted, whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom, that they make Aaron’s garments to sanctify him, that he may minister unto Me in the priest’s office." 28.4. And these are the garments which they shall make: a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a tunic of chequer work, a mitre, and a girdle; and they shall make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, and his sons, that he may minister unto Me in the priest’s office." 29.1. And this is the thing that thou shalt do unto them to hallow them, to minister unto Me in the priest’s office: take one young bullock and two rams without blemish," 32.29. And Moses said: ‘Consecrate yourselves to-day to the LORD, for every man hath been against his son and against his brother; that He may also bestow upon you a blessing this day.’" 32.32. Yet now, if Thou wilt forgive their sin—; and if not, blot me, I pray Thee, out of Thy book which Thou hast written.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.1, 3.15-3.16, 4.4, 22.16-22.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.1. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃ 3.15. וְאֵיבָה אָשִׁית בֵּינְךָ וּבֵין הָאִשָּׁה וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ וּבֵין זַרְעָהּ הוּא יְשׁוּפְךָ רֹאשׁ וְאַתָּה תְּשׁוּפֶנּוּ עָקֵב׃ 3.16. אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אָמַר הַרְבָּה אַרְבֶּה עִצְּבוֹנֵךְ וְהֵרֹנֵךְ בְּעֶצֶב תֵּלְדִי בָנִים וְאֶל־אִישֵׁךְ תְּשׁוּקָתֵךְ וְהוּא יִמְשָׁל־בָּךְ׃ 4.4. וְהֶבֶל הֵבִיא גַם־הוּא מִבְּכֹרוֹת צֹאנוֹ וּמֵחֶלְבֵהֶן וַיִּשַׁע יְהוָה אֶל־הֶבֶל וְאֶל־מִנְחָתוֹ׃ 22.16. וַיֹּאמֶר בִּי נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי נְאֻם־יְהוָה כִּי יַעַן אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וְלֹא חָשַׂכְתָּ אֶת־בִּנְךָ אֶת־יְחִידֶךָ׃ 22.17. כִּי־בָרֵךְ אֲבָרֶכְךָ וְהַרְבָּה אַרְבֶּה אֶת־זַרְעֲךָ כְּכוֹכְבֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם וְכַחוֹל אֲשֶׁר עַל־שְׂפַת הַיָּם וְיִרַשׁ זַרְעֲךָ אֵת שַׁעַר אֹיְבָיו׃ 1.1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." 3.15. And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; they shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise their heel.’" 3.16. Unto the woman He said: ‘I will greatly multiply thy pain and thy travail; in pain thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.’" 4.4. And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof. And the LORD had respect unto Abel and to his offering;" 22.16. and said: ‘By Myself have I sworn, saith the LORD, because thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine only son," 22.17. that in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of the heaven, and as the sand which is upon the seashore; and thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies;"
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 1.4-1.5, 1.14, 4.31, 4.35, 7.10, 8.15, 16.11, 16.14-16.15, 16.18-16.22, 16.27, 16.29, 16.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.4. וְסָמַךְ יָדוֹ עַל רֹאשׁ הָעֹלָה וְנִרְצָה לוֹ לְכַפֵּר עָלָיו׃ 1.5. וְשָׁחַט אֶת־בֶּן הַבָּקָר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְהִקְרִיבוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֲנִים אֶת־הַדָּם וְזָרְקוּ אֶת־הַדָּם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ סָבִיב אֲשֶׁר־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 1.14. וְאִם מִן־הָעוֹף עֹלָה קָרְבָּנוֹ לַיהוָה וְהִקְרִיב מִן־הַתֹּרִים אוֹ מִן־בְּנֵי הַיּוֹנָה אֶת־קָרְבָּנוֹ׃ 4.31. וְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבָּהּ יָסִיר כַּאֲשֶׁר הוּסַר חֵלֶב מֵעַל זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים וְהִקְטִיר הַכֹּהֵן הַמִּזְבֵּחָה לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 4.35. וְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבָּה יָסִיר כַּאֲשֶׁר יוּסַר חֵלֶב־הַכֶּשֶׂב מִזֶּבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים וְהִקְטִיר הַכֹּהֵן אֹתָם הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עַל אִשֵּׁי יְהוָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן עַל־חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָא וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 8.15. וַיִּשְׁחָט וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַדָּם וַיִּתֵּן עַל־קַרְנוֹת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ סָבִיב בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ וַיְחַטֵּא אֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְאֶת־הַדָּם יָצַק אֶל־יְסוֹד הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וַיְקַדְּשֵׁהוּ לְכַפֵּר עָלָיו׃ 16.11. וְהִקְרִיב אַהֲרֹן אֶת־פַּר הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ וְכִפֶּר בַּעֲדוֹ וּבְעַד בֵּיתוֹ וְשָׁחַט אֶת־פַּר הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ׃ 16.14. וְלָקַח מִדַּם הַפָּר וְהִזָּה בְאֶצְבָּעוֹ עַל־פְּנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת קֵדְמָה וְלִפְנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת יַזֶּה שֶׁבַע־פְּעָמִים מִן־הַדָּם בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ׃ 16.15. וְשָׁחַט אֶת־שְׂעִיר הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר לָעָם וְהֵבִיא אֶת־דָּמוֹ אֶל־מִבֵּית לַפָּרֹכֶת וְעָשָׂה אֶת־דָּמוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְדַם הַפָּר וְהִזָּה אֹתוֹ עַל־הַכַּפֹּרֶת וְלִפְנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת׃ 16.18. וְיָצָא אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי־יְהוָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו וְלָקַח מִדַּם הַפָּר וּמִדַּם הַשָּׂעִיר וְנָתַן עַל־קַרְנוֹת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ סָבִיב׃ 16.19. וְהִזָּה עָלָיו מִן־הַדָּם בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים וְטִהֲרוֹ וְקִדְּשׁוֹ מִטֻּמְאֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 16.21. וְסָמַךְ אַהֲרֹן אֶת־שְׁתֵּי ידו [יָדָיו] עַל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׂעִיר הַחַי וְהִתְוַדָּה עָלָיו אֶת־כָּל־עֲוֺנֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־כָּל־פִּשְׁעֵיהֶם לְכָל־חַטֹּאתָם וְנָתַן אֹתָם עַל־רֹאשׁ הַשָּׂעִיר וְשִׁלַּח בְּיַד־אִישׁ עִתִּי הַמִּדְבָּרָה׃ 16.22. וְנָשָׂא הַשָּׂעִיר עָלָיו אֶת־כָּל־עֲוֺנֹתָם אֶל־אֶרֶץ גְּזֵרָה וְשִׁלַּח אֶת־הַשָּׂעִיר בַּמִּדְבָּר׃ 16.27. וְאֵת פַּר הַחַטָּאת וְאֵת שְׂעִיר הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר הוּבָא אֶת־דָּמָם לְכַפֵּר בַּקֹּדֶשׁ יוֹצִיא אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְשָׂרְפוּ בָאֵשׁ אֶת־עֹרֹתָם וְאֶת־בְּשָׂרָם וְאֶת־פִּרְשָׁם׃ 16.29. וְהָיְתָה לָכֶם לְחֻקַּת עוֹלָם בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי בֶּעָשׂוֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ תְּעַנּוּ אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם וְכָל־מְלָאכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ הָאֶזְרָח וְהַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם׃ 16.31. שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן הִיא לָכֶם וְעִנִּיתֶם אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם חֻקַּת עוֹלָם׃ 1.4. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the burnt-offering; and it shall be accepted for him to make atonement for him." 1.5. And he shall kill the bullock before the LORD; and Aaron’s sons, the priests, shall present the blood, and dash the blood round about against the altar that is at the door of the tent of meeting." 1.14. And if his offering to the LORD be a burnt-offering of fowls, then he shall bring his offering of turtle-doves, or of young pigeons." 4.31. And all the fat thereof shall he take away, as the fat is taken away from off the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall make it smoke upon the altar for a sweet savour unto the LORD; and the priest shall make atonement for him, and he shall be forgiven." 4.35. And all the fat thereof shall he take away, as the fat of the lamb is taken away from the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall make them smoke on the altar, upon the offerings of the LORD made by fire; and the priest shall make atonement for him as touching his sin that he hath sinned, and he shall be forgiven." 7.10. And every meal-offering, mingled with oil, or dry, shall all the sons of Aaron have, one as well as another." 8.15. And when it was slain, Moses took the blood, and put it upon the horns of the altar round about with his finger, and purified the altar, and poured out the remaining blood at the base of the altar, and sanctified it, to make atonement for it." 16.11. And Aaron shall present the bullock of the sin-offering, which is for himself, and shall make atonement for himself, and for his house, and shall kill the bullock of the sin-offering which is for himself." 16.14. And he shall take of the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it with his finger upon the ark-cover on the east; and before the ark-cover shall he sprinkle of the blood with his finger seven times." 16.15. Then shall he kill the goat of the sin-offering, that is for the people, and bring his blood within the veil, and do with his blood as he did with the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it upon the ark-cover, and before the ark-cover." 16.18. And he shall go out unto the altar that is before the LORD, and make atonement for it; and shall take of the blood of the bullock, and of the blood of the goat, and put it upon the horns of the altar round about." 16.19. And he shall sprinkle of the blood upon it with his finger seven times, and cleanse it, and hallow it from the uncleannesses of the children of Israel." 16.20. And when he hath made an end of atoning for the holy place, and the tent of meeting, and the altar, he shall present the live goat." 16.21. And Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the head of the live goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions, even all their sins; and he shall put them upon the head of the goat, and shall send him away by the hand of an appointed man into the wilderness." 16.22. And the goat shall bear upon him all their iniquities unto a land which is cut off; and he shall let go the goat in the wilderness." 16.27. And the bullock of the sin-offering, and the goat of the sin-offering, whose blood was brought in to make atonement in the holy place, shall be carried forth without the camp; and they shall burn in the fire their skins, and their flesh, and their dung." 16.29. And it shall be a statute for ever unto you: in the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, ye shall afflict your souls, and shall do no manner of work, the home-born, or the stranger that sojourneth among you." 16.31. It is a sabbath of solemn rest unto you, and ye shall afflict your souls; it is a statute for ever."
6. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 2.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.7. כִּי־שִׂפְתֵי כֹהֵן יִשְׁמְרוּ־דַעַת וְתוֹרָה יְבַקְשׁוּ מִפִּיהוּ כִּי מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה־צְבָאוֹת הוּא׃ 2.7. For the priest’s lips should keep knowledge, And they should seek the law at his mouth; For he is the messenger of the LORD of hosts."
7. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 3.38, 12.7, 15.25, 19.1-19.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.38. וְהַחֹנִים לִפְנֵי הַמִּשְׁכָּן קֵדְמָה לִפְנֵי אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד מִזְרָחָה מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו שֹׁמְרִים מִשְׁמֶרֶת הַמִּקְדָּשׁ לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהַזָּר הַקָּרֵב יוּמָת׃ 12.7. לֹא־כֵן עַבְדִּי מֹשֶׁה בְּכָל־בֵּיתִי נֶאֱמָן הוּא׃ 15.25. וְכִפֶּר הַכֹּהֵן עַל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנִסְלַח לָהֶם כִּי־שְׁגָגָה הִוא וְהֵם הֵבִיאוּ אֶת־קָרְבָּנָם אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה וְחַטָּאתָם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה עַל־שִׁגְגָתָם׃ 19.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן לֵאמֹר׃ 19.1. וְכִבֶּס הָאֹסֵף אֶת־אֵפֶר הַפָּרָה אֶת־בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב וְהָיְתָה לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכָם לְחֻקַּת עוֹלָם׃ 19.2. זֹאת חֻקַּת הַתּוֹרָה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה לֵאמֹר דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיִקְחוּ אֵלֶיךָ פָרָה אֲדֻמָּה תְּמִימָה אֲשֶׁר אֵין־בָּהּ מוּם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־עָלָה עָלֶיהָ עֹל׃ 19.2. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִטְמָא וְלֹא יִתְחַטָּא וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִתּוֹךְ הַקָּהָל כִּי אֶת־מִקְדַּשׁ יְהוָה טִמֵּא מֵי נִדָּה לֹא־זֹרַק עָלָיו טָמֵא הוּא׃ 19.3. וּנְתַתֶּם אֹתָהּ אֶל־אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן וְהוֹצִיא אֹתָהּ אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְשָׁחַט אֹתָהּ לְפָנָיו׃ 19.4. וְלָקַח אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן מִדָּמָהּ בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ וְהִזָּה אֶל־נֹכַח פְּנֵי אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד מִדָּמָהּ שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים׃ 19.5. וְשָׂרַף אֶת־הַפָּרָה לְעֵינָיו אֶת־עֹרָהּ וְאֶת־בְּשָׂרָהּ וְאֶת־דָּמָהּ עַל־פִּרְשָׁהּ יִשְׂרֹף׃ 19.6. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן עֵץ אֶרֶז וְאֵזוֹב וּשְׁנִי תוֹלָעַת וְהִשְׁלִיךְ אֶל־תּוֹךְ שְׂרֵפַת הַפָּרָה׃ 3.38. And those that were to pitch before the tabernacle eastward, before the tent of meeting toward the sunrising, were Moses, and Aaron and his sons, keeping the charge of the sanctuary, even the charge for the children of Israel; and the common man that drew nigh was to be put to death." 12.7. My servant Moses is not so; he is trusted in all My house;" 15.25. And the priest shall make atonement for all the congregation of the children of Israel, and they shall be forgiven; for it was an error, and they have brought their offering, an offering made by fire unto the LORD, and their sin-offering before the LORD, for their error." 19.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying:" 19.2. This is the statute of the law which the LORD hath commanded, saying: Speak unto the children of Israel, that they bring thee a red heifer, faultless, wherein is no blemish, and upon which never came yoke." 19.3. And ye shall give her unto Eleazar the priest, and she shall be brought forth without the camp, and she shall be slain before his face." 19.4. And Eleazar the priest shall take of her blood with his finger, and sprinkle of her blood toward the front of the tent of meeting seven times." 19.5. And the heifer shall be burnt in his sight; her skin, and her flesh, and her blood, with her dung, shall be burnt." 19.6. And the priest shall take cedar-wood, and hyssop, and scarlet, and cast it into the midst of the burning of the heifer."
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 99.6, 110.1, 110.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

99.6. מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן בְּכֹהֲנָיו וּשְׁמוּאֵל בְּקֹרְאֵי שְׁמוֹ קֹרִאים אֶל־יְהוָה וְהוּא יַעֲנֵם׃ 110.1. לְדָוִד מִזְמוֹר נְאֻם יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי שֵׁב לִימִינִי עַד־אָשִׁית אֹיְבֶיךָ הֲדֹם לְרַגְלֶיךָ׃ 110.4. נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה וְלֹא יִנָּחֵם אַתָּה־כֹהֵן לְעוֹלָם עַל־דִּבְרָתִי מַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק׃ 99.6. Moses and Aaron among His priests, And Samuel among them that call upon His name, Did call upon the LORD, and He answered them." 110.1. A Psalm of David. The LORD saith unto my lord: ‘Sit thou at My right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.'" 110.4. The LORD hath sworn, and will not repent: 'Thou art a priest for ever After the manner of Melchizedek.'"
9. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 3.20 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 62.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

62.1. לְמַעַן צִיּוֹן לֹא אֶחֱשֶׁה וּלְמַעַן יְרוּשָׁלִַם לֹא אֶשְׁקוֹט עַד־יֵצֵא כַנֹּגַהּ צִדְקָהּ וִישׁוּעָתָהּ כְּלַפִּיד יִבְעָר׃ 62.1. עִבְרוּ עִבְרוּ בַּשְּׁעָרִים פַּנּוּ דֶּרֶךְ הָעָם סֹלּוּ סֹלּוּ הַמְסִלָּה סַקְּלוּ מֵאֶבֶן הָרִימוּ נֵס עַל־הָעַמִּים׃ 62.1. For Zion’s sake will I not hold My peace, And for Jerusalem’s sake I will not rest, Until her triumph go forth as brightness, And her salvation as a torch that burneth."
11. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 7.16, 11.14, 15.1, 18.18, 31.31-31.34 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.16. וְאַתָּה אַל־תִּתְפַּלֵּל בְּעַד־הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאַל־תִּשָּׂא בַעֲדָם רִנָּה וּתְפִלָּה וְאַל־תִּפְגַּע־בִּי כִּי־אֵינֶנִּי שֹׁמֵעַ אֹתָךְ׃ 11.14. וְאַתָּה אַל־תִּתְפַּלֵּל בְּעַד־הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאַל־תִּשָּׂא בַעֲדָם רִנָּה וּתְפִלָּה כִּי אֵינֶנִּי שֹׁמֵעַ בְּעֵת קָרְאָם אֵלַי בְּעַד רָעָתָם׃ 15.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלַי אִם־יַעֲמֹד מֹשֶׁה וּשְׁמוּאֵל לְפָנַי אֵין נַפְשִׁי אֶל־הָעָם הַזֶּה שַׁלַּח מֵעַל־פָּנַי וְיֵצֵאוּ׃ 15.1. אוֹי־לִי אִמִּי כִּי יְלִדְתִּנִי אִישׁ רִיב וְאִישׁ מָדוֹן לְכָל־הָאָרֶץ לֹא־נָשִׁיתִי וְלֹא־נָשׁוּ־בִי כֻּלֹּה מְקַלְלַונִי׃ 18.18. וַיֹּאמְרוּ לְכוּ וְנַחְשְׁבָה עַל־יִרְמְיָהוּ מַחֲשָׁבוֹת כִּי לֹא־תֹאבַד תּוֹרָה מִכֹּהֵן וְעֵצָה מֵחָכָם וְדָבָר מִנָּבִיא לְכוּ וְנַכֵּהוּ בַלָּשׁוֹן וְאַל־נַקְשִׁיבָה אֶל־כָּל־דְּבָרָיו׃ 31.31. הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְכָרַתִּי אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־בֵּית יְהוּדָה בְּרִית חֲדָשָׁה׃ 31.32. לֹא כַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַתִּי אֶת־אֲבוֹתָם בְּיוֹם הֶחֱזִיקִי בְיָדָם לְהוֹצִיאָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲשֶׁר־הֵמָּה הֵפֵרוּ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי וְאָנֹכִי בָּעַלְתִּי בָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 31.33. כִּי זֹאת הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר אֶכְרֹת אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֲרֵי הַיָּמִים הָהֵם נְאֻם־יְהוָה נָתַתִּי אֶת־תּוֹרָתִי בְּקִרְבָּם וְעַל־לִבָּם אֶכְתֲּבֶנָּה וְהָיִיתִי לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְהֵמָּה יִהְיוּ־לִי לְעָם׃ 31.34. וְלֹא יְלַמְּדוּ עוֹד אִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וְאִישׁ אֶת־אָחִיו לֵאמֹר דְּעוּ אֶת־יְהוָה כִּי־כוּלָּם יֵדְעוּ אוֹתִי לְמִקְטַנָּם וְעַד־גְּדוֹלָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה כִּי אֶסְלַח לַעֲוֺנָם וּלְחַטָּאתָם לֹא אֶזְכָּר־עוֹד׃ 7.16. Therefore pray not thou for this people, neither lift up cry nor prayer for them, neither make intercession to Me; for I will not hear thee." 11.14. Therefore pray not thou for this people, neither lift up cry nor prayer for them; for I will not hear them in the time that they cry unto Me for their trouble.’" 15.1. Then said the LORD unto me: ‘Though Moses and Samuel stood before Me, yet My mind could not be toward this people; cast them out of My sight, and let them go forth." 18.18. Then said they: ‘Come, and let us devise devices against Jeremiah; For instruction shall not perish from the priest, Nor counsel from the wise, nor the word from the prophet. Come, and let us smite him with the tongue, And let us not give heed to any of his words.’" 31.31. Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covet with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah;" 31.32. not according to the covet that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; forasmuch as they broke My covet, although I was a lord over them, saith the LORD." 31.33. But this is the covet that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the LORD, I will put My law in their inward parts, and in their heart will I write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people;" 31.34. and they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying: ‘Know the LORD’; for they shall all know Me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the LORD; for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin will I remember no more."
12. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 3.49 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.49. עֵינִי נִגְּרָה וְלֹא תִדְמֶה מֵאֵין הֲפֻגוֹת׃ 3.49. Mine eye is poured out, and ceaseth not, Without any intermission,"
13. Aristotle, Rhetoric, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

14. Anon., Testament of Joseph, 18.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

18.2. And if any one seeketh to do evil unto you, do well unto him, and pray for him, and ye shall be redeemed of the Lord from all evil.
15. Anon., Testament of Levi, 3.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.8. And in the heaven next to this are thrones and dominions, in which always they offer praise to God.
16. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 7.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.8. So the king chose Bacchides, one of the kings friends, governor of the province Beyond the River; he was a great man in the kingdom and was faithful to the king.
17. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 3.30, 33.3, 45.6-45.13, 50.1-50.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

33.3. A man of understanding will trust in the law;for him the law is as dependable as an inquiry by means of Urim. 33.3. If you have a servant, let him be as yourself,because you have bought him with blood. 45.6. He exalted Aaron, the brother of Moses,a holy man like him, of the tribe of Levi. 45.7. He made an everlasting covet with him,and gave him the priesthood of the people. He blessed him with splendid vestments,and put a glorious robe upon him. 45.8. He clothed him with superb perfection,and strengthened him with the symbols of authority,the linen breeches, the long robe, and the ephod. 45.9. And he encircled him with pomegranates,with very many golden bells round about,to send forth a sound as he walked,to make their ringing heard in the temple as a reminder to the sons of his people; 45.11. with twisted scarlet, the work of a craftsman;with precious stones engraved like signets,in a setting of gold, the work of a jeweler,for a reminder, in engraved letters,according to the number of the tribes of Israel; 45.12. with a gold crown upon his turban,inscribed like a signet with "Holiness," a distinction to be prized, the work of an expert,the delight of the eyes, richly adorned. 45.13. Before his time there never were such beautiful things. No outsider ever put them on,but only his sons and his descendants perpetually. 50.1. The leader of his brethren and the pride of his people was Simon the high priest, son of Onias,who in his life repaired the house,and in his time fortified the temple. 50.1. like an olive tree putting forth its fruit,and like a cypress towering in the clouds. 50.2. He laid the foundations for the high double walls,the high retaining walls for the temple enclosure. 50.2. Then Simon came down, and lifted up his hands over the whole congregation of the sons of Israel,to pronounce the blessing of the Lord with his lips,and to glory in his name; 50.3. In his days a cistern for water was quarried out,a reservoir like the sea in circumference. 50.4. He considered how to save his people from ruin,and fortified the city to withstand a seige. 50.5. How glorious he was when the people gathered round him as he came out of the inner sanctuary! 50.7. like the sun shining upon the temple of the Most High,and like the rainbow gleaming in glorious clouds; 50.8. like roses in the days of the first fruits,like lilies by a spring of water,like a green shoot on Lebanon on a summer day; 50.9. like fire and incense in the censer,like a vessel of hammered gold adorned with all kinds of precious stones; 50.11. When he put on his glorious robe and clothed himself with superb perfection and went up to the holy altar,he made the court of the sanctuary glorious. 50.12. And when he received the portions from the hands of the priests,as he stood by the hearth of the altar with a garland of brethren around him,he was like a young cedar on Lebanon;and they surrounded him like the trunks of palm trees 50.13. all the sons of Aaron in their splendor with the Lords offering in their hands,before the whole congregation of Israel. 50.14. Finishing the service at the altars,and arranging the offering to the Most High, the Almighty 50.15. he reached out his hand to the cup and poured a libation of the blood of the grape;he poured it out at the foot of the altar,a pleasing odor to the Most High, the King of all. 50.16. Then the sons of Aaron shouted,they sounded the trumpets of hammered work,they made a great noise to be heard for remembrance before the Most High. 50.17. Then all the people together made haste and fell to the ground upon their faces to worship their Lord,the Almighty, God Most High. 50.18. And the singers praised him with their voices in sweet and full-toned melody. 50.19. And the people besought the Lord Most High in prayer before him who is merciful,till the order of worship of the Lord was ended;so they completed his service. 50.21. and they bowed down in worship a second time,to receive the blessing from the Most High. 50.22. And now bless the God of all,who in every way does great things;who exalts our days from birth,and deals with us according to his mercy.
18. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 3.3, 45.7, 50.2-50.4, 50.16-50.18, 50.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.3. and their going from us to be their destruction;but they are at peace.
19. Anon., Rhetorica Ad Herennium, 1.14 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

20. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 195 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

195. On which account, I imagine, that nobility herself, if God were to invest her with the form and organs of a man, would stand before those obstinate and unworthy descendants and speak thus: "Relationship is not measured by blood alone, where truth is the judge, but by a similarity of actions, and by a careful imitation of the conduct of your ancestors. But you have pursued an opposite line of conduct, thinking hateful such actions as are dear to me, and loving such deeds as are hateful to me; for in my eyes modesty, and truth, and moderation, and a due government of the passions, and simplicity, and innocence, are honourable, but in your opinion they are dishonourable; and to me all shameless behaviour is hateful, and all falsehood, and all immoderate indulgence of the passions, and all pride, and all wickedness. But you look upon these things as near and dear to you.
21. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.292 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.292. Such was the life and such was the death of the king, and lawgiver, and high priest, and prophet, Moses, as it is recorded in the sacred scriptures.
22. Anon., Didache, 11.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

23. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 3.353 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.353. and just then was he in an ecstasy; and setting before him the tremendous images of the dreams he had lately had, he put up a secret prayer to God
24. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.210 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

25. Mishnah, Zevahim, 1.4, 2.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.4. A pesah and a hatat which were slaughtered not in their own name, or he received [the blood], and carried it [to the altar] and sprinkled [it] not in their own name, Or in their own name and not in their own name, or not in their own name and in their own name, they are disqualified. What is the case of ‘in their own name and not in their own name’? In the name of it being a pesah [first] and [then] in the name of it being a shelamim. ‘Not in their own name and in their own name:’ in the name of a shelamim [first] and [then] in the name of a pesah. For a sacrifice can be disqualified in [any one of] the four elements: slaughtering, receiving, carrying and sprinkling. Rabbi Shimon declares it valid if carried [with the wrong intent], for Rabbi Shimon said: it is impossible [to have a valid sacrifice] without slaughtering, without receiving and without sprinkling, but it is possible without carrying. [How so]? One slaughters it at the side of the altar and sprinkles. Rabbi Elazar says: if one goes where he needs to go, an [illegitimate] intention disqualifies [it]; where he doesn’t need to go, an [illegitimate] intention does not disqualify [it]." 2.3. This is the general rule: anyone who slaughters or receives [the blood], or carries [it] or sprinkles [it] [intending] to eat as much as an olive of that which is normally eaten or to burn [on the altar] as much as an olive of that which is normally burned outside its prescribed place, [the sacrifice] is invalid, but it does not involve karet; [Intending to eat or burn] after its designated time, it is piggul and it involves karet. Provided that the mattir is offered in accordance with the law."
26. New Testament, 1 Peter, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.9. But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for God's own possession, that you may show forth the excellencies of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light:
27. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 10.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.1. Now I would not have you ignorant, brothers, that our fatherswere all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea;
28. New Testament, Acts, 7.38, 7.53 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.38. This is he who was in the assembly in the wilderness with the angel that spoke to him on Mount Sinai, and with our fathers, who received living oracles to give to us 7.53. You received the law as it was ordained by angels, and didn't keep it!
29. New Testament, James, 5.15-5.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.15. and the prayer of faith will heal him who is sick, and the Lord will raise him up. If he has committed sins, he will be forgiven. 5.16. Confess your offenses to one another, and pray one for another, that you may be healed. The effective, earnest prayer of a righteous man is powerfully effective.
30. New Testament, Galatians, 3.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.19. What then is the law? It was added because of transgressions,until the seed should come to whom the promise has been made. It wasordained through angels by the hand of a mediator.
31. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.1, 1.1-2.18, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.5-2.18, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.14, 2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 3, 3.1, 3.1-4.14, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.7-4.11, 3.16, 4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.14, 4.14-10.18, 4.14-5.10, 4.15, 4.15-5.10, 4.16, 5, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5.11-6.20, 5.12, 5.13, 5.14, 6, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 6.19, 6.20, 7, 7.1, 7.1-10.18, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.25, 7.26, 7.27, 7.28, 8, 8.1, 8.1-10.18, 8.1-9.28, 8.2, 8.3, 8.3-10.18, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 9, 9.1, 9.3, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24, 9.25, 9.26, 9.27, 9.28, 10, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9, 10.10, 10.11, 10.12, 10.13, 10.14, 10.15, 10.16, 10.17, 10.18, 10.19, 10.20, 10.21, 10.22, 10.23, 10.24, 10.25, 10.26, 10.27, 10.28, 10.29, 10.30, 10.31, 10.32, 10.33, 10.34, 10.35, 10.36, 10.37, 10.38, 10.39, 11.16, 12.14, 12.15, 12.16, 12.17, 12.18, 12.19, 12.20, 12.21, 12.22, 12.23, 12.24, 12.25, 12.26, 12.27, 12.28, 12.29, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.9, 13.10, 13.11, 13.12, 13.13, 13.14, 13.15, 13.16, 13.17, 13.18, 13.19, 13.20, 13.21, 13.22, 13.23, 13.24, 13.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. God, having in the past spoken to the fathers through the prophets at many times and in various ways
32. New Testament, Philippians, 2.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.8. And being found in human form, he humbled himself, becoming obedient to death, yes, the death of the cross.
33. New Testament, Romans, 11.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.17. But if some of the branches were broken off, and you, being a wild olive, were grafted in among them, and became partaker with them of the root and of the richness of the olive tree;
34. New Testament, John, 1.18, 1.46, 7.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. 1.46. Nathanael said to him, "Can any good thing come out of Nazareth?"Philip said to him, "Come and see. 7.19. Didn't Moses give you the law, and yet none of you keeps the law? Why do you seek to kill me?
35. New Testament, Luke, 22.19, 23.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

22.19. He took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and gave to them, saying, "This is my body which is given for you. Do this in memory of me. 23.34. Jesus said, "Father, forgive them, for they don't know what they are doing."Dividing his garments among them, they cast lots.
36. New Testament, Mark, 2.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.10. But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins" -- he said to the paralytic --
37. New Testament, Matthew, 5.7, 6.8, 8.4, 9.2, 26.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.7. Blessed are the merciful, For they shall obtain mercy. 6.8. Therefore don't be like them, for your Father knows what things you need, before you ask him. 8.4. Jesus said to him, "See that you tell nobody, but go, show yourself to the priest, and offer the gift that Moses commanded, as a testimony to them. 9.2. Behold, they brought to him a man who was paralyzed, lying on a bed. Jesus, seeing their faith, said to the paralytic, "Son, cheer up! Your sins are forgiven you. 26.28. for this is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many for the remission of sins.
38. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 3.7, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

39. Hermogenes, Rhetorical Exercises, 17-19, 16 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

40. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

32a. דכתיב (מיכה ד, ו) ואשר הרעותי:,אמר רבי חמא ברבי חנינא אלמלא שלש מקראות הללו נתמוטטו רגליהם של שונאי ישראל,חד דכתיב ואשר הרעותי וחד דכתיב (ירמיהו יח, ו) הנה כחומר ביד היוצר כן אתם בידי בית ישראל וחד דכתיב (יחזקאל לו, כו) והסירותי את לב האבן מבשרכם ונתתי לכם לב בשר,רב פפא אמר מהכא (יחזקאל לו, כז) ואת רוחי אתן בקרבכם ועשיתי את אשר בחקי תלכו,ואמר רבי אלעזר משה הטיח דברים כלפי מעלה שנאמר (במדבר יא, ב) ויתפלל משה אל ה' אל תקרי אל ה' אלא על ה',שכן דבי רבי אליעזר בן יעקב קורין לאלפין עיינין ולעיינין אלפין,דבי רבי ינאי אמרי מהכא (דברים א, א) ודי זהב,מאי ודי זהב אמרי דבי ר' ינאי כך אמר משה לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם בשביל כסף וזהב שהשפעת להם לישראל עד שאמרו די הוא גרם שעשו את העגל,אמרי דבי ר' ינאי אין ארי נוהם מתוך קופה של תבן אלא מתוך קופה של בשר,אמר רבי אושעיא משל לאדם שהיתה לו פרה כחושה ובעלת אברים האכילה כרשינין והיתה מבעטת בו אמר לה מי גרם ליך שתהא מבעטת בי אלא כרשינין שהאכלתיך,אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר ר' יוחנן משל לאדם אחד שהיה לו בן הרחיצו וסכו והאכילו והשקהו ותלה לו כיס על צוארו והושיבו על פתח של זונות מה יעשה אותו הבן שלא יחטא,אמר רב אחא בריה דרב הונא אמר רב ששת היינו דאמרי אינשי מלי כריסיה זני בישי שנאמר (הושע יג, ו) כמרעיתם וישבעו שבעו וירם לבם על כן שכחוני רב נחמן אמר מהכא (דברים ח, יד) ורם לבבך ושכחת את ה' ורבנן אמרי מהכא (דברים לא, כ) ואכל ושבע ודשן ופנה,ואי בעית אימא מהכא (דברים לב, טו) וישמן ישרון ויבעט אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן מנין שחזר הקדוש ברוך הוא והודה לו למשה שנאמר (הושע ב, י) וכסף הרביתי להם וזהב עשו לבעל:,(שמות לב, ז) וידבר ה' אל משה לך רד מאי לך רד אמר רבי אלעזר אמר לו הקדוש ב"ה למשה משה רד מגדולתך כלום נתתי לך גדולה אלא בשביל ישראל ועכשיו ישראל חטאו אתה למה לי מיד תשש כחו של משה ולא היה לו כח לדבר וכיון שאמר (דברים ט, יד) הרף ממני ואשמידם אמר משה דבר זה תלוי בי מיד עמד ונתחזק בתפלה ובקש רחמים,משל למלך שכעס על בנו והיה מכהו מכה גדולה והיה אוהבו יושב לפניו ומתירא לומר לו דבר אמר המלך אלמלא אוהבי זה שיושב לפני הרגתיך אמר דבר זה תלוי בי מיד עמד והצילו:,(שמות לב, י) ועתה הניחה לי ויחר אפי בהם ואכלם ואעשה אותך לגוי גדול וגו' אמר רבי אבהו אלמלא מקרא כתוב אי אפשר לאומרו מלמד שתפסו משה להקדוש ברוך הוא כאדם שהוא תופס את חבירו בבגדו ואמר לפניו רבונו של עולם אין אני מניחך עד שתמחול ותסלח להם:,(שמות לב, י) ואעשה אותך לגוי גדול וגו' אמר רבי אלעזר אמר משה לפני הקדוש ב"ה רבונו של עולם ומה כסא של שלש רגלים אינו יכול לעמוד לפניך בשעת כעסך כסא של רגל אחד על אחת כמה וכמה,ולא עוד אלא שיש בי בושת פנים מאבותי עכשיו יאמרו ראו פרנס שהעמיד עליהם בקש גדולה לעצמו ולא בקש עליהם רחמים:,(שמות לב, יא) ויחל משה את פני ה' אמר רבי אלעזר מלמד שעמד משה בתפלה לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא עד שהחלהו ורבא אמר עד שהפר לו נדרו כתיב הכא ויחל וכתיב התם (במדבר ל, ג) לא יחל דברו ואמר מר הוא אינו מיחל אבל אחרים מחלין לו,ושמואל אמר מלמד שמסר עצמו למיתה עליהם שנאמר (שמות לב, לב) ואם אין מחני נא מספרך,אמר רבא אמר רב יצחק מלמד שהחלה עליהם מדת רחמים,ורבנן אמרי מלמד שאמר משה לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע חולין הוא לך מעשות כדבר הזה,ויחל משה את פני ה' תניא רבי אליעזר הגדול אומר מלמד שעמד משה בתפלה לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא עד שאחזתו אחילו מאי אחילו אמר רבי אלעזר אש של עצמות מאי אש של עצמות אמר אביי אשתא דגרמי,(שמות לב, יג) זכור לאברהם ליצחק ולישראל עבדיך אשר נשבעת להם בך מאי בך אמר רבי אלעזר אמר משה לפני הקדוש ב"ה רבונו של עולם אלמלא נשבעת להם בשמים ובארץ הייתי אומר כשם ששמים וארץ בטלים כך שבועתך בטלה ועכשיו שנשבעת להם בשמך הגדול מה שמך הגדול חי וקיים לעולם ולעולמי עולמים כך שבועתך קיימת לעולם ולעולמי עולמים:,(שמות לב, יג) ותדבר אליהם ארבה את זרעכם ככוכבי השמים וכל הארץ הזאת אשר אמרתי האי אשר אמרתי אשר אמרת מיבעי ליה,אמר רבי אלעזר עד כאן דברי תלמיד מכאן ואילך דברי הרב ורבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר אלו ואלו דברי תלמיד אלא כך אמר משה לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא רבונו של עולם דברים שאמרת לי לך אמור להם לישראל בשמי הלכתי ואמרתי להם בשמך עכשיו מה אני אומר להם:,(במדבר יד, טז) מבלתי יכולת ה' יכול ה' מיבעי ליה,אמר רבי אלעזר אמר משה לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע עכשיו יאמרו אומות העולם תשש כחו כנקבה ואינו יכול להציל אמר הקב"ה למשה והלא כבר ראו נסים וגבורות שעשיתי להם על הים אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם עדיין יש להם לומר למלך אחד יכול לעמוד לשלשים ואחד מלכים אינו יכול לעמוד,אמר ר' יוחנן מנין שחזר הקדוש ברוך הוא והודה לו למשה שנאמר (במדבר יד, כ) ויאמר ה' סלחתי כדברך תני דבי רבי ישמעאל כדבריך עתידים אוה"ע לומר כן,אשרי תלמיד שרבו מודה לו,(במדבר יד, כא) ואולם חי אני אמר רבא אמר רב יצחק מלמד שאמר לו הקדוש ב"ה למשה משה החייתני בדבריך:,דרש רבי שמלאי לעולם יסדר אדם שבחו של הקב"ה ואחר כך יתפלל מנלן ממשה דכתיב (דברים ג, כג) ואתחנן אל ה' בעת ההיא וכתיב ה' אלהים אתה החלות להראות את עבדך את גדלך ואת ידך החזקה אשר מי אל בשמים ובארץ אשר יעשה כמעשיך וכגבורותיך וכתיב בתריה אעברה נא ואראה את הארץ הטובה וגו':,(סימן מעשי"ם צדק"ה קרב"ן כה"ן תעני"ת מנע"ל ברז"ל): 32a. bAs it is writtenin a future prophecy: “In that day, says the Lord, I will assemble the lame, and I will gather those who are abandoned and bthose with whom I have dealt in wickedness”(Micah 4:6). God states that He caused Israel to act wickedly.,Similarly, bRabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: Had it not been for these three verses, the legs of the enemies of Israel,a euphemism for Israel itself, bwould have collapsed, asIsrael would have been unable to withstand God’s judgment., bOneis the verse just mentioned in which bit is written: “Those whom I have dealt in wickedness.” And oneis the verse in which bit is written: “Behold, like clay in the potter’s hand, so are you in My hand, house of Israel”(Jeremiah 18:6). bAnd oneis the verse in which bit is written:“And I will give you a new heart and a new spirit I will place within you, band I will remove the heart of stone from your flesh and I will give you a heart of flesh”(Ezekiel 36:26). These three verses indicate that God influences a person’s decisions, and therefore one does not have sole responsibility for his actions., bRav Pappa saidthere is a clearer proof bfrom here: “And I will place My spirit within you and I will cause you to walk in My statutes,and you will observe My decrees and do them” (Ezekiel 36:27)., bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: Mosesalso bspoke impertinently towardGod bon High, as it is statedin the verse following the sin of those who murmured against God in the desert: b“And Moses prayed to the Lordand the fire subsided” (Numbers 11:2), and this verse is interpreted homiletically: bDo not read to [ iel /i] the Lord,but rather bonto [ ial /i] the Lord,which indicates that he spoke impertinently.,The Gemara explains the basis for this interpretation: bAsthe Sages bof the school of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov wouldindiscriminately bread ialefas iayinand iayinas ialef /iand in this case transforming ielinto ial /i.,The Sages of bthe school of Rabbi Yannai,however, bsayproof that Moses spoke impertinently toward God on High is derived bfrom here,Moses’ rebuke at the beginning of Deuteronomy: b“And Di Zahav”(Deuteronomy 1:1). This is an entry in a list of places where Moses had spoken to Israel. As there was no place encountered by that name, it is interpreted as an allusion to another matter.,We must clarify: bWhat isthe meaning of band Di Zahav?The Sages of bthe school of Rabbi Yannai said that Moses said the following before the Holy One, Blessed be He,to atone for Israel after the sin of the Golden Calf: bMaster of the Universe, because of the gold and silver that you lavished upon Israelduring the exodus from Egypt buntil they said enough [ idai /i];it was this wealth bthat causedIsrael bto make theGolden bCalf. /b,Establishing a general moral principle, the Sages bthe school of Rabbi Yannai said: A lion does not roarstanding bover a basket of strawfrom which he derives no pleasure, bbuthe roars standing bover a basket of meat,as he only roars when satiated.,Similarly, bRabbi Oshaya said:This is bcomparable to a person who had a lean, but large-limbed cow.At one point, bhe fed it lupines,a choice food, bandsoon thereafter the cow bwas kicking him. He said tothe cow: bWho caused youto begin bkicking me if not the lupines I fed you?Here, too, the sin was caused by an abundance of good.,The Gemara offers another analogy: bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:This is bcomparable to a person who had a son; he bathed him and anointed himwith oil, bfed him and gave him drink, and hung a purseof money baround his neck.Then, he bbroughthis son bto the entrance of a brothel. What could the son do to avoid sinning? /b,On a similar note, bRav Aḥa, son of Rav Huna, saidthat bRav Sheshet said: That is what people sayin a popular maxim: bFilling his stomach is a type of sin, as it is stated: “When they were fed and became full they were sated, and their hearts were lifted and they have forgotten Me”(Hosea 13:6). bRav Naḥman said:This principle is derived not from the verse in Hosea, but bfrom here: “And your heart is lifted and you forget the Lord”(Deuteronomy 8:14). bAnd the Rabbis saythat this principle is derived bfrom here: “And they will have eaten and been sated and fattened, and they will turnto other gods” (Deuteronomy 31:20)., bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that it is derived bfrom here: “And Jeshurun grew fat and kicked”(Deuteronomy 32:15). bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: From wherein the Torah is it derived that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, ultimately conceded to Mosesthat the reason for the sin of the Golden Calf was indeed the riches lavished upon Israel? bAs it is stated: “And I gave them an abundance of silver and gold, which they used for the Ba’al”(Hosea 2:10).,The Gemara elaborates upon additional aspects of the sin of the Golden Calf. It is stated: b“And the Lord said to Moses: Go and descend,for your people whom you have lifted out of the land of Egypt have been corrupted” (Exodus 32:7). bWhat isthe meaning of b“go and descend”? Rabbi Elazar said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: Moses, descend from your greatness. Isn’t it only for the sake of Israel,so that you may serve as an emissary, bthat I granted you prominence; and now that Israel has sinned, why do Ineed byou?There is no need for an emissary. bImmediately, Moses’ strength waned and he was powerless to speakin defense of Israel. bAnd onceGod bsaidto Moses: b“Leave Me be, that I may destroy them”(Deuteronomy 9:14), bMoses saidto himself: If God is telling me to let Him be, it must be because bthis matter is dependent upon me. Immediately Moses stood and was strengthened in prayer, and askedthat God have bmercyon the nation of Israel and forgive them for their transgression.,The Gemara says: This is bcomparable to a king who became angry at his sonwho had sinned against him, band beat him,administering ba severe beating.At that moment, ba well-wisherof the king bwas sitting before himand witnessed the entire event, band was afraid to say anything tothe king about the excessive beating. Meanwhile, bthe king saidto his son: bWere it not for this well-wisher of mine who is sitting before me, I would have killed you.Upon hearing this, the king’s friend bsaidto himself: This is clearly a sign that bthis matter,rescuing the son from the hands of his father, bis dependent upon me. Immediately he stood and rescued himfrom the king.,In an additional aspect of the sin of the Golden Calf, God told Moses: b“Now leave Me be, that My wrath will be enraged against them and I will consume them; and I will make of you a great nation”(Exodus 32:10). Explaining this verse, bRabbi Abbahu said: Were the verse not writtenin this manner, bit would be impossible to utterit, in deference to God. The phrase: Leave Me be, bteaches that Moses grabbed the Holy One, Blessed be He, as a person who grabs his friend by his garmentwould, band he said before Him: Master of the Universe, I will not leave You be until You forgive and pardon them. /b,In the same verse, God promised Moses: b“And I will make of you a great nation.”What was Moses’ response? bRabbi Elazar said: Moses said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, if a chair with three legs,the collective merit of the three forefathers, bis unable to stand before You in Your moment of wrath, all the more sothat ba chair with one leg,my merit alone, will be unable to withstand your wrath., bMoreover, but I havea sense of bshame before my forefathers. Nowthey will bsay: Seethis bleader thatGod bplaced overIsrael. bHe requested greatness for himself but did not pray forGod to have bmercy upon themin their troubled time.,The Torah continues: b“And Moses beseeched [ ivayḥal /i] before the Lord”(Exodus 32:11). Many interpretations were given for this uncommon term, ivayḥal /i: bRabbi Elazar said:It bteaches that Moses stood in prayer before the Holy One, Blessed be He, until it made him ill [iheḥelahub]from overexertion. bAnd Rava said:Moses stood in prayer buntil he nullified His vow,as the term ivayḥalalludes to nullification of an oath. bHere it is written ivayḥal /i, and therereferring to vows, bit is written: “He shall not nullify [ ilo yaḥel /i] his word”(Numbers 30:3). bAndwith regard to vows, bthe Master said: Hewho vowed bcannot nullifyhis vow, bbut others,the court, bcan nullifyhis vow bfor him.Here, it is as if Moses nullified the Lord’s vow to destroy Israel., bAnd Shmuel said:The term ivayḥal bteaches thatMoses bgave his life,from the term iḥalal /i, a dead person, bforIsrael, bas it is stated: “And if not, erase me, please, from Your book”(Exodus 32:32)., bRava,also interpreting this verse, bsaidthat bRav Yitzḥak said:The term ivayḥal bteaches that he caused the Divine Attribute of Mercy to take effect [ iheḥela /i] upon them. /b, bAnd the Rabbis saythat this term constitutes the essence of Moses’ claim: bIt teaches that Moses said before the Holy One Blessed be He: Master of the Universe! It is a sacrilege [ iḥullin /i] for You to do something like this. /b,And another interpretation of the verse, b“And Moses beseeched [ ivayḥal /i] before the Lord.” It was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer the Great says: Thisterm bteaches that Moses stood in prayer before the Holy One, Blessed be He, until he was overcome by iaḥilu /i.Even the Sages were unfamiliar with this term. Therefore, the Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of iaḥilu /i? Rabbi Elazar,an iamoraof Eretz Yisrael, bsaidthat iaḥiluis bfire in the bones.However, this expression was familiar in Eretz Yisrael but not in Babylonia. They asked in Babylonia: bWhat isthe disease that they called bfire of the bones? Abaye saidthat is a disease known in Babylonia as ieshta degarmei /i,which in Aramaic means bfire of the bones;in other words, a fever.,As Moses continues his prayer, he says: b“Remember Abraham, Isaac and Israel Your servants, to whom You swore in Your name”(Exodus 32:13). bWhat isthe meaning of bin Your name? Rabbi Elazar said: Moses said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, had You sworn to them by the heavens and the earth, I would say: Just as the heavens and the earth willultimately bbe no more, so too Your oath will be null and void. Now that You swore to them by Your great name, just as Your name lives and stands for all eternity, so too does Your oath live and stand for all eternity. /b,In this verse, Moses continues: b“And You said to them: I will make your offspring as numerous as the stars of heaven, and all this land of which I have spokenI will give to your offspring that they shall inherit it forever.” The Gemara clarifies a puzzling phrase in this verse. bThatphrase bof which I have spoken, it shouldhave said: bof which You have spoken,as Moses is referring to God’s promise to the forefathers., bRabbi Elazar said: To thispoint, the verse cites bthe words of the student,Moses; bfrom this point,and all this land of which I have spoken, the verse cites bthe words of the Master,God. bAnd Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: These and those are the words of the student;Moses spoke the entire verse. bRather, Moses said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, those matters which You told me to go and say to Israel in My name, I went and toldit bto them in Your name.I have already told Israel of God’s promise to the forefathers. bNow what do I say to them? /b,The Gemara moves to a discussion of additional prayers offered by Moses. Moses said that if God fails to bring the Jewish people into Eretz Yisrael, the nations of the world will say: b“The Lord did not have the ability [ iyekholet /i]to bring this people into the land which He swore to them, and He killed them in the desert” (Numbers 14:16). The Gemara examines this verse closely: The verse should not have utilized the term iyekholet /i, an abstract feminine noun, but rather, bit should have said: “The Lordwas not bable [ iyakhol /i],”a masculine verb., bRabbi Elazar said: Mosesphrased it that way because he bsaid before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, now the nations of the world will say that His strength weakened like a female and He is unable to rescuethe nation of Israel. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: And didthe nations of the world bnot already see the miracles and the mightyacts bthat I performed on behalf ofIsrael bat theRed bSea?Moses bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, they can still say:The Lord bcan standup bto a single kinglike Pharaoh and defeat him, but bHe is unable to standup bto the thirty-one kingsin the land of Canaan., bRabbi Yoḥa said: From whereis it derived that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, ultimately conceded to Moses? As it is said: “And the Lord said: I have forgiven according to your word”(Numbers 14:20). The Sages bof the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: According to your word,it will be, as indeed bin the future the nations of the world will say this. /b,The Gemara concludes: bHappy is the student whose teacher concedes to himas the Lord conceded to Moses.,Explaining the next verse, b“Nevertheless, as I live,and the glory of the Lord fills the entire world” (Numbers 14:21), bRava saidthat bRav Yitzḥak said:This bteachesthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: Moses, you have given Me life with your words.I am happy that on account of your arguments, I will forgive Israel.,Based on Moses’ prayers, bRabbi Simlai taught: One should always set forth praise of the Holy One, Blessed be He, and then prayfor his own needs. bFrom where do wederive that one should conduct himself in this manner? bFrom Moses, as it is writtenin his prayer: b“And I beseeched the Lord at that time”(Deuteronomy 3:23). bAndimmediately afterward in his prayer, bit is written: “Lord, God, You have begun to show Your servant Your greatness and Your strong hand, for what God is there in the heavens or on earth who can perform deeds such as Yours and Your might”(Deuteronomy 3:24)? Here, Moses began with praise of God, band it isonly bthereafterthat bit is written: “Please, let me pass over and see the good landthat is beyond the Jordan, that good hill country and the Lebanon” (Deuteronomy 3:25). Only after his praise did Moses make his personal request.,The Gemara prefaces the next discourse with ba mnemonic symbol: Deeds, charity, offering, priest, fast, shoe, iron. /b
41. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 2.23.6 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

2.23.6. He alone was permitted to enter into the holy place; for he wore not woolen but linen garments. And he was in the habit of entering alone into the temple, and was frequently found upon his knees begging forgiveness for the people, so that his knees became hard like those of a camel, in consequence of his constantly bending them in his worship of God, and asking forgiveness for the people.
42. Anon., 4 Baruch, 9.5

9.5. And may Michael, archangel of righteousness, who opens the gates to the righteous, be my guardian (?) until he causes the righteous to enter.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 30, 41, 51, 62, 76, 120, 162, 187, 215, 219, 220; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 52, 54, 55, 56, 73, 151, 163
abel Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 266
abraham Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 62, 76; Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 156
access, to the holy of holies nan
adam Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 156
aims, proofs Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 257
amplification, in argumentatio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 257
amplification, in narratio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 129, 133, 191, 215
anaphora Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 156
andrew (apostle) Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 221, 222
angels Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 50, 53, 57, 162
apostasy Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 60, 62, 186, 253, 257, 266
apostle Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 221, 222
argumentatio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 120, 133
aristion Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 221
artless, propositions Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 120
ascension nan
asyndeton Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 253
atonement, application of nan
atonement, in the levitical cult nan
atonement, lexical issues surrounding nan
atonement, of jesus nan
atonement, sprinkling or tossing of nan
atonement, timing of nan nan nan
blood, manipulation of Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 71
blood Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 73
blood of christ jesus Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 156
burning (haqtara), marginalization of Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 71
christ Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 156
christology Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 41; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 55, 59, 72, 73, 151, 162, 163
clement of alexandria Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 222
clergy Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 221, 222
commandments Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 73
covenant, mosaic Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 56, 57, 73
covenant, new Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 73
covenant Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 30, 40, 41, 51, 60, 62, 68, 76, 120, 129, 138, 160, 191, 215, 219, 232, 257, 266
cross Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 156
crucifixion Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 12, 33, 39, 49, 72, 73, 151
defensibility of cause, genus obscurum Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 216
deliberative Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 52, 60, 62, 72, 76, 120, 133, 216, 220, 232, 253, 257
digressio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 120, 186, 187, 188
disjointed structure Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 133, 138, 160, 187, 191, 253
enthymeme Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 120, 257
epideictic Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 30, 52, 60, 62, 68, 72, 76, 129, 133, 138, 186, 191, 216, 220, 253, 266
esau Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 257
example Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 120, 257
exhortation Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 40, 52, 216, 232, 257; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 49, 51, 53, 57, 59, 162
exordium, primary exordium Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 216
exordium, secondary exordium Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 72, 215, 216, 219, 220
exordium Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 215, 216, 219, 220
expiation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 12, 39, 54
exposition Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 40, 160, 191
faith Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 33, 52, 53, 54
favor Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 215, 216
flesh Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 151
forgiveness, tabernacle in nan
fulfilment Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 33, 56, 58
gethsemane prayer Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 164
gnostics Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 221
goodwill, funeral oration Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 52
goodwill, receptivity Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 215, 216
goodwill Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 216
heaven, heavenly realities Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 12, 54
hebrews, letter to the Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 164
help Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 12, 49, 54, 58
hierarchy (clerical) Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 221
high priest, levitical nan
high priest Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 12
history Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 151
holiness Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 57
holy spirit, pentecost Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 59
house Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 50, 52, 53, 163
hymnos Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 220
identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 164
ignatius of antioch Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 221
incidental narratio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 133, 191, 257
intercession Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 12
irenaeus of lyon Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 222
isaac Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 156
jacob Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 156
james (apostle) Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 221, 222
jesus, prayer model Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 164
jesus, son of god Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 164
jesus christ Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 156
jesus role as priest/high-priest Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 164
john (apostle) Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 221, 222
john presbyter Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 221
joshua Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 120
judaism Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 266
judgment, melchizedek nan
law Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 39, 50, 56, 57, 73, 151, 162, 163
legislation, rabbinic, performance as focus of Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 71
levitical Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 30, 51, 62, 76, 215, 232, 266
liturgy Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 33, 39, 48, 56, 72, 73, 151
logia Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 221, 222
logos Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 186
matthew (apostle) Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 221, 222
mediation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 12, 50
melchizedek Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 30, 41, 51, 62, 76, 215, 257; Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 59; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 55, 72, 162
mercy Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 12, 33, 39, 47, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 151
messiah, presentation of nan
moses Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 119; Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 30, 51, 62, 68, 76, 152, 162, 219, 232, 266; Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 156; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 39, 48, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 73, 163
mystery Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 156
narratio, location Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 138
narratio, schemas of Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 152, 160
narratio, structure Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 138
narratio, temporal classifications Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 152, 257
narratio, topoi Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 160, 162
narratio, virtues of Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 188, 191
narratio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 129, 133, 138, 152, 160, 162, 186, 187, 188, 191, 219, 257
noah Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 156
obedience Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 49, 54, 72, 73
oral tradition Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 221, 222
papias Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 221, 222
pathos Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 186
paul, pauline corpus Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 162, 281
people of god, of israel Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 50
people of god Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 164
perfection Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 120, 186, 187, 188, 220, 257; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 33, 39, 47, 49, 55, 72, 73
peroratio, asyndeton Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 253
peroratio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 219, 232, 257
perseverance Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 120, 216, 253, 257; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 12
peter (apostle) Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 221, 222
philip (apostle) Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 221, 222
philip sidetes Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 222
prayer Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 119; Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 41, 232
presbyters Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 221, 222
priest and high priest Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 119
primary peroratio, secondary peroratio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 72, 219
primary peroratio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 232
promise Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 50
prooemium Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 219
propositio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 120
purification, purity Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 151
rahab Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 232
reception (qabalah) Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 71
remainders of the commandment (sheyare mitzvah) Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 71
rest Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 50, 53
resurrection Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 41, 257
revelation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 50, 51
rhetorical arrangement Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 253
rhetorical handbooks Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 68, 188
rhetorical topoi, birth Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 68, 162, 215
rhetorical topoi, deeds Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 40, 191, 215
rhetorical topoi, education Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 40, 41, 68, 72, 162, 215
rhetorical topoi, origins Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 68, 215
rhetorical topoi Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 30, 160
ritual narrative Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 71
rome Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 30, 232
salvation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 49, 50, 53, 54
sanctuary Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 50, 53, 57
septuagint Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 39, 52
sin/sinner, sin, forgiveness of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 119
sin/sinner Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 119
sinai Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 56, 73
slaughter (shekhitah), as stage of sacrifice Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 71
solidarity Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 12, 33, 48, 49, 54, 55, 56, 57, 73, 151
solomon Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 156
structure (of hebrews, literary) Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 12, 46, 49, 50, 51, 56, 57, 162, 163
structure of hebrews Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 30, 40, 41, 51, 52, 60, 76, 138, 160
suffering Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 41, 187, 220, 232; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 164; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 12, 33, 39, 49, 54, 72
syncrisis, jesus/aaronic high priest Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 30, 40, 41, 62, 76, 219
syncrisis, jesus/angels Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 30, 60, 68, 76
syncrisis, jesus/moses Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 30, 62, 68, 76
syncrisis, melchizedekian/levitical priestly ministries Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 30, 40, 41, 76
syncrisis, old covenant/new covenant Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 40, 41, 76
syncrisis, zion/sinai Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 30, 76
syncrisis Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 30, 52, 60, 62, 68, 72, 76
temptation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 12, 47, 72
tent Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 72
testing Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 49
thomas (apostle) Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 221, 222
throne of god, hebrews appropriation of nan nan nan
throne of god, inner-sanctum cleansing rite in nan
throne of god, scapegoat rite in nan
throne of god nan
topos Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 160, 187, 219, 257
tossing of blood (zeriqah) Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 71
walking (holakhah) Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 71
wilderness generation Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 62, 219, 266
work of blood (avodat ha-dam)' Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 71