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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8251
New Testament, Hebrews, 4.16


προσερχώμεθα οὖν μετὰ παρρησίας τῷ θρόνῳ τῆς χάριτος, ἵνα λάβωμεν ἔλεος καὶ χάριν εὕρωμεν εἰς εὔκαιρον βοήθειαν.Let us therefore draw near with boldness to the throne of grace, that we may receive mercy, and may find grace for help in time of need.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

31 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 8.6-8.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.6. שִׂימֵנִי כַחוֹתָם עַל־לִבֶּךָ כַּחוֹתָם עַל־זְרוֹעֶךָ כִּי־עַזָּה כַמָּוֶת אַהֲבָה קָשָׁה כִשְׁאוֹל קִנְאָה רְשָׁפֶיהָ רִשְׁפֵּי אֵשׁ שַׁלְהֶבֶתְיָה׃ 8.7. מַיִם רַבִּים לֹא יוּכְלוּ לְכַבּוֹת אֶת־הָאַהֲבָה וּנְהָרוֹת לֹא יִשְׁטְפוּהָ אִם־יִתֵּן אִישׁ אֶת־כָּל־הוֹן בֵּיתוֹ בָּאַהֲבָה בּוֹז יָבוּזוּ לוֹ׃ 8.6. Set me as a seal upon thy heart, As a seal upon thine arm; For love is strong as death, Jealousy is cruel as the grave; The flashes thereof are flashes of fire, A very flame of the LORD. 8.7. Many waters cannot quench love, Neither can the floods drown it; If a man would give all the substance of his house for love, He would utterly be contemned.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 33.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

33.10. They shall teach Jacob Thine ordices, And Israel Thy law; They shall put incense before Thee, And whole burnt-offering upon Thine altar. ."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.17-2.25, 3.1, 3.3-3.4, 3.12, 3.16-3.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.17. וּמֵעֵץ הַדַּעַת טוֹב וָרָע לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ כִּי בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְךָ מִמֶּנּוּ מוֹת תָּמוּת׃ 2.18. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים לֹא־טוֹב הֱיוֹת הָאָדָם לְבַדּוֹ אֶעֱשֶׂהּ־לּוֹ עֵזֶר כְּנֶגְדּוֹ׃ 2.19. וַיִּצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִן־הָאֲדָמָה כָּל־חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה וְאֵת כָּל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיָּבֵא אֶל־הָאָדָם לִרְאוֹת מַה־יִּקְרָא־לוֹ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִקְרָא־לוֹ הָאָדָם נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה הוּא שְׁמוֹ׃ 2.21. וַיַּפֵּל יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים תַּרְדֵּמָה עַל־הָאָדָם וַיִּישָׁן וַיִּקַּח אַחַת מִצַּלְעֹתָיו וַיִּסְגֹּר בָּשָׂר תַּחְתֶּנָּה׃ 2.22. וַיִּבֶן יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הַצֵּלָע אֲשֶׁר־לָקַח מִן־הָאָדָם לְאִשָּׁה וַיְבִאֶהָ אֶל־הָאָדָם׃ 2.23. וַיֹּאמֶר הָאָדָם זֹאת הַפַּעַם עֶצֶם מֵעֲצָמַי וּבָשָׂר מִבְּשָׂרִי לְזֹאת יִקָּרֵא אִשָּׁה כִּי מֵאִישׁ לֻקֳחָה־זֹּאת׃ 2.24. עַל־כֵּן יַעֲזָב־אִישׁ אֶת־אָבִיו וְאֶת־אִמּוֹ וְדָבַק בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ וְהָיוּ לְבָשָׂר אֶחָד׃ 2.25. וַיִּהְיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם עֲרוּמִּים הָאָדָם וְאִשְׁתּוֹ וְלֹא יִתְבֹּשָׁשׁוּ׃ 3.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶת־קֹלְךָ שָׁמַעְתִּי בַּגָּן וָאִירָא כִּי־עֵירֹם אָנֹכִי וָאֵחָבֵא׃ 3.1. וְהַנָּחָשׁ הָיָה עָרוּם מִכֹּל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אַף כִּי־אָמַר אֱלֹהִים לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִכֹּל עֵץ הַגָּן׃ 3.3. וּמִפְּרִי הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹךְ־הַגָּן אָמַר אֱלֹהִים לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ וְלֹא תִגְּעוּ בּוֹ פֶּן־תְּמֻתוּן׃ 3.4. וַיֹּאמֶר הַנָּחָשׁ אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה לֹא־מוֹת תְּמֻתוּן׃ 3.12. וַיֹּאמֶר הָאָדָם הָאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר נָתַתָּה עִמָּדִי הִוא נָתְנָה־לִּי מִן־הָעֵץ וָאֹכֵל׃ 3.16. אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אָמַר הַרְבָּה אַרְבֶּה עִצְּבוֹנֵךְ וְהֵרֹנֵךְ בְּעֶצֶב תֵּלְדִי בָנִים וְאֶל־אִישֵׁךְ תְּשׁוּקָתֵךְ וְהוּא יִמְשָׁל־בָּךְ׃ 3.17. וּלְאָדָם אָמַר כִּי־שָׁמַעְתָּ לְקוֹל אִשְׁתֶּךָ וַתֹּאכַל מִן־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִיךָ לֵאמֹר לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ אֲרוּרָה הָאֲדָמָה בַּעֲבוּרֶךָ בְּעִצָּבוֹן תֹּאכֲלֶנָּה כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ׃ 3.18. וְקוֹץ וְדַרְדַּר תַּצְמִיחַ לָךְ וְאָכַלְתָּ אֶת־עֵשֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶה׃ 3.19. בְּזֵעַת אַפֶּיךָ תֹּאכַל לֶחֶם עַד שׁוּבְךָ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה כִּי מִמֶּנָּה לֻקָּחְתָּ כִּי־עָפָר אַתָּה וְאֶל־עָפָר תָּשׁוּב׃ 2.17. but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.’" 2.18. And the LORD God said: ‘It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a help meet for him.’" 2.19. And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto the man to see what he would call them; and whatsoever the man would call every living creature, that was to be the name thereof." 2.20. And the man gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found a help meet for him." 2.21. And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; and He took one of his ribs, and closed up the place with flesh instead thereof." 2.22. And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from the man, made He a woman, and brought her unto the man." 2.23. And the man said: ‘This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man.’" 2.24. Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh." 2.25. And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed." 3.1. Now the serpent was more subtle than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman: ‘Yea, hath God said: Ye shall not eat of any tree of the garden?’" 3.3. but of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said: Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die.’" 3.4. And the serpent said unto the woman: ‘Ye shall not surely die;" 3.12. And the man said: ‘The woman whom Thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat.’" 3.16. Unto the woman He said: ‘I will greatly multiply thy pain and thy travail; in pain thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.’" 3.17. And unto Adam He said: ‘Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying: Thou shalt not eat of it; cursed is the ground for thy sake; in toil shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life." 3.18. Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field." 3.19. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken; for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 16.2-16.3, 16.11, 16.14-16.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.2. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה דַּבֵּר אֶל־אַהֲרֹן אָחִיךָ וְאַל־יָבֹא בְכָל־עֵת אֶל־הַקֹּדֶשׁ מִבֵּית לַפָּרֹכֶת אֶל־פְּנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאָרֹן וְלֹא יָמוּת כִּי בֶּעָנָן אֵרָאֶה עַל־הַכַּפֹּרֶת׃ 16.2. וְכִלָּה מִכַּפֵּר אֶת־הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְאֶת־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְאֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְהִקְרִיב אֶת־הַשָּׂעִיר הֶחָי׃ 16.3. כִּי־בַיּוֹם הַזֶּה יְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם לְטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם מִכֹּל חַטֹּאתֵיכֶם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה תִּטְהָרוּ׃ 16.3. בְּזֹאת יָבֹא אַהֲרֹן אֶל־הַקֹּדֶשׁ בְּפַר בֶּן־בָּקָר לְחַטָּאת וְאַיִל לְעֹלָה׃ 16.11. וְהִקְרִיב אַהֲרֹן אֶת־פַּר הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ וְכִפֶּר בַּעֲדוֹ וּבְעַד בֵּיתוֹ וְשָׁחַט אֶת־פַּר הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ׃ 16.14. וְלָקַח מִדַּם הַפָּר וְהִזָּה בְאֶצְבָּעוֹ עַל־פְּנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת קֵדְמָה וְלִפְנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת יַזֶּה שֶׁבַע־פְּעָמִים מִן־הַדָּם בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ׃ 16.15. וְשָׁחַט אֶת־שְׂעִיר הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר לָעָם וְהֵבִיא אֶת־דָּמוֹ אֶל־מִבֵּית לַפָּרֹכֶת וְעָשָׂה אֶת־דָּמוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְדַם הַפָּר וְהִזָּה אֹתוֹ עַל־הַכַּפֹּרֶת וְלִפְנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת׃ 16.2. and the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Speak unto Aaron thy brother, that he come not at all times into the holy place within the veil, before the ark-cover which is upon the ark; that he die not; for I appear in the cloud upon the ark-cover." 16.3. Herewith shall Aaron come into the holy place: with a young bullock for a sin-offering, and a ram for a burnt-offering." 16.11. And Aaron shall present the bullock of the sin-offering, which is for himself, and shall make atonement for himself, and for his house, and shall kill the bullock of the sin-offering which is for himself." 16.14. And he shall take of the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it with his finger upon the ark-cover on the east; and before the ark-cover shall he sprinkle of the blood with his finger seven times." 16.15. Then shall he kill the goat of the sin-offering, that is for the people, and bring his blood within the veil, and do with his blood as he did with the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it upon the ark-cover, and before the ark-cover."
5. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 79.9, 110.1, 110.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

79.9. עָזְרֵנוּ אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׁעֵנוּ עַל־דְּבַר כְּבוֹד־שְׁמֶךָ וְהַצִּילֵנוּ וְכַפֵּר עַל־חַטֹּאתֵינוּ לְמַעַן שְׁמֶךָ׃ 110.1. לְדָוִד מִזְמוֹר נְאֻם יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי שֵׁב לִימִינִי עַד־אָשִׁית אֹיְבֶיךָ הֲדֹם לְרַגְלֶיךָ׃ 110.4. נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה וְלֹא יִנָּחֵם אַתָּה־כֹהֵן לְעוֹלָם עַל־דִּבְרָתִי מַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק׃ 79.9. Help us, O God of our salvation, for the sake of the glory of Thy name; And deliver us, and forgive our sins, for Thy name's sake." 110.1. A Psalm of David. The LORD saith unto my lord: ‘Sit thou at My right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.'" 110.4. The LORD hath sworn, and will not repent: 'Thou art a priest for ever After the manner of Melchizedek.'"
6. Anon., Testament of Levi, 3.4-3.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.4. And in the highest of all dwelleth the Great Glory, far above all holiness. 3.5. In [the heaven next to] it are the archangels, who minister and make propitiation to the Lord for all the sins of ignorance of the righteous;
7. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 25.24 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

25.24. From a woman sin had its beginning,and because of her we all die.
8. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 2.24, 25.24 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.24. but through the devils envy death entered the world,and those who belong to his party experience it.
9. Anon., Rhetorica Ad Herennium, 2.47 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.47.  Conclusions, among the Greeks called epilogoi, are tripartite, consisting of the Summing Up, Amplification, and Appeal to Pity. We can in four places use a Conclusion: in the Direct Opening, after the Statement of Facts, after the strongest argument, and in the Conclusion of the speech. The Summing Up gathers together and recalls the points we have made — briefly, that the speech may not be repeated in entirety, but that the memory of it may be refreshed; and we shall reproduce all the points in the order in which they have been presented, so that the hearer, if he has committed them to memory, is brought back to what he remembers. Again, we must take care that the Summary should not be carried back to the Introduction or the Statement of Facts. Otherwise the speech will appear to have been fabricated and devised with elaborate pains so as to demonstrate the speaker's skill, advertise his wit, and display his memory. Therefore the Summary must take its beginning from the Division. Then we must in order and briefly set forth the points treated in the Proof and Refutation. Amplification is the principle of using Commonplaces to stir the hearers. To amplify an accusation it will be most advantageous to draw commonplaces from ten formulae.
10. New Testament, 1 John, 1.3, 1.6-1.9, 2.1-2.2, 2.5, 4.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. that which we have seen and heard we declare to you, that you also may have fellowship with us. Yes, and our fellowship is with the Father, and with his Son, Jesus Christ. 1.6. If we say that we have fellowship with him and walk in the darkness, we lie, and don't tell the truth. 1.7. But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Jesus Christ, his Son, cleanses us from all sin. 1.8. If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us. 1.9. If we confess our sins, he is faithful and righteous to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. 2.1. My little children, I write these things to you so that you may not sin. If anyone sins, we have a Counselor with the Father, Jesus Christ, the righteous. 2.2. And he is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not for ours only, but also for the whole world. 2.5. But whoever keeps his word, God's love has most assuredly been perfected in him. This is how we know that we are in him: 4.10. In this is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Son as the atoning sacrifice for our sins.
11. New Testament, 1 Peter, 4.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.11. If any man speaks, let it be as it were oracles of God. If any man serves, let it be as of the strength which God supplies, that in all things God may be glorified through Jesus Christ, to whom belong the glory and the dominion forever and ever. Amen.
12. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 4.10-4.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13. New Testament, Acts, 14.22 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14.22. confirming the souls of the disciples, exhorting them to continue in the faith, and that through many afflictions we must enter into the Kingdom of God.
14. New Testament, Apocalypse, 5.9-5.13, 6.9, 7.14, 11.19, 14.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.9. They sang a new song, saying, "You are worthy to take the book, And to open its seals: For you were killed, And bought us for God with your blood, Out of every tribe, language, people, and nation 5.10. And made them kings and priests to our God, And they reign on earth. 5.11. I saw, and I heard something like a voice of many angels around the throne, the living creatures, and the elders; and the number of them was ten thousands of ten thousands, and thousands of thousands; 5.12. saying with a loud voice, "Worthy is the Lamb who has been killed to receive the power, riches, wisdom, might, honor, glory, and blessing! 5.13. I heard every created thing which is in heaven, on the earth, under the earth, on the sea, and everything in them, saying, "To him who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb be the blessing, the honor, the glory, and the dominion, forever and ever! Amen. 6.9. When he opened the fifth seal, I saw underneath the altar the souls of those who had been killed for the Word of God, and for the testimony of the Lamb which they had. 7.14. I told him, "My lord, you know."He said to me, "These are those who came out of the great tribulation. They washed their robes, and made them white in the Lamb's blood. 11.19. God's temple that is in heaven was opened, and the ark of the Lord's covet was seen in his temple. Lightnings, sounds, thunders, an earthquake, and great hail followed. 14.4. These are those who were not defiled with women, for they are virgins. These are those who follow the Lamb wherever he goes. These were redeemed by Jesus from among men, the first fruits to God and to the Lamb.
15. New Testament, Jude, 25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

16. New Testament, Colossians, 1.24-1.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.24. Now I rejoice in my sufferings for your sake, and fill up on my part that which is lacking of the afflictions of Christ in my flesh for his body's sake, which is the assembly; 1.25. of which I was made a servant, according to the stewardship of God which was given me toward you, to fulfill the word of God
17. New Testament, Galatians, 4.4-4.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.4. But when the fullness of the time came,God sent out his Son, born to a woman, born under the law 4.5. thathe might redeem those who were under the law, that we might receive theadoption of sons. 4.6. And because you are sons, God sent out theSpirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, "Abba, Father!
18. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.1, 1.1-2.18, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.5-2.18, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.14, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7-4.13, 3.12, 3.13, 4.1, 4.9, 4.11, 4.14, 4.14-10.18, 4.14-5.10, 4.15, 4.15-5.10, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5.11-6.20, 6.1, 6.2, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.12, 6.19, 6.20, 7.1, 7.1-10.18, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.25, 7.26, 7.27, 7.28, 8.1, 8.1-9.28, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.9, 8.10, 8.13, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.18, 9.23, 9.24, 9.25, 9.26, 9.27, 9.28, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9, 10.10, 10.11, 10.12, 10.13, 10.14, 10.15, 10.16, 10.17, 10.18, 10.19, 10.20, 10.21, 10.22, 10.23, 10.24, 10.25, 10.26, 10.27, 10.28, 10.29, 10.30, 10.31, 10.32, 10.33, 10.34, 10.35, 10.36, 10.37, 10.38, 10.39, 11, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 11.10, 11.11, 11.12, 11.13, 11.14, 11.15, 11.16, 11.17, 11.18, 11.19, 11.20, 11.21, 11.22, 11.23, 11.24, 11.25, 11.26, 11.27, 11.28, 11.29, 11.30, 11.31, 11.32, 11.33, 11.34, 11.35, 11.36, 11.37, 11.38, 11.39, 11.40, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8, 12.9, 12.10, 12.11, 12.14, 12.15, 12.16, 12.17, 12.18, 12.19, 12.20, 12.21, 12.22, 12.23, 12.24, 12.25, 12.26, 12.27, 12.28, 12.29, 13, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.9, 13.10, 13.11, 13.12, 13.13, 13.14, 13.15, 13.16, 13.17, 13.18, 13.19, 13.20, 13.21, 13.22, 13.23, 13.24, 13.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. God, having in the past spoken to the fathers through the prophets at many times and in various ways
19. New Testament, Philippians, 2.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.8. And being found in human form, he humbled himself, becoming obedient to death, yes, the death of the cross.
20. New Testament, Romans, 5.1-5.2, 5.11, 8.9, 8.15-8.16, 8.26, 8.34, 11.2, 16.25-16.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.1. Being therefore justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ; 5.2. through whom we also have our access by faith into this grace in which we stand. We rejoice in hope of the glory of God. 5.11. Not only so, but we also rejoice in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received the reconciliation. 8.9. But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if it is so that the Spirit of God dwells in you. But if any man doesn't have the Spirit of Christ, he is not his. 8.15. For you didn't receive the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you received the Spirit of adoption, by whom we cry, "Abba! Father! 8.16. The Spirit himself testifies with our spirit that we are children of God; 8.26. In the same way, the Spirit also helps our weaknesses, for we don't know how to pray as we ought. But the Spirit himself makes intercession for us with groanings which can't be uttered. 8.34. Who is he who condemns? It is Christ who died, yes rather, who was raised from the dead, who is at the right hand of God, who also makes intercession for us. 11.2. God didn't reject his people, which he foreknew. Or don't you know what the Scripture says about Elijah? How he pleads with God against Israel:
21. New Testament, John, 1.15, 1.26-1.34, 2.21, 3.16, 14.16, 17.1-17.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.15. John testified about him. He cried out, saying, "This was he of whom I said, 'He who comes after me has surpassed me, for he was before me.' 1.26. John answered them, "I baptize in water, but among you stands one whom you don't know. 1.27. He is the one who comes after me, who has come to be before me, whose sandal strap I'm not worthy to untie. 1.28. These things were done in Bethany beyond the Jordan, where John was baptizing. 1.29. The next day, he saw Jesus coming to him, and said, "Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world! 1.30. This is he of whom I said, 'After me comes a man who is preferred before me, for he was before me.' 1.31. I didn't know him, but for this reason I came baptizing in water: that he would be revealed to Israel. 1.32. John testified, saying, "I have seen the Spirit descending like a dove out of heaven, and it remained on him. 1.33. I didn't recognize him, but he who sent me to baptize in water, he said to me, 'On whomever you will see the Spirit descending, and remaining on him, the same is he who baptizes in the Holy Spirit.' 1.34. I have seen, and have testified that this is the Son of God. 2.21. But he spoke of the temple of his body. 3.16. For God so loved the world, that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish, but have eternal life. 14.16. I will pray to the Father, and he will give you another Counselor, that he may be with you forever, -- 17.1. Jesus said these things, and lifting up his eyes to heaven, he said, "Father, the time has come. Glorify your Son, that your Son may also glorify you; 17.2. even as you gave him authority over all flesh, to give eternal life to all whom you have given him. 17.3. This is eternal life, that they should know you, the only true God, and him whom you sent, Jesus Christ. 17.4. I glorified you on the earth. I have accomplished the work which you have given me to do. 17.5. Now, Father, glorify me with your own self with the glory which I had with you before the world existed. 17.6. I revealed your name to the people whom you have given me out of the world. They were yours, and you have given them to me. They have kept your word. 17.7. Now they have known that all things whatever you have given me are from you 17.8. for the words which you have given me I have given to them, and they received them, and knew for sure that I came forth from you, and they have believed that you sent me. 17.9. I pray for them. I don't pray for the world, but for those whom you have given me, for they are yours. 17.10. All things that are mine are yours, and yours are mine, and I am glorified in them. 17.11. I am no more in the world, but these are in the world, and I am coming to you. Holy Father, keep them through your name which you have given me, that they may be one, even as we are. 17.12. While I was with them in the world, I kept them in your name. Those whom you have given me I have kept. None of them is lost, except the son of perdition, that the Scripture might be fulfilled. 17.13. But now I come to you, and I say these things in the world, that they may have my joy made full in themselves. 17.14. I have given them your word. The world hated them, because they are not of the world, even as I am not of the world. 17.15. I pray not that you would take them from the world, but that you would keep them from the evil one. 17.16. They are not of the world even as I am not of the world. 17.17. Sanctify them in your truth. Your word is truth. 17.18. As you sent me into the world, even so I have sent them into the world. 17.19. For their sakes I sanctify myself, that they themselves also may be sanctified in truth. 17.20. Not for these only do I pray, but for those also who believe in me through their word 17.21. that they may all be one; even as you, Father, are in me, and I in you, that they also may be one in us; that the world may believe that you sent me. 17.22. The glory which you have given me, I have given to them; that they may be one, even as we are one; 17.23. I in them, and you in me, that they may be perfected into one; that the world may know that you sent me, and loved them, even as you loved me. 17.24. Father, I desire that they also whom you have given me be with me where I am, that they may see my glory, which you have given me, for you loved me before the foundation of the world. 17.25. Righteous Father, the world hasn't known you, but I knew you; and these knew that you sent me. 17.26. I made known to them your name, and will make it known; that the love with which you loved me may be in them, and I in them.
22. New Testament, Luke, 3.16-3.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.16. John answered them all, "I indeed baptize you with water, but he comes who is mightier than I, the latchet of whose sandals I am not worthy to loosen. He will baptize you in the Holy Spirit and fire 3.17. whose fan is in his hand, and he will thoroughly cleanse his threshing floor, and will gather the wheat into his barn; but he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire.
23. New Testament, Mark, 1.7-1.8, 8.38 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. He preached, saying, "After me comes he who is mightier than I, the thong of whose sandals I am not worthy to stoop down and loosen. 1.8. I baptized you in water, but he will baptize you in the Holy Spirit. 8.38. For whoever will be ashamed of me and of my words in this adulterous and sinful generation, the Son of Man also will be ashamed of him, when he comes in the glory of his Father with the holy angels.
24. New Testament, Matthew, 3.11-3.12, 4.1, 5.7, 10.34, 12.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.11. I indeed baptize you in water for repentance, but he who comes after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to carry. He will baptize you in the Holy Spirit. 3.12. His winnowing fork is in his hand, and he will thoroughly cleanse his threshing floor. He will gather his wheat into the barn, but the chaff he will burn up with unquenchable fire. 4.1. Then Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. 5.7. Blessed are the merciful, For they shall obtain mercy. 10.34. Don't think that I came to send peace on the earth. I didn't come to send peace, but a sword. 12.28. But if I by the Spirit of God cast out demons, then the Kingdom of God has come upon you.
25. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 3.8.66, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.8.66.  As regards the use of examples practically all authorities are with good reason agreed that there is no subject to which they are better suited, since as a rule history seems to repeat itself and the experience of the past is a valuable support to reason.
26. Clement of Alexandria, Christ The Educator, 1.6.32, 1.6.34-1.6.36 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

27. Hermogenes, Rhetorical Exercises, 16 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

28. Tertullian, On Modesty, 1.6 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

29. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

12b. את הארץ למה לי להקדים שמים לארץ והארץ היתה תהו ובהו מכדי בשמים אתחיל ברישא מאי שנא דקא חשיב מעשה ארץ תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל משל למלך בשר ודם שאמר לעבדיו השכימו לפתחי השכים ומצא נשים ואנשים למי משבח למי שאין דרכו להשכים והשכים,תניא ר' יוסי אומר אוי להם לבריות שרואות ואינן יודעות מה רואות עומדות ואין יודעות על מה הן עומדות הארץ על מה עומדת על העמודים שנאמר (איוב ט, ו) המרגיז ארץ ממקומה ועמודיה יתפלצון עמודים על המים שנאמר (תהלים קלו, ו) לרוקע הארץ על המים מים על ההרים שנאמר על הרים יעמדו מים הרים ברוח שנאמר (עמוס ד, יג) כי הנה יוצר הרים ובורא רוח רוח בסערה שנאמר (תהלים קמח, ח) רוח סערה עושה דברו סערה תלויה בזרועו של הקב"ה שנאמר (דברים לג, כז) ומתחת זרועות עולם,וחכ"א על י"ב עמודים עומדת שנאמר (דברים לב, ח) יצב גבולות עמים למספר בני ישראל וי"א ז' עמודים שנאמר (משלי ט, א) חצבה עמודיה שבעה ר"א בן שמוע אומר על עמוד אחד וצדיק שמו שנאמר (משלי י, כה) וצדיק יסוד עולם,א"ר יהודה שני רקיעים הן שנאמר (דברים י, יד) הן לה' אלהיך השמים ושמי השמים,ר"ל אמר שבעה ואלו הן וילון רקיע שחקים זבול מעון מכון ערבות וילון אינו משמש כלום אלא נכנס שחרית ויוצא ערבית ומחדש בכל יום מעשה בראשית שנאמר (ישעיהו מ, כב) הנוטה כדוק שמים וימתחם כאהל לשבת רקיע שבו חמה ולבנה כוכבים ומזלות קבועין שנאמר (בראשית א, יז) ויתן אותם אלהים ברקיע השמים שחקים שבו רחיים עומדות וטוחנות מן לצדיקים שנאמר (תהלים עח, כג) ויצו שחקים ממעל ודלתי שמים פתח וימטר עליהם מן לאכול וגו',זבול שבו ירושלים ובית המקדש ומזבח בנוי ומיכאל השר הגדול עומד ומקריב עליו קרבן שנאמר (מלכים א ח, יג) בנה בניתי בית זבול לך מכון לשבתך עולמים ומנלן דאיקרי שמים דכתיב (ישעיהו סג, טו) הבט משמים וראה מזבול קדשך ותפארתך,מעון שבו כיתות של מלאכי השרת שאומרות שירה בלילה וחשות ביום מפני כבודן של ישראל שנאמר (תהלים מב, ט) יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ובלילה שירה עמי,אמר ר"ל כל העוסק בתורה בלילה הקב"ה מושך עליו חוט של חסד ביום שנאמר יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ומה טעם יומם יצוה ה' חסדו משום ובלילה שירה עמי ואיכא דאמרי אמר ר"ל כל העוסק בתורה בעוה"ז שהוא דומה ללילה הקב"ה מושך עליו חוט של חסד לעוה"ב שהוא דומה ליום שנאמר יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ובלילה שירה עמי,א"ר לוי כל הפוסק מדברי תורה ועוסק בדברי שיחה מאכילין אותו גחלי רתמים שנאמר (איוב ל, ד) הקוטפים מלוח עלי שיח ושרש רתמים לחמם ומנלן דאיקרי שמים שנאמר (דברים כו, טו) השקיפה ממעון קדשך מן השמים,מכון שבו אוצרות שלג ואוצרות ברד ועליית טללים רעים ועליית אגלים וחדרה של סופה [וסערה] ומערה של קיטור ודלתותיהן אש שנאמר (דברים כח, יב) יפתח ה' לך את אוצרו הטוב,הני ברקיעא איתנהו הני בארעא איתנהו דכתיב (תהלים קמח, ז) הללו את ה' מן הארץ תנינים וכל תהומות אש וברד שלג וקיטור רוח סערה עושה דברו אמר רב יהודה אמר רב דוד ביקש עליהם רחמים והורידן לארץ אמר לפניו רבש"ע (תהלים ה, ה) לא אל חפץ רשע אתה לא יגורך (במגורך) רע צדיק אתה ה' לא יגור במגורך רע ומנלן דאיקרי שמים דכתיב (מלכים א ח, לט) ואתה תשמע השמים מכון שבתך,ערבות שבו צדק משפט וצדקה גנזי חיים וגנזי שלום וגנזי ברכה ונשמתן של צדיקים ורוחות ונשמות שעתיד להיבראות וטל שעתיד הקב"ה להחיות בו מתים צדק ומשפט דכתיב (תהלים פט, טו) צדק ומשפט מכון כסאך צדקה דכתיב (ישעיהו נט, יז) וילבש צדקה כשרין גנזי חיים דכתיב (תהלים לו, י) כי עמך מקור חיים וגנזי שלום דכתיב (שופטים ו, כד) ויקרא לו ה' שלום וגנזי ברכה דכתיב (תהלים כד, ה) ישא ברכה מאת ה',נשמתן של צדיקים דכתיב (שמואל א כה, כט) והיתה נפש אדוני צרורה בצרור החיים את ה' אלהיך רוחות ונשמות שעתיד להיבראות דכתיב (ישעיהו נז, טז) כי רוח מלפני יעטוף ונשמות אני עשיתי וטל שעתיד הקב"ה להחיות בו מתים דכתיב (תהלים סח, י) גשם נדבות תניף אלהים נחלתך ונלאה אתה כוננתה,שם אופנים ושרפים וחיות הקדש ומלאכי השרת וכסא הכבוד מלך אל חי רם ונשא שוכן עליהם בערבות שנאמר (תהלים סח, ה) סולו לרוכב בערבות ביה שמו ומנלן דאיקרי שמים אתיא רכיבה רכיבה כתיב הכא סולו לרוכב בערבות וכתיב התם (דברים לג, כו) רוכב שמים בעזרך,וחשך וענן וערפל מקיפין אותו שנאמר (תהלים יח, יב) ישת חשך סתרו סביבותיו סוכתו חשכת מים עבי שחקים ומי איכא חשוכא קמי שמיא והכתיב [דניאל ב, כב] הוא (גלי) עמיקתא ומסתרתא ידע מה בחשוכא ונהורא עמיה שרי לא קשיא הא 12b. bWhy do Ineed b“and the earth” [ iet ha’aretz /i]? Toteach that bheaven preceded earthin the order of Creation. The next verse states: b“And the earth was unformed and void”(Genesis 1:2). The Gemara asks: bAfter all,the Bible bbegan with heaven first; what is differentabout the second verse? Why does the Bible brecount the creation of earthfirst in the second verse? bThe Sage of the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught:This can be explained by ba parable of a flesh-and-blood king who said to his servants: Rise earlyand come bto my entrance. He arose and found women and menwaiting for him. bWhom does he praise? Those who are unaccustomed to rising early butyet brose early,the women. The same applies to the earth: Since it is a lowly, physical sphere, we would not have expected it to be created together with heaven. Therefore, it is fitting to discuss it at greater length.,§ bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei says: Woe to them, the creations, who see and know not what they see;who bstand and know not upon what they stand.He clarifies: bUpon what does the earth stand? Upon pillars, as it is stated: “Who shakes the earth out of its place, and its pillars tremble”(Job 9:6). These bpillarsare positioned bupon water, as it is stated: “To Him Who spread forth the earth over the waters”(Psalms 136:6). These bwatersstand bupon mountains, as it is stated: “The waters stood above the mountains”(Psalms 104:6). The bmountainsare upon the bwind, as it is stated: “For behold He forms the mountains and creates the wind”(Amos 4:13). The bwindis bupon a storm, as it is stated: “Stormy wind, fulfilling His word”(Psalms 148:8). The bstorm hangs upon the arm of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “And underneath are the everlasting arms”(Deuteronomy 33:27), which demonstrates that the entire world rests upon the arms of the Holy One, Blessed be He.,And the Rabbis say: The earth bstands on twelve pillars, as it is stated: “He set the borders of the nations according to the number of the children of Israel”(Deuteronomy 32:8). Just as the children of Israel, i.e., the sons of Jacob, are twelve in number, so does the world rest on twelve pillars. bAnd some say:There are bseven pillars, as it is stated: “She has hewn out her seven pillars”(Proverbs 9:1). bRabbi Elazar ben Shammua says:The earth rests bon one pillar and a righteous person is its name, as it is stated: “But a righteous person is the foundation of the world”(Proverbs 10:25).,§ bRabbi Yehuda said: There are two firmaments, as it is stated: “Behold, to the Lord your God belongs the heaven and the heaven of heavens”(Deuteronomy 10:14), indicating that there is a heaven above our heaven., bReish Lakish said:There are bsevenfirmaments, band they are as follows: iVilon /i, iRakia /i, iSheḥakim /i, iZevul /i, iMa’on /i, iMakhon /i,and iAravot /i.The Gemara proceeds to explain the role of each firmament: iVilon /i,curtain, is the firmament that bdoes not contain anything, but enters at morning and departsin the bevening, and renews the act of Creation daily, as it is stated: “Who stretches out the heavens as a curtain [ iVilon /i], and spreads them out as a tent to dwell in”(Isaiah 40:22). iRakia /i,firmament, is the one bin whichthe bsun, moon, stars, and zodiac signs are fixed, as it is stated: “And God set them in the firmament [ iRakia /i] of the heaven”(Genesis 1:17). iSheḥakim /i,heights, is the one bin which mills stand and grind manna for the righteous, as it is stated: “And He commanded the heights [ iShehakim /i] above, and opened the doors of heaven; and He caused manna to rain upon them for food,and gave them of the corn of heaven” (Psalms 78:23–24).,iZevul /i,abode, bisthe location bofthe heavenly bJerusalem andthe heavenly bTemple, andthere the heavenly baltar is built, andthe angel bMichael, the great minister, stands and sacrifices an offering upon it, as it is stated: “I have surely built a house of iZevulfor You, a place for You to dwell forever”(I Kings 8:13). bAnd from where do wederive bthat iZevul bis called heaven? As it is written: “Look down from heaven and see, from Your holy and glorious abode [ iZevul /i]”(Isaiah 63:15).,iMa’on /i,habitation, bis wherethere are bgroups of ministering angels who recite song at night and are silent during the day out of respect for Israel,in order not to compete with their songs, bas it is stated: “By day the Lord will command His kindness, and in the night His song is with me”(Psalms 42:9), indicating that the song of the angels is with God only at night.,With regard to the aforementioned verse, bReish Lakish said: Whoever occupieshimself bwith Torah at night, the Holy One, Blessed be He, extends a thread of kindness over him by day, as it is stated: “By day, the Lord will command His kindness,” and what is the reasonthat b“by day, the Lord will command His kindness”? Because “and in the night His song,”i.e., the song of Torah, b“is with me.” And some saythat bReish Lakish said: Whoever occupies himself with Torah in this world, which is comparable to night, the Holy One, Blessed be He, extends a thread of kindness over him in the World-to-Come, which is comparable to day, as it is stated: “By day, the Lord will command His kindness, and in the night His song is with me.” /b,With regard to the same matter, bRabbi Levi said: Anyone who pauses from words of Torah to occupy himself with mundane conversation will be fed with the coals of the broom tree, as it is stated: “They pluck saltwort [ imaluaḥ /i] with wormwood [ ialei siaḥ /i], and the roots of the broom tree [ iretamim /i] are their food”(Job 30:4). The exposition is as follows: Those who pluck, i.e., pause, from learning Torah, which was given upon two tablets, iluḥot /i, which sounds similar to imaluaḥ /i, for the purpose of isiaḥ /i, idle chatter, are punished by having to eat coals made from “the roots of the broom tree.” bAnd from where do wederive bthat iMa’on bis called heaven? As it is stated: “Look forth from Your holy iMa’on /i, from heaven”(Deuteronomy 26:15).,iMakhon /i,dwelling place, bis where there are storehouses of snow and storehouses of hail, and the upper chamber of harmful dews, and the upper chamber of drops, and the room of tempests and storms, and the cave of mist. And the doorsof all these are made of bfire.How do we know that there are storehouses for evil things? bFor it is stated: “The Lord will open for you His good storehouse,the heavens” (Deuteronomy 28:12), which indicates the existence of a storehouse that contains the opposite of good.,The Gemara asks a question: With regard to bthesethings listed above, are they blocated in heaven?It is obvious that btheyare blocated on the earth. As it is written: “Praise the Lord from the earth, sea monsters and all depths, fire and hail, snow and mist, stormy wind, fulfilling His word”(Psalms 148:7–8). The verse seems to indicate that all these things are found on the earth. bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: David requested mercy with regard to them,that they should not remain in heaven, band He brought them down to earth. He said before Him: Master of the Universe, “You are not a God that has pleasure in wickedness, evil shall not sojourn with You”(Psalms 5:5). In other words, bYou are righteous, O Lord.Nothing bevil should sojourn in Your vicinity.Rather, it is better that they remain close to us. bAnd from where do wederive bthatthis place bis called “heaven”? As it is written: “And You shall hearin bheaven, the iMakhonof Your dwelling”(I Kings 8:39).,iAravot /i,skies, is the firmament bthat contains righteousness; justice; righteousness,i.e., charity; bthe treasuries of life; the treasuries of peace; the treasuries of blessing; the souls of the righteous; the spirits and souls that are to be created; and the dew that the Holy One, Blessed be He, will use to revive the dead.The Gemara proves this statement: bRighteousness and justiceare found in heaven, bas it is written: “Righteousness and justice are the foundation of Your throne”(Psalms 89:15); brighteousness, as it is written: “And He donned righteousness as armor”(Isaiah 59:17); bthe treasuries of life, as it is written: “For with You is the source of life”(Psalms 36:10). bAnd the treasuries of peaceare found in heaven, bas it is written: “And he called Him the Lord of peace”(Judges 6:24), implying that peace is God’s name and is therefore found close to Him. bAnd the treasuries of blessing, as it is written: “He shall receive a blessing from the Lord”(Psalms 24:5)., bThe souls of the righteousare found in heaven, bas it is written: “And the soul of my master shall be bound in the bundle of life with the Lord, your God”(I Samuel 25:29). bSpirits and souls that are to be createdare found there, bas it is written: “For the spirit that enwraps itself is from Me, and the souls that I have made”(Isaiah 57:16), which indicates that the spirit to be released into the world, wrapped around a body, is located close to God. bThe dew that the Holy One, Blessed be He, will use to revive the deadis found in heaven, bas it is written: “A bountiful rain You will pour down, God; when Your inheritance was weary, You confirmed it”(Psalms 68:10)., bThere,in the firmaments, are the iofanim /i,the bseraphim,the bholy divine creatures, and the ministering angels, and the Throne of Glory. The King, God,the bliving, lofty, exalted One dwells above them in iAravot /i, as it is stated: “Extol Him Who rides upon the skies [ iAravot /i], Whose name is God”(Psalms 68:5). bAnd from where do wederive bthat iAravot bis called “heaven”?This is blearnedby using a verbal analogy between two instances of b“rides”and b“rides”: Here, it is written: “Extol Him Who rides upon the skies [ iAravot /i],” and there, it is written: “Who rides upon the heaven as your help”(Deuteronomy 33:26)., bAnd darkness and clouds and fog surround Him, as it is stated: “He made darkness His hiding place, His pavilion round about Him; darkness of waters, thick clouds of the skies”(Psalms 18:12). The Gemara asks: bAnd is there darkness before Heaven,i.e., before God? bBut isn’t it written: “He reveals deep and secret things, He knows what is in the darkness, and the light dwells with Him”(Daniel 2:22), demonstrating that only light, not darkness, is found with God? The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Thisverse, which states that only light dwells with Him, is referring
30. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Recognitiones (E Pseudocaesario), 1.60 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

31. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Recognitions, 1.60 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.60. And, behold, one of the disciples of John asserted that John was the Christ, and not Jesus, inasmuch as Jesus Himself declared that John was greater than all men and all prophets. Matthew 11:9, 11 'If, then,' said he, 'he be greater than all, he must be held to be greater than Moses, and than Jesus himself. But if he be the greatest of all, then must he be the Christ.' To this Simon the Canaanite, answering, asserted that John was indeed greater than all the prophets, and all who are born of women, yet that he is not greater than the Son of man. Accordingly Jesus is also the Christ, whereas John is only a prophet: and there is as much difference between him and Jesus, as between the forerunner and Him whose forerunner he is; or as between Him who gives the law, and him who keeps the law. Having made these and similar statements, the Canaanite also was silent. After him Barnabas, who also is called Matthias, who was substituted as an apostle in the place of Judas, began to exhort the people that they should not regard Jesus with hatred, nor speak evil of Him. For it were far more proper, even for one who might be in ignorance or in doubt concerning Jesus, to love than to hate Him. For God has affixed a reward to love, a penalty to hatred. 'For the very fact,' said he, 'that He assumed a Jewish body, and was born among the Jews, how has not this incited us all to love Him?' When he had spoken this, and more to the same effect, he stopped.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 215, 219, 220
abba Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 52
abel Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 234
abraham Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 75, 217
adversus ioudaios writings Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 90
aims, proofs Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 116, 225, 252
aims Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 116
amplification, in narratio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 215
amplification Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 218, 225
angels Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 170; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 44, 57
apocalypticism, apocalypse Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 171
apostasy Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 75, 116, 234, 262
argumentatio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 18, 116, 252, 255
ark Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 170
artless, propositions Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 116, 252, 255
ascent to heaven Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 170
asyndeton Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 252
atonement, timing of nan nan
baptism Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 52
blood, of christ Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 227
christian homilies Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 262
church Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 227
clement, i clement Dijkstra, The Early Reception and Appropriation of the Apostle Peter (60-800 CE): The Anchors of the Fisherman (2020) 52
clement of alexandria Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 90
confession Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 174
cosmology Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 171
covenant, mosaic Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 57
covenant, new Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 227
covenant Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 39, 75, 215, 218, 219, 225, 233
creation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 44, 227
crucifixion Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 33, 49, 224, 227
death Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 44, 224, 227
death of christ Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 170, 171
defensibility of cause, genus obscurum Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 216
deliberative Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 72, 75, 116, 216, 220, 252, 255, 262
disjointed structure Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 252, 255
dualism Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 171
elisha ben avuya (aher) Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 170
emperors, constantine Dijkstra, The Early Reception and Appropriation of the Apostle Peter (60-800 CE): The Anchors of the Fisherman (2020) 52
emperors Dijkstra, The Early Reception and Appropriation of the Apostle Peter (60-800 CE): The Anchors of the Fisherman (2020) 52
enthymeme Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 255
epideictic Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 17, 72, 75, 216, 220, 252, 255
esau Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 234, 252
eschatology Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 171
example Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 234, 252
exhortation Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 2, 75, 116, 216, 217, 233, 234, 252, 255; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 7, 49, 57
exordium, primary exordium Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 216, 252, 255
exordium, purpose Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 193
exordium, secondary exordium Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 39, 72, 116, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 225, 234, 252, 255
exordium Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 18, 193, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 255
exposition Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 39
faith Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 33
faithfulness, of israel Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 124
favor, attentiveness Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 217
favor Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 193, 215, 216, 217, 225, 252
fire, sacrificial Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 107
flesh Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 44
forgiveness, glory nan
forgiveness, tabernacle in nan
forgiveness, veil in nan
fulfilment Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 33, 107, 227
gentiles Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 52
gethsemane prayer Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 164
god as father Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 37, 52
goodwill, funeral oration Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 17
goodwill, receptivity Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 215, 216
goodwill Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 216, 217
gorgianic figures, parisosis Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 218
gorgianic figures Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 217, 218
grace Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 124
heaven, heavenly realities Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 224
hebrews, letter to the Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 170, 171; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 37, 164, 171, 174, 179
hebrews Dijkstra, The Early Reception and Appropriation of the Apostle Peter (60-800 CE): The Anchors of the Fisherman (2020) 52; Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 90
help Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 44, 49, 224, 282
holiness Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 57
holy of holies Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 170, 171
holy spirit Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 37, 52
hymnos Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 218, 220
hyperbaton Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 218
identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 164, 171, 174, 179
israel/israelites Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 37
jesus, as basis of christian prayer Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 52
jesus, intercessor/advocate Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 37, 174, 179
jesus, prayer model Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 164
jesus, son of god Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 164
jesus Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 90
jesus name Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 52
jesus role as priest/high-priest Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 37, 164, 171, 174, 179
jews, high priest of Dijkstra, The Early Reception and Appropriation of the Apostle Peter (60-800 CE): The Anchors of the Fisherman (2020) 52
john, gospel of Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 37
knowledge of christ Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 124
law Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 57
levitical Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 215
liturgy Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 33, 107, 224, 227
martyrdom sacrifice Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 80
mediator, christ as Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 124
melchizedek Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 215, 217
mercy Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 33, 47, 57, 107
michael Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 170
moses Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 39, 219, 234
myth (common narrative) Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 179
narratio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 18, 219
obedience Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 179; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 49, 224, 227
paul, pauline corpus Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 282
paul Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 90
people of god Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 164
perfection Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 217, 220; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 33, 44, 47, 49, 224
period Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 217, 218, 252, 262
periodic Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 252
peroratio, location Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 225
peroratio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 219, 225, 233, 234, 252
perseverance Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 75, 116, 216
pontifex maximus Dijkstra, The Early Reception and Appropriation of the Apostle Peter (60-800 CE): The Anchors of the Fisherman (2020) 52
prayer/praying, in jesus name Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 52
prayer/praying, intercession Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 37, 179
prayer Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 233
pre-existence Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 171
priest, priesthood Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 170, 171
primary peroratio, secondary peroratio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 39, 72, 219, 225, 233, 234
primary peroratio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 225, 233
probatio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 17
promises of god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 124
prooemium Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 219
propositio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 17, 18, 116, 255
revelation, the apocalypse of jesus christ Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 170
rhetorical arrangement Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 17, 18, 252
rhetorical handbooks Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 193
rhetorical topoi, birth Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 39, 215
rhetorical topoi, death/events beyond death Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 75
rhetorical topoi, deeds Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 39, 215
rhetorical topoi, education Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 39, 72, 215
rhetorical topoi, origins Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 215
risk, relation to divine-human trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 124
rituals Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 179
sacrifice, spiritual Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 52
sacrifice Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 170, 171
sacrifice martyrdom as Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 80
salvation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 44, 49
sanctuary, heavenly Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 171
sanctuary Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 57, 227
scripture Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 80
solidarity Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 33, 49, 57, 107, 224, 282
sons/children of god Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 179
sonship Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 37
soteriology Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 170, 171
spatial dualism Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 171
spirit, holy Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 107, 224
spirit, relation to pistis Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 124
structure (of hebrews, literary) Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 7, 49, 57
structure of hebrews Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 2, 17, 18, 39, 75
suffering Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 217, 220, 233; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 164, 179; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 33, 44, 49, 224
syncrisis, jesus/aaronic high priest Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 219
syncrisis, jesus/angels Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 75
syncrisis, jesus/moses Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 39
syncrisis, old covenant/new covenant Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 39
syncrisis Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 72, 75
temptation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 44, 47
tertullian Dijkstra, The Early Reception and Appropriation of the Apostle Peter (60-800 CE): The Anchors of the Fisherman (2020) 52
testing Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 49, 224
throne, enthroned Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 170, 171
throne of god, hebrews appropriation of' nan
throne of god nan nan
topos Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 219
vatican necropolis Dijkstra, The Early Reception and Appropriation of the Apostle Peter (60-800 CE): The Anchors of the Fisherman (2020) 52
wilderness generation Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 219, 234
words for prayer, προσέρχομαι Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 37
words for prayer, ἐρωτάω Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 37
worship, early christian worship Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 52
worship Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 174, 179