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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8251
New Testament, Hebrews, 13.9-13.10


ἔχομεν θυσιαστήριον ἐξ οὗ φαγεῖν οὐκ ἔχουσιν [ἐξουσίαν] οἱ τῇ σκηνῇ λατρεύοντες.We have an altar from which those who serve the holy tabernacle have no right to eat.


καλὸν γὰρ χάριτι βεβαιοῦσθαι τὴν καρδίαν, οὐ βρώμασιν, ἐν οἷς οὐκ ὠφελήθησαν οἱ περιπατοῦντες.Don't be carried away by various and strange teachings, for it is good that the heart be established by grace, not by food, through which those who were so occupied were not benefited.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

60 results
1. Septuagint, 1 Esdras, 5.48-5.49, 5.51-5.52, 5.59, 7.9, 8.46, 8.58 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.48. Then Jeshua the son of Jozadak, with his fellow priests, and Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, with his kinsmen, took their places and prepared the altar of the God of Israel 5.49. to offer burnt offerings upon it, in accordance with the directions in the book of Moses the man of God. 5.51. They kept the feast of booths, as it is commanded in the law, and offered the proper sacrifices every day 5.52. and thereafter the continual offerings and sacrifices on sabbaths and at new moons and at all the consecrated feasts. 5.59. And the priests stood arrayed in their garments, with musical instruments and trumpets, and the Levites, the sons of Asaph, with cymbals 7.9. and the priests and the Levites stood arrayed in their garments, according to kindred, for the services of the Lord God of Israel in accordance with the book of Moses; and the gatekeepers were at each gate. 8.46. and ordered them to tell Iddo and his brethren and the treasurers at that place to send us men to serve as priests in the house of our Lord. 8.58. And I said to them, "You are holy to the Lord, and the vessels are holy, and the silver and the gold are vowed to the Lord, the Lord of our fathers.
2. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.6, 12.6-12.20, 13.11 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.6. But I alone went often to Jerusalem for the feasts, as it is ordained for all Israel by an everlasting decree. Taking the first fruits and the tithes of my produce and the first shearings, I would give these to the priests, the sons of Aaron, at the altar. 12.6. Then the angel called the two of them privately and said to them: "Praise God and give thanks to him; exalt him and give thanks to him in the presence of all the living for what he has done for you. It is good to praise God and to exalt his name, worthily declaring the works of God. Do not be slow to give him thanks. 12.7. It is good to guard the secret of a king, but gloriously to reveal the works of God. Do good, and evil will not overtake you. 12.8. Prayer is good when accompanied by fasting, almsgiving, and righteousness. A little with righteousness is better than much with wrongdoing. It is better to give alms than to treasure up gold. 12.9. For almsgiving delivers from death, and it will purge away every sin. Those who perform deeds of charity and of righteousness will have fulness of life; 12.10. but those who commit sin are the enemies of their own lives. 12.11. I will not conceal anything from you. I have said, `It is good to guard the secret of a king, but gloriously to reveal the works of God. 12.12. And so, when you and your daughter-in-law Sarah prayed, I brought a reminder of your prayer before the Holy One; and when you buried the dead, I was likewise present with you. 12.13. When you did not hesitate to rise and leave your dinner in order to go and lay out the dead, your good deed was not hidden from me, but I was with you. 12.14. So now God sent me to heal you and your daughter-in-law Sarah. 12.15. I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels who present the prayers of the saints and enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One. 12.16. They were both alarmed; and they fell upon their faces, for they were afraid. 12.17. But he said to them, "Do not be afraid; you will be safe. But praise God for ever. 12.18. For I did not come as a favor on my part, but by the will of our God. Therefore praise him for ever. 12.19. All these days I merely appeared to you and did not eat or drink, but you were seeing a vision. 12.20. And now give thanks to God, for I am ascending to him who sent me. Write in a book everything that has happened. 13.11. Many nations will come from afar to the name of the Lord God,bearing gifts in their hands, gifts for the King of heaven. Generations of generations will give you joyful praise.
3. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.9, 6.13, 10.12, 10.20, 21.5, 29.18, 31.6-31.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.9. לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים וְעַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃ 6.13. אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ תִּירָא וְאֹתוֹ תַעֲבֹד וּבִשְׁמוֹ תִּשָּׁבֵעַ׃ 10.12. וְעַתָּה יִשְׂרָאֵל מָה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ שֹׁאֵל מֵעִמָּךְ כִּי אִם־לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לָלֶכֶת בְּכָל־דְּרָכָיו וּלְאַהֲבָה אֹתוֹ וְלַעֲבֹד אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשֶׁךָ׃ 21.5. וְנִגְּשׁוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי לֵוִי כִּי בָם בָּחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְשָׁרְתוֹ וּלְבָרֵךְ בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה וְעַל־פִּיהֶם יִהְיֶה כָּל־רִיב וְכָל־נָגַע׃ 29.18. וְהָיָה בְּשָׁמְעוֹ אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הָאָלָה הַזֹּאת וְהִתְבָּרֵךְ בִּלְבָבוֹ לֵאמֹר שָׁלוֹם יִהְיֶה־לִּי כִּי בִּשְׁרִרוּת לִבִּי אֵלֵךְ לְמַעַן סְפוֹת הָרָוָה אֶת־הַצְּמֵאָה׃ 31.6. חִזְקוּ וְאִמְצוּ אַל־תִּירְאוּ וְאַל־תַּעַרְצוּ מִפְּנֵיהֶם כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הוּא הַהֹלֵךְ עִמָּךְ לֹא יַרְפְּךָ וְלֹא יַעַזְבֶךָּ׃ 31.7. וַיִּקְרָא מֹשֶׁה לִיהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו לְעֵינֵי כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל חֲזַק וֶאֱמָץ כִּי אַתָּה תָּבוֹא אֶת־הָעָם הַזֶּה אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתָם לָתֵת לָהֶם וְאַתָּה תַּנְחִילֶנָּה אוֹתָם׃ 31.8. וַיהוָה הוּא הַהֹלֵךְ לְפָנֶיךָ הוּא יִהְיֶה עִמָּךְ לֹא יַרְפְּךָ וְלֹא יַעַזְבֶךָּ לֹא תִירָא וְלֹא תֵחָת׃ 5.9. Thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the third and upon the fourth generation of them that hate Me," 6.13. Thou shalt fear the LORD thy God; and Him shalt thou serve, and by His name shalt thou swear." 10.12. And now, Israel, what doth the LORD thy God require of thee, but to fear the LORD thy God, to walk in all His ways, and to love Him, and to serve the LORD thy God with all thy heart and with all thy soul;" 10.20. Thou shalt fear the LORD thy God; Him shalt thou serve; and to Him shalt thou cleave, and by His name shalt thou swear." 21.5. And the priests the sons of Levi shall come near—for them the LORD thy God hath chosen to minister unto Him, and to bless in the name of the LORD; and according to their word shall every controversy and every stroke be." 29.18. and it come to pass, when he heareth the words of this curse, that he bless himself in his heart, saying: ‘I shall have peace, though I walk in the stubbornness of my heart—that the watered be swept away with the dry’;" 31.6. Be strong and of good courage, fear not, nor be affrighted at them; for the LORD thy God, He it is that doth go with thee; He will not fail thee, nor forsake thee.’" 31.7. And Moses called unto Joshua, and said unto him in the sight of all Israel: ‘Be strong and of good courage; for thou shalt go with this people into the land which the LORD hath sworn unto their fathers to give them; and thou shalt cause them to inherit it." 31.8. And the LORD, He it is that doth go before thee; He will be with thee, He will not fail thee, neither forsake thee; fear not, neither be dismayed.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 20.5, 23.24-23.25, 24.9-24.11, 28.43, 29.1, 30.20, 31.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.5. לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחְוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבֹת עַל־בָּנִים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃ 23.24. לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לֵאלֹהֵיהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם וְלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה כְּמַעֲשֵׂיהֶם כִּי הָרֵס תְּהָרְסֵם וְשַׁבֵּר תְּשַׁבֵּר מַצֵּבֹתֵיהֶם׃ 23.25. וַעֲבַדְתֶּם אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וּבֵרַךְ אֶת־לַחְמְךָ וְאֶת־מֵימֶיךָ וַהֲסִרֹתִי מַחֲלָה מִקִּרְבֶּךָ׃ 24.9. וַיַּעַל מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא וְשִׁבְעִים מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.11. וְאֶל־אֲצִילֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא שָׁלַח יָדוֹ וַיֶּחֱזוּ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאכְלוּ וַיִּשְׁתּוּ׃ 28.43. וְהָיוּ עַל־אַהֲרֹן וְעַל־בָּנָיו בְּבֹאָם אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד אוֹ בְגִשְׁתָּם אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְשָׁרֵת בַּקֹּדֶשׁ וְלֹא־יִשְׂאוּ עָוֺן וָמֵתוּ חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לוֹ וּלְזַרְעוֹ אַחֲרָיו׃ 29.1. וְזֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־תַּעֲשֶׂה לָהֶם לְקַדֵּשׁ אֹתָם לְכַהֵן לִי לְקַח פַּר אֶחָד בֶּן־בָּקָר וְאֵילִם שְׁנַיִם תְּמִימִם׃ 29.1. וְהִקְרַבְתָּ אֶת־הַפָּר לִפְנֵי אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְסָמַךְ אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם עַל־רֹאשׁ הַפָּר׃ 31.13. וְאַתָּה דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר אַךְ אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ כִּי אוֹת הִוא בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם לָדַעַת כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדִּשְׁכֶם׃ 20.5. thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate Me;" 23.24. Thou shalt not bow down to their gods, nor serve them, nor do after their doings; but thou shalt utterly overthrow them, and break in pieces their pillars." 23.25. And ye shall serve the LORD your God, and He will bless thy bread, and thy water; and I will take sickness away from the midst of thee." 24.9. Then went up Moses, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel;" 24.10. and they saw the God of Israel; and there was under His feet the like of a paved work of sapphire stone, and the like of the very heaven for clearness." 24.11. And upon the nobles of the children of Israel He laid not His hand; and they beheld God, and did eat and drink." 28.43. And they shall be upon Aaron, and upon his sons, when they go in unto the tent of meeting, or when they come near unto the altar to minister in the holy place; that they bear not iniquity, and die; it shall be a statute for ever unto him and unto his seed after him." 29.1. And this is the thing that thou shalt do unto them to hallow them, to minister unto Me in the priest’s office: take one young bullock and two rams without blemish," 30.20. when they go into the tent of meeting, they shall wash with water, that they die not; or when they come near to the altar to minister, to cause an offering made by fire to smoke unto the LORD;" 31.13. ’Speak thou also unto the children of Israel, saying: Verily ye shall keep My sabbaths, for it is a sign between Me and you throughout your generations, that ye may know that I am the LORD who sanctify you."
5. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 19.1-19.2, 28.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.1. וַיָּבֹאוּ שְׁנֵי הַמַּלְאָכִים סְדֹמָה בָּעֶרֶב וְלוֹט יֹשֵׁב בְּשַׁעַר־סְדֹם וַיַּרְא־לוֹט וַיָּקָם לִקְרָאתָם וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה׃ 19.1. וַיִּשְׁלְחוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים אֶת־יָדָם וַיָּבִיאוּ אֶת־לוֹט אֲלֵיהֶם הַבָּיְתָה וְאֶת־הַדֶּלֶת סָגָרוּ׃ 19.2. וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֶּה נָּא־אֲדֹנַי סוּרוּ נָא אֶל־בֵּית עַבְדְּכֶם וְלִינוּ וְרַחֲצוּ רַגְלֵיכֶם וְהִשְׁכַּמְתֶּם וַהֲלַכְתֶּם לְדַרְכְּכֶם וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֹּא כִּי בָרְחוֹב נָלִין׃ 19.2. הִנֵּה־נָא הָעִיר הַזֹּאת קְרֹבָה לָנוּס שָׁמָּה וְהִיא מִצְעָר אִמָּלְטָה נָּא שָׁמָּה הֲלֹא מִצְעָר הִוא וּתְחִי נַפְשִׁי׃ 28.15. וְהִנֵּה אָנֹכִי עִמָּךְ וּשְׁמַרְתִּיךָ בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־תֵּלֵךְ וַהֲשִׁבֹתִיךָ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה הַזֹּאת כִּי לֹא אֶעֱזָבְךָ עַד אֲשֶׁר אִם־עָשִׂיתִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר־דִּבַּרְתִּי לָךְ׃ 19.1. And the two angels came to Sodom at even; and Lot sat in the gate of Sodom; and Lot saw them, and rose up to meet them; and he fell down on his face to the earth;" 19.2. and he said: ‘Behold now, my lords, turn aside, I pray you, into your servant’s house, and tarry all night, and wash your feet, and ye shall rise up early, and go on your way.’ And they said: ‘Nay; but we will abide in the broad place all night.’" 28.15. And, behold, I am with thee, and will keep thee whithersoever thou goest, and will bring thee back into this land; for I will not leave thee, until I have done that which I have spoken to thee of.’"
6. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 2.25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.25. וּזְרַעְתִּיהָ לִּי בָּאָרֶץ וְרִחַמְתִּי אֶת־לֹא רֻחָמָה וְאָמַרְתִּי לְלֹא־עַמִּי עַמִּי־אַתָּה וְהוּא יֹאמַר אֱלֹהָי׃ 2.25. And I will sow her unto Me in the land; And I will have compassion upon her that had not obtained compassion; And I will say to them that were not My people: ‘Thou art My people’; And they shall say: ‘Thou art my God.’"
7. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 1.13, 2.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.13. חִגְרוּ וְסִפְדוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים הֵילִילוּ מְשָׁרְתֵי מִזְבֵּחַ בֹּאוּ לִינוּ בַשַּׂקִּים מְשָׁרְתֵי אֱלֹהָי כִּי נִמְנַע מִבֵּית אֱלֹהֵיכֶם מִנְחָה וָנָסֶךְ׃ 2.17. בֵּין הָאוּלָם וְלַמִּזְבֵּחַ יִבְכּוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים מְשָׁרְתֵי יְהוָה וְיֹאמְרוּ חוּסָה יְהוָה עַל־עַמֶּךָ וְאַל־תִּתֵּן נַחֲלָתְךָ לְחֶרְפָּה לִמְשָׁל־בָּם גּוֹיִם לָמָּה יֹאמְרוּ בָעַמִּים אַיֵּה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם׃ 1.13. Gird yourselves, and lament, ye priests, Wail, ye ministers of the altar; Come, lie all night in sackcloth, Ye ministers of my God; For the meal-offering and the drink-offering is withholden From the house of your God." 2.17. Let the priests, the ministers of the LORD, Weep between the porch and the altar, And let them say: ‘Spare thy people, O LORD, And give not Thy heritage to reproach, That the nations should make them a byword: Wherefore should they say among the peoples: Where is their God?’"
8. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 1.1, 2.9, 6.18, 7.6, 8.30, 9.7-9.8, 10.9, 10.12-10.14, 17.11, 18.5, 20.8, 21.1-21.15, 21.18, 21.21-21.23, 22.3-22.4, 22.6-22.7, 22.9-22.13, 22.16, 23.32 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. וְאִם־מִן־הַצֹּאן קָרְבָּנוֹ מִן־הַכְּשָׂבִים אוֹ מִן־הָעִזִּים לְעֹלָה זָכָר תָּמִים יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ׃ 1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֵלָיו מֵאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לֵאמֹר׃ 2.9. וְהֵרִים הַכֹּהֵן מִן־הַמִּנְחָה אֶת־אַזְכָּרָתָהּ וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 6.18. דַּבֵּר אֶל־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶל־בָּנָיו לֵאמֹר זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַחַטָּאת בִּמְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר תִּשָּׁחֵט הָעֹלָה תִּשָּׁחֵט הַחַטָּאת לִפְנֵי יְהוָה קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים הִוא׃ 7.6. כָּל־זָכָר בַּכֹּהֲנִים יֹאכְלֶנּוּ בְּמָקוֹם קָדוֹשׁ יֵאָכֵל קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים הוּא׃ 9.7. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן קְרַב אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וַעֲשֵׂה אֶת־חַטָּאתְךָ וְאֶת־עֹלָתֶךָ וְכַפֵּר בַּעַדְךָ וּבְעַד הָעָם וַעֲשֵׂה אֶת־קָרְבַּן הָעָם וְכַפֵּר בַּעֲדָם כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה׃ 9.8. וַיִּקְרַב אַהֲרֹן אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וַיִּשְׁחַט אֶת־עֵגֶל הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ׃ 10.9. יַיִן וְשֵׁכָר אַל־תֵּשְׁתְּ אַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ אִתָּךְ בְּבֹאֲכֶם אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְלֹא תָמֻתוּ חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם׃ 10.12. וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶל אֶלְעָזָר וְאֶל־אִיתָמָר בָּנָיו הַנּוֹתָרִים קְחוּ אֶת־הַמִּנְחָה הַנּוֹתֶרֶת מֵאִשֵּׁי יְהוָה וְאִכְלוּהָ מַצּוֹת אֵצֶל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כִּי קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים הִוא׃ 10.13. וַאֲכַלְתֶּם אֹתָהּ בְּמָקוֹם קָדֹשׁ כִּי חָקְךָ וְחָק־בָּנֶיךָ הִוא מֵאִשֵּׁי יְהוָה כִּי־כֵן צֻוֵּיתִי׃ 10.14. וְאֵת חֲזֵה הַתְּנוּפָה וְאֵת שׁוֹק הַתְּרוּמָה תֹּאכְלוּ בְּמָקוֹם טָהוֹר אַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ וּבְנֹתֶיךָ אִתָּךְ כִּי־חָקְךָ וְחָק־בָּנֶיךָ נִתְּנוּ מִזִּבְחֵי שַׁלְמֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 17.11. כִּי נֶפֶשׁ הַבָּשָׂר בַּדָּם הִוא וַאֲנִי נְתַתִּיו לָכֶם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כִּי־הַדָּם הוּא בַּנֶּפֶשׁ יְכַפֵּר׃ 18.5. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם הָאָדָם וָחַי בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 20.8. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדִּשְׁכֶם׃ 21.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֱמֹר אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם לְנֶפֶשׁ לֹא־יִטַּמָּא בְּעַמָּיו׃ 21.1. וְהַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל מֵאֶחָיו אֲ‍שֶׁר־יוּצַק עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ שֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה וּמִלֵּא אֶת־יָדוֹ לִלְבֹּשׁ אֶת־הַבְּגָדִים אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ לֹא יִפְרָע וּבְגָדָיו לֹא יִפְרֹם׃ 21.2. כִּי אִם־לִשְׁאֵרוֹ הַקָּרֹב אֵלָיו לְאִמּוֹ וּלְאָבִיו וְלִבְנוֹ וּלְבִתּוֹ וּלְאָחִיו׃ 21.2. אוֹ־גִבֵּן אוֹ־דַק אוֹ תְּבַלֻּל בְּעֵינוֹ אוֹ גָרָב אוֹ יַלֶּפֶת אוֹ מְרוֹחַ אָשֶׁךְ׃ 21.3. וְלַאֲחֹתוֹ הַבְּתוּלָה הַקְּרוֹבָה אֵלָיו אֲשֶׁר לֹא־הָיְתָה לְאִישׁ לָהּ יִטַּמָּא׃ 21.4. לֹא יִטַּמָּא בַּעַל בְּעַמָּיו לְהֵחַלּוֹ׃ 21.5. לֹא־יקרחה [יִקְרְחוּ] קָרְחָה בְּרֹאשָׁם וּפְאַת זְקָנָם לֹא יְגַלֵּחוּ וּבִבְשָׂרָם לֹא יִשְׂרְטוּ שָׂרָטֶת׃ 21.6. קְדֹשִׁים יִהְיוּ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶם וְלֹא יְחַלְּלוּ שֵׁם אֱלֹהֵיהֶם כִּי אֶת־אִשֵּׁי יְהוָה לֶחֶם אֱלֹהֵיהֶם הֵם מַקְרִיבִם וְהָיוּ קֹדֶשׁ׃ 21.7. אִשָּׁה זֹנָה וַחֲלָלָה לֹא יִקָּחוּ וְאִשָּׁה גְּרוּשָׁה מֵאִישָׁהּ לֹא יִקָּחוּ כִּי־קָדֹשׁ הוּא לֵאלֹהָיו׃ 21.8. וְקִדַּשְׁתּוֹ כִּי־אֶת־לֶחֶם אֱלֹהֶיךָ הוּא מַקְרִיב קָדֹשׁ יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדִּשְׁכֶם׃ 21.9. וּבַת אִישׁ כֹּהֵן כִּי תֵחֵל לִזְנוֹת אֶת־אָבִיהָ הִיא מְחַלֶּלֶת בָּאֵשׁ תִּשָּׂרֵף׃ 21.11. וְעַל כָּל־נַפְשֹׁת מֵת לֹא יָבֹא לְאָבִיו וּלְאִמּוֹ לֹא יִטַּמָּא׃ 21.12. וּמִן־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ לֹא יֵצֵא וְלֹא יְחַלֵּל אֵת מִקְדַּשׁ אֱלֹהָיו כִּי נֵזֶר שֶׁמֶן מִשְׁחַת אֱלֹהָיו עָלָיו אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 21.13. וְהוּא אִשָּׁה בִבְתוּלֶיהָ יִקָּח׃ 21.14. אַלְמָנָה וּגְרוּשָׁה וַחֲלָלָה זֹנָה אֶת־אֵלֶּה לֹא יִקָּח כִּי אִם־בְּתוּלָה מֵעַמָּיו יִקַּח אִשָּׁה׃ 21.15. וְלֹא־יְחַלֵּל זַרְעוֹ בְּעַמָּיו כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדְּשׁוֹ׃ 21.18. כִּי כָל־אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ מוּם לֹא יִקְרָב אִישׁ עִוֵּר אוֹ פִסֵּחַ אוֹ חָרֻם אוֹ שָׂרוּעַ׃ 21.21. כָּל־אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ מוּם מִזֶּרַע אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן לֹא יִגַּשׁ לְהַקְרִיב אֶת־אִשֵּׁי יְהוָה מוּם בּוֹ אֵת לֶחֶם אֱלֹהָיו לֹא יִגַּשׁ לְהַקְרִיב׃ 21.22. לֶחֶם אֱלֹהָיו מִקָּדְשֵׁי הַקֳּדָשִׁים וּמִן־הַקֳּדָשִׁים יֹאכֵל׃ 21.23. אַךְ אֶל־הַפָּרֹכֶת לֹא יָבֹא וְאֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לֹא יִגַּשׁ כִּי־מוּם בּוֹ וְלֹא יְחַלֵּל אֶת־מִקְדָּשַׁי כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדְּשָׁם׃ 22.3. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יֵאָכֵל לֹא־תוֹתִירוּ מִמֶּנּוּ עַד־בֹּקֶר אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 22.3. אֱמֹר אֲלֵהֶם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם כָּל־אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִקְרַב מִכָּל־זַרְעֲכֶם אֶל־הַקֳּדָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר יַקְדִּישׁוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לַיהוָה וְטֻמְאָתוֹ עָלָיו וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִלְּפָנַי אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 22.4. אִישׁ אִישׁ מִזֶּרַע אַהֲרֹן וְהוּא צָרוּעַ אוֹ זָב בַּקֳּדָשִׁים לֹא יֹאכַל עַד אֲשֶׁר יִטְהָר וְהַנֹּגֵעַ בְּכָל־טְמֵא־נֶפֶשׁ אוֹ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־תֵּצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ שִׁכְבַת־זָרַע׃ 22.6. נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תִּגַּע־בּוֹ וְטָמְאָה עַד־הָעָרֶב וְלֹא יֹאכַל מִן־הַקֳּדָשִׁים כִּי אִם־רָחַץ בְּשָׂרוֹ בַּמָּיִם׃ 22.7. וּבָא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְטָהֵר וְאַחַר יֹאכַל מִן־הַקֳּדָשִׁים כִּי לַחְמוֹ הוּא׃ 22.9. וְשָׁמְרוּ אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּי וְלֹא־יִשְׂאוּ עָלָיו חֵטְא וּמֵתוּ בוֹ כִּי יְחַלְּלֻהוּ אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדְּשָׁם׃ 22.11. וְכֹהֵן כִּי־יִקְנֶה נֶפֶשׁ קִנְיַן כַּסְפּוֹ הוּא יֹאכַל בּוֹ וִילִיד בֵּיתוֹ הֵם יֹאכְלוּ בְלַחְמוֹ׃ 22.12. וּבַת־כֹּהֵן כִּי תִהְיֶה לְאִישׁ זָר הִוא בִּתְרוּמַת הַקֳּדָשִׁים לֹא תֹאכֵל׃ 22.13. וּבַת־כֹּהֵן כִּי תִהְיֶה אַלְמָנָה וּגְרוּשָׁה וְזֶרַע אֵין לָהּ וְשָׁבָה אֶל־בֵּית אָבִיהָ כִּנְעוּרֶיהָ מִלֶּחֶם אָבִיהָ תֹּאכֵל וְכָל־זָר לֹא־יֹאכַל בּוֹ׃ 22.16. וְהִשִּׂיאוּ אוֹתָם עֲוֺן אַשְׁמָה בְּאָכְלָם אֶת־קָדְשֵׁיהֶם כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדְּשָׁם׃ 23.32. שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן הוּא לָכֶם וְעִנִּיתֶם אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם בְּתִשְׁעָה לַחֹדֶשׁ בָּעֶרֶב מֵעֶרֶב עַד־עֶרֶב תִּשְׁבְּתוּ שַׁבַּתְּכֶם׃ 1.1. And the LORD called unto Moses, and spoke unto him out of the tent of meeting, saying:" 2.9. And the priest shall take off from the meal-offering the memorial-part thereof, and shall make it smoke upon the altar—an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD." 6.18. Speak unto Aaron and to his sons, saying: This is the law of the sin-offering: in the place where the burnt-offering is killed shall the sin-offering be killed before the LORD; it is most holy." 7.6. Every male among the priests may eat thereof; it shall be eaten in a holy place; it is most holy." 8.30. And Moses took of the anointing oil, and of the blood which was upon the altar, and sprinkled it upon Aaron, and upon his garments, and upon his sons, and upon his sons’garments with him, and sanctified Aaron, and his garments, and his sons, and his sons’garments with him." 9.7. And Moses said unto Aaron: ‘Draw near unto the altar, and offer thy sin-offering, and thy burnt-offering, and make atonement for thyself, and for the people; and present the offering of the people, and make atonement for them; as the LORD commanded.’" 9.8. So Aaron drew near unto the altar, and slew the calf of the sin-offering, which was for himself." 10.9. ’Drink no wine nor strong drink, thou, nor thy sons with thee, when ye go into the tent of meeting, that ye die not; it shall be a statute forever throughout your generations." 10.12. And Moses spoke unto Aaron, and unto Eleazar and unto Ithamar, his sons that were left: ‘Take the meal-offering that remaineth of the offerings of the LORD made by fire, and eat it without leaven beside the altar; for it is most holy." 10.13. And ye shall eat it in a holy place, because it is thy due, and thy sons’due, of the offerings of the LORD made by fire; for so I am commanded." 10.14. And the breast of waving and the thigh of heaving shall ye eat in a clean place; thou, and thy sons, and thy daughters with thee; for they are given as thy due, and thy sons’due, out of the sacrifices of the peace-offerings of the children of Israel." 17.11. For the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that maketh atonement by reason of the life." 18.5. Ye shall therefore keep My statutes, and Mine ordices, which if a man do, he shall live by them: I am the LORD." 20.8. And keep ye My statutes, and do them: I am the LORD who sanctify you." 21.1. And the LORD said unto Moses: Speak unto the priests the sons of Aaron, and say unto them: There shall none defile himself for the dead among his people;" 21.2. except for his kin, that is near unto him, for his mother, and for his father, and for his son, and for his daughter, and for his brother;" 21.3. and for his sister a virgin, that is near unto him, that hath had no husband, for her may he defile himself." 21.4. He shall not defile himself, being a chief man among his people, to profane himself." 21.5. They shall not make baldness upon their head, neither shall they shave off the corners of their beard, nor make any cuttings in their flesh." 21.6. They shall be holy unto their God, and not profane the name of their God; for the offerings of the LORD made by fire, the bread of their God, they do offer; therefore they shall be holy." 21.7. They shall not take a woman that is a harlot, or profaned; neither shall they take a woman put away from her husband; for he is holy unto his God." 21.8. Thou shalt sanctify him therefore; for he offereth the bread of thy God; he shall be holy unto thee; for I the LORD, who sanctify you, am holy." 21.9. And the daughter of any priest, if she profane herself by playing the harlot, she profaneth her father: she shall be burnt with fire." 21.10. And the priest that is highest among his brethren, upon whose head the anointing oil is poured, and that is consecrated to put on the garments, shall not let the hair of his head go loose, nor rend his clothes;" 21.11. neither shall he go in to any dead body, nor defile himself for his father, or for his mother;" 21.12. neither shall he go out of the sanctuary, nor profane the sanctuary of his God; for the consecration of the anointing oil of his God is upon him: I am the LORD." 21.13. And he shall take a wife in her virginity." 21.14. A widow, or one divorced, or a profaned woman, or a harlot, these shall he not take; but a virgin of his own people shall he take to wife." 21.15. And he shall not profane his seed among his people; for I am the LORD who sanctify him." 21.18. For whatsoever man he be that hath a blemish, he shall not approach: a blind man, or a lame, or he that hath any thing maimed, or anything too long," 21.21. no man of the seed of Aaron the priest, that hath a blemish, shall come nigh to offer the offerings of the LORD made by fire; he hath a blemish; he shall not come nigh to offer the bread of his God." 21.22. He may eat the bread of his God, both of the most holy, and of the holy." 21.23. Only he shall not go in unto the veil, nor come nigh unto the altar, because he hath a blemish; that he profane not My holy places; for I am the LORD who sanctify them." 22.3. Say unto them: Whosoever he be of all your seed throughout your generations, that approacheth unto the holy things, which the children of Israel hallow unto the LORD, having his uncleanness upon him, that soul shall be cut off from before Me: I am the LORD." 22.4. What man soever of the seed of Aaron is a leper, or hath an issue, he shall not eat of the holy things, until he be clean. And whoso toucheth any one that is unclean by the dead; or from whomsoever the flow of seed goeth out;" 22.6. the soul that toucheth any such shall be unclean until the even, and shall not eat of the holy things, unless he bathe his flesh in water." 22.7. And when the sun is down, he shall be clean; and afterward he may eat of the holy things, because it is his bread." 22.9. They shall therefore keep My charge, lest they bear sin for it, and die therein, if they profane it: I am the LORD who sanctify them." 22.10. There shall no acommon man eat of the holy thing; a tet of a priest, or a hired servant, shall not eat of the holy thing." 22.11. But if a priest buy any soul, the purchase of his money, he may eat of it; and such as are born in his house, they may eat of his bread." 22.12. And if a priest’s daughter be married unto a common man, she shall not eat of that which is set apart from the holy things." 22.13. But if a priest’s daughter be a widow, or divorced, and have no child, and is returned unto her father’s house, as in her youth, she may eat of her father’s bread; but there shall no common man" 22.16. and so cause them to bear the iniquity that bringeth guilt, when they eat their holy things; for I am the LORD who sanctify them." 23.32. It shall be unto you a sabbath of solemn rest, and ye shall afflict your souls; in the ninth day of the month at even, from even unto even, shall ye keep your sabbath."
9. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 1.7, 1.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.7. מַגִּישִׁים עַל־מִזְבְּחִי לֶחֶם מְגֹאָל וַאֲמַרְתֶּם בַּמֶּה גֵאַלְנוּךָ בֶּאֱמָרְכֶם שֻׁלְחַן יְהוָה נִבְזֶה הוּא׃ 1.12. וְאַתֶּם מְחַלְּלִים אוֹתוֹ בֶּאֱמָרְכֶם שֻׁלְחַן אֲדֹנָי מְגֹאָל הוּא וְנִיבוֹ נִבְזֶה אָכְלוֹ׃ 1.7. Ye offer polluted bread upon Mine altar. And ye say: ‘Wherein have we polluted thee?’ In that ye say: ‘The table of the LORD is contemptible.’" 1.12. But ye profane it, In that ye say: ‘The table of the LORD is polluted, And the fruit thereof, even the food thereof, is contemptible.’"
10. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 18.3, 18.7-18.20, 18.31, 19.1-19.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.3. וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם בַּהֲרִימְכֶם אֶת־חֶלְבּוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ וְנֶחְשַׁב לַלְוִיִּם כִּתְבוּאַת גֹּרֶן וְכִתְבוּאַת יָקֶב׃ 18.3. וְשָׁמְרוּ מִשְׁמַרְתְּךָ וּמִשְׁמֶרֶת כָּל־הָאֹהֶל אַךְ אֶל־כְּלֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְאֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לֹא יִקְרָבוּ וְלֹא־יָמֻתוּ גַם־הֵם גַּם־אַתֶּם׃ 18.7. וְאַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ אִתְּךָ תִּשְׁמְרוּ אֶת־כְּהֻנַּתְכֶם לְכָל־דְּבַר הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּלְמִבֵּית לַפָּרֹכֶת וַעֲבַדְתֶּם עֲבֹדַת מַתָּנָה אֶתֵּן אֶת־כְּהֻנַּתְכֶם וְהַזָּר הַקָּרֵב יוּמָת׃ 18.8. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן וַאֲנִי הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי לְךָ אֶת־מִשְׁמֶרֶת תְּרוּמֹתָי לְכָל־קָדְשֵׁי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ נְתַתִּים לְמָשְׁחָה וּלְבָנֶיךָ לְחָק־עוֹלָם׃ 18.9. זֶה־יִהְיֶה לְךָ מִקֹּדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים מִן־הָאֵשׁ כָּל־קָרְבָּנָם לְכָל־מִנְחָתָם וּלְכָל־חַטָּאתָם וּלְכָל־אֲשָׁמָם אֲשֶׁר יָשִׁיבוּ לִי קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים לְךָ הוּא וּלְבָנֶיךָ׃ 18.11. וְזֶה־לְּךָ תְּרוּמַת מַתָּנָם לְכָל־תְּנוּפֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ נְתַתִּים וּלְבָנֶיךָ וְלִבְנֹתֶיךָ אִתְּךָ לְחָק־עוֹלָם כָּל־טָהוֹר בְּבֵיתְךָ יֹאכַל אֹתוֹ׃ 18.12. כֹּל חֵלֶב יִצְהָר וְכָל־חֵלֶב תִּירוֹשׁ וְדָגָן רֵאשִׁיתָם אֲשֶׁר־יִתְּנוּ לַיהוָה לְךָ נְתַתִּים׃ 18.13. בִּכּוּרֵי כָּל־אֲשֶׁר בְּאַרְצָם אֲשֶׁר־יָבִיאוּ לַיהוָה לְךָ יִהְיֶה כָּל־טָהוֹר בְּבֵיתְךָ יֹאכֲלֶנּוּ׃ 18.14. כָּל־חֵרֶם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ יִהְיֶה׃ 18.15. כָּל־פֶּטֶר רֶחֶם לְכָל־בָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר־יַקְרִיבוּ לַיהוָה בָּאָדָם וּבַבְּהֵמָה יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ אַךְ פָּדֹה תִפְדֶּה אֵת בְּכוֹר הָאָדָם וְאֵת בְּכוֹר־הַבְּהֵמָה הַטְּמֵאָה תִּפְדֶּה׃ 18.16. וּפְדוּיָו מִבֶּן־חֹדֶשׁ תִּפְדֶּה בְּעֶרְכְּךָ כֶּסֶף חֲמֵשֶׁת שְׁקָלִים בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ עֶשְׂרִים גֵּרָה הוּא׃ 18.17. אַךְ בְּכוֹר־שׁוֹר אוֹ־בְכוֹר כֶּשֶׂב אוֹ־בְכוֹר עֵז לֹא תִפְדֶּה קֹדֶשׁ הֵם אֶת־דָּמָם תִּזְרֹק עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְאֶת־חֶלְבָּם תַּקְטִיר אִשֶּׁה לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 18.18. וּבְשָׂרָם יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ כַּחֲזֵה הַתְּנוּפָה וּכְשׁוֹק הַיָּמִין לְךָ יִהְיֶה׃ 18.19. כֹּל תְּרוּמֹת הַקֳּדָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר יָרִימוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לַיהוָה נָתַתִּי לְךָ וּלְבָנֶיךָ וְלִבְנֹתֶיךָ אִתְּךָ לְחָק־עוֹלָם בְּרִית מֶלַח עוֹלָם הִוא לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְךָ וּלְזַרְעֲךָ אִתָּךְ׃ 18.31. וַאֲכַלְתֶּם אֹתוֹ בְּכָל־מָקוֹם אַתֶּם וּבֵיתְכֶם כִּי־שָׂכָר הוּא לָכֶם חֵלֶף עֲבֹדַתְכֶם בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 19.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן לֵאמֹר׃ 19.1. וְכִבֶּס הָאֹסֵף אֶת־אֵפֶר הַפָּרָה אֶת־בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב וְהָיְתָה לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכָם לְחֻקַּת עוֹלָם׃ 19.2. זֹאת חֻקַּת הַתּוֹרָה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה לֵאמֹר דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיִקְחוּ אֵלֶיךָ פָרָה אֲדֻמָּה תְּמִימָה אֲשֶׁר אֵין־בָּהּ מוּם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־עָלָה עָלֶיהָ עֹל׃ 19.2. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִטְמָא וְלֹא יִתְחַטָּא וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִתּוֹךְ הַקָּהָל כִּי אֶת־מִקְדַּשׁ יְהוָה טִמֵּא מֵי נִדָּה לֹא־זֹרַק עָלָיו טָמֵא הוּא׃ 19.3. וּנְתַתֶּם אֹתָהּ אֶל־אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן וְהוֹצִיא אֹתָהּ אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְשָׁחַט אֹתָהּ לְפָנָיו׃ 19.4. וְלָקַח אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן מִדָּמָהּ בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ וְהִזָּה אֶל־נֹכַח פְּנֵי אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד מִדָּמָהּ שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים׃ 19.5. וְשָׂרַף אֶת־הַפָּרָה לְעֵינָיו אֶת־עֹרָהּ וְאֶת־בְּשָׂרָהּ וְאֶת־דָּמָהּ עַל־פִּרְשָׁהּ יִשְׂרֹף׃ 19.6. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן עֵץ אֶרֶז וְאֵזוֹב וּשְׁנִי תוֹלָעַת וְהִשְׁלִיךְ אֶל־תּוֹךְ שְׂרֵפַת הַפָּרָה׃ 18.3. And they shall keep thy charge, and the charge of all the Tent; only they shall not come nigh unto the holy furniture and unto the altar, that they die not, neither they, nor ye." 18.7. And thou and thy sons with thee shall keep your priesthood in everything that pertaineth to the altar, and to that within the veil; and ye shall serve; I give you the priesthood as a service of gift; and the common man that draweth nigh shall be put to death.’" 18.8. And the LORD spoke unto Aaron: ‘And I, behold, I have given thee the charge of My heave-offerings; even of all the hallowed things of the children of Israel unto thee have I given them for a consecrated portion, and to thy sons, as a due for ever." 18.9. This shall be thine of the most holy things, reserved from the fire: every offering of theirs, even every meal-offering of theirs, and every sin-offering of theirs, and every guilt-offering of theirs, which they may render unto Me, shall be most holy for thee and for thy sons." 18.10. In a most holy place shalt thou eat thereof; every male may eat thereof; it shall be holy unto thee." 18.11. And this is thine: the heave-offering of their gift, even all the wave-offerings of the children of Israel; I have given them unto thee, and to thy sons and to thy daughters with thee, as a due for ever; every one that is clean in thy house may eat thereof." 18.12. All the best of the oil, and all the best of the wine, and of the corn, the first part of them which they give unto the LORD, to thee have I given them." 18.13. The first-ripe fruits of all that is in their land, which they bring unto the LORD, shall be thine; every one that is clean in thy house may eat thereof." 18.14. Every thing devoted in Israel shall be thine." 18.15. Every thing that openeth the womb, of all flesh which they offer unto the LORD, both of man and beast, shall be thine; howbeit the first-born of man shalt thou surely redeem, and the firstling of unclean beasts shalt thou redeem." 18.16. And their redemption-money—from a month old shalt thou redeem them—shall be, according to thy valuation, five shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanctuary—the same is twenty gerahs." 18.17. But the firstling of an ox, or the firstling of a sheep, or the firstling of a goat, thou shalt not redeem; they are holy: thou shalt dash their blood against the altar, and shalt make their fat smoke for an offering made by fire, for a sweet savour unto the LORD." 18.18. And the flesh of them shall be thine, as the wave-breast and as the right thigh, it shall be thine." 18.19. All the heave-offerings of the holy things, which the children of Israel offer unto the LORD, have I given thee, and thy sons and thy daughters with thee, as a due for ever; it is an everlasting covet of salt before the LORD unto thee and to thy seed with thee.’" 18.20. And the LORD said unto Aaron: ‘Thou shalt have no inheritance in their land, neither shalt thou have any portion among them; I am thy portion and thine inheritance among the children of Israel." 18.31. And ye may eat it in every place, ye and your households; for it is your reward in return for your service in the tent of meeting." 19.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying:" 19.2. This is the statute of the law which the LORD hath commanded, saying: Speak unto the children of Israel, that they bring thee a red heifer, faultless, wherein is no blemish, and upon which never came yoke." 19.3. And ye shall give her unto Eleazar the priest, and she shall be brought forth without the camp, and she shall be slain before his face." 19.4. And Eleazar the priest shall take of her blood with his finger, and sprinkle of her blood toward the front of the tent of meeting seven times." 19.5. And the heifer shall be burnt in his sight; her skin, and her flesh, and her blood, with her dung, shall be burnt." 19.6. And the priest shall take cedar-wood, and hyssop, and scarlet, and cast it into the midst of the burning of the heifer."
11. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 42.4, 103.3, 103.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

42.4. הָיְתָה־לִּי דִמְעָתִי לֶחֶם יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה בֶּאֱמֹר אֵלַי כָּל־הַיּוֹם אַיֵּה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 103.3. הַסֹּלֵחַ לְכָל־עֲוֺנֵכִי הָרֹפֵא לְכָל־תַּחֲלֻאָיְכִי׃ 103.8. רַחוּם וְחַנּוּן יְהוָה אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם וְרַב־חָסֶד׃ 42.4. My tears have been my food day and night, while they say unto me all the day: 'Where is Thy God?'" 103.3. Who forgiveth all thine iniquity; Who healeth all Thy diseases;" 103.8. The LORD is full of compassion and gracious, Slow to anger, and plenteous in mercy."
12. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 8.27 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.27. כִּי הַאֻמְנָם יֵשֵׁב אֱלֹהִים עַל־הָאָרֶץ הִנֵּה הַשָּׁמַיִם וּשְׁמֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם לֹא יְכַלְכְּלוּךָ אַף כִּי־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר בָּנִיתִי׃ 8.27. But will God in very truth dwell on the earth? behold, heaven and the heaven of heavens cannot contain Thee; how much less this house that I have builded!"
13. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 2.2, 60.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.2. וְהָיָה בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים נָכוֹן יִהְיֶה הַר בֵּית־יְהוָה בְּרֹאשׁ הֶהָרִים וְנִשָּׂא מִגְּבָעוֹת וְנָהֲרוּ אֵלָיו כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם׃ 2.2. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יַשְׁלִיךְ הָאָדָם אֵת אֱלִילֵי כַסְפּוֹ וְאֵת אֱלִילֵי זְהָבוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ־לוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת לַחְפֹּר פֵּרוֹת וְלָעֲטַלֵּפִים׃ 60.13. כְּבוֹד הַלְּבָנוֹן אֵלַיִךְ יָבוֹא בְּרוֹשׁ תִּדְהָר וּתְאַשּׁוּר יַחְדָּו לְפָאֵר מְקוֹם מִקְדָּשִׁי וּמְקוֹם רַגְלַי אֲכַבֵּד׃ 2.2. And it shall come to pass in the end of days, That the mountain of the LORD’S house Shall be established as the top of the mountains, And shall be exalted above the hills; And all nations shall flow unto it." 60.13. The glory of Lebanon shall come unto thee, The cypress, the plane-tree and the larch together; To beautify the place of My sanctuary, And I will make the place of My feet glorious."
14. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 31.32-31.34 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

31.32. לֹא כַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַתִּי אֶת־אֲבוֹתָם בְּיוֹם הֶחֱזִיקִי בְיָדָם לְהוֹצִיאָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲשֶׁר־הֵמָּה הֵפֵרוּ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי וְאָנֹכִי בָּעַלְתִּי בָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 31.33. כִּי זֹאת הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר אֶכְרֹת אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֲרֵי הַיָּמִים הָהֵם נְאֻם־יְהוָה נָתַתִּי אֶת־תּוֹרָתִי בְּקִרְבָּם וְעַל־לִבָּם אֶכְתֲּבֶנָּה וְהָיִיתִי לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְהֵמָּה יִהְיוּ־לִי לְעָם׃ 31.34. וְלֹא יְלַמְּדוּ עוֹד אִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וְאִישׁ אֶת־אָחִיו לֵאמֹר דְּעוּ אֶת־יְהוָה כִּי־כוּלָּם יֵדְעוּ אוֹתִי לְמִקְטַנָּם וְעַד־גְּדוֹלָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה כִּי אֶסְלַח לַעֲוֺנָם וּלְחַטָּאתָם לֹא אֶזְכָּר־עוֹד׃ 31.32. not according to the covet that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; forasmuch as they broke My covet, although I was a lord over them, saith the LORD." 31.33. But this is the covet that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the LORD, I will put My law in their inward parts, and in their heart will I write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people;" 31.34. and they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying: ‘Know the LORD’; for they shall all know Me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the LORD; for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin will I remember no more."
15. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 20.12, 37.26-37.28, 40.46, 41.22, 42.13, 43.19, 44.8, 45.14 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

20.12. וְגַם אֶת־שַׁבְּתוֹתַי נָתַתִּי לָהֶם לִהְיוֹת לְאוֹת בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיהֶם לָדַעַת כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדְּשָׁם׃ 37.26. וְכָרַתִּי לָהֶם בְּרִית שָׁלוֹם בְּרִית עוֹלָם יִהְיֶה אוֹתָם וּנְתַתִּים וְהִרְבֵּיתִי אוֹתָם וְנָתַתִּי אֶת־מִקְדָּשִׁי בְּתוֹכָם לְעוֹלָם׃ 37.27. וְהָיָה מִשְׁכָּנִי עֲלֵיהֶם וְהָיִיתִי לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְהֵמָּה יִהְיוּ־לִי לְעָם׃ 37.28. וְיָדְעוּ הַגּוֹיִם כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדֵּשׁ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּהְיוֹת מִקְדָּשִׁי בְּתוֹכָם לְעוֹלָם׃ 40.46. וְהַלִּשְׁכָּה אֲשֶׁר פָּנֶיהָ דֶּרֶךְ הַצָּפוֹן לַכֹּהֲנִים שֹׁמְרֵי מִשְׁמֶרֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הֵמָּה בְנֵי־צָדוֹק הַקְּרֵבִים מִבְּנֵי־לֵוִי אֶל־יְהוָה לְשָׁרְתוֹ׃ 41.22. הַמִּזְבֵּחַ עֵץ שָׁלוֹשׁ אַמּוֹת גָּבֹהַּ וְאָרְכּוֹ שְׁתַּיִם־אַמּוֹת וּמִקְצֹעוֹתָיו לוֹ וְאָרְכּוֹ וְקִירֹתָיו עֵץ וַיְדַבֵּר אֵלַי זֶה הַשֻּׁלְחָן אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 42.13. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי לִשְׁכוֹת הַצָּפוֹן לִשְׁכוֹת הַדָּרוֹם אֲשֶׁר אֶל־פְּנֵי הַגִּזְרָה הֵנָּה לִשְׁכוֹת הַקֹּדֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר יֹאכְלוּ־שָׁם הַכֹּהֲנִים אֲשֶׁר־קְרוֹבִים לַיהוָה קָדְשֵׁי הַקֳּדָשִׁים שָׁם יַנִּיחוּ קָדְשֵׁי הַקֳּדָשִׁים וְהַמִּנְחָה וְהַחַטָּאת וְהָאָשָׁם כִּי הַמָּקוֹם קָדֹשׁ׃ 43.19. וְנָתַתָּה אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם אֲשֶׁר הֵם מִזֶּרַע צָדוֹק הַקְּרֹבִים אֵלַי נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה לְשָׁרְתֵנִי פַּר בֶּן־בָּקָר לְחַטָּאת׃ 44.8. וְלֹא שְׁמַרְתֶּם מִשְׁמֶרֶת קָדָשָׁי וַתְּשִׂימוּן לְשֹׁמְרֵי מִשְׁמַרְתִּי בְּמִקְדָּשִׁי לָכֶם׃ 45.14. וְחֹק הַשֶּׁמֶן הַבַּת הַשֶּׁמֶן מַעְשַׂר הַבַּת מִן־הַכֹּר עֲשֶׂרֶת הַבַּתִּים חֹמֶר כִּי־עֲשֶׂרֶת הַבַּתִּים חֹמֶר׃ 20.12. Moreover also I gave them My sabbaths, to be a sign between Me and them, that they might know that I am the LORD that sanctify them." 37.26. Moreover I will make a covet of peace with them—it shall be an everlasting covet with them; and I will establish them, and multiply them, and will set My sanctuary in the midst of them for ever." 37.27. My dwelling-place also shall be over them; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people." 37.28. And the nations shall know that I am the LORD that sanctify Israel, when My sanctuary shall be in the midst of them for ever.’" 40.46. And the chamber whose prospect is toward the north is for the priests, the keepers of the charge of the altar; these are the sons of Zadok, who from among the sons of Levi come near to the LORD to minister unto Him.’" 41.22. The altar, three cubits high, and the length thereof two cubits, was of wood, and so the corners thereof; the length thereof, and the walls thereof, were also of wood; and he said unto me: ‘This is the table that is before the LORD.’" 42.13. Then said he unto me: ‘The north chambers and the south chambers, which are before the separate place, they are the holy chambers, where the priests that are near unto the LORD shall eat the most holy things; there shall they lay the most holy things, and the meal-offering, and the sin-offering, and the guilt-offering; for the place is holy." 43.19. Thou shalt give to the priests the Levites that are of the seed of Zadok, who are near unto Me, to minister unto Me, saith the Lord GOD, a young bullock for a sin-offering." 44.8. And ye have not kept the charge of My holy things; but ye have set keepers of My charge in My sanctuary to please yourselves." 45.14. and the set portion of oil, the bath of oil, shall be the tithe of the bath out of the cor, which is ten baths, even a homer; for ten baths are a homer;"
16. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 6.18, 29.31 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.18. כִּי הַאֻמְנָם יֵשֵׁב אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עַל־הָאָרֶץ הִנֵּה שָׁמַיִם וּשְׁמֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם לֹא יְכַלְכְּלוּךָ אַף כִּי־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר בָּנִיתִי׃ 29.31. וַיַּעַן יְחִזְקִיָּהוּ וַיֹּאמֶר עַתָּה מִלֵּאתֶם יֶדְכֶם לַיהוָה גֹּשׁוּ וְהָבִיאוּ זְבָחִים וְתוֹדוֹת לְבֵית יְהוָה וַיָּבִיאוּ הַקָּהָל זְבָחִים וְתוֹדוֹת וְכָל־נְדִיב לֵב עֹלוֹת׃ 6.18. But will God in very truth dwell with men on the earth? behold, heaven and the heaven of heavens cannot contain Thee; how much less this house which I have builded!" 29.31. Then Hezekiah answered and said: ‘Now ye have consecrated yourselves unto the LORD, come near and bring sacrifices and thank-offerings into the house of the LORD.’ And the congregation brought in sacrifices and thank-offerings; and as many as were of a willing heart brought burnt-offerings."
17. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.6, 12.6-12.20, 13.11 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.6. But I alone went often to Jerusalem for the feasts, as it is ordained for all Israel by an everlasting decree. Taking the first fruits and the tithes of my produce and the first shearings, I would give these to the priests, the sons of Aaron, at the altar. 12.6. Then the angel called the two of them privately and said to them: "Praise God and give thanks to him; exalt him and give thanks to him in the presence of all the living for what he has done for you. It is good to praise God and to exalt his name, worthily declaring the works of God. Do not be slow to give him thanks. 12.7. It is good to guard the secret of a king, but gloriously to reveal the works of God. Do good, and evil will not overtake you. 12.8. Prayer is good when accompanied by fasting, almsgiving, and righteousness. A little with righteousness is better than much with wrongdoing. It is better to give alms than to treasure up gold. 12.9. For almsgiving delivers from death, and it will purge away every sin. Those who perform deeds of charity and of righteousness will have fulness of life; 12.10. but those who commit sin are the enemies of their own lives. 12.11. I will not conceal anything from you. I have said, `It is good to guard the secret of a king, but gloriously to reveal the works of God. 12.12. And so, when you and your daughter-in-law Sarah prayed, I brought a reminder of your prayer before the Holy One; and when you buried the dead, I was likewise present with you. 12.13. When you did not hesitate to rise and leave your dinner in order to go and lay out the dead, your good deed was not hidden from me, but I was with you. 12.14. So now God sent me to heal you and your daughter-in-law Sarah. 12.15. I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels who present the prayers of the saints and enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One. 12.16. They were both alarmed; and they fell upon their faces, for they were afraid. 12.17. But he said to them, "Do not be afraid; you will be safe. But praise God for ever. 12.18. For I did not come as a favor on my part, but by the will of our God. Therefore praise him for ever. 12.19. All these days I merely appeared to you and did not eat or drink, but you were seeing a vision. 12.20. And now give thanks to God, for I am ascending to him who sent me. Write in a book everything that has happened. 13.11. Many nations will come from afar to the name of the Lord God,bearing gifts in their hands, gifts for the King of heaven. Generations of generations will give you joyful praise.
18. Anon., Jubilees, 21.7-21.11, 21.16, 30.18-30.20, 31.14, 31.16, 32.3-32.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

21.7. And if thou dost slay a victim as an acceptable peace-offering, slay ye it, and pour out its blood upon the altar, and all the fat of the offering offer on the altar with fine flour (and the meat-offering) mingled with oil, with its drink-offering 21.8. --offer them all together on the altar of burnt-offering; it is a sweet savour before the Lord. 21.9. And thou wilt offer the fat of the sacrifice of thank-offerings on the fire which is upon the altar, and the fat which is on the belly, and all the fat on the inward 21.10. and the two kidneys, and all the fat that is upon them, and upon the loins and liver thou shalt remove together with the kidneys. 21.11. And offer all these for a sweet savour acceptable before the Lord, with its meat-offering and with its drink-offering, for a sweet savour, the bread of the offering unto the Lord 21.16. And as regards the wood of the sacrifices, beware lest thou bring (other) wood for the altar in addition to these: cypress, dêfrân, sagâd, pine, fir, cedar, savin, palm, olive, myrrh, laurel, and citron, juniper, and balsam. 30.18. For this reason I have written for thee in the words of the Law all the deeds of the Shechemites, which they wrought against Dinah 30.19. and how the sons of Jacob spake, saying: "We shall not give our daughter to a man who is uncircumcised; 30.20. for that were a reproach unto us." brAnd it is a reproach to Israel, to those who give, and to those who take the daughters of the Gentiles; for this is unclean and abominable to Israel. 31.14. And the darkness left the eyes of Isaac, and he saw the two sons of Jacob, Levi and Judah, and he said: "Are these thy sons, my son? for they are like thee. 31.16. And they came near to him, and he turned and kissed them and embraced them both together. 32.3. And Jacob rose early in the morning, on the fourteenth of this month, and he gave a tithe of all that came with him, both of men and cattle, both of gold and every vessel and garment, yea, he gave tithes of all. 32.4. And in those days Rachel became pregt with her son Benjamin. And Jacob counted his sons from him upwards and Levi fell to the portion of the Lord 32.5. and his father clothed him in the garments of the priesthood and filled his hands. 32.6. And on the fifteenth of this month, he brought to the altar fourteen oxen from amongst the cattle, and twenty-eight rams, and forty-nine sheep, and seven lambs, and twenty-one kids of the goats as a burnt-offering on the altar of sacrifice, well pleasing for a sweet savour before God 32.7. This was his offering, in consequence of the vow which he had vowed that he would give a tenth, with their fruit-offerings and their drink-offerings. 32.8. And when the fire had consumed it, he burnt incense on the fire over the fire 32.9. and for a thank-offering two oxen and four rams and four sheep, four he-goats, and two sheep of a year old, and two kids of the goats;
19. Anon., Psalms of Solomon, 2.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

20. Anon., Testament of Levi, 5.2, 8.1-8.19, 14.5-14.8, 17.9-17.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.2. And He said to me: Levi, I have given thee the blessings of the priesthood until I come and sojourn in the midst of Israel. 8.1. And there again I saw a vision as the former, after we had spent there seventy days. 8.2. And I saw seven men in white raiment saying unto me: Arise, put on the robe of the priesthood, and the crown of righteousness, and the breastplate of understanding, and the garment of truth, and the plate of faith, and the turban of the head, and the ephod of prophecy. 8.3. And they severally carried (these things) and put (them,) on me, and said unto me: From henceforth become a priest of the Lord, thou and thy seed for ever. 8.4. And the first anointed me with holy oil, and gave to me the staff of judgment. 8.5. The second washed me with pure water, and fed me with bread and wine (even) the most holy things, and clad me with a holy and glorious robe. 8.6. The third clothed me with a linen vestment like an ephod. 8.7. The, fourth put round me a girdle like unto purple. 8.8. The fifth gave me a branch of rich olive. 8.9. The sixth placed a crown on my head. 14.5. The offerings of the Lord ye shall rob, and from His portion shall ye steal choice portions, eating (them) contemptuously with harlots. 14.6. And out of covetousness ye shall teach the commandments of the Lord, wedded women shall ye pollute, and the virgins of Jerusalem shall ye defile: and with harlots and adulteresses shall ye be joined, and the daughters of the Gentiles shall ye take to wife, purifying them with an unlawful purification; and your union shall be like unto Sodom and Gomorrah. 14.7. And ye shall be puffed up because of your priesthood, lifting yourselves up against men, and not only so, but also against the commands of God. 14.8. For ye shall contemn the holy things with jests and laughter. 17.9. Therefore shall they be taken captive and become a prey, and their land and their substance shall be destroyed.
21. Anon., Testament of Moses, 7.1-7.10, 10.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Cicero, On Invention, 1.20-1.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.20. Exordium est oratio animum auditoris idonee com- parans ad reliquam dictionem: quod eveniet, si eum benivolum, attentum, docilem confecerit. quare qui bene exordiri causam volet, eum necesse est genus suae causae diligenter ante cognoscere. Genera causarum quinque sunt: honestum, admirabile, humile, anceps, obscurum. honestum causae genus est, cui statim sine oratione nostra favet auditoris animus; admirabile, a quo est alienatus animus eorum, qui audituri sunt; humile, quod neglegitur ab auditore et non magno opere adtendendum videtur; anceps, in quo aut iudicatio dubia est aut causa et honestatis et turpitudinis parti- ceps, ut et benivolentiam pariat et offensionem; obscu- rum, in quo aut tardi auditores sunt aut difficilioribus ad cognoscendum negotiis causa est implicata. quare cum tam diversa sint genera causarum, exordiri quo- que dispari ratione in uno quoque genere necesse est. igitur exordium in duas partes dividitur, in principium et insinuationem. principium est oratio perspicue et protinus perficiens auditorem benivolum aut docilem aut attentum. insinuatio est oratio quadam dissimu- latione et circumitione obscure subiens auditoris animum. 1.21. In admirabili genere causae, si non omnino infesti auditores erunt, principio benivolentiam conparare li- cebit. sin erunt vehementer abalienati, confugere ne- cesse erit ad insinuationem. nam ab iratis si perspicue pax et benivolentia petitur, non modo ea non inve- nitur, sed augetur atque inflammatur odium. in humili autem genere causae contemptionis tollendae causa ne- cesse est attentum efficere auditorem. anceps genus causae si dubiam iudicationem habebit, ab ipsa iudi- catione exordiendum est. sin autem partem turpitu- dinis, partem honestatis habebit, benivolentiam captare oportebit, ut in genus honestum causa translata vi- deatur. cum autem erit honestum causae genus, vel praeteriri principium poterit vel, si commodum fuerit, aut a narratione incipiemus aut a lege aut ab aliqua firmissima ratione nostrae dictionis; sin uti prin- cipio placebit, benivolentiae partibus utendum est, ut id, quod est, augeatur. in obscuro causae genere per principium dociles auditores efficere oportebit. Nunc quoniam quas res exordio conficere oporteat dictum est, reliquum est, ut ostendatur, quibus quae- que rationibus res confici possit.
23. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.46, 3.49, 3.51, 4.36-4.61, 7.33, 7.36, 10.42, 14.42 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.46. to defile the sanctuary and the priests 3.49. They also brought the garments of the priesthood and the first fruits and the tithes, and they stirred up the Nazirites who had completed their days; 3.51. Thy sanctuary is trampled down and profaned,and thy priests mourn in humiliation. 4.36. Then said Judas and his brothers, "Behold, our enemies are crushed; let us go up to cleanse the sanctuary and dedicate it. 4.37. So all the army assembled and they went up to Mount Zion. 4.38. And they saw the sanctuary desolate, the altar profaned, and the gates burned. In the courts they saw bushes sprung up as in a thicket, or as on one of the mountains. They saw also the chambers of the priests in ruins. 4.39. Then they rent their clothes, and mourned with great lamentation, and sprinkled themselves with ashes. 4.40. They fell face down on the ground, and sounded the signal on the trumpets, and cried out to Heaven. 4.41. Then Judas detailed men to fight against those in the citadel until he had cleansed the sanctuary. 4.42. He chose blameless priests devoted to the law 4.43. and they cleansed the sanctuary and removed the defiled stones to an unclean place. 4.44. They deliberated what to do about the altar of burnt offering, which had been profaned. 4.45. And they thought it best to tear it down, lest it bring reproach upon them, for the Gentiles had defiled it. So they tore down the altar 4.46. and stored the stones in a convenient place on the temple hill until there should come a prophet to tell what to do with them. 4.47. Then they took unhewn stones, as the law directs, and built a new altar like the former one. 4.48. They also rebuilt the sanctuary and the interior of the temple, and consecrated the courts. 4.49. They made new holy vessels, and brought the lampstand, the altar of incense, and the table into the temple. 4.50. Then they burned incense on the altar and lighted the lamps on the lampstand, and these gave light in the temple. 4.51. They placed the bread on the table and hung up the curtains. Thus they finished all the work they had undertaken. 4.52. Early in the morning on the twenty-fifth day of the ninth month, which is the month of Chislev, in the one hundred and forty-eighth year 4.53. they rose and offered sacrifice, as the law directs, on the new altar of burnt offering which they had built. 4.54. At the very season and on the very day that the Gentiles had profaned it, it was dedicated with songs and harps and lutes and cymbals. 4.55. All the people fell on their faces and worshiped and blessed Heaven, who had prospered them. 4.56. So they celebrated the dedication of the altar for eight days, and offered burnt offerings with gladness; they offered a sacrifice of deliverance and praise. 4.57. They decorated the front of the temple with golden crowns and small shields; they restored the gates and the chambers for the priests, and furnished them with doors. 4.58. There was very great gladness among the people, and the reproach of the Gentiles was removed. 4.59. Then Judas and his brothers and all the assembly of Israel determined that every year at that season the days of dedication of the altar should be observed with gladness and joy for eight days, beginning with the twenty-fifth day of the month of Chislev. 4.60. At that time they fortified Mount Zion with high walls and strong towers round about, to keep the Gentiles from coming and trampling them down as they had done before. 4.61. And he stationed a garrison there to hold it. He also fortified Beth-zur, so that the people might have a stronghold that faced Idumea. 7.33. After these events Nicanor went up to Mount Zion. Some of the priests came out of the sanctuary, and some of the elders of the people, to greet him peaceably and to show him the burnt offering that was being offered for the king. 7.36. Then the priests went in and stood before the altar and the temple, and they wept and said 10.42. Moreover, the five thousand shekels of silver which my officials have received every year from the income of the services of the temple, this too is canceled, because it belongs to the priests who minister there. 14.42. and that he should be governor over them and that he should take charge of the sanctuary and appoint men over its tasks and over the country and the weapons and the strongholds, and that he should take charge of the sanctuary
24. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.21, 1.23, 1.30, 3.15, 4.14, 14.31, 14.34, 15.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.21. And when the materials for the sacrifices were presented, Nehemiah ordered the priests to sprinkle the liquid on the wood and what was laid upon it.' 1.23. And while the sacrifice was being consumed, the priests offered prayer -- the priests and every one. Jonathan led, and the rest responded, as did Nehemiah.' 1.30. Then the priests sang the hymns. 3.15. The priests prostrated themselves before the altar in their priestly garments and called toward heaven upon him who had given the law about deposits, that he should keep them safe for those who had deposited them.' 4.14. that the priests were no longer intent upon their service at the altar. Despising the sanctuary and neglecting the sacrifices, they hastened to take part in the unlawful proceedings in the wrestling arena after the call to the discus,' 14.31. When the latter became aware that he had been cleverly outwitted by the man, he went to the great and holy temple while the priests were offering the customary sacrifices, and commanded them to hand the man over.' 14.34. Having said this, he went away. Then the priests stretched forth their hands toward heaven and called upon the constant Defender of our nation, in these words:' 15.31. And when he arrived there and had called his countrymen together and stationed the priests before the altar, he sent for those who were in the citadel.'
25. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 7.29-7.31, 45.6-45.36, 50.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.29. With all your soul fear the Lord,and honor his priests. 7.31. Fear the Lord and honor the priest,and give him his portion, as is commanded you:the first fruits, the guilt offering, the gift of the shoulders,the sacrifice of sanctification,and the first fruits of the holy things. 45.6. He exalted Aaron, the brother of Moses,a holy man like him, of the tribe of Levi. 45.7. He made an everlasting covet with him,and gave him the priesthood of the people. He blessed him with splendid vestments,and put a glorious robe upon him. 45.8. He clothed him with superb perfection,and strengthened him with the symbols of authority,the linen breeches, the long robe, and the ephod. 45.9. And he encircled him with pomegranates,with very many golden bells round about,to send forth a sound as he walked,to make their ringing heard in the temple as a reminder to the sons of his people; 45.11. with twisted scarlet, the work of a craftsman;with precious stones engraved like signets,in a setting of gold, the work of a jeweler,for a reminder, in engraved letters,according to the number of the tribes of Israel; 45.12. with a gold crown upon his turban,inscribed like a signet with "Holiness," a distinction to be prized, the work of an expert,the delight of the eyes, richly adorned. 45.13. Before his time there never were such beautiful things. No outsider ever put them on,but only his sons and his descendants perpetually. 45.14. His sacrifices shall be wholly burned twice every day continually. 45.15. Moses ordained him,and anointed him with holy oil;it was an everlasting covet for him and for his descendants all the days of heaven,to minister to the Lord and serve as priest and bless his people in his name. 45.16. He chose him out of all the living to offer sacrifice to the Lord,incense and a pleasing odor as a memorial portion,to make atonement for the people. 45.17. In his commandments he gave him authority and statutes and judgments,to teach Jacob the testimonies,and to enlighten Israel with his law. 45.18. Outsiders conspired against him,and envied him in the wilderness,Dathan and Abiram and their men and the company of Korah, in wrath and anger. 45.19. The Lord saw it and was not pleased,and in the wrath of his anger they were destroyed;he wrought wonders against them to consume them in flaming fire. 45.21. for they eat the sacrifices to the Lord,which he gave to him and his descendants. 45.22. But in the land of the people he has no inheritance,and he has no portion among the people;for the Lord himself is his portion and inheritance. 45.23. Phinehas the son of Eleazar is the third in glory,for he was zealous in the fear of the Lord,and stood fast, when the people turned away,in the ready goodness of his soul,and made atonement for Israel. 45.24. Therefore a covet of peace was established with him,that he should be leader of the sanctuary and of his people,that he and his descendants should have the dignity of the priesthood for ever. 45.25. A covet was also established with David,the son of Jesse, of the tribe of Judah:the heritage of the king is from son to son only;so the heritage of Aaron is for his descendants. 45.26. May the Lord grant you wisdom in your heart to judge his people in righteousness,so that their prosperity may not vanish,and that their glory may endure throughout their generations. 50.12. And when he received the portions from the hands of the priests,as he stood by the hearth of the altar with a garland of brethren around him,he was like a young cedar on Lebanon;and they surrounded him like the trunks of palm trees
26. Septuagint, Judith, 4.14-4.15, 11.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

4.14. And Joakim the high priest and all the priests who stood before the Lord and ministered to the Lord, with their loins girded with sackcloth, offered the continual burnt offerings and the vows and freewill offerings of the people. 4.15. With ashes upon their turbans, they cried out to the Lord with all their might to look with favor upon the whole house of Israel. 11.3. And now tell me why you have fled from them and have come over to us -- since you have come to safety.
27. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 1.16, 2.1-2.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.16. Then the priests in all their vestments prostrated themselves and entreated the supreme God to aid in the present situation and to avert the violence of this evil design, and they filled the temple with cries and tears; 2.1. Then the high priest Simon, facing the sanctuary, bending his knees and extending his hands with calm dignity, prayed as follows: 2.1. And because you love the house of Israel, you promised that if we should have reverses, and tribulation should overtake us, you would listen to our petition when we come to this place and pray. 2.2. Lord, Lord, king of the heavens, and sovereign of all creation, holy among the holy ones, the only ruler, almighty, give attention to us who are suffering grievously from an impious and profane man, puffed up in his audacity and power. 2.2. Speedily let your mercies overtake us, and put praises in the mouth of those who are downcast and broken in spirit, and give us peace. 2.3. For you, the creator of all things and the governor of all, are a just Ruler, and you judge those who have done anything in insolence and arrogance. 2.3. In order that he might not appear to be an enemy to all, he inscribed below: "But if any of them prefer to join those who have been initiated into the mysteries, they shall have equal citizenship with the Alexandrians. 2.4. You destroyed those who in the past committed injustice, among whom were even giants who trusted in their strength and boldness, whom you destroyed by bringing upon them a boundless flood. 2.5. You consumed with fire and sulphur the men of Sodom who acted arrogantly, who were notorious for their vices; and you made them an example to those who should come afterward. 2.6. You made known your mighty power by inflicting many and varied punishments on the audacious Pharaoh who had enslaved your holy people Israel. 2.7. And when he pursued them with chariots and a mass of troops, you overwhelmed him in the depths of the sea, but carried through safely those who had put their confidence in you, the Ruler over the whole creation. 2.8. And when they had seen works of your hands, they praised you, the Almighty. 2.9. You, O King, when you had created the boundless and immeasurable earth, chose this city and sanctified this place for your name, though you have no need of anything; and when you had glorified it by your magnificent manifestation, you made it a firm foundation for the glory of your great and honored name. 2.11. And indeed you are faithful and true. 2.12. And because oftentimes when our fathers were oppressed you helped them in their humiliation, and rescued them from great evils 2.13. see now, O holy King, that because of our many and great sins we are crushed with suffering, subjected to our enemies, and overtaken by helplessness. 2.14. In our downfall this audacious and profane man undertakes to violate the holy place on earth dedicated to your glorious name. 2.15. For your dwelling, the heaven of heavens, is unapproachable by man. 2.16. But because you graciously bestowed your glory upon your people Israel, you sanctified this place. 2.17. Do not punish us for the defilement committed by these men, or call us to account for this profanation, lest the transgressors boast in their wrath or exult in the arrogance of their tongue, saying 2.18. `We have trampled down the house of the sanctuary as offensive houses are trampled down.' 2.19. Wipe away our sins and disperse our errors, and reveal your mercy at this hour.
28. Anon., Rhetorica Ad Herennium, 2.47, 2.49-2.50, 3.3, 3.5 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.47.  Conclusions, among the Greeks called epilogoi, are tripartite, consisting of the Summing Up, Amplification, and Appeal to Pity. We can in four places use a Conclusion: in the Direct Opening, after the Statement of Facts, after the strongest argument, and in the Conclusion of the speech. The Summing Up gathers together and recalls the points we have made — briefly, that the speech may not be repeated in entirety, but that the memory of it may be refreshed; and we shall reproduce all the points in the order in which they have been presented, so that the hearer, if he has committed them to memory, is brought back to what he remembers. Again, we must take care that the Summary should not be carried back to the Introduction or the Statement of Facts. Otherwise the speech will appear to have been fabricated and devised with elaborate pains so as to demonstrate the speaker's skill, advertise his wit, and display his memory. Therefore the Summary must take its beginning from the Division. Then we must in order and briefly set forth the points treated in the Proof and Refutation. Amplification is the principle of using Commonplaces to stir the hearers. To amplify an accusation it will be most advantageous to draw commonplaces from ten formulae. 2.49.  (6) By means of the sixth commonplace we show that the act was done with premeditation, and declare that for an intentional crime there is no excuse, although a rightful plea of mercy is provided for an unpremeditated act. (7) By means of the seventh commonplace we show it is a foul crime, cruel, sacrilegious, and tyrannical; such a crime as the outraging of women, or one of those crimes that incite wars and life-and‑death struggles with enemies of the state. (8) By means of the eighth commonplace we show that it is not a common but a unique crime, base, nefarious, and unheard‑of, and therefore must be the more promptly and drastically avenged. (9) The ninth commonplace consists of comparison of wrongs, as when we shall say it is a more heinous crime to debauch a free-born person than to steal a sacred object, because the one is done from unbridled licentiousness and the other from need. (10) By the tenth commonplace we shall examine sharply, incriminatingly, and precisely, everything that took place in the actual execution of the deed and all the circumstances that usually attend such an act, so that by the enumeration of the attendant circumstances the crime may seem to be taking place and the action to unfold before our eyes. 2.50.  We shall stir Pity in our hearers by recalling the vicissitudes of fortune; by comparing the prosperity we once enjoyed with our present adversity; by enumerating and explaining the results that will follow for us if we lose the case; by entreating those whose pity we seek to win, and by submitting ourselves to their mercy; by revealing what will befall our parents, children, and other kinsmen through our disgrace, and at the same time showing that we grieve not because of our own straits but because of their anxiety and misery; by disclosing the kindness, humanity, and sympathy we have dispensed to others; by showing that we have ever, or for a long time, been in adverse circumstances; by deploring our fate or bad fortune; by showing that our heart will be brave and patient of adversities. The Appeal to Pity must be brief, for nothing dries more quickly than a tear. In the present Book I have treated virtually the most obscure topics in the whole art of rhetoric; therefore this Book must end here. The remaining rules, so far as seems best, I shall carry over to Book III. If you study the material that I have presented, both with and without me, with care equal to the pains I have taken in assembling it, I, on my part, shall reap the fruit of my labour in your sharing the knowledge with me, and you, on yours, will praise my diligence and rejoice in the learning you have acquired. You will have greater understanding of the precepts of rhetoric, and I shall be more eager to discharge the rest of my task. But that this will be so I know quite well, for I know you well. Let me turn at once to the other rules, so that I may gratify your very proper wish — and this it gives me the greatest pleasure to do. 3.3.  The orator who gives counsel will through his speech properly set up Advantage as his aim, so that the complete economy of his entire speech may be directed to it. Advantage in political deliberation has two aspects: Security and Honour. To consider Security is to provide some plan or other for ensuring the avoidance of a present or imminent danger. Subheads under Security are Might and Craft, which we shall consider either separately or conjointly. Might is determined by armies, fleets, arms, engines of war, recruiting of man power, and the like. Craft is exercised by means of money, promises, dissimulation, accelerated speed, deception, and the other means, topics which I shall discuss at a more appropriate time, if ever I attempt to write on the art of war or on state administration. The Honourable is divided into the Right and the Praiseworthy. The Right is that which is done in accord with Virtue and Duty. Subheads under the Right are Wisdom, Justice, Courage, and Temperance. Wisdom is intelligence capable, by a certain judicious method, of distinguishing good and bad; likewise the knowledge of an art is called Wisdom; and again, a well-furnished memory, or experience in diverse matters, is termed Wisdom. Justice is equity, giving to each thing what it is entitled to in proportion to its worth. Courage is the reaching for great things and contempt for what is mean; also the endurance of hardship in expectation of profit. Temperance is self-control that moderates our desires. 3.5.  When we invoke as motive for a course of action steadfastness in Courage, we shall make it clear that men ought to follow and strive after noble and lofty actions, and that, by the same token, actions base and unworthy of the brave ought therefore to be despised by brave men and considered as beneath their dignity. Again, from an honourable act no peril or toil, however great, should divert us; death ought to be preferred to disgrace; no pain should force an abandonment of duty; no man's enmity should be feared in defence of truth; for country, for parents, guest-friends, intimates, and for the things justice commands us to respect, it behoves us to brave any peril and endure any toil. We shall be using the topics of Temperance if we censure the inordinate desire for office, money, or the like; if we restrict each thing to its definite natural bounds; if we show how much is enough in each case, advise against going too far, and set the due limit to every matter.
29. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 99-100 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

100. Shall we prepare him a house of stone or of wooden materials? Away! such an idea is not holy even to utter; for not even if the whole earth were to change its nature and to become on a sudden gold, or something more valuable than gold, and if it were then to be wholly consumed by the skill of workmen, who should make it into porticoes and vestibules, and chambers, and precincts, and temples--not even then could it be a place worthy for his feet to tread upon, but a pious soul is his fitting abode. XXX. 100. Is it not a most beautiful recommendation, and one most admirably adapted to the perfecting of, and leading man to, every virtue, and above all to piety? The commandment, in effect says: Always imitate God; let that one period of seven days in which God created the world, be to you a complete example of the way in which you are to obey the law, and an all-sufficient model for your actions. Moreover, the seventh day is also an example from which you may learn the propriety of studying philosophy; as on that day, it is said, God beheld the works which he had made; so that you also may yourself contemplate the works of nature, and all the separate circumstances which contribute towards happiness.
30. Philo of Alexandria, On Planting, 127-129, 126 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

31. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 2.193-2.194, 2.199 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.193. And after the feast of trumpets the solemnity of the fast is celebrated, {27}{part of sections 193û194 was omitted in Yonge's translation because the edition on which Yonge based his translation, Mangey, lacked this material. These lines have been newly translated for this volume.} Perhaps some of those who are perversely minded and are not ashamed to censure excellent things will say, "What sort of a feast is this where there is no eating and drinking, no troupe of entertainers or audience, no copious supply of strong drink nor the generous display of a public banquet, nor moreover the merriment and revelry of dancing to the sound of flute and harp, and timbrels and cymbals, and the other instruments of music which awaken the unruly lusts through the channel of the ears? 2.194. For it is in these and through these, it seems, that they think good cheer consists. They do this in ignorance of the true good cheer which the all-wise Moses saw with the most sharpsighted eyes and so proclaimed the fast a feast and named it the greatest of feasts in our ancestral language, "a Sabbath of Sabbaths," or as the Greeks would say, a seven of sevens and a holier than things holy. He did this for many reasons. 2.199. At all events, behold, he nourished our forefathers even in the desert for forty Years.{29}{#de 8:2.} How he opened fountains to give them abundant drink; and how he rained food from heaven sufficient for each day so that they might consume what they needed, and rather than hording or bartering or taking thought of the bounties received, they might rather reverence and worship the bountiful Giver and honour him with hymns and benedictions such as are due him.
32. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.24 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.24. But on this fast it is not lawful to take any food or any drink, in order that no bodily passion may at all disturb or hinder the pure operations of the mind; but these passions are wont to be generated by fulness and satiety, so that at this time men feast, propitiating the Father of the universe with holy prayers, by which they are accustomed to solicit pardon for their former sins, and the acquisition and enjoyment of new blessings.
33. Philo of Alexandria, Plant., 127-129, 126 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

126. And Moses very appropriately says that the fruit of education is not only holy but also praised; for every one of the virtues is a holy thing, but most especially is gratitude holy; but it is impossible to show gratitude to God in a genuine manner, by those means which people in general think the only ones, namely offerings and sacrifices; for the whole world could not be a temple worthy to be raised to his honour, except by means of praises and hymns, and those too must be such as are sung, not by loud voices, but by the invisible and pure mind, which shall raise the shout and song to him.
34. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.1. For to this end the Lord endured to deliver His flesh unto corruption, that by the remission of sins we might be cleansed, which cleansing is through the blood of His sprinkling. 5.1. For if He had not come in the flesh neither would men have looked upon Him and been saved, forasmuch as when they look upon the sun that shall cease to be, which is the work of His own hands, they cannot face its rays.
35. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 41, 40 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

40. These things therefore being manifest to us, and since we look into the depths of the divine knowledge, it behooves us to do all things in [their proper] order, which the Lord has commanded us to perform at stated times. He has enjoined offerings [to be presented] and service to be performed [to Him], and that not thoughtlessly or irregularly, but at the appointed times and hours. Where and by whom He desires these things to be done, He Himself has fixed by His own supreme will, in order that all things, being piously done according to His good pleasure, may be acceptable unto Him. Those, therefore, who present their offerings at the appointed times, are accepted and blessed; for inasmuch as they follow the laws of the Lord, they sin not. For his own peculiar services are assigned to the high priest, and their own proper place is prescribed to the priests, and their own special ministrations devolve on the Levites. The layman is bound by the laws that pertain to laymen.
36. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 13.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.1. 1. By what means the nation of the Jews recovered their freedom when they had been brought into slavery by the Macedonians, and what struggles, and how many great battles, Judas, the general of their army, ran through, till he was slain as he was fighting for them, hath been related in the foregoing book; 13.1. But when Jonathan knew that Bacchides Was coming upon him, he sent his brother John, who was also called Gaddis, to the Nabatean Arabs, that he might lodge his baggage with them until the battle with Bacchides should be over, for they were the Jews’ friends. 13.1. nor did he abstain from the temple of Dagon itself, but burnt it also, and destroyed those that had fled to it. Now the entire multitude of the enemies that fell in the battle, and were consumed in the temple, were eight thousand.
37. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.77 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.77. we also offer perpetual sacrifices for them; nor do we only offer them every day at the common expenses of all the Jews, but although we offer no other such sacrifices out of our common expenses, no, not for our own children, yet do we this as a peculiar honor to the emperors, and to them alone, while we do the same to no other person whomsoever.
38. New Testament, 1 Peter, 2.10, 5.10-5.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.10. who in time past were no people, but now are God's people, who had not obtained mercy, but now have obtained mercy. 5.10. But may the God of all grace (who called you to his eternal glory by Christ Jesus), after you have suffered a while, perfect, establish, strengthen, and settle you. 5.11. To him be the glory and the power forever and ever. Amen. 5.12. Through Silvanus, our faithful brother, as I consider him, I have written to you briefly, exhorting, and testifying that this is the true grace of God in which you stand. 5.13. She who is in Babylon, elect together with you, greets you; and so does Mark, my son.
39. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 4.1-4.12, 5.12-5.18, 5.23-5.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.1. Finally then, brothers, we beg and exhort you in the Lord Jesus, that as you received from us how you ought to walk and to please God, that you abound more and more. 4.2. For you know what charge we gave you through the Lord Jesus. 4.3. For this is the will of God: your sanctification, that you abstain from sexual immorality 4.4. that each one of you know how to possess himself of his own vessel in sanctification and honor 4.5. not in the passion of lust, even as the Gentiles who don't know God; 4.6. that no one should take advantage of and wrong a brother or sister in this matter; because the Lord is an avenger in all these things, as also we forewarned you and testified. 4.7. For God called us not for uncleanness, but in sanctification. 4.8. Therefore he who rejects doesn't reject man, but God, who has also given his Holy Spirit to you. 4.9. But concerning brotherly love, you have no need that one write to you. For you yourselves are taught by God to love one another 4.10. for indeed you do it toward all the brothers who are in all Macedonia. But we exhort you, brothers, that you abound more and more; 4.11. and that you make it your ambition to lead a quiet life, and to do your own business, and to work with your own hands, even as we charged you; 4.12. that you may walk properly toward those who are outside, and may have need of nothing. 5.12. But we beg you, brothers, to know those who labor among you, and are over you in the Lord, and admonish you 5.13. and to respect and honor them in love for their work's sake. Be at peace among yourselves. 5.14. We exhort you, brothers, admonish the disorderly, encourage the fainthearted, support the weak, be patient toward all. 5.15. See that no one returns evil for evil to anyone, but always follow after that which is good, for one another, and for all. 5.16. Rejoice always. 5.17. Pray without ceasing. 5.18. In everything give thanks, for this is the will of God in Christ Jesus toward you. 5.23. May the God of peace himself sanctify you completely. May your whole spirit, soul, and body be preserved blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. 5.24. Faithful is he who calls you, who will also do it. 5.25. Brothers, pray for us. 5.26. Greet all the brothers with a holy kiss. 5.27. I solemnly charge you by the Lord that this letter be read to all the holy brothers. 5.28. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Amen.
40. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 11.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

41. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 4.10-4.11, 4.13, 4.15, 4.18-4.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.10. for Demas left me, having loved this present world, and went to Thessalonica; Crescens to Galatia, and Titus to Dalmatia. 4.11. Only Luke is with me. Take Mark, and bring him with you, for he is useful to me for ministering. 4.13. Bring the cloak that I left at Troas with Carpus when you come, and the books, especially the parchments. 4.15. of whom you also must beware; for he greatly opposed our words. 4.18. And the Lord will deliver me from every evil work, and will preserve me for his heavenly kingdom; to whom be the glory forever and ever. Amen. 4.19. Greet Prisca and Aquila, and the house of Onesiphorus.
42. New Testament, Acts, 6.1, 6.7, 7.48, 17.24, 22.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.1. Now in those days, when the number of the disciples was multiplying, there arose a grumbling of the Grecian Jews against the Hebrews because their widows were neglected in the daily service. 6.7. The word of God increased and the number of the disciples multiplied in Jerusalem exceedingly. A great company of the priests were obedient to the faith. 7.48. However, the Most High doesn't dwell in temples made with hands, as the prophet says 17.24. The God who made the world and all things in it, he, being Lord of heaven and earth, dwells not in temples made with hands 22.3. I am indeed a Jew, born in Tarsus of Cilicia, but brought up in this city at the feet of Gamaliel, instructed according to the strict manner of the law of our fathers, being zealous for God, even as you all are this day.
43. New Testament, Colossians, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. If then you were raised together with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated on the right hand of God.
44. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.11-2.22, 5.2-5.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. Therefore remember that once you, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called "uncircumcision" by that which is called "circumcision," (in the flesh, made by hands); 2.12. that you were at that time separate from Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covets of the promise, having no hope and without God in the world. 2.13. But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off are made near in the blood of Christ. 2.14. For he is our peace, who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of partition 2.15. having abolished in the flesh the hostility, the law of commandments contained in ordices, that he might create in himself one new man of the two, making peace; 2.16. and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, having killed the hostility thereby. 2.17. He came and preached peace to you who were far off and to those who were near. 2.18. For through him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father. 2.19. So then you are no longer strangers and sojourners, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God 2.20. being built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the chief cornerstone; 2.21. in whom the whole building, fitted together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord; 2.22. in whom you also are built together for a habitation of God in the Spirit. 5.2. Walk in love, even as Christ also loved you, and gave himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling fragrance. 5.3. But sexual immorality, and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not even be mentioned among you, as becomes saints; 5.4. nor filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, which are not appropriate; but rather giving of thanks. 5.5. Know this for sure, that no sexually immoral person, nor unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, has any inheritance in the Kingdom of Christ and God.
45. New Testament, Galatians, 6.2, 6.8-6.9, 6.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.2. Bear one another'sburdens, and so fulfill the law of Christ. 6.8. For hewho sows to his own flesh will from the flesh reap corruption. But hewho sows to the Spirit will from the Spirit reap eternal life. 6.9. Let us not be weary in doing good, for we will reap in due season, ifwe don't give up. 6.16. As many as walk by this rule, peace and mercy be on them, and onGod's Israel.
46. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.1, 1.1-2.18, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.5-2.18, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.14, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.19, 4.1, 4.3, 4.6, 4.9, 4.11, 4.13, 4.14, 4.14-10.18, 4.14-5.10, 4.15, 4.16, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5.11-6.20, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.12, 6.18, 6.19, 6.20, 7.1-10.18, 7.3, 7.5, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.25, 7.26, 7.27, 7.28, 8.1, 8.1-9.28, 8.2, 8.3, 8.3-10.18, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 9, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24, 9.25, 9.26, 9.27, 9.28, 10, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9, 10.10, 10.11, 10.12, 10.13, 10.14, 10.15, 10.16, 10.17, 10.18, 10.19, 10.20, 10.21, 10.22, 10.23, 10.24, 10.25, 10.26, 10.27, 10.28, 10.29, 10.30, 10.31, 10.32, 10.33, 10.34, 10.35, 10.36, 10.37, 10.38, 10.39, 11, 11.1, 11.3, 11.9, 11.13, 11.14, 11.16, 11.26, 11.35, 11.36, 11.37, 11.38, 11.40, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8, 12.9, 12.10, 12.11, 12.12, 12.13, 12.14, 12.15, 12.16, 12.17, 12.18, 12.19, 12.20, 12.21, 12.22, 12.23, 12.24, 12.25, 12.26, 12.27, 12.28, 12.29, 13, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.9, 13.11, 13.12, 13.13, 13.14, 13.15, 13.16, 13.17, 13.18, 13.19, 13.20, 13.21, 13.22, 13.23, 13.24, 13.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. God, having in the past spoken to the fathers through the prophets at many times and in various ways
47. New Testament, Philippians, 3.5, 4.10-4.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.5. circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; concerning the law, a Pharisee; 4.10. But I rejoice in the Lord greatly, that now at length you have revived your thought for me; in which you did indeed take thought, but you lacked opportunity. 4.11. Not that I speak in respect to lack, for I have learned in whatever state I am, to be content in it. 4.12. I know how to be humbled, and I know also how to abound. In everything and in all things I have learned the secret both to be filled and to be hungry, both to abound and to be in need. 4.13. I can do all things through Christ, who strengthens me. 4.14. However you did well that you had fellowship with my affliction. 4.15. You yourselves also know, you Philippians, that in the beginning of the gospel, when I departed from Macedonia, no assembly had fellowship with me in the matter of giving and receiving but you only. 4.16. For even in Thessalonica you sent once and again to my need. 4.17. Not that I seek for the gift, but I seek for the fruit that increases to your account. 4.18. But I have all things, and abound. I am filled, having received from Epaphroditus the things that came from you, a sweet-smelling fragrance, an acceptable and well-pleasing sacrifice to God. 4.19. My God will supply every need of yours according to his riches in glory in Christ Jesus. 4.20. Now to our God and Father be the glory forever and ever! Amen. 4.21. Greet every saint in Christ Jesus. The brothers who are with me greet you. 4.22. All the saints greet you, especially those who are of Caesar's household. 4.23. The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.
48. New Testament, Romans, 9.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.24. us, whom he also called, not from the Jews only, but also from the Gentiles?
49. New Testament, Luke, 1.68, 2.37, 12.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.68. Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, For he has visited and worked redemption for his people; 2.37. and she had been a widow for about eighty-four years), who didn't depart from the temple, worshipping with fastings and petitions night and day. 12.8. I tell you, everyone who confesses me before men, him will the Son of Man also confess before the angels of God;
50. New Testament, Mark, 2.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.7. Why does this man speak blasphemies like that? Who can forgive sins but God alone?
51. New Testament, Matthew, 1.21, 2.16, 10.32, 23.12-23.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.21. She shall bring forth a son. You shall call his name Jesus, for it is he who shall save his people from their sins. 2.16. Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked by the wise men, was exceedingly angry, and sent out, and killed all the male children who were in Bethlehem and in all the surrounding countryside, from two years old and under, according to the exact time which he had learned from the wise men. 10.32. Everyone therefore who confesses me before men, him I will also confess before my Father who is in heaven. 23.12. Whoever will exalt himself will be humbled, and whoever will humble himself will be exalted. 23.13. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you devour widows' houses, and as a pretense you make long prayers. Therefore you will receive greater condemnation. 23.14. But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! Because you shut up the Kingdom of Heaven against men; for you don't enter in yourselves, neither do you allow those who are entering in to enter. 23.15. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you travel around by sea and land to make one proselyte; and when he becomes one, you make him twice as much of a son of Gehenna as yourselves. 23.16. Woe to you, you blind guides, who say, 'Whoever swears by the temple, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gold of the temple, he is obligated.' 23.17. You blind fools! For which is greater, the gold, or the temple that sanctifies the gold? 23.18. 'Whoever swears by the altar, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gift that is on it, he is a obligated.' 23.19. You blind fools! For which is greater, the gift, or the altar that sanctifies the gift? 23.20. He therefore who swears by the altar, swears by it, and by everything on it. 23.21. He who swears by the temple, swears by it, and by him who is living in it. 23.22. He who swears by heaven, swears by the throne of God, and by him who sits on it.
52. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 4.1.5, 6.1.27, 6.2.32 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.1.5.  The sole purpose of the exordium is to prepare our audience in such a way that they will be disposed to lend a ready ear to the rest of our speech. The majority of authors agree that this is best effected in three ways, by making the audience well-disposed, attentive and ready to receive instruction. I need hardly say that these aims have to be kept in view throughout the whole speech, but they are especially necessary at the commencement, when we gain admission to the mind of the judge in order to penetrate still further. 6.1.27.  Consequently Cicero, to quote him once again, although he will not put entreaties into Milo's mouth, and prefers to commend him by his staunchness of character, still lends him words in the form of such complaint as may become a brave man. "Alas!" he says, "my labours have been in vain! Alas for my blighted hopes! Alas for my baffled purpose!" Appeals to pity should, however, always be brief, and there is good reason for the saying that nothing dries so quickly as tears. 6.2.32.  From such impressions arises that ἐνάργεια which Cicero calls illumination and actuality, which makes us seem not so much to narrate as to exhibit the actual scene, while our emotions will be no less actively stirred than if we were present at the actual occurrence. Is it not from visions such as these that Vergil was inspired to write â€” "Sudden her fingers let the shuttle fall And all the thread was spilled
53. Anon., Odes of Solomon, 20.7 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

54. Anon., Testament of Adam, 1.12 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

55. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 4.19 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.19. Those born in Leo are of the following description: round head, reddish hair, huge wrinkled forehead, coarse ears, large development of neck, partly bald, red complexion, grey eyes, large jaws, coarse mouth, gross in the upper parts, huge breast, the under limbs tapering. The same are by nature persons who allow nothing to interfere with their own decision, pleasing themselves, irascible, passionate, scorners, obstinate, forming no design, not loquacious, indolent, making an improper use of leisure, familiar, wholly abandoned to pleasures of women, adulterers, immodest, in faith untrue, importunate, daring, penurious, spoliators, remarkable; as regards fellowship, useful; as regards friendship, useless.
56. Justin, First Apology, 13 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13. What sober-minded man, then, will not acknowledge that we are not atheists, worshipping as we do the Maker of this universe, and declaring, as we have been taught, that He has no need of streams of blood and libations and incense; whom we praise to the utmost of our power by the exercise of prayer and thanksgiving for all things wherewith we are supplied, as we have been taught that the only honour that is worthy of Him is not to consume by fire what He has brought into being for our sustece, but to use it for ourselves and those who need, and with gratitude to Him to offer thanks by invocations and hymns for our creation, and for all the means of health, and for the various qualities of the different kinds of things, and for the changes of the seasons; and to present before Him petitions for our existing again in incorruption through faith in Him. Our teacher of these things is Jesus Christ, who also was born for this purpose, and was crucified under Pontius Pilate, procurator of Jud a, in the times of Tiberius C sar; and that we reasonably worship Him, having learned that He is the Son of the true God Himself, and holding Him in the second place, and the prophetic Spirit in the third, we will prove. For they proclaim our madness to consist in this, that we give to a crucified man a place second to the unchangeable and eternal God, the Creator of all; for they do not discern the mystery that is herein, to which, as we make it plain to you, we pray you to give heed.
57. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 19, 3, 13 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13. Justin: For Isaiah did not send you to a bath, there to wash away murder and other sins, which not even all the water of the sea were sufficient to purge; but, as might have been expected, this was that saving bath of the olden time which followed those who repented, and who no longer were purified by the blood of goats and of sheep, or by the ashes of an heifer, or by the offerings of fine flour, but by faith through the blood of Christ, and through His death, who died for this very reason, as Isaiah himself said, when he spoke thus: The Lord shall make bare His holy arm in the eyes of all the nations, and all the nations and the ends of the earth shall see the salvation of God. Depart, depart, depart, go out from thence, and touch no unclean thing; go out of the midst of her, be clean that bear the vessels of the Lord, for you go not with haste. For the Lord shall go before you; and the Lord, the God of Israel, shall gather you together. Behold, my servant shall deal prudently; and He shall be exalted, and be greatly glorified. As many were astonished at You, so Your form and Your glory shall be marred more than men. So shall many nations be astonished at Him, and the kings shall shut their mouths; for that which had not been told them concerning Him shall they see, and that which they had not heard shall they consider. Lord, who has believed our report? And to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed? We have announced Him as a child before Him, as a root in a dry ground. He has no form or comeliness, and when we saw Him He had no form or beauty; but His form is dishonoured, and fails more than the sons of men. He is a man in affliction, and acquainted with bearing sickness, because His face has been turned away; He was despised, and we esteemed Him not. He bears our sins, and is distressed for us; and we esteemed Him to be in toil and in affliction, and in evil treatment. But He was wounded for our transgressions, He was bruised for our iniquities; the chastisement of our peace was upon Him. With His stripes we are healed. All we, like sheep, have gone astray. Every man has turned to his own way; and the Lord laid on Him our iniquities, and by reason of His oppression He opens not His mouth. He was brought as a sheep to the slaughter; and as a lamb before her shearer is dumb, so He opens not His mouth. In His humiliation His judgment was taken away. And who shall declare His generation? For His life is taken from the earth. Because of the transgressions of my people He came unto death. And I will give the wicked for His grave, and the rich for His death, because He committed no iniquity, and deceit was not found in His mouth. And the Lord wills to purify Him from affliction. If he has been given for sin, your soul shall see a long-lived seed. And the Lord wills to take His soul away from trouble, to show Him light, and to form Him in understanding, to justify the righteous One who serves many well. And He shall bear our sins; therefore He shall inherit many, and shall divide the spoil of the strong, because His soul was delivered to death; and He was numbered with the transgressors, and He bore the sins of many, and was delivered for their transgression. Sing, O barren, who bear not; break forth and cry aloud, you who do not travail in pain: for more are the children of the desolate than the children of the married wife. For the Lord said, Enlarge the place of your tent and of your curtains; fix them, spare not, lengthen your cords, and strengthen your stakes; stretch forth to your right and your left; and your seed shall inherit the Gentiles, and you shall make the desolate cities to be inherited. Fear not because you are ashamed, neither be confounded because you have been reproached; for you shall forget everlasting shame, and shall not remember the reproach of your widowhood, because the Lord has made a name for Himself, and He who has redeemed you shall be called through the whole earth the God of Israel. The Lord has called you as a woman forsaken and grieved in spirit, as a woman hated from her youth.'
58. Minucius Felix, Octavius, 9 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

59. Augustine, The City of God, 10.5-10.6, 10.20 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

10.5. And who is so foolish as to suppose that the things offered to God are needed by Him for some uses of His own? Divine Scripture in many places explodes this idea. Not to be wearisome, suffice it to quote this brief saying from a psalm: I have said to the Lord, You are my God: for You need not my goodness. We must believe, then, that God has no need, not only of cattle, or any other earthly and material thing, but even of man's righteousness, and that whatever right worship is paid to God profits not Him, but man. For no man would say he did a benefit to a fountain by drinking, or to the light by seeing. And the fact that the ancient church offered animal sacrifices, which the people of God now-a-days read of without imitating, proves nothing else than this, that those sacrifices signified the things which we do for the purpose of drawing near to God, and inducing our neighbor to do the same. A sacrifice, therefore, is the visible sacrament or sacred sign of an invisible sacrifice. Hence that penitent in the psalm, or it may be the Psalmist himself, entreating God to be merciful to his sins, says, If You desired sacrifice, I would give it: You delight not in whole burnt-offerings. The sacrifice of God is a broken heart: a heart contrite and humble God will not despise. Observe how, in the very words in which he is expressing God's refusal of sacrifice, he shows that God requires sacrifice. He does not desire the sacrifice of a slaughtered beast, but He desires the sacrifice of a contrite heart. Thus, that sacrifice which he says God does not wish, is the symbol of the sacrifice which God does wish. God does not wish sacrifices in the sense in which foolish people think He wishes them, viz., to gratify His own pleasure. For if He had not wished that the sacrifices He requires, as, e.g., a heart contrite and humbled by penitent sorrow, should be symbolized by those sacrifices which He was thought to desire because pleasant to Himself, the old law would never have enjoined their presentation; and they were destined to be merged when the fit opportunity arrived, in order that men might not suppose that the sacrifices themselves, rather than the things symbolized by them, were pleasing to God or acceptable in us. Hence, in another passage from another psalm, he says, If I were hungry, I would not tell you; for the world is mine and the fullness thereof. Will I eat the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of goats? as if He should say, Supposing such things were necessary to me, I would never ask you for what I have in my own hand. Then he goes on to mention what these signify: offer unto God the sacrifice of praise, and pay your vows unto the Most High. And call upon me in the day of trouble: I will deliver you, and you shall glorify me. So in another prophet: Wherewith shall I come before the Lord, and bow myself before the High God? Shall I come before Him with burnt-offerings, with calves of a year old? Will the Lord be pleased with thousands of rams, or with ten thousands of rivers of oil? Shall I give my first-born for my transgression, the fruit of my body for the sin of my soul? Hath He showed you, O man, what is good; and what does the Lord require of you, but to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with your God? Micah 6:6-8 In the words of this prophet, these two things are distinguished and set forth with sufficient explicitness, that God does not require these sacrifices for their own sakes, and that He does require the sacrifices which they symbolize. In the epistle entitled To the Hebrews it is said, To do good and to communicate, forget not: for with such sacrifices God is well pleased. Hebrews 13:16 And so, when it is written, I desire mercy rather than sacrifice, Hosea 6:6 nothing else is meant than that one sacrifice is preferred to another; for that which in common speech is called sacrifice is only the symbol of the true sacrifice. Now mercy is the true sacrifice, and therefore it is said, as I have just quoted, with such sacrifices God is well pleased. All the divine ordices, therefore, which we read concerning the sacrifices in the service of the tabernacle or the temple, we are to refer to the love of God and our neighbor. For on these two commandments, as it is written, hang all the law and the prophets. Matthew 22:40 10.6. Thus a true sacrifice is every work which is done that we may be united to God in holy fellowship, and which has a reference to that supreme good and end in which alone we can be truly blessed. And therefore even the mercy we show to men, if it is not shown for God's sake, is not a sacrifice. For, though made or offered by man, sacrifice is a divine thing, as those who called it sacrifice meant to indicate. Thus man himself, consecrated in the name of God, and vowed to God, is a sacrifice in so far as he dies to the world that he may live to God. For this is a part of that mercy which each man shows to himself; as it is written, Have mercy on your soul by pleasing God. Sirach 30:24 Our body, too, as a sacrifice when we chasten it by temperance, if we do so as we ought, for God's sake, that we may not yield our members instruments of unrighteousness unto sin, but instruments of righteousness unto God. Romans 6:13 Exhorting to this sacrifice, the apostle says, I beseech you, therefore, brethren, by the mercy of God, that you present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God, which is your reasonable service. Romans 12:1 If, then, the body, which, being inferior, the soul uses as a servant or instrument, is a sacrifice when it is used rightly, and with reference to God, how much more does the soul itself become a sacrifice when it offers itself to God, in order that, being inflamed by the fire of His love, it may receive of His beauty and become pleasing to Him, losing the shape of earthly desire, and being remoulded in the image of permanent loveliness? And this, indeed, the apostle subjoins, saying, And be not conformed to this world; but be transformed in the renewing of your mind, that you may prove what is that good, and acceptable, and perfect will of God. Romans 12:2 Since, therefore, true sacrifices are works of mercy to ourselves or others, done with a reference to God, and since works of mercy have no other object than the relief of distress or the conferring of happiness, and since there is no happiness apart from that good of which it is said, It is good for me to be very near to God, it follows that the whole redeemed city, that is to say, the congregation or community of the saints, is offered to God as our sacrifice through the great High Priest, who offered Himself to God in His passion for us, that we might be members of this glorious head, according to the form of a servant. For it was this form He offered, in this He was offered, because it is according to it He is Mediator, in this He is our Priest, in this the Sacrifice. Accordingly, when the apostle had exhorted us to present our bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God, our reasonable service, and not to be conformed to the world, but to be transformed in the renewing of our mind, that we might prove what is that good, and acceptable, and perfect will of God, that is to say, the true sacrifice of ourselves, he says, For I say, through the grace of God which is given unto me, to every man that is among you, not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think, but to think soberly, according as God has dealt to every man the measure of faith. For, as we have many members in one body, and all members have not the same office, so we, being many, are one body in Christ, and every one members one of another, having gifts differing according to the grace that is given to us. Romans 12:3-6 This is the sacrifice of Christians: we, being many, are one body in Christ. And this also is the sacrifice which the Church continually celebrates in the sacrament of the altar, known to the faithful, in which she teaches that she herself is offered in the offering she makes to God. 10.20. And hence that true Mediator, in so far as, by assuming the form of a servant, He became the Mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, though in the form of God He received sacrifice together with the Father, with whom He is one God, yet in the form of a servant He chose rather to be than to receive a sacrifice, that not even by this instance any one might have occasion to suppose that sacrifice should be rendered to any creature. Thus He is both the Priest who offers and the Sacrifice offered. And He designed that there should be a daily sign of this in the sacrifice of the Church, which, being His body, learns to offer herself through Him. of this true Sacrifice the ancient sacrifices of the saints were the various and numerous signs; and it was thus variously figured, just as one thing is signified by a variety of words, that there may be less weariness when we speak of it much. To this supreme and true sacrifice all false sacrifices have given place.
60. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 92-93, 95, 87

87. pectacle from which a man could scarcely tear himself away. The construction of the altar was in keeping with the place itself and with the burnt offerings which were consumed by fire upon it, and the approach to it was on a similar scale. There was a gradual slope up to it, conveniently arranged for the purpose of decency, and the ministering priests were robed in linen garments, down to their


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 30, 31, 32
abihu Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 32
abraham Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 75; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 41; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 350
access, to the holy of holies nan
aims, proofs Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 225, 230, 252, 257
alienation Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 29, 32, 34
altar Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 19, 28, 30, 31, 32, 33; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 341
altars, consecration of Farag, What Makes a Church Sacred? Legal and Ritual Perspectives from Late Antiquity (2021) 205
amplification, in argumentatio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 257
amplification Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 225, 239, 243, 245
animal, jesus as parallel to Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 92
antisemitism Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 28
apostasy Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 75, 235, 243, 257
argumentatio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 252
artless, propositions Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 229, 230, 252
asyndeton Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 231, 239, 242, 243, 248, 249, 252
atonement, day of atonement Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 27, 33
atonement, old nan
atonement, timing of nan nan
atonement Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 33
audience Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 19, 30
author Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 30
azazel Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 341
birth Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
blood, as means of atonement/purification Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 92
blood, of christ Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 92; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 128, 284
blood, social body Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 19
blood Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 35; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
botte, bernard Farag, What Makes a Church Sacred? Legal and Ritual Perspectives from Late Antiquity (2021) 257, 268
bread Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
brother, brotherhood Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 30, 31, 32, 33
camp, inside Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 341
camp, outside Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 341
christianity/christians, and rabbinic thought Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 92
christology Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 283, 284
chronotope (bakhtin) Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 7
church Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 32; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 41
circumcision Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 92
citizen, citizenship Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 28
city Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 19, 20, 34, 35
commandments Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 128
commemoration Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 19
communication Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 20
community Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 7, 19, 22, 27, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
concealment Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 7
confession Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 22, 32
consecrations, lectionary readings and liturgical traditions for Farag, What Makes a Church Sacred? Legal and Ritual Perspectives from Late Antiquity (2021) 205
constantinople, marian temple, palace of daphne Farag, What Makes a Church Sacred? Legal and Ritual Perspectives from Late Antiquity (2021) 257
consumption Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 92
corpse Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 19
cosmology Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 19
courtroom Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 29
covenant, mosaic Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 190
covenant, new Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 41, 190
covenant Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 92; Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 75, 225, 231, 232, 233, 248, 257; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 284; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
creation Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
creator Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
cross Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
crowd Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 35
crucifixion Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 41
cult Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 27, 33
cyprian Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 32
death Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 7, 19, 20, 22, 32, 33, 34, 35
deliberative Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 75, 232, 235, 240, 247, 248, 249, 252, 256, 257
disjointed structure Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 224, 252
displacement Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 19, 34
drama Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 19
edge zones Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 19
emplotment Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 20, 34, 35
encomium Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 29
encounter Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
enthymeme Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 257
epideictic Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 17, 75, 252, 256
epilogue Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 16, 224
esau Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 230, 235, 243, 245, 252, 257
eschatology, eschatological Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31, 32
eschatology Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 89
eucharist Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 32
example Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 235, 239, 243, 244, 248, 252, 256, 257
exhortation Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 75, 223, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 235, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 245, 246, 248, 249, 252, 256, 257; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 123, 276, 284, 285, 287, 289
exodus Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 349
exordium, primary exordium Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 252
exordium, purpose Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 193
exordium, secondary exordium Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 225, 252, 256
exordium Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 193, 256
experience Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 32, 33
expiation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 41
faith Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 35; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 289, 290
familial Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 30, 31
family Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 20, 30, 31
favor Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 193, 225, 249, 252
food Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 19, 27
forgiveness, tabernacle in nan
forgiveness, veil in nan
forgiveness Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 92
fulfilment Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 89; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
god Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 19, 27, 28, 31, 32, 33
goodwill, funeral oration Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 17
gospel Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 7
grace Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 19, 27; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
heaven, heavenly realities Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 190
help Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 285, 286
high priest Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 22, 27, 31, 35; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 341, 350
history Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 35
holiness Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 284, 289, 290
holy of holies, holy place Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 123, 128
house Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 89, 123, 128
identity Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 33
idolatry Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 7; Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 243
ignatius of antioch (martyr) Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 27
imagery Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 20, 22
imitation Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 7, 19, 22, 30, 33, 34, 35
incidental narratio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 257
jerusalem, church of the holy sepulchre Farag, What Makes a Church Sacred? Legal and Ritual Perspectives from Late Antiquity (2021) 257
jerusalem Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 34, 35
jesus, jesus christ Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 7, 22, 27, 30, 33, 34, 35
jew, jewish (ioudaios) Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 7, 19, 35
jewish literature Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 20
jews Farag, What Makes a Church Sacred? Legal and Ritual Perspectives from Late Antiquity (2021) 257, 268
john, author of revelation Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 7
judaism Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 27, 28, 29
judgment Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 20
judicial (forensic) Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 223
just Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
koskam, first church of mary in Farag, What Makes a Church Sacred? Legal and Ritual Perspectives from Late Antiquity (2021) 257
law, legal Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 28
law Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 41, 190; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
legislation, rabbinic, versus christian/roman imperial thought Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 92
levites Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 29, 31
levitical Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 232
liturgy Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 89, 123, 128, 190, 290
magnesia Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 27
marinakiou, church of mary at Farag, What Makes a Church Sacred? Legal and Ritual Perspectives from Late Antiquity (2021) 257
martyrdom, martyr, desire Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 7, 19, 20, 22, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35
martyrdom, martyr, judaism, jewish Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 7, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34
martyrdom, martyr, sacrifice Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35
martyrdom, martyr, trauma, traumatic experience Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 19, 20, 22, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35
mary Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
meal, sacral meal Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 19, 34
meal Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 19, 20, 33, 34
medium, media Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
melchizedek Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 257
memory Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 7
mercy Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 41
messiah Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
ministry Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
moses, mosaic Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 30, 32
moses Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 230, 231, 232; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 123, 128
nadab Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 32
narratio, temporal classifications Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 257
narratio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 224, 257
narrative Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 20, 34
new testament Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 19
non-chalcedonian celebrations of anniversaries, koskam, first church of mary in Farag, What Makes a Church Sacred? Legal and Ritual Perspectives from Late Antiquity (2021) 257
non-chalcedonian celebrations of anniversaries, philippi, first church of mary in Farag, What Makes a Church Sacred? Legal and Ritual Perspectives from Late Antiquity (2021) 257
offering Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 27
offerings Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
pain Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
paul, pauline corpus Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 128, 286, 287
pentateuch Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 349
people of god, of israel Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 128
perfection Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 257; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 41, 89, 123
period Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 252
periodic Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 252
peroratio, asyndeton Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 231, 239, 242, 243
peroratio, concluding exhortations Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 231, 235, 239
peroratio, doubling Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 231, 239, 245, 246
peroratio, functions Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 248
peroratio, length Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 247, 248
peroratio, location Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 225, 248
peroratio, metaphorical language Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 239, 243, 244, 245
peroratio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 223, 224, 225, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 235, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 252, 256, 257
persecution Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 7, 19, 35
perseverance Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 75, 235, 240, 249, 257; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 283
peter Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
philippi, first church of mary in Farag, What Makes a Church Sacred? Legal and Ritual Perspectives from Late Antiquity (2021) 257
philo (of alexandria) Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 27
pilgrimage Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 349
power Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
prayer Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 232, 233, 241
priest, priestly Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 19, 20, 22, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35
priesthood Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 20, 28, 29, 31, 32, 34
primary peroratio, secondary peroratio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 225, 233, 235
primary peroratio, vivid description Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 239, 243, 244, 245
primary peroratio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 224, 225, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233
probatio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 17
promise Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 41, 89
prooemium Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 16
prophet, prophetism Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 27
prophets Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
propositio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 17
ps-theophilus of alexandria Farag, What Makes a Church Sacred? Legal and Ritual Perspectives from Late Antiquity (2021) 268
pulcheria (empress) Farag, What Makes a Church Sacred? Legal and Ritual Perspectives from Late Antiquity (2021) 257
punishment Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 7
purification, purity Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 290
qumran Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 20
rabbis Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
rahab Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 232
redemption, earthly nan
redemption nan
redemptive Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 19, 20, 22
representation Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 32
repurposing of res sacrae\n Farag, What Makes a Church Sacred? Legal and Ritual Perspectives from Late Antiquity (2021) 268
resurrection Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 244, 257; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 41
revelation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 190
rhetorical arrangement Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 16, 17, 252
rhetorical handbooks Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 193
rhetorical topoi, death/events beyond death Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 75
rhetorics, rhetoric Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 29, 33, 35
ritual, ritual, purity Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 27
ritual Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 27; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
rome Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 35; Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 232, 235
sabbath Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
sacrifice, and atonement Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 1011, 1012
sacrifice, sacrificial, atonement sacrifice Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 33
sacrifice, sacrificial Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 19, 20, 27, 30, 33, 34, 35
sacrifice Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 341, 349, 350
saint mary, as theotokos (mother of god) Farag, What Makes a Church Sacred? Legal and Ritual Perspectives from Late Antiquity (2021) 257
salvation Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
sanctuary Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 190; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 341
self, self-sacrificial Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 22
self Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 33, 35
shame Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 19, 20, 30, 34, 35
sins Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
smoke' Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 92
solidarity Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 7, 20, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 41
space, spatial, space-time Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 7
space, spatial, spatial theory Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 7
space, spatial Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 19, 22, 27, 34
stephen Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
story Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 7, 20
structure (of hebrews, literary) Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 123, 276, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 289, 290, 292
structure of hebrews Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 16, 17, 75
suffering Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 230, 232, 233, 243, 244
suicide Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 22
syncrisis, jesus/angels Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 75
syncrisis Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 75
teacher Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 27
temple Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 1012; Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 27, 32, 35; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 190; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
tent Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 89, 123, 128, 190
tent of testimony Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
testimony, testify Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31, 35
theotokos (mother of god), mary as Farag, What Makes a Church Sacred? Legal and Ritual Perspectives from Late Antiquity (2021) 257
throne Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
throne of god, hebrews appropriation of nan nan
time Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 19, 22, 27
topos Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 257
torah Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 350
transfiguration Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
trauma, traumatic Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 7, 19, 20, 22, 28, 34, 35
twelve Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
valentinians Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
victim Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 27
wilderness generation Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 231
wisdom Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
witness Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 7, 19, 35
women Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 56
world Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 89