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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8251
New Testament, Hebrews, 11.38


ὧν οὐκ ἦν ἄξιος ὁ κόσμος ἐπὶ ἐρημίαις πλανώμενοι καὶ ὄρεσι καὶ σπηλαίοις καὶ ταῖς ὀπαῖς τῆς γῆς.(of whom the world was not worthy), wandering in deserts, mountains, caves, and the holes of the earth.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

42 results
1. Septuagint, Daniel, 7.9 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.11, 5.22, 7.9, 34.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.11. וַתִּקְרְבוּן וַתַּעַמְדוּן תַּחַת הָהָר וְהָהָר בֹּעֵר בָּאֵשׁ עַד־לֵב הַשָּׁמַיִם חֹשֶׁךְ עָנָן וַעֲרָפֶל׃ 5.22. וְעַתָּה לָמָּה נָמוּת כִּי תֹאכְלֵנוּ הָאֵשׁ הַגְּדֹלָה הַזֹּאת אִם־יֹסְפִים אֲנַחְנוּ לִשְׁמֹעַ אֶת־קוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ עוֹד וָמָתְנוּ׃ 7.9. וְיָדַעְתָּ כִּי־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הוּא הָאֱלֹהִים הָאֵל הַנֶּאֱמָן שֹׁמֵר הַבְּרִית וְהַחֶסֶד לְאֹהֲבָיו וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מצותו [מִצְוֺתָיו] לְאֶלֶף דּוֹר׃ 4.11. And ye came near and stood under the mountain; and the mountain burned with fire unto the heart of heaven, with darkness, cloud, and thick darkness." 5.22. Now therefore why should we die? for this great fire will consume us; if we hear the voice of the LORD our God any more, then we shall die." 7.9. Know therefore that the LORD thy God, He is God; the faithful God, who keepeth covet and mercy with them that love Him and keep His commandments to a thousand generations;" 34.10. And there hath not arisen a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the LORD knew face to face;"
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 4.1, 4.8-4.9, 4.31, 14.31, 15.17-15.18, 19.9, 33.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.1. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוָה בִּי אֲדֹנָי לֹא אִישׁ דְּבָרִים אָנֹכִי גַּם מִתְּמוֹל גַּם מִשִּׁלְשֹׁם גַּם מֵאָז דַּבֶּרְךָ אֶל־עַבְדֶּךָ כִּי כְבַד־פֶּה וּכְבַד לָשׁוֹן אָנֹכִי׃ 4.1. וַיַּעַן מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמֶר וְהֵן לֹא־יַאֲמִינוּ לִי וְלֹא יִשְׁמְעוּ בְּקֹלִי כִּי יֹאמְרוּ לֹא־נִרְאָה אֵלֶיךָ יְהוָה׃ 4.8. וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא יַאֲמִינוּ לָךְ וְלֹא יִשְׁמְעוּ לְקֹל הָאֹת הָרִאשׁוֹן וְהֶאֱמִינוּ לְקֹל הָאֹת הָאַחֲרוֹן׃ 4.9. וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא יַאֲמִינוּ גַּם לִשְׁנֵי הָאֹתוֹת הָאֵלֶּה וְלֹא יִשְׁמְעוּן לְקֹלֶךָ וְלָקַחְתָּ מִמֵּימֵי הַיְאֹר וְשָׁפַכְתָּ הַיַּבָּשָׁה וְהָיוּ הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר תִּקַּח מִן־הַיְאֹר וְהָיוּ לְדָם בַּיַּבָּשֶׁת׃ 4.31. וַיַּאֲמֵן הָעָם וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ כִּי־פָקַד יְהוָה אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכִי רָאָה אֶת־עָנְיָם וַיִּקְּדוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ׃ 14.31. וַיַּרְא יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַיָּד הַגְּדֹלָה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוָה בְּמִצְרַיִם וַיִּירְאוּ הָעָם אֶת־יְהוָה וַיַּאֲמִינוּ בַּיהוָה וּבְמֹשֶׁה עַבְדּוֹ׃ 15.17. תְּבִאֵמוֹ וְתִטָּעֵמוֹ בְּהַר נַחֲלָתְךָ מָכוֹן לְשִׁבְתְּךָ פָּעַלְתָּ יְהוָה מִקְּדָשׁ אֲדֹנָי כּוֹנְנוּ יָדֶיךָ׃ 15.18. יְהוָה יִמְלֹךְ לְעֹלָם וָעֶד׃ 19.9. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי בָּא אֵלֶיךָ בְּעַב הֶעָנָן בַּעֲבוּר יִשְׁמַע הָעָם בְּדַבְּרִי עִמָּךְ וְגַם־בְּךָ יַאֲמִינוּ לְעוֹלָם וַיַּגֵּד מֹשֶׁה אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הָעָם אֶל־יְהוָה׃ 4.1. And Moses answered and said: ‘But, behold, they will not believe me, nor hearken unto my voice; for they will say: The lord hath not appeared unto thee.’" 4.8. And it shall come to pass, if they will not believe thee, neither hearken to the voice of the first sign, that they will believe the voice of the latter sign." 4.9. And it shall come to pass, if they will not believe even these two signs, neither hearken unto thy voice, that thou shalt take of the water of the river, and pour it upon the dry land; and the water which thou takest out of the river shall become blood upon the dry land.’" 4.31. And the people believed; and when they heard that the LORD had remembered the children of Israel, and that He had seen their affliction, then they bowed their heads and worshipped." 14.31. And Israel saw the great work which the LORD did upon the Egyptians, and the people feared the LORD; and they believed in the LORD, and in His servant Moses." 15.17. Thou bringest them in, and plantest them in the mountain of Thine inheritance, The place, O LORD, which Thou hast made for Thee to dwell in, The sanctuary, O Lord, which Thy hands have established." 15.18. The LORD shall reign for ever and ever." 19.9. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Lo, I come unto thee in a thick cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with thee, and may also believe thee for ever.’ And Moses told the words of the people unto the LORD." 33.20. And He said: ‘Thou canst not see My face, for man shall not see Me and live.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 5.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.9. אֶפְרַיִם לְשַׁמָּה תִהְיֶה בְּיוֹם תּוֹכֵחָה בְּשִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הוֹדַעְתִּי נֶאֱמָנָה׃ 5.9. Ephraim shall be desolate in the day of rebuke; Among the tribes of Israel do I make known that which shall surely be. ."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 12.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.8. פֶּה אֶל־פֶּה אֲדַבֶּר־בּוֹ וּמַרְאֶה וְלֹא בְחִידֹת וּתְמֻנַת יְהוָה יַבִּיט וּמַדּוּעַ לֹא יְרֵאתֶם לְדַבֵּר בְּעַבְדִּי בְמֹשֶׁה׃ 12.8. with him do I speak mouth to mouth, even manifestly, and not in dark speeches; and the similitude of the LORD doth he behold; wherefore then were ye not afraid to speak against My servant, against Moses?’"
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 9.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.8. וַיהוָה לְעוֹלָם יֵשֵׁב כּוֹנֵן לַמִּשְׁפָּט כִּסְאוֹ׃ 9.8. But the LORD is enthroned for ever; He hath established His throne for judgment."
7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 22.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

22.19. וַיֹּאמֶר לָכֵן שְׁמַע דְּבַר־יְהוָה רָאִיתִי אֶת־יְהוָה יֹשֵׁב עַל־כִּסְאוֹ וְכָל־צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם עֹמֵד עָלָיו מִימִינוֹ וּמִשְּׂמֹאלוֹ׃ 22.19. And he said: ‘Therefore hear thou the word of the LORD. I saw the LORD sitting on His throne, and all the host of heaven standing by Him on His right hand and on his left."
8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 6.18-6.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.18. וַיֵּרְדוּ אֵלָיו וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל אֱלִישָׁע אֶל־יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר הַךְ־נָא אֶת־הַגּוֹי־הַזֶּה בַּסַּנְוֵרִים וַיַּכֵּם בַּסַּנְוֵרִים כִּדְבַר אֱלִישָׁע׃ 6.19. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם אֱלִישָׁע לֹא זֶה הַדֶּרֶךְ וְלֹא זֹה הָעִיר לְכוּ אַחֲרַי וְאוֹלִיכָה אֶתְכֶם אֶל־הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר תְּבַקֵּשׁוּן וַיֹּלֶךְ אוֹתָם שֹׁמְרוֹנָה׃ 6.21. וַיֹּאמֶר מֶלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־אֱלִישָׁע כִּרְאֹתוֹ אוֹתָם הַאַכֶּה אַכֶּה אָבִי׃ 6.22. וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא תַכֶּה הַאֲשֶׁר שָׁבִיתָ בְּחַרְבְּךָ וּבְקַשְׁתְּךָ אַתָּה מַכֶּה שִׂים לֶחֶם וָמַיִם לִפְנֵיהֶם וְיֹאכְלוּ וְיִשְׁתּוּ וְיֵלְכוּ אֶל־אֲדֹנֵיהֶם׃ 6.23. וַיִּכְרֶה לָהֶם כֵּרָה גְדוֹלָה וַיֹּאכְלוּ וַיִּשְׁתּוּ וַיְשַׁלְּחֵם וַיֵּלְכוּ אֶל־אֲדֹנֵיהֶם וְלֹא־יָסְפוּ עוֹד גְּדוּדֵי אֲרָם לָבוֹא בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 6.18. And when they came down to him, Elisha prayed unto the LORD, and said: ‘Smite this people, I pray Thee, with blindness.’ And He smote them with blindness according to the word of Elisha." 6.19. And Elisha said unto them: ‘This is not the way, neither is this the city; follow me, and I will bring you to the man whom ye seek.’ And he led them to Samaria." 6.20. And it came to pass, when they were come into Samaria, that Elisha said: ‘LORD, open the eyes of these men, that they may see.’ And the LORD opened their eyes, and they saw; and, behold, they were in the midst of Samaria." 6.21. And the king of Israel said unto Elisha, when he saw them: ‘My father, shall I smite them? shall I smite them?’" 6.22. And he answered: ‘Thou shalt not smite them; hast thou taken captive with thy sword and with thy bow those whom thou wouldest smite? set bread and water before them, that they may eat and drink, and go to their master.’" 6.23. And he prepared great provision for them; and when they had eaten and drunk, he sent them away, and they went to their master. And the bands of Aram came no more into the land of Israel."
9. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.1, 6.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.1. שִׁמְעוּ דְבַר־יְהוָה קְצִינֵי סְדֹם הַאֲזִינוּ תּוֹרַת אֱלֹהֵינוּ עַם עֲמֹרָה׃ 1.1. חֲזוֹן יְשַׁעְיָהוּ בֶן־אָמוֹץ אֲשֶׁר חָזָה עַל־יְהוּדָה וִירוּשָׁלִָם בִּימֵי עֻזִּיָּהוּ יוֹתָם אָחָז יְחִזְקִיָּהוּ מַלְכֵי יְהוּדָה׃ 6.1. בִּשְׁנַת־מוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ עֻזִּיָּהוּ וָאֶרְאֶה אֶת־אֲדֹנָי יֹשֵׁב עַל־כִּסֵּא רָם וְנִשָּׂא וְשׁוּלָיו מְלֵאִים אֶת־הַהֵיכָל׃ 6.1. הַשְׁמֵן לֵב־הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאָזְנָיו הַכְבֵּד וְעֵינָיו הָשַׁע פֶּן־יִרְאֶה בְעֵינָיו וּבְאָזְנָיו יִשְׁמָע וּלְבָבוֹ יָבִין וָשָׁב וְרָפָא לוֹ׃ 1.1. The Vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz, which he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah." 6.1. In the year that king Uzziah died I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne high and lifted up, and His train filled the temple."
10. Septuagint, Isaiah, 6.1 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

11. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 1.26-1.28 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.26. וּמִמַּעַל לָרָקִיעַ אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשָׁם כְּמַרְאֵה אֶבֶן־סַפִּיר דְּמוּת כִּסֵּא וְעַל דְּמוּת הַכִּסֵּא דְּמוּת כְּמַרְאֵה אָדָם עָלָיו מִלְמָעְלָה׃ 1.27. וָאֵרֶא כְּעֵין חַשְׁמַל כְּמַרְאֵה־אֵשׁ בֵּית־לָהּ סָבִיב מִמַּרְאֵה מָתְנָיו וּלְמָעְלָה וּמִמַּרְאֵה מָתְנָיו וּלְמַטָּה רָאִיתִי כְּמַרְאֵה־אֵשׁ וְנֹגַהּ לוֹ סָבִיב׃ 1.28. כְּמַרְאֵה הַקֶּשֶׁת אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בֶעָנָן בְּיוֹם הַגֶּשֶׁם כֵּן מַרְאֵה הַנֹּגַהּ סָבִיב הוּא מַרְאֵה דְּמוּת כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה וָאֶרְאֶה וָאֶפֹּל עַל־פָּנַי וָאֶשְׁמַע קוֹל מְדַבֵּר׃ 1.26. And above the firmament that was over their heads was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone; and upon the likeness of the throne was a likeness as the appearance of a man upon it above." 1.27. And I saw as the colour of electrum, as the appearance of fire round about enclosing it, from the appearance of his loins and upward; and from the appearance of his loins and downward I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and there was brightness round about him." 1.28. As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud in the day of rain, so was the appearance of the brightness round about. This was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the LORD. And when I saw it, I fell upon my face, and I heard a voice of one that spoke."
12. Anon., Jubilees, 1.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.12. and after their uncleanness, and after their shame, and will serve their gods, and these will prove unto them an offence and a tribulation and an affliction and a snare.
13. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 6.10-6.14, 9.14, 11.8-11.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 3.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 3.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 4.18-4.20, 4.39-4.42, 4.44, 6.19, 6.28, 7.7, 7.29, 7.31, 10.6, 15.37 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.18. When the quadrennial games were being held at Tyre and the king was present,' 4.19. the vile Jason sent envoys, chosen as being Antiochian citizens from Jerusalem, to carry three hundred silver drachmas for the sacrifice to Hercules. Those who carried the money, however, thought best not to use it for sacrifice, because that was inappropriate, but to expend it for another purpose.' 4.20. So this money was intended by the sender for the sacrifice to Hercules, but by the decision of its carriers it was applied to the construction of triremes.' 4.39. When many acts of sacrilege had been committed in the city by Lysimachus with the connivance of Menelaus, and when report of them had spread abroad, the populace gathered against Lysimachus, because many of the gold vessels had already been stolen.' 4.40. And since the crowds were becoming aroused and filled with anger, Lysimachus armed about three thousand men and launched an unjust attack, under the leadership of a certain Auranus, a man advanced in years and no less advanced in folly.' 4.41. But when the Jews became aware of Lysimachus' attack, some picked up stones, some blocks of wood, and others took handfuls of the ashes that were lying about, and threw them in wild confusion at Lysimachus and his men.' 4.42. As a result, they wounded many of them, and killed some, and put them all to flight; and the temple robber himself they killed close by the treasury.' 4.44. When the king came to Tyre, three men sent by the senate presented the case before him.' 6.19. But he, welcoming death with honor rather than life with pollution, went up to the the rack of his own accord, spitting out the flesh,' 6.28. and leave to the young a noble example of how to die a good death willingly and nobly for the revered and holy laws.'When he had said this, he went at once to the rack.' 7.7. After the first brother had died in this way, they brought forward the second for their sport. They tore off the skin of his head with the hair, and asked him, 'Will you eat rather than have your body punished limb by limb?' 7.29. Do not fear this butcher, but prove worthy of your brothers. Accept death, so that in God's mercy I may get you back again with your brothers.' 7.31. But you, who have contrived all sorts of evil against the Hebrews, will certainly not escape the hands of God.' 10.6. And they celebrated it for eight days with rejoicing, in the manner of the feast of booths, remembering how not long before, during the feast of booths, they had been wandering in the mountains and caves like wild animals.' 15.37. This, then, is how matters turned out with Nicanor. And from that time the city has been in the possession of the Hebrews. So I too will here end my story.'
17. Philo of Alexandria, Against Flaccus, 74 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

74. for he arrested thirty-eight members of our council of elders, which our saviour and benefactor, Augustus, elected to manage the affairs of the Jewish nation after the death of the king of our own nation, having sent written commands to that effect to Manius Maximus when he was about to take upon himself for the second time the government of Egypt and of the country, he arrested them, I say, in their own houses, and commanded them to be thrown into prison, and arranged a splendid procession to send through the middle of the market-place a body of old men prisoners, with their hands bound, some with thongs and others with iron chains, whom he led in this plight into the theatre, a most miserable spectacle, and one wholly unsuited to the times.
18. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 10.38 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.38. for, by setting out from a contempt of God, he barbarously slew all the righteous men that were among the Hebrews; nor would he spare the prophets, for he every day slew some of them, till Jerusalem was overflown with blood.
21. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.5, 2.4-2.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. who by the power of God are guarded through faith for a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time. 2.4. coming to him, a living stone, rejected indeed by men, but chosen by God, precious. 2.5. You also, as living stones, are built up as a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God through Jesus Christ.
22. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 3.19, 4.11-4.12, 7.31, 10.1-10.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.19. Forthe wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written,"He has taken the wise in their craftiness. 4.11. Even to this present hour we hunger, thirst, arenaked, are beaten, and have no certain dwelling place. 4.12. We toil,working with our own hands. Being reviled, we bless. Being persecuted,we endure. 7.31. and those who use the world, as not using it to the fullest. Forthe mode of this world passes away. 10.1. Now I would not have you ignorant, brothers, that our fatherswere all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; 10.2. andwere all baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea; 10.3. andall ate the same spiritual food; 10.4. and all drank the samespiritual drink. For they drank of a spiritual rock that followed them,and the rock was Christ. 10.5. However with most of them, God was notwell pleased, for they were overthrown in the wilderness. 10.6. Nowthese things were our examples, to the intent we should not lust afterevil things, as they also lusted. 10.7. Neither be idolaters, as someof them were. As it is written, "The people sat down to eat and drink,and rose up to play. 10.8. Neither let us commit sexual immorality,as some of them committed, and in one day twenty-three thousand fell. 10.9. Neither let us test the Lord, as some of them tested, andperished by the serpents. 10.10. Neither grumble, as some of them alsogrumbled, and perished by the destroyer. 10.11. Now all these thingshappened to them by way of example, and they were written for ouradmonition, on whom the ends of the ages have come. 10.12. Thereforelet him who thinks he stands be careful that he doesn't fall. 10.13. No temptation has taken you but such as man can bear. God isfaithful, who will not allow you to be tempted above what you are able,but will with the temptation also make the way of escape, that you maybe able to endure it.
23. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 2.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.15. who killed both the Lord Jesus and their own prophets, and drove us out, and didn't please God, and are contrary to all men;
24. New Testament, 2 Peter, 2.4, 2.17, 3.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.4. For if God didn't spare angels when they sinned, but cast them down to Tartarus, and committed them to pits of darkness, to be reserved to judgment; 2.17. These are wells without water, clouds driven by a storm; for whom the blackness of darkness has been reserved forever. 3.13. But, according to his promise, we look for new heavens and a new earth, in which dwells righteousness.
25. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 12.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

26. New Testament, Acts, 3.19 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.19. Repent therefore, and turn again, that your sins may be blotted out, that so there may come times of refreshing from the presence of the Lord
27. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.21, 2.2, 2.11-2.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.21. far above all rule, and authority, and power, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come. 2.2. in which you once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the powers of the air, the spirit who now works in the sons of disobedience; 2.11. Therefore remember that once you, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called "uncircumcision" by that which is called "circumcision," (in the flesh, made by hands); 2.12. that you were at that time separate from Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covets of the promise, having no hope and without God in the world. 2.13. But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off are made near in the blood of Christ. 2.14. For he is our peace, who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of partition 2.15. having abolished in the flesh the hostility, the law of commandments contained in ordices, that he might create in himself one new man of the two, making peace; 2.16. and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, having killed the hostility thereby. 2.17. He came and preached peace to you who were far off and to those who were near. 2.18. For through him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father. 2.19. So then you are no longer strangers and sojourners, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God 2.20. being built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the chief cornerstone; 2.21. in whom the whole building, fitted together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord; 2.22. in whom you also are built together for a habitation of God in the Spirit.
28. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.1, 1.1-2.18, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.5-2.18, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.14, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 3.1-4.14, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.7, 4.8, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.15-5.10, 4.16, 5.7, 5.9, 5.11-6.20, 6.1, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 6.19, 6.20, 7.1, 7.1-10.18, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.25, 7.26, 7.27, 7.28, 8, 8.1-9.28, 8.13, 9.1, 9.9, 9.10, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9, 10.10, 10.11, 10.12, 10.13, 10.14, 10.15, 10.16, 10.17, 10.18, 10.19, 10.20, 10.21, 10.22, 10.23, 10.24, 10.25, 10.26, 10.27, 10.28, 10.29, 10.30, 10.31, 10.32, 10.33, 10.34, 10.35, 10.36, 10.37, 10.38, 10.39, 11, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 11.10, 11.11, 11.12, 11.13, 11.14, 11.15, 11.16, 11.17, 11.18, 11.19, 11.20, 11.21, 11.22, 11.23, 11.24, 11.25, 11.26, 11.27, 11.28, 11.29, 11.30, 11.31, 11.32, 11.33, 11.34, 11.35, 11.36, 11.37, 11.39, 11.40, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8, 12.9, 12.10, 12.11, 12.12, 12.13, 12.14, 12.16, 12.17, 12.21, 12.22, 12.23, 12.24, 12.25, 12.26, 12.27, 12.28, 12.29, 13, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.9, 13.10, 13.11, 13.12, 13.13, 13.14, 13.15, 13.16, 13.17, 13.18, 13.19, 13.20, 13.21, 13.22, 13.23, 13.24, 13.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. God, having in the past spoken to the fathers through the prophets at many times and in various ways
29. New Testament, Romans, 8.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.18. For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which will be revealed toward us.
30. New Testament, John, 4.44, 12.25, 12.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.44. For Jesus himself testified that a prophet has no honor in his own country. 12.25. He who loves his life will lose it. He who hates his life in this world will keep it to eternal life. 12.31. Now is the judgment of this world. Now the prince of this world will be cast out.
31. New Testament, Luke, 4.24, 20.34-20.35 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.24. He said, "Most assuredly I tell you, no prophet is acceptable in his hometown. 20.34. Jesus said to them, "The sons of this age marry, and are given in marriage. 20.35. But those who are considered worthy to attain to that age and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage.
32. New Testament, Mark, 10.30 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.30. but he will receive one hundred times more now in this time, houses, brothers, sisters, mothers, children, and land, with persecutions; and in the age to come eternal life.
33. New Testament, Matthew, 5.12, 12.32, 13.57, 23.29-23.32 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.12. Rejoice, and be exceedingly glad, for great is your reward in heaven. For that is how they persecuted the prophets who were before you. 12.32. Whoever speaks a word against the Son of Man, it will be forgiven him; but whoever speaks against the Holy Spirit, it will not be forgiven him, neither in this world, nor in that which is to come. 13.57. They were offended by him. But Jesus said to them, "A prophet is not without honor, except in his own country, and in his own house. 23.29. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you build the tombs of the prophets, and decorate the tombs of the righteous 23.30. and say, 'If we had lived in the days of our fathers, we wouldn't have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets.' 23.31. Therefore you testify to yourselves that you are sons of those who killed the prophets. 23.32. Fill up, then, the measure of your fathers.
34. Athenagoras, Apology Or Embassy For The Christians, 9.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

35. Athanasius, Life of Anthony, 7.12 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

36. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

87a. (בראשית יט, ג) ויפצר בם מאד א"ר אלעזר מכאן שמסרבין לקטן ואין מסרבין לגדול,כתיב (בראשית יח, ה) ואקחה פת לחם וכתיב (בראשית יח, ז) ואל הבקר רץ אברהם אמר רבי אלעזר מכאן שצדיקים אומרים מעט ועושים הרבה רשעים אומרים הרבה ואפילו מעט אינם עושים,מנלן מעפרון מעיקרא כתיב (בראשית כג, טו) ארץ ארבע מאות שקל כסף ולבסוף כתיב (בראשית כג, טז) וישמע אברהם אל עפרון וישקל אברהם לעפרון את הכסף אשר דבר באזני בני חת ארבע מאות שקל כסף עובר לסוחר דלא שקל מיניה אלא קנטרי דאיכא דוכתא דקרי ליה לתיקלא קנטירא,כתיב (בראשית יח, ו) קמח וכתיב סלת א"ר יצחק מכאן שהאשה צרה עיניה באורחים יותר מן האיש,כתיב (בראשית יח, ו) לושי ועשי עוגות וכתיב (בראשית יח, ח) ויקח חמאה וחלב ובן הבקר ואילו לחם לא אייתי לקמייהו,אמר אפרים מקשאה תלמידו של רבי מאיר משמיה דרבי מאיר אברהם אבינו אוכל חולין בטהרה היה ושרה אמנו אותו היום פירסה נדה,(בראשית יח, ט) ויאמרו אליו איה שרה אשתך ויאמר הנה באהל להודיע ששרה אמנו צנועה היתה אמר רב יהודה אמר רב ואיתימא רבי יצחק יודעים היו מלאכי השרת ששרה אמנו באהל היתה אלא מאי באהל כדי לחבבה על בעלה,רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא אמר כדי לשגר לה כוס של ברכה תני משום רבי יוסי למה נקוד על איו שבאליו לימדה תורה דרך ארץ שישאל אדם באכסניא שלו והאמר שמואל אין שואלין בשלום אשה כלל על ידי בעלה שאני,(בראשית יח, יב) אחרי בלותי היתה לי עדנה אמר רב חסדא אחר שנתבלה הבשר ורבו הקמטין נתעדן הבשר ונתפשטו הקמטין וחזר היופי למקומו,כתיב (בראשית יח, יב) ואדוני זקן וכתיב (בראשית יח, יג) ואני זקנתי דלא מותיב הקב"ה כדקאמרה איהי,תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל גדול שלום שאפי' הקב"ה שינה בו שנאמר (בראשית יח, יב) ותצחק שרה בקרבה וגו' (בראשית יח, יב) ואדוני זקן וכתיב (בראשית יח, יג) ויאמר ה' אל אברהם וגו' ואני זקנתי,(בראשית כא, ז) ותאמר מי מלל לאברהם הניקה בנים שרה כמה בנים הניקה שרה אמר רבי לוי אותו היום שגמל אברהם את יצחק בנו עשה סעודה גדולה היו כל אומות העולם מרננים ואומרים ראיתם זקן וזקנה שהביאו אסופי מן השוק ואומרים בנינו הוא ולא עוד אלא שעושין משתה גדול להעמיד דבריהם,מה עשה אברהם אבינו הלך וזימן כל גדולי הדור ושרה אמנו זימנה את נשותיהם וכל אחת ואחת הביאה בנה עמה ומניקתה לא הביאה ונעשה נס בשרה אמנו ונפתחו דדיה כשני מעיינות והניקה את כולן ועדיין היו מרננים ואומרים אם שרה הבת תשעים שנה תלד אברהם בן מאה שנה יוליד מיד נהפך קלסתר פנים של יצחק ונדמה לאברהם פתחו כולם ואמרו (בראשית כה, יט) אברהם הוליד את יצחק,עד אברהם לא היה זקנה מאן דהוה בעי למשתעי בהדי אברהם משתעי בהדי יצחק בהדי יצחק משתעי בהדי אברהם אתא אברהם בעא רחמי והוה זקנה שנאמר (בראשית כד, א) ואברהם זקן בא בימים,עד יעקב לא הוה חולשא אתא יעקב בעא רחמי והוה חולשא שנאמר (בראשית מח, א) ויאמר ליוסף הנה אביך חולה עד דאתא אלישע לא הוה דחליש ואתפח אתא אלישע בעא רחמי ואתפח שנאמר (מלכים ב יג, יד) ואלישע חלה את חליו אשר ימות בו מכלל דחלה חלי אחריתי,תנו רבנן שלשה חלאין חלה אלישע אחד שדחפו לגיחזי בשתי ידיו ואחד שגירה דובין בתינוקות ואחד שמת בו שנאמר (מלכים ב יג, יד) ואלישע חלה את חליו אשר ימות בו:,אלא עד שלא יתחילו במלאכה צא ואמור להם על מנת שאין לכם עלי אלא פת וקטנית כו': אמר ליה רב אחא בריה דרב יוסף לרב חסדא פת קטנית תנן או פת וקטנית תנן אמר ליה האלהים צריכה וי"ו כי מורדיא דלברות:,רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר אינו צריך הכל כמנהג המדינה: הכל לאתויי מאי לאתויי הא דתנן השוכר את הפועל ואמר לו כאחד וכשנים מבני העיר נותן לו כפחות שבשכירות דברי רבי יהושע וחכמים אומרים משמנין ביניהם:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ואלו אוכלין מן התורה העושה במחובר לקרקע בשעת גמר מלאכה ובתלוש מן הקרקע עד שלא נגמרה מלאכתו ובדבר שגידולו מן הארץ ואלו שאין אוכלים העושה במחובר לקרקע 87a. b“And he urged them greatly”(Genesis 19:3), only after which they acquiesced? bRabbi Elazar says: From herewe learn bthat one may declinethe request of ba lesser man, but one may not declinethe request of ba great man. /b,The Gemara continues analyzing the same passage. bIt is written: “And I will fetch a morsel of bread,and satisfy your heart” (Genesis 18:5), band it is written: “And Abraham ran to the herd,and fetched a calf tender and good” (Genesis 18:7). bRabbi Elazar said: From herewe learn bthatthe brighteous say little and do much,whereas the bwicked say much and do not do even a little. /b, bFrom where do wederive this principle that the wicked say much and do not do even a little? We derive it bfrom Ephron. Initially, it is writtenthat Ephron said to Abraham: b“A piece of land worth four hundred shekels of silver,what is that between me and you?” (Genesis 23:15). And bultimately it is written: “And Abraham listened to Ephron; and Abraham weighed to Ephron the silver, which he had named in the hearing of the children of Heth, four hundred shekels of silver, current money with the merchant”(Genesis 23:16), i.e., shekels that could be used in any location. This teaches bthatnot only did Ephron take shekels from Abraham, bhe took from him only centenaria [ ikantarei /i],i.e., superior coins, bas there is a place where they call a shekel a centenarius. /b,The verse states: “Make ready quickly three measures of flour, fine flour” (Genesis 18:6). The Gemara questions the apparent redundancy. bIt is written: “Flour,” and it isalso bwritten: “Fine flour.” Rabbi Yitzḥak says: From herewe learn bthat a woman is more stingy with guests than a man.Sarah wanted to use merely flour, and Abraham persuaded her to use fine flour.,The Gemara continues its analysis of the verses. bIt is written: “Knead it, and make cakes”(Genesis 18:6), and two verses later bit is written: “And he took curd, and milk, and the calfwhich he prepared” (Genesis 18:8). Abraham served these items to the guests, band yet he did not bring bread before themdespite having instructed Sarah to prepare baked goods., bEfrayim Miksha’a, disciple of Rabbi Meir, says in the name of Rabbi Meir: Abraham, our forefather, would eat non-sacred foodonly when he was bina state of britual purity,i.e., he treated his food as though it were consecrated to God. bAnd Sarah, our foremother, menstruated that day,which rendered the baked goods ritually impure, preventing Abraham from handling them. Therefore, they could not serve bread to their guests.,The next verse states: b“And they said to him: Where is Sarah your wife? And he said: Behold, in the tent”(Genesis 18:9). The Gemara explains that this verse serves bto informus bthat Sarah, our foremother, was a modest woman,as she remained inside while the guests were present. bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says, and some sayit is bRabbi Yitzḥakwho says: bThe ministering angels,who visited Abraham in the guise of travelers, bknew that Sarah, our foremother, was inside the tent. Rather, whatwas the purpose of their eliciting Abraham’s response: bIn the tent?It was bin order to endear her to her husband,by accentuating Sarah’s modesty., bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says:They inquired about her bin order to send herthe bcup of blessing.It is customary to recite Grace after Meals over a cup of wine, which is then distributed to those present. bIt is taught in the name of Rabbi Yosei: Why are there dotsin the Torah scroll bupon the letters ialef /i, iyod /i,and ivavinthe word b“to him [ ieilav /i]”?These letters spell iayo /i, which means: Where is he? bThe Torah is teaching the proper etiquette,which is bthat a person should inquire of his hostessabout his host, just as he should inquire about the welfare of his hostess from the host. The Gemara asks: bBut doesn’t Shmuel say: One may not inquire about the welfare of a woman at all,as this is immodest? The Gemara answers: A greeting bby means of her husband is different.Asking a husband about his wife is not considered immodest.,The Gemara analyzes the verses that describe Sarah at the time: “And Sarah laughed within herself, saying: bAfter I am waxed old [ iveloti /i] shall I have pleasure [ iedna /i]”(Genesis 18:12). bRav Ḥisda says: After the skin had worn out [ initballa /i] and become full of wrinkles, the skin once again became soft [ initadden /i] and her wrinkles smoothed out, andSarah’s bbeauty returned to its place. /b, bIt is writtenthat Sarah said: b“And my lord is old”(Genesis 18:12), band it is written:“And the Lord said to Abraham: Why did Sarah laugh, saying: Shall I certainly bear a child, band I am old?”(Genesis 18:13). This verse indicates that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, did not repeatto Abraham bthatwhich Sarah actually bsaid,that her husband is old. Why did God change the wording of her statement so that she was referring to herself?, bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Peace isof such bgreatimportance bthat even the Holy One, Blessed be He, alteredthe truth for the sake of preserving peace, bas it is stated: “And Sarah laughed within herself,saying: After I am waxed old shall I have pleasure, band my lord is old,” and it is written: “And the Lord said to Abraham:Why did Sarah laugh, saying: Shall I certainly bear a child, band I am old?” /b,In reference to Sarah having given birth to Isaac, the verse states: b“And she said: Who would have said to Abraham that Sarah should nurse children?”(Genesis 21:7). The Gemara asks: bHow many children did Sarah nurse?Why does the verse use the plural form when she had only one child? bRabbi Levi says: That day when Abraham weaned his son Isaac, he prepared a greatcelebratory bfeast. All of the nations of the world were gossiping and sayingto each other: bSeethis bold man and old woman who brought a foundling from the market and are saying: He is our son, and moreover they are making a great feast to bolster their claim. /b, bWhat did Abraham, our forefather, do? He went and invited all of the greatmen bofthat bgeneration, and Sarah, our foremother, invited their wives. Each and every oneof the wives bbrought her child with her but did not bring her wet nurse. And a miracle occurred to Sarah, our foremother, and her breasts were opened like two springs, and she nursed allof these children. bAnd stillthose people bwere gossiping and sayingto each other: Even bif Sarah,at bninety years of age, can give birth, can Abraham,at bone hundred years of age, fathera child? bImmediately, the countece of Isaac’s face transformed and appearedexactly like that bof Abraham. Everyone exclaimed and said: “Abraham fathered Isaac”(Genesis 25:19).,§ The Gemara continues discussing Abraham: bUntil Abraham, there was no aging,i.e., old age was not physically recognizable. Consequently, bone who wanted to speak to Abrahamwould mistakenly bspeak to Isaac,and vice versa: An individual who wanted to speak bto Isaacwould bspeak to Abraham,as they were indistinguishable. bAbraham came and prayed for mercy, and aging wasat last noticeable, bas it is stated: “And Abraham was old, well stricken in age”(Genesis 24:1), which is the first time that aging is mentioned in the Bible., bUntil Jacob, there was no illnessleading up to death; rather, one would die suddenly. bJacob came and prayed for mercy, and illness wasbrought to the world, allowing one to prepare for his death, bas it is stated: “And one said to Joseph: Behold, your father is sick”(Genesis 48:1), which is the first time that sickness preceding death is mentioned in the Bible. bUntil Elisha, one did not fall ill andthen bheal,as everyone who fell ill would die. bElisha came and prayed for mercy and he was healed, as it is written: “Now Elisha fell ill with his illness from which he was to die”(II Kings 13:14). bBy inference,one can derive that bhehad previously bfallen illwith bother illnessesfrom which he did not die., bThe Sages taught: Elisha fell ill with three illnesses: Onewas due to the fact bthat he pushed Gehazi away with both hands,i.e., he banished Gehazi without granting him a chance to repent (see II Kings, chapter 5). bOnewas due to the fact bthat he incited bears against young children(see II Kings 2:23–25). bAnd onewas the illness bfrom which he died, as it is stated: “Now Elisha fell ill of his illness from which he was to die”(II Kings 13:14).,§ The mishna (83a) teaches that Rabbi Yoḥa ben Matya said to his son: bRather, before they beginengaging bintheir blabor, go out and say to them:The stipulation that food will be provided is bon the condition that you havethe right to claim bfrom me onlya meal of bbread and legumes,which is the typical meal given to laborers. bRav Aḥa, son of Rav Yosef, said to Rav Ḥisda:Did bwe learn: Bread of legumes [ ipat kitnit /i],i.e., inferior-quality bread made of legumes, bordid bwe learn: Bread and legumes [ ipat vekitnit /i]?Rav Ḥisda bsaid to him: By God!That word ivekitnit brequiresat its beginning the letter ivav /ias large bas an oar [ imordeya /i]made bof cypresswood [ ideliberot /i], i.e., ipat vekitnitis undoubtedly the correct version.,§ The mishna teaches that bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says:The son of Rabbi Yoḥa ben Matya bdid not need to statethis, as the principle is: bEverything is in accordance with the regional custom.The Gemara asks: This term: bEverything,serves bto add what?What is the itannaincluding by this term? The Gemara answers: It serves bto add that which we learnedin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bone who hires a laborer and said to him:I will pay you bas one or two of the residents of the cityare paid, bhe gives himwages in accordance bwith the lowest wagepaid in that region. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Yehoshua. The Rabbis say: One dividesthe difference bbetweenthe highest and lowest paid wages, thereby giving the wages to this laborer according to the average of the regional custom. This ihalakhais alluded to in the statement of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel., strongMISHNA: /strong This mishna details the ihalakhathat a laborer is permitted to eat from the produce with which he is working. bAnd theselaborers bmay eat by Torah law:A laborer bwho works withproduce battached to the ground at the time of the completion ofits bwork,e.g., harvesting produce; banda laborer who works bwithproduce bdetached from the ground before the completion of its work,i.e., before it is sufficiently processed and thereby subject to tithes. bAndthis is the ihalakhaprovided that they are working bwith an item whose growth is from the land. And theseare laborers who bmay not eat:A laborer who bworks withproduce battached to the ground /b
37. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

7b. א"ר יוחנן משום ר"ש בן יוחי מיום שברא הקב"ה את העולם לא היה אדם שקראו להקב"ה אדון עד שבא אברהם וקראו אדון שנאמר (בראשית טו, ב) ויאמר אדני (אלהים) במה אדע כי אירשנה.,אמר רב אף דניאל לא נענה אלא בשביל אברהם שנא' (דניאל ט, יז) ועתה שמע אלהינו אל תפלת עבדך ואל תחנוניו והאר פניך על מקדשך השמם למען אדני למענך מבעי ליה,אלא למען אברהם שקראך אדון:,וא"ר יוחנן משום ר"ש בן יוחי מנין שאין מרצין לו לאדם בשעת כעסו שנאמר (שמות לג, יד) פני ילכו והנחותי לך:,ואמר ר"י משום ר"ש בן יוחי מיום שברא הקב"ה את עולמו לא היה אדם שהודה להקב"ה עד שבאתה לאה והודתו שנאמר (בראשית כט, לה) הפעם אודה את ה':,ראובן א"ר אלעזר אמרה לאה ראו מה בין בני לבן חמי דאילו בן חמי אע"ג דמדעתיה זבניה לבכירותיה דכתיב (בראשית כה, לג) וימכר את בכרתו ליעקב חזו מה כתיב ביה (בראשית כז, מא) וישטם עשו את יעקב,וכתיב (בראשית כז, לו) ויאמר הכי קרא שמו יעקב ויעקבני זה פעמים וגו',ואילו בני אע"ג דעל כרחיה שקליה יוסף לבכירותיה מניה דכתיב (דברי הימים א ה, א) ובחללו יצועי אביו נתנה בכורתו לבני יוסף אפי' הכי לא אקנא ביה דכתיב (בראשית לז, כא) וישמע ראובן ויצילהו מידם:,רות מאי רות א"ר יוחנן שזכתה ויצא ממנה דוד שריוהו להקב"ה בשירות ותשבחות,מנא לן דשמא גרים אמר רבי אליעזר דאמר קרא (תהלים מו, ט) לכו חזו מפעלות ה' אשר שם שמות בארץ אל תקרי שמות אלא שמות:,וא"ר יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי קשה תרבות רעה בתוך ביתו של אדם יותר ממלחמת גוג ומגוג שנאמר (תהלים ג, א) מזמור לדוד בברחו מפני אבשלום בנו וכתיב בתריה (תהלים ג, ב) ה' מה רבו צרי רבים קמים עלי ואילו גבי מלחמת גוג ומגוג כתיב (תהלים ב, א) למה רגשו גוים ולאומים יהגו ריק ואילו מה רבו צרי לא כתיב:,מזמור לדוד בברחו מפני אבשלום בנו מזמור לדוד קינה לדוד מיבעי ליה,אמר ר' שמעון בן אבישלום משל למה הדבר דומה לאדם שיצא עליו שטר חוב קודם שפרעו היה עצב לאחר שפרעו שמח,אף כן דוד כיון שאמר לו הקב"ה (שמואל ב יב, יא) הנני מקים עליך רעה מביתך היה עצב אמר שמא עבד או ממזר הוא דלא חייס עלי כיון דחזא דאבשלום הוא שמח משום הכי אמר מזמור:,וא"ר יוחנן משום ר"ש בן יוחי מותר להתגרות ברשעים בעולם הזה שנאמר (משלי כח, ד) עוזבי תורה יהללו רשע ושומרי תורה יתגרו בם,תניא נמי הכי רבי דוסתאי בר' מתון אומר מותר להתגרות ברשעים בעוה"ז שנא' עוזבי תורה יהללו רשע וגו' ואם לחשך אדם לומר והא כתיב (תהלים לז, א) אל תתחר במרעים אל תקנא בעושי עולה אמור לו מי שלבו נוקפו אומר כן אלא אל תתחר במרעים להיות כמרעים אל תקנא בעושי עולה להיות כעושי עולה,ואומר (משלי כג, יז) אל יקנא לבך בחטאים כי אם ביראת ה' כל היום,איני והאמר ר' יצחק אם ראית רשע שהשעה משחקת לו אל תתגרה בו שנאמר (תהלים י, ה) יחילו דרכיו בכל עת ולא עוד אלא שזוכה בדין שנאמר (תהלים י, ה) מרום משפטיך מנגדו ולא עוד אלא שרואה בצריו שנאמר (תהלים י, ה) כל צורריו יפיח בהם,לא קשיא הא במילי דידיה הא במילי דשמיא,ואיבעית אימא הא והא במילי דשמיא ולא קשיא הא ברשע שהשעה משחקת לו הא ברשע שאין השעה משחקת לו,ואב"א הא והא ברשע שהשעה משחקת לו ולא קשיא הא בצדיק גמור הא בצדיק שאינו גמור דאמר רב הונא מאי דכתיב (חבקוק א, יג) למה תביט בוגדים תחריש בבלע רשע צדיק ממנו וכי רשע בולע צדיק והא כתיב (תהלים לז, לג) ה' לא יעזבנו בידו וכתיב (משלי יב, כא) לא יאונה לצדיק כל און אלא צדיק ממנו בולע צדיק גמור אינו בולע,ואב"א שעה משחקת לו שאני:,וא"ר יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי כל הקובע מקום לתפלתו אויביו נופלים תחתיו שנאמר (שמואל ב ז, י) ושמתי מקום לעמי לישראל ונטעתיו ושכן תחתיו ולא ירגז עוד ולא יוסיפו בני עולה לענותו כאשר בראשונה,רב הונא רמי כתיב לענותו וכתיב לכלותו,בתחלה לענותו ולבסוף לכלותו:,וא"ר יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי גדולה שמושה של תורה יותר מלמודה שנא' (מלכים ב ג, יא) פה אלישע בן שפט אשר יצק מים על ידי אליהו למד לא נאמר אלא יצק מלמד שגדולה שמושה יותר מלמודה:,א"ל רבי יצחק לרב נחמן מ"ט לא אתי מר לבי כנישתא לצלויי אמר ליה לא יכילנא א"ל לכנפי למר עשרה וליצלי אמר ליה טריחא לי מלתא ולימא ליה מר לשלוחא דצבורא בעידנא דמצלי צבורא ליתי ולודעיה למר,א"ל מאי כולי האי א"ל דאמר ר' יוחנן משום ר"ש בן יוחי 7b. Until now, the Gemara has cited statements made by Rabbi Yoḥa in the name of the itanna /i, Rabbi Yosei. Now, the Gemara begins to cite what bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: From the day that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created the world there was no person who called him “Lord” until Abraham came and called him Lord. As it is stated: “And he said, ‘My Lord, God, by what shall I know that I will inherit it?’”(Genesis 15:8).,The Gemara cites another statement extolling that virtue of Abraham is mentioned, as bRav said: Even Daniel’s prayers were only answered on account of Abraham, as it is stated: “And now listen, God, to the prayer of Your servant and to his supplication; and cause Your face to shine upon Your desolate Temple, for the sake of the Lord”(Daniel 9:17). The verse bshould have said:And cause Your face to shine upon Your desolate Temple, bfor Your sake,as Daniel was addressing the Lord., bRather,this verse contains an allusion that the prayer should be accepted bfor the sake of Abraham, who called You, Lord.Daniel utilized that name of God in order to evoke Abraham’s virtue and enhance his prayer., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: From whereis it derived bthat one must not placate a person whilethe person in the throes of bhis anger? As it is stated: “My face will go, and I will give you rest”(Exodus 33:14)., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: From the day the Holy One, Blessed be He, created the world, no one thanked the Holy One, Blessed be He, until Leah came and thanked Him, as it is stated:“And she became pregt and gave birth to a son, and she said, b‘This time I will give thanks to God,’and thus he was called Judah” (Genesis 29:35).,Tangential to the mention of Leah’s son, Judah, and the reason for his name, the Gemara explains the sources for other names, including bReuben. Rabbi Elazar said:Reuben’s name should be considered a prophecy by Leah, as bLeah said: See [ ire’u /i] the difference between my son [ ibeni /i] and the son of my father-in-law,Esau, son of Isaac. bEven thoughEsau bknowingly sold his birthrightto his brother Jacob, bas it is written: “And he sold his birthright to Jacob”(Genesis 25:33), nonetheless, bbehold what is writtenabout bhim: “And Esau hated Jacob”(Genesis 27:41).,Esau was not only angry over Isaac’s blessing, but he was angry about another matter as well, bas it is written: “And he said, ‘Is he not rightly named Jacob, for he has supplanted me twice?He took my birthright, and behold, now he has taken my blessing’” (Genesis 27:36). Despite having sold his birthright, he refused to relinquish it., bWhile my son,Reuben, beven though Joseph took his birthright from him by force, as it is written:“And the sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel, for he was the firstborn; bbut, since he defiled his father’s bed, his birthright was given to the sons of Joseph,son of Israel” (I Chronicles 5:1). bNevertheless, he was not jealous of him, as it is writtenwhen Joseph’s brothers sought to kill him: b“And Reuben heard and he saved him from their hands,saying ‘Let us not take his life’” (Genesis 37:21).,Continuing on the topic of names, the Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the name bRuth? Rabbi Yoḥa said: That she had the privilege that David, who inundated the Holy One, Blessed be He, with songs and praises, would descend from her.The name Ruth [ iRut /i] is etymologically similar in Hebrew to the word inundate [ iriva /i].,Regarding the basic assumption that these homiletic interpretations of names are allusions to one’s future, the Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive bthat the name affectsone’s life? bRabbi Eliezer saidthat bthe verse says: “Go, see the works of the Lord, who has made desolations [ ishamot /i] upon the earth”(Psalms 46:9). bDo not readthe word as ishamot /i, ratheras ishemot /i, names.The names given to people are, therefore, “the works of the Lord upon the earth.”, bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa saidother aggadic statements bin the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai:The existence of bwaywardchildren bin a person’s home is more troublesome than the war of Gog and Magog,the ultimate war, the climax of the travails of Messianic times. bAs it is stated: “A Psalm of David, when he fled from his son, Absalom”(Psalms 3:1). bAnd it is written thereafter: “Lord, how numerous are my enemies, many have risen against me”(Psalms 3:2). bWhile concerning the war of Gog and Magog,which is alluded to in the second chapter of Psalms, bit is written: “Why are the nations in an uproar? And why do the peoples speak for naught?The kings of the earth stand up and the rulers take counsel together, against the Lord, and against His anointed…He that sits in heaven laughs, the Lord mocks them” (Psalms 2:1–4). bYetin this chapter describing the war of Gog and Magog b“how numerous are my enemies” is not written,as it is not as difficult as raising a wayward son like Absalom.,Regarding the opening phrase of the psalm, which serves as its title, the Gemara wonders: It is said: b“A Psalm of David, when fleeing his son, Absalom.” A Psalm of David? It should havesaid: bA lament of David. /b, bRabbi Shimon ben Avishalom said a parable: To what is this similar?It is similar bto a person about whom a promissory note was issuedstating that he must repay a debt to the lender. bBefore he repaid it,he bwas despondent,worried how he will manage to repay the debt. bAfter he repaid it, he was glad. /b, bSo toowas the case with bDavid. When the Holy One, Blessed be He, told him,through Natan the prophet, after the incident with Bathsheba, b“Behold, I will raise up evil against you from your house”(II Samuel 12:11), David bwas despondent. He said: Perhapsit will be ba slave or a imamzer /iwho will rise up in my house, a person of such lowly status, who bwill have no pity on me. But onceDavid bsaw that Absalom was the onethrough whom the prophecy was to be fulfilled, bhe rejoiced,as he was certain that Absalom would show him mercy. bThat is whyDavid bsaid a psalm,not a lament, thanking God for punishing him in the least severe manner possible., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: One is permitted to provoke the wicked in this world.Though the ways of the wicked prosper, one is still permitted to provoke them and need not fear (Maharsha), bas it is stated: “Those who abandon the Torah will praise wickedness, and the keepers of the Torah will fight them”(Proverbs 28:4)., bThatstatement bwas also taughtin a ibaraita,as bRabbi Dostai, son of Rabbi Matun, says: One is permitted to provoke the wicked in this world, as it is stated: “Those who abandon the Torah will praise wickedness,and the keepers of the Torah will fight them.” bAnd if someone whispered to you, saying,on the contrary, bisn’t italso bwritten: “Do not compete with evil-doers, and do not envy the unjust”(Psalms 37:1), meaning that one should avoid provoking the wicked, bsay to him:Only bone whose heart strikes himwith pangs of conscience over sins that he committed bsays this. Rather,the true meaning of the verse is: bDo not compete with evil-doers, to be like the evil-doers, and do not envy the unjust to be like the unjust. /b,The Gemara cites proof from another verse. bAnd it says: “One shall not envy the unjust, but be in fear of the Lord all the day”(Proverbs 23:17). In this context, to envy means to seek to emulate the unjust.,From these verses in Psalms and Proverbs, it would seem that one is encouraged to provoke the wicked. The Gemara asks: bIs this so? Didn’t Rabbi Yitzḥak say: If you see a wicked person upon whom the hour is smiling, do not provoke him.As long as he is enjoying good fortune, there is no point in confronting him. bAs it is stated: “His ways prosper at all times;Your judgments are far beyond him; as for his adversaries, he snorts at them” (Psalms 10:5). The verse teaches us that the ways of the wicked will always succeed. bAnd not only that, but he emerges victorious in judgment, as it is stated: “Your judgments are far beyond him,”meaning that even when he is brought to justice, it does not affect him. bAnd not only that, but he witnesses his enemies’downfall, bas it is stated: “As for all his adversaries, he snorts at them.” /b,To resolve this contradiction with regard to whether or not one may provoke the wicked, the Gemara offers several explanations: bThis is not difficult,as it can be understood that bthis,which says that one may not provoke the wicked, is referring bto hispersonal bmatters, while that,which says that it is a mitzva to confront them, is referring bto matters of Heaven. /b, bAnd if you wish, sayinstead bthat this,which says not to confront the wicked band that,which says to confront the wicked, are both referring bto matters of Heaven, and,nevertheless, bit is not difficult. This,which says that one may not provoke the wicked, is referring bto a wicked person upon whom the hour is smiling,who is enjoying good fortune. bWhile that,which says that it is a mitzva to confront them, is referring bto a wicked person upon whom the hour is not smiling. /b, bAnd if you wish, sayinstead bthat this,which says not to confront band that,which says to confront, are both referring bto a wicked person upon whom the hour is smiling,but the question of whether one is permitted to confront him depends on who is confronting him. bAndnevertheless, this is bnot difficult. This,which says that it is a mitzva to confront them, is referring bto a completely righteous person, while this,which says that one may not confront the wicked, is referring bto one who is not completely righteous, as Rav Huna said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “Why do You look on those who deal treacherously and hold Your peace? When the wicked swallows the man more righteous than he?”(Habakkuk 1:13). This verse is difficult to understand. bDo the wicked swallow the righteous? Isn’t it written:“The wicked looks to the righteous and seeks to kill him; bthe Lord will not leave him in his hand,nor allow him to be condemned when he is judged” (Psalms 37:32–33), band it is written: “No mischief shall befall the righteous”(Proverbs 12:21)? bRather,in light of these verses, the verse: “The wicked swallows the man more righteous than he” means: bTheman who is bmore righteous than he,but not completely righteous, bhe swallows. The completely righteous he does not swallow. /b, bAnd if you wish, say:In general, the wicked cannot swallow the righteous, but bwhen the hour is smiling upon him, it is different.When the wicked are enjoying good fortune, even the righteous can be harmed ( iBirkat Hashem /i)., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai:Setting a fixed place for prayer is so important that bone who sets a fixed place for his prayer, his enemies fall beneath him, as it is said: “And I will appoint a place for My nation, Israel, and I will plant them, that they may dwell in their own place.”Through setting aside a place for prayer, they will merit to b“be disturbed no more; neither shall the children of wickedness afflict them anymore, as in the beginning”(II Samuel 7:10).,This verse, cited by the Gemara, leads to an additional point. bRav Huna raised a contradiction:In the book of Samuel, in this verse it is written b: “To afflict them,”while in the parallel verse in I Chronicles (17:9) it is written b: “To destroy them.” /b,The Gemara resolves this contradiction: The enemies of Israel intend first bto afflict them, and, ultimately,to bdestroy thementirely., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: Service of Torah is greater than its study,i.e., serving a Torah scholar and spending time in his company is greater than learning Torah from him. Torah study is one component of a Torah life, but one who serves a Torah scholar learns about every aspect of life from his actions. This is derived from the verse that speaks in praise of Elisha, bas it is stated: “Here is Elisha son of Shafat, who poured water over Elijah’s hands”(II Kings 3:11). The verse bdoes not saythat bhe learnedfrom Elijah, bratherthat bhe pouredwater, which bteachesthat bthe service of Torahrepresented by Elisha pouring water over Elijah’s hands bis greater than its study. /b,As a prelude to another of the statements by Rabbi Yoḥa in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai, the Gemara relates the following incident. bRabbi Yitzḥak said to Rav Naḥman: Why did the Master not come to the synagogue to pray?Rav Naḥman bsaid to him: I wasweak and bunableto come. Rabbi Yitzḥak bsaid to him: Let the Master gather tenindividuals, a prayer quorum, at your home band pray.Rav Naḥman bsaid to him: It is difficult for meto impose upon the members of the community to come to my home to pray with me ( iSefer Mitzvot Gadol /i). Rabbi Yitzḥak suggested another option: bThe Master should tell the congregationto send a bmessenger when the congregation is praying to come and inform the Masterso you may pray at the same time.,Rav Naḥman saw that Rabbi Yitzḥak was struggling to find a way for him to engage in communal prayer. bHe asked: What isthe reason for ball thisfuss? Rabbi Yitzḥak bsaid to him: As Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: /b
38. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

49b. ועל הסוטה שאין הולד ממזר,נדה דהא תפסי בה קידושין שנאמר (ויקרא טו, כד) ותהי נדתה עליו אפי' בשעת נדתה תפסי בה קידושין,סוטה נמי דהא תפסי בה קידושין,תניא נמי הכי הכל מודים בבא על הנדה ועל הסוטה ועל שומרת יבם שאין הולד ממזר,ואביי שומרת יבם מספקא ליה אי כרב אי כשמואל:,א"ר שמעון בן עזאי כו': תני שמעון בן עזאי אומר מצאתי מגלת יוחסין בירושלים וכתוב בה איש פלוני ממזר מאשת איש וכתוב בה משנת ר' אליעזר בן יעקב קב ונקי וכתוב בה מנשה הרג את ישעיה,אמר רבא מידן דייניה וקטליה אמר ליה משה רבך אמר (שמות לג, כ) כי לא יראני האדם וחי ואת אמרת (ישעיהו ו, א) ואראה את ה' יושב על כסא רם ונשא משה רבך אמר (דברים ד, ז) מי כה' אלהינו בכל קראנו אליו ואת אמרת (ישעיהו נה, ו) דרשו ה' בהמצאו משה רבך אמר (שמות כג, כו) את מספר ימיך אמלא ואת אמרת (מלכים ב כ, ו) והוספתי על ימיך חמש עשרה שנה,אמר ישעיה ידענא ביה דלא מקבל מה דאימא ליה ואי אימא ליה אישוייה מזיד אמר שם איבלע בארזא אתיוה לארזא ונסרוה כי מטא להדי פומא נח נפשיה משום דאמר (ישעיהו ו, ה) ובתוך עם טמא שפתים אנכי יושב,מכל מקום קשו קראי אהדדי,ואראה את ה' כדתניא כל הנביאים נסתכלו באספקלריא שאינה מאירה משה רבינו נסתכל באספקלריא המאירה,דרשו ה' בהמצאו הא ביחיד הא בצבור ויחיד אימת אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה אלו עשרה ימים שבין ראש השנה ליום הכפורים,את מספר ימיך אמלא תנאי היא דתניא את מספר ימיך אמלא 49b. bor with a isota /i, that the offspring is not a imamzer /i. /b,With regard to ba menstruating womanthe offspring is not a imamzer bbecauseone’s bbetrothal of her takes effect, as it is stated: “And her impurity shall be upon him”(Leviticus 15:24). The phrase “shall be” alludes to the fact that a betrothal with her takes effect. The verse teaches that beven at the time of hermenstrual bimpurity, betrothal with her takes effect. /b,With regard to ba isota /i, too,the offspring is not a imamzer bbecauseone’s bbetrothal of her takes effect. /b,The Gemara notes: bThisteaching of Abaye bis also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAll agree with regard to one who engages in sexual relations with a menstruating woman, or with a isota /i, or with a widow waiting for her iyavam /ito perform levirate marriage, bthat the offspring is not a imamzer /i. /b,The Gemara explains: bAnd Abayedid not mention the case of a bwidow waiting for her iyavam /ibecause bhe is uncertain whether,if someone other than the iyavambetrothed her, the ihalakhais bin accordance withthe opinion of bRavthat it does not take effect or bin accordance withthe opinion of bShmuelthat it might take effect.,§ The mishna states: bRabbi Shimon ben Azzai said:I found a scroll recording people’s lineages. The Gemara cites an expanded version of the contents of the scroll. bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon ben Azzai said: I found a scrollrecording people’s blineages, in Jerusalem, and it was written in itthat bso-and-so is a imamzerfroman adulterous union with ba married woman. And it wasalso bwritten in it: The teachings of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akovmeasure only ba ikavbut are cleanand accurate, and so the ihalakhais decided in accordance with his opinions. bAnd it was written in it: Manasseh,king of Israel, bkilled Isaiahthe prophet.,The Gemara expands on the events surrounding Isaiah’s death: bRava said:Manasseh bjudged himas a false witness for issuing statements contradicting the Torah bandonly then bkilled him.Manasseh bsaid toIsaiah: bMoses your master saidin the Torah: “And He said: You cannot see My face, bfor man cannot see Me and live”(Exodus 33:20), bandyet byou said: “I saw the Lord sitting upon a high and lofty throne”(Isaiah 6:1). bMoses your master said:“For bwhichgreat nation is there, that has God so near to it, bas the Lord our God is, whenever we call upon Him?”(Deuteronomy 4:7), bandyet byou said: “Seek the Lord while He may be found, call upon Him while He is near”(Isaiah 55:6), which implies that God is not always near. bMoses your master said: “I will fulfill the number of your days”(Exodus 23:26), which implies that each individual has a preordained allotted lifespan that he cannot outlive, bandyet byou saidin a prophecy to King Hezekiah: b“And I will add to your days, fifteen years”(II Kings 20:6)., bIsaiah saidto himself: bI know him,i.e., Manasseh, bthat he will not accept whateverexplanation bthat I will say to himto resolve my prophecies with the words of the Torah. bAndeven bif I say it to him, I will make him into an intentional transgressorsince he will kill me anyway. Therefore, in order to escape, bhe uttered adivine bnameand bwas swallowed within a cedartree. Manasseh’s servants bbrought the cedartree band sawed through itin order to kill him. bWhenthe saw breached to where his mouth was,Isaiah bdied.He died specifically as this point bdue to that which he said: “In the midst of a people of unclean lips, I dwell”(Isaiah 6:5). He was punished for referring to the Jewish people in a derogatory manner.,The Gemara asks: bIn any case,as Manasseh pointed out, these bverses contradict each other;how are these contradictions to be resolved?,The Gemara resolves the first contradiction: b“I saw the Lord”is to be understood bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAll of the prophets observedtheir prophecies bthrough an obscure looking glass [ iaspaklaria /i],i.e., their prophecies were given as metaphoric visions but were not a direct perception of the matter. However, bMoses our master observedhis prophecies bthrough a clear looking glass,i.e., he gained a direct and accurate perception of the matter.,The Gemara resolves the second contradiction: Isaiah’s prophecy: b“Seek the Lord while He may be found,”does not contradict the verse in the Torah that God is near to His nation “whenever we call upon Him,” because bthisprophecy of Isaiah was made bwith regard to the individualand bthisverse in the Torah is stated bwith regard to a community,as the prayer of the community is always accepted. The Gemara asks: bAnd whenis the time that God is to be found near bthe individual? Rav Naḥman said Rabba bar Avuh said: These are the ten days between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur. /b,The resolution of the third contradiction from the verse: b“I will fulfill the number of your days,” issubject to a dispute between itanna’im /i, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“I will fulfill the number of your days”; /b
39. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 4.26.14 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

4.26.14. Accordingly when I went East and came to the place where these things were preached and done, I learned accurately the books of the Old Testament, and send them to you as written below. Their names are as follows: of Moses, five books: Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Leviticus, Deuteronomy; Jesus Nave, Judges, Ruth; of Kings, four books; of Chronicles, two; the Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon, Wisdom also, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Job; of Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah; of the twelve prophets, one book ; Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras. From which also I have made the extracts, dividing them into six books. Such are the words of Melito.
40. Nag Hammadi, The Apocalypse of Paul, 29-30, 39-40, 9, 23 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

41. Cassian, Conferences, 14.4, 18.6 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

42. Anon., Martyrdom And Ascension of Isaiah, 3.6-3.9



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abel Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 234
abraham, as model of trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 79
abraham, trust of Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 79
abraham Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 74, 217; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 253, 268
aims, proofs Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 107, 230
alexandrian jewry Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 52
allegory, and the maxim of quality James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 141, 142, 144
amplification, in narratio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 107
angel Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 445
angels Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 238
antioch(enes) in jerusalem Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 52
antioch Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 52
apocalypse of paul, charity Bremmer, Magic and Martyrs in Early Christianity: Collected Essays (2017) 308
apocalypse of paul, crimes Bremmer, Magic and Martyrs in Early Christianity: Collected Essays (2017) 308
apocalypse of paul Bremmer, Magic and Martyrs in Early Christianity: Collected Essays (2017) 308
apostasy Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 74, 107, 123, 234
apostolic fathers Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 88
appropriateness, and performative context James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 144
argumentatio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 107, 123
artless, propositions Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 123, 230
asceticism Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 237
athanasius Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 237
author, of 2 maccabees, sitz im leben Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 52
christians, interest in 2 macc. Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 88
christians Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 52
church, as one body in christ deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 149
clemens alexandrinus Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 88
compassion, conversion, significance of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 149
covenant, mosaic Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 213
covenant Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 3, 50, 74
crucifixion Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 268
deliberative Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 74, 107, 123
diasporan historiography Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 52
elijah, prophet Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 237
elijah (elias) Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 378
endurance Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 79
enthymeme Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 107
ephrem Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 237
epideictic Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 74, 107
esau Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 230, 234
eschatology Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 238, 253
example Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 107, 123, 234
exemplars of trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 79
exhortation Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 123, 217, 230, 234
exordium, secondary exordium Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 217, 234
exordium Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 217
faith Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 213, 253
faithfulness, of god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 79
faithfulness, of israel Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 79
favor, attentiveness Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 217
favor Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 217
figurative language James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 141, 142
flesh Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 268
formation of christian identity deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 149
fulfilment Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 253
gelasius Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 237
global and local scale Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 378
goodwill Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 217
gorgianic figures Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 217
grace, as gods beneficence deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 149
grammar, of scripture James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 141, 144
hanukkah, holiday of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 88
heaven, heavenly realities Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 253
hebrews' Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 52
hebrews, letter to the Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 179
hellenistic jews Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 88
hellenization, institutionalized Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 52
hippolytus Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 88
history, study of in relation to theology Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 79
history Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 253
homonymy, and the maxim of quality James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 141, 142, 144
house Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 238, 268
identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 179
implicature, and maxim of quality James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 141, 142, 144
israel, and gentiles deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 149
israel deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 149
jacob, patriarch Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 237
jerusalem, as polis Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 52
jesus, intercessor/advocate Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 179
jesus role as priest/high-priest Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 179
jews and gentiles, reconciliation of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 149
job Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 237
john the baptist Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 378
lactantius Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 88
land (of israel, promised) Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 238, 253
law Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 268
linguistic intuition James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 142
literal sense James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 142
literature of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 52
liturgy Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 213
martyrdom and ascension of isaiah Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 445
martyrologies, interest among christians Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 88
martyrologies Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 52
melchizedek Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 217
messiah, messianic expectations Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 213
moses, as paradigm of trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 79
moses Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 445; Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 237; Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 50, 230, 234; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 268
motifs (thematic), jerusalem as greek polis Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 52
myth (common narrative) Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 179
obedience Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 179; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 213
origen Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 88
paul, pauline corpus Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 213
paul James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 144
perfection Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 50, 217; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 268
period Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 217
peroratio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 230, 234
perseverance Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 74, 123; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 268
plato, republic Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 378
prayer/praying, intercession Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 179
primary peroratio, secondary peroratio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 234
primary peroratio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 230
promise Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 213
promises of god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 79
propositio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 123
rabbinic judaism Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 237
readers of 2 maccabees Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 88
reconciliation, ethnic deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 149
reference, corporeal v. incorporeal James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 141, 142, 144
rest Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 253
rhetorical topoi, death/events beyond death Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 50, 74
rhetorical topoi, deeds Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 74
righteousness/the righteous/the just Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 445
rituals Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 179
saints deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 149
salvation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 213, 268
scriptures, jewish, as source of new testament ideas about pistis Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 79
sitting (posture) Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 445
son of god Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 445
sons/children of god Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 179
structure of hebrews Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 3, 50
suffering Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 74, 123, 217, 230; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 179; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 268
syncrisis, jesus/angels Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 107
syncrisis, old covenant/new covenant Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 50
syncrisis, zion/sinai Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 50
syncrisis Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 74
temptation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 253
theodoret Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 237
transformation deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 149
trigger James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 141, 142
truth, and maxim of quality James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 141, 142, 144
wilderness generation Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 234
world Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 238
worship Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 179