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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8251
New Testament, Hebrews, 10.1


Σκιὰν γὰρ ἔχων ὁ νόμος τῶν μελλόντων ἀγαθῶν, οὐκ αὐτὴν τὴν εἰκόνα τῶν πραγμάτων, κατʼ ἐνιαυτὸν ταῖς αὐταῖς θυσίαις ἃς προσφέρουσιν εἰς τὸ διηνεκὲς οὐδέποτε δύνανται τοὺς προσερχομένους τελειῶσαι·For the law, having a shadow of the good to come, not the very image of the things, can never with the same sacrifices year by year, which they offer continually, make perfect those who draw near.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

52 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 13.11 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

13.11. Many nations will come from afar to the name of the Lord God,bearing gifts in their hands, gifts for the King of heaven. Generations of generations will give you joyful praise.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.13, 10.12, 28.63 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.13. אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ תִּירָא וְאֹתוֹ תַעֲבֹד וּבִשְׁמוֹ תִּשָּׁבֵעַ׃ 10.12. וְעַתָּה יִשְׂרָאֵל מָה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ שֹׁאֵל מֵעִמָּךְ כִּי אִם־לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לָלֶכֶת בְּכָל־דְּרָכָיו וּלְאַהֲבָה אֹתוֹ וְלַעֲבֹד אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשֶׁךָ׃ 28.63. וְהָיָה כַּאֲשֶׁר־שָׂשׂ יְהוָה עֲלֵיכֶם לְהֵיטִיב אֶתְכֶם וּלְהַרְבּוֹת אֶתְכֶם כֵּן יָשִׂישׂ יְהוָה עֲלֵיכֶם לְהַאֲבִיד אֶתְכֶם וּלְהַשְׁמִיד אֶתְכֶם וְנִסַּחְתֶּם מֵעַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה בָא־שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃ 6.13. Thou shalt fear the LORD thy God; and Him shalt thou serve, and by His name shalt thou swear." 10.12. And now, Israel, what doth the LORD thy God require of thee, but to fear the LORD thy God, to walk in all His ways, and to love Him, and to serve the LORD thy God with all thy heart and with all thy soul;" 28.63. And it shall come to pass, that as the LORD rejoiced over you to do you good, and to multiply you; so the LORD will rejoice over you to cause you to perish, and to destroy you; and ye shall be plucked from off the land whither thou goest in to possess it."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, a b c d\n0 "20.21" "20.21" "20 21"\n1 20.5 20.5 20 5 \n2 23.25 23.25 23 25 \n3 24.3 24.3 24 3 \n4 24.4 24.4 24 4 \n5 24.5 24.5 24 5 \n6 24.6 24.6 24 6 \n7 24.7 24.7 24 7 \n8 24.8 24.8 24 8 \n9 25.40 25.40 25 40 \n10 25.9 25.9 25 9 \n11 26.30 26.30 26 30 \n12 27.8 27.8 27 8 \n13 28.1 28.1 28 1 \n14 28.4 28.4 28 4 \n15 29.1 29.1 29 1 \n16 29.38 29.38 29 38 \n17 29.42 29.42 29 42 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.1, 14.18-14.19, 32.26-32.32 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.1. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃ 14.18. וּמַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק מֶלֶךְ שָׁלֵם הוֹצִיא לֶחֶם וָיָיִן וְהוּא כֹהֵן לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן׃ 14.19. וַיְבָרְכֵהוּ וַיֹּאמַר בָּרוּךְ אַבְרָם לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן קֹנֵה שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ׃ 32.26. וַיַּרְא כִּי לֹא יָכֹל לוֹ וַיִּגַּע בְּכַף־יְרֵכוֹ וַתֵּקַע כַּף־יֶרֶךְ יַעֲקֹב בְּהֵאָבְקוֹ עִמּוֹ׃ 32.27. וַיֹּאמֶר שַׁלְּחֵנִי כִּי עָלָה הַשָּׁחַר וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אֲשַׁלֵּחֲךָ כִּי אִם־בֵּרַכְתָּנִי׃ 32.28. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו מַה־שְּׁמֶךָ וַיֹּאמֶר יַעֲקֹב׃ 32.29. וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא יַעֲקֹב יֵאָמֵר עוֹד שִׁמְךָ כִּי אִם־יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי־שָׂרִיתָ עִם־אֱלֹהִים וְעִם־אֲנָשִׁים וַתּוּכָל׃ 32.31. וַיִּקְרָא יַעֲקֹב שֵׁם הַמָּקוֹם פְּנִיאֵל כִּי־רָאִיתִי אֱלֹהִים פָּנִים אֶל־פָּנִים וַתִּנָּצֵל נַפְשִׁי׃ 32.32. וַיִּזְרַח־לוֹ הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ כַּאֲשֶׁר עָבַר אֶת־פְּנוּאֵל וְהוּא צֹלֵעַ עַל־יְרֵכוֹ׃ 1.1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." 14.18. And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine; and he was priest of God the Most High." 14.19. And he blessed him, and said: ‘Blessed be Abram of God Most High, Maker of heaven and earth;" 32.26. And when he saw that he prevailed not against him, he touched the hollow of his thigh; and the hollow of Jacob’s thigh was strained, as he wrestled with him." 32.27. And he said: ‘Let me go, for the day breaketh.’ And he said: ‘I will not let thee go, except thou bless me.’" 32.28. And he said unto him: ‘What is thy name?’ And he said: ‘Jacob.’" 32.29. And he said: ‘Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel; for thou hast striven with God and with men, and hast prevailed.’" 32.30. And Jacob asked him, and said: ‘Tell me, I pray thee, thy name.’ And he said: ‘Wherefore is it that thou dost ask after my name?’ And he blessed him there." 32.31. And Jacob called the name of the place Peniel: ‘for I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved.’" 32.32. And the sun rose upon him as he passed over Peniel, and he limped upon his thigh."
5. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 6.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.6. כִּי חֶסֶד חָפַצְתִּי וְלֹא־זָבַח וְדַעַת אֱלֹהִים מֵעֹלוֹת׃ 6.6. For I desire mercy, and not sacrifice, And the knowledge of God rather than burnt-offerings."
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 1.2-1.3, 1.5, 1.10, 2.1, 6.13, 7.33, 11.34, 16.11, 16.14-16.15, 16.18-16.22, 16.27, 16.29, 16.31, 24.3, 26.33 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אָדָם כִּי־יַקְרִיב מִכֶּם קָרְבָּן לַיהוָה מִן־הַבְּהֵמָה מִן־הַבָּקָר וּמִן־הַצֹּאן תַּקְרִיבוּ אֶת־קָרְבַּנְכֶם׃ 1.3. אִם־עֹלָה קָרְבָּנוֹ מִן־הַבָּקָר זָכָר תָּמִים יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד יַקְרִיב אֹתוֹ לִרְצֹנוֹ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 1.5. וְשָׁחַט אֶת־בֶּן הַבָּקָר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְהִקְרִיבוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֲנִים אֶת־הַדָּם וְזָרְקוּ אֶת־הַדָּם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ סָבִיב אֲשֶׁר־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 2.1. וְהַנּוֹתֶרֶת מִן־הַמִּנְחָה לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים מֵאִשֵּׁי יְהוָה׃ 2.1. וְנֶפֶשׁ כִּי־תַקְרִיב קָרְבַּן מִנְחָה לַיהוָה סֹלֶת יִהְיֶה קָרְבָּנוֹ וְיָצַק עָלֶיהָ שֶׁמֶן וְנָתַן עָלֶיהָ לְבֹנָה׃ 6.13. זֶה קָרְבַּן אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו אֲשֶׁר־יַקְרִיבוּ לַיהוָה בְּיוֹם הִמָּשַׁח אֹתוֹ עֲשִׂירִת הָאֵפָה סֹלֶת מִנְחָה תָּמִיד מַחֲצִיתָהּ בַּבֹּקֶר וּמַחֲצִיתָהּ בָּעָרֶב׃ 7.33. הַמַּקְרִיב אֶת־דַּם הַשְּׁלָמִים וְאֶת־הַחֵלֶב מִבְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן לוֹ תִהְיֶה שׁוֹק הַיָּמִין לְמָנָה׃ 11.34. מִכָּל־הָאֹכֶל אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל אֲשֶׁר יָבוֹא עָלָיו מַיִם יִטְמָא וְכָל־מַשְׁקֶה אֲשֶׁר יִשָּׁתֶה בְּכָל־כְּלִי יִטְמָא׃ 16.11. וְהִקְרִיב אַהֲרֹן אֶת־פַּר הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ וְכִפֶּר בַּעֲדוֹ וּבְעַד בֵּיתוֹ וְשָׁחַט אֶת־פַּר הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ׃ 16.14. וְלָקַח מִדַּם הַפָּר וְהִזָּה בְאֶצְבָּעוֹ עַל־פְּנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת קֵדְמָה וְלִפְנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת יַזֶּה שֶׁבַע־פְּעָמִים מִן־הַדָּם בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ׃ 16.15. וְשָׁחַט אֶת־שְׂעִיר הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר לָעָם וְהֵבִיא אֶת־דָּמוֹ אֶל־מִבֵּית לַפָּרֹכֶת וְעָשָׂה אֶת־דָּמוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְדַם הַפָּר וְהִזָּה אֹתוֹ עַל־הַכַּפֹּרֶת וְלִפְנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת׃ 16.18. וְיָצָא אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי־יְהוָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו וְלָקַח מִדַּם הַפָּר וּמִדַּם הַשָּׂעִיר וְנָתַן עַל־קַרְנוֹת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ סָבִיב׃ 16.19. וְהִזָּה עָלָיו מִן־הַדָּם בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים וְטִהֲרוֹ וְקִדְּשׁוֹ מִטֻּמְאֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 16.21. וְסָמַךְ אַהֲרֹן אֶת־שְׁתֵּי ידו [יָדָיו] עַל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׂעִיר הַחַי וְהִתְוַדָּה עָלָיו אֶת־כָּל־עֲוֺנֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־כָּל־פִּשְׁעֵיהֶם לְכָל־חַטֹּאתָם וְנָתַן אֹתָם עַל־רֹאשׁ הַשָּׂעִיר וְשִׁלַּח בְּיַד־אִישׁ עִתִּי הַמִּדְבָּרָה׃ 16.22. וְנָשָׂא הַשָּׂעִיר עָלָיו אֶת־כָּל־עֲוֺנֹתָם אֶל־אֶרֶץ גְּזֵרָה וְשִׁלַּח אֶת־הַשָּׂעִיר בַּמִּדְבָּר׃ 16.27. וְאֵת פַּר הַחַטָּאת וְאֵת שְׂעִיר הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר הוּבָא אֶת־דָּמָם לְכַפֵּר בַּקֹּדֶשׁ יוֹצִיא אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְשָׂרְפוּ בָאֵשׁ אֶת־עֹרֹתָם וְאֶת־בְּשָׂרָם וְאֶת־פִּרְשָׁם׃ 16.29. וְהָיְתָה לָכֶם לְחֻקַּת עוֹלָם בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי בֶּעָשׂוֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ תְּעַנּוּ אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם וְכָל־מְלָאכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ הָאֶזְרָח וְהַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם׃ 16.31. שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן הִיא לָכֶם וְעִנִּיתֶם אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם חֻקַּת עוֹלָם׃ 24.3. מִחוּץ לְפָרֹכֶת הָעֵדֻת בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד יַעֲרֹךְ אֹתוֹ אַהֲרֹן מֵעֶרֶב עַד־בֹּקֶר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה תָּמִיד חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם׃ 26.33. וְאֶתְכֶם אֱזָרֶה בַגּוֹיִם וַהֲרִיקֹתִי אַחֲרֵיכֶם חָרֶב וְהָיְתָה אַרְצְכֶם שְׁמָמָה וְעָרֵיכֶם יִהְיוּ חָרְבָּה׃ 1.2. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: When any man of you bringeth an offering unto the LORD, ye shall bring your offering of the cattle, even of the herd or of the flock." 1.3. If his offering be a burnt-offering of the herd, he shall offer it a male without blemish; he shall bring it to the door of the tent of meeting, that he may be accepted before the LORD." 1.5. And he shall kill the bullock before the LORD; and Aaron’s sons, the priests, shall present the blood, and dash the blood round about against the altar that is at the door of the tent of meeting." 1.10. And if his offering be of the flock, whether of the sheep, or of the goats, for a burnt-offering, he shall offer it a male without blemish." 2.1. And when any one bringeth a meal-offering unto the LORD, his offering shall be of fine flour; and he shall pour oil upon it, and put frankincense thereon." 6.13. This is the offering of Aaron and of his sons, which they shall offer unto the LORD in the day when he is anointed: the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a meal-offering perpetually, half of it in the morning, and half thereof in the evening." 7.33. He among the sons of Aaron, that offereth the blood of the peace-offerings, and the fat, shall have the right thigh for a portion." 11.34. All food therein which may be eaten, that on which water cometh, shall be unclean; and all drink in every such vessel that may be drunk shall be unclean." 16.11. And Aaron shall present the bullock of the sin-offering, which is for himself, and shall make atonement for himself, and for his house, and shall kill the bullock of the sin-offering which is for himself." 16.14. And he shall take of the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it with his finger upon the ark-cover on the east; and before the ark-cover shall he sprinkle of the blood with his finger seven times." 16.15. Then shall he kill the goat of the sin-offering, that is for the people, and bring his blood within the veil, and do with his blood as he did with the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it upon the ark-cover, and before the ark-cover." 16.18. And he shall go out unto the altar that is before the LORD, and make atonement for it; and shall take of the blood of the bullock, and of the blood of the goat, and put it upon the horns of the altar round about." 16.19. And he shall sprinkle of the blood upon it with his finger seven times, and cleanse it, and hallow it from the uncleannesses of the children of Israel." 16.20. And when he hath made an end of atoning for the holy place, and the tent of meeting, and the altar, he shall present the live goat." 16.21. And Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the head of the live goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions, even all their sins; and he shall put them upon the head of the goat, and shall send him away by the hand of an appointed man into the wilderness." 16.22. And the goat shall bear upon him all their iniquities unto a land which is cut off; and he shall let go the goat in the wilderness." 16.27. And the bullock of the sin-offering, and the goat of the sin-offering, whose blood was brought in to make atonement in the holy place, shall be carried forth without the camp; and they shall burn in the fire their skins, and their flesh, and their dung." 16.29. And it shall be a statute for ever unto you: in the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, ye shall afflict your souls, and shall do no manner of work, the home-born, or the stranger that sojourneth among you." 16.31. It is a sabbath of solemn rest unto you, and ye shall afflict your souls; it is a statute for ever." 24.3. Without the veil of the testimony, in the tent of meeting, shall Aaron order it from evening to morning before the LORD continually; it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations." 26.33. And you will I scatter among the nations, and I will draw out the sword after you; and your land shall be a desolation, and your cities shall be a waste."
7. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 1.7, 1.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.7. מַגִּישִׁים עַל־מִזְבְּחִי לֶחֶם מְגֹאָל וַאֲמַרְתֶּם בַּמֶּה גֵאַלְנוּךָ בֶּאֱמָרְכֶם שֻׁלְחַן יְהוָה נִבְזֶה הוּא׃ 1.12. וְאַתֶּם מְחַלְּלִים אוֹתוֹ בֶּאֱמָרְכֶם שֻׁלְחַן אֲדֹנָי מְגֹאָל הוּא וְנִיבוֹ נִבְזֶה אָכְלוֹ׃ 1.7. Ye offer polluted bread upon Mine altar. And ye say: ‘Wherein have we polluted thee?’ In that ye say: ‘The table of the LORD is contemptible.’" 1.12. But ye profane it, In that ye say: ‘The table of the LORD is polluted, And the fruit thereof, even the food thereof, is contemptible.’"
8. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 8.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.4. וְזֶה מַעֲשֵׂה הַמְּנֹרָה מִקְשָׁה זָהָב עַד־יְרֵכָהּ עַד־פִּרְחָהּ מִקְשָׁה הִוא כַּמַּרְאֶה אֲשֶׁר הֶרְאָה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה כֵּן עָשָׂה אֶת־הַמְּנֹרָה׃ 8.4. And this was the work of the candlestick, beaten work of gold; unto the base thereof, and unto the flowers thereof, it was beaten work; according unto the pattern which the LORD had shown Moses, so he made the candlestick."
9. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 8.22, 8.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.22. יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃ 8.22. The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old." 8.30. Then I was by Him, as a nursling; And I was daily all delight, Playing always before Him,"
10. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 22.23, 40.6-40.9, 42.4, 68.19, 110.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

22.23. אֲסַפְּרָה שִׁמְךָ לְאֶחָי בְּתוֹךְ קָהָל אֲהַלְלֶךָּ׃ 40.6. רַבּוֹת עָשִׂיתָ אַתָּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהַי נִפְלְאֹתֶיךָ וּמַחְשְׁבֹתֶיךָ אֵלֵינוּ אֵין עֲרֹךְ אֵלֶיךָ אַגִּידָה וַאֲדַבֵּרָה עָצְמוּ מִסַּפֵּר׃ 40.7. זֶבַח וּמִנְחָה לֹא־חָפַצְתָּ אָזְנַיִם כָּרִיתָ לִּי עוֹלָה וַחֲטָאָה לֹא שָׁאָלְתָּ׃ 40.8. אָז אָמַרְתִּי הִנֵּה־בָאתִי בִּמְגִלַּת־סֵפֶר כָּתוּב עָלָי׃ 40.9. לַעֲשׂוֹת־רְצוֹנְךָ אֱלֹהַי חָפָצְתִּי וְתוֹרָתְךָ בְּתוֹךְ מֵעָי׃ 42.4. הָיְתָה־לִּי דִמְעָתִי לֶחֶם יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה בֶּאֱמֹר אֵלַי כָּל־הַיּוֹם אַיֵּה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 68.19. עָלִיתָ לַמָּרוֹם שָׁבִיתָ שֶּׁבִי לָקַחְתָּ מַתָּנוֹת בָּאָדָם וְאַף סוֹרְרִים לִשְׁכֹּן יָהּ אֱלֹהִים׃ 110.1. לְדָוִד מִזְמוֹר נְאֻם יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי שֵׁב לִימִינִי עַד־אָשִׁית אֹיְבֶיךָ הֲדֹם לְרַגְלֶיךָ׃ 22.23. I will declare Thy name unto my brethren; in the midst of the congregation will I praise Thee." 40.6. Many things hast Thou done, O LORD my God, even Thy wonderful works, and Thy thoughts toward us; there is none to be compared unto Thee! If I would declare and speak of them, they are more than can be told." 40.7. Sacrifice and meal-offering Thou hast no delight in; mine ears hast Thou opened; burnt-offering and sin-offering hast Thou not required." 40.8. Then said I: 'Lo, I am come with the roll of a book which is prescribed for me;" 40.9. I delight to do Thy will, O my God; yea, Thy law is in my inmost parts.'" 42.4. My tears have been my food day and night, while they say unto me all the day: 'Where is Thy God?'" 68.19. Thou hast ascended on high, Thou hast led captivity captive; Thou hast received gifts among men, Yea, among the rebellious also, that the LORD God might dwell there." 110.1. A Psalm of David. The LORD saith unto my lord: ‘Sit thou at My right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.'"
11. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 5.26 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

5.26. וּנְשָׂאתֶם אֵת סִכּוּת מַלְכְּכֶם וְאֵת כִּיּוּן צַלְמֵיכֶם כּוֹכַב אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר עֲשִׂיתֶם לָכֶם׃ 5.26. So shall ye take up Siccuth your king and Chiun your images, the star of your god, which ye made to yourselves."
12. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 2.2, 6.3, 40.13, 53.12, 60.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.2. וְהָיָה בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים נָכוֹן יִהְיֶה הַר בֵּית־יְהוָה בְּרֹאשׁ הֶהָרִים וְנִשָּׂא מִגְּבָעוֹת וְנָהֲרוּ אֵלָיו כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם׃ 2.2. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יַשְׁלִיךְ הָאָדָם אֵת אֱלִילֵי כַסְפּוֹ וְאֵת אֱלִילֵי זְהָבוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ־לוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת לַחְפֹּר פֵּרוֹת וְלָעֲטַלֵּפִים׃ 6.3. וְקָרָא זֶה אֶל־זֶה וְאָמַר קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת מְלֹא כָל־הָאָרֶץ כְּבוֹדוֹ׃ 40.13. מִי־תִכֵּן אֶת־רוּחַ יְהוָה וְאִישׁ עֲצָתוֹ יוֹדִיעֶנּוּ׃ 53.12. לָכֵן אֲחַלֶּק־לוֹ בָרַבִּים וְאֶת־עֲצוּמִים יְחַלֵּק שָׁלָל תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱרָה לַמָּוֶת נַפְשׁוֹ וְאֶת־פֹּשְׁעִים נִמְנָה וְהוּא חֵטְא־רַבִּים נָשָׂא וְלַפֹּשְׁעִים יַפְגִּיעַ׃ 60.13. כְּבוֹד הַלְּבָנוֹן אֵלַיִךְ יָבוֹא בְּרוֹשׁ תִּדְהָר וּתְאַשּׁוּר יַחְדָּו לְפָאֵר מְקוֹם מִקְדָּשִׁי וּמְקוֹם רַגְלַי אֲכַבֵּד׃ 2.2. And it shall come to pass in the end of days, That the mountain of the LORD’S house Shall be established as the top of the mountains, And shall be exalted above the hills; And all nations shall flow unto it." 6.3. And one called unto another, and said: Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts; The whole earth is full of His glory." 40.13. Who hath meted out the spirit of the LORD? Or who was His counsellor that he might instruct Him?" 53.12. Therefore will I divide him a portion among the great, And he shall divide the spoil with the mighty; Because he bared his soul unto death, And was numbered with the transgressors; Yet he bore the sin of many, And made intercession for the transgressors." 60.13. The glory of Lebanon shall come unto thee, The cypress, the plane-tree and the larch together; To beautify the place of My sanctuary, And I will make the place of My feet glorious."
13. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 31.31-31.34 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

31.31. הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְכָרַתִּי אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־בֵּית יְהוּדָה בְּרִית חֲדָשָׁה׃ 31.32. לֹא כַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַתִּי אֶת־אֲבוֹתָם בְּיוֹם הֶחֱזִיקִי בְיָדָם לְהוֹצִיאָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲשֶׁר־הֵמָּה הֵפֵרוּ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי וְאָנֹכִי בָּעַלְתִּי בָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 31.33. כִּי זֹאת הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר אֶכְרֹת אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֲרֵי הַיָּמִים הָהֵם נְאֻם־יְהוָה נָתַתִּי אֶת־תּוֹרָתִי בְּקִרְבָּם וְעַל־לִבָּם אֶכְתֲּבֶנָּה וְהָיִיתִי לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְהֵמָּה יִהְיוּ־לִי לְעָם׃ 31.34. וְלֹא יְלַמְּדוּ עוֹד אִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וְאִישׁ אֶת־אָחִיו לֵאמֹר דְּעוּ אֶת־יְהוָה כִּי־כוּלָּם יֵדְעוּ אוֹתִי לְמִקְטַנָּם וְעַד־גְּדוֹלָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה כִּי אֶסְלַח לַעֲוֺנָם וּלְחַטָּאתָם לֹא אֶזְכָּר־עוֹד׃ 31.31. Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covet with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah;" 31.32. not according to the covet that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; forasmuch as they broke My covet, although I was a lord over them, saith the LORD." 31.33. But this is the covet that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the LORD, I will put My law in their inward parts, and in their heart will I write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people;" 31.34. and they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying: ‘Know the LORD’; for they shall all know Me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the LORD; for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin will I remember no more."
14. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 36.25, 37.26-37.28 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

36.25. וְזָרַקְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם מַיִם טְהוֹרִים וּטְהַרְתֶּם מִכֹּל טֻמְאוֹתֵיכֶם וּמִכָּל־גִּלּוּלֵיכֶם אֲטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם׃ 37.26. וְכָרַתִּי לָהֶם בְּרִית שָׁלוֹם בְּרִית עוֹלָם יִהְיֶה אוֹתָם וּנְתַתִּים וְהִרְבֵּיתִי אוֹתָם וְנָתַתִּי אֶת־מִקְדָּשִׁי בְּתוֹכָם לְעוֹלָם׃ 37.27. וְהָיָה מִשְׁכָּנִי עֲלֵיהֶם וְהָיִיתִי לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְהֵמָּה יִהְיוּ־לִי לְעָם׃ 37.28. וְיָדְעוּ הַגּוֹיִם כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדֵּשׁ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּהְיוֹת מִקְדָּשִׁי בְּתוֹכָם לְעוֹלָם׃ 36.25. And I will sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean; from all your uncleannesses, and from all your idols, will I cleanse you." 37.26. Moreover I will make a covet of peace with them—it shall be an everlasting covet with them; and I will establish them, and multiply them, and will set My sanctuary in the midst of them for ever." 37.27. My dwelling-place also shall be over them; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people." 37.28. And the nations shall know that I am the LORD that sanctify Israel, when My sanctuary shall be in the midst of them for ever.’"
15. Hebrew Bible, Haggai, 2.12 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.12. הֵן יִשָּׂא־אִישׁ בְּשַׂר־קֹדֶשׁ בִּכְנַף בִּגְדוֹ וְנָגַע בִּכְנָפוֹ אֶל־הַלֶּחֶם וְאֶל־הַנָּזִיד וְאֶל־הַיַּיִן וְאֶל־שֶׁמֶן וְאֶל־כָּל־מַאֲכָל הֲיִקְדָּשׁ וַיַּעֲנוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֹא׃ 2.12. If one bear hallowed flesh in the skirt of his garment, and with his skirt do touch bread, or pottage, or wine, or oil, or any food, shall it be holy?’ And the priests answered and said: ‘No.’"
16. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 28.11-28.12, 28.19-28.20 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

28.11. וַיִּתֵּן דָּוִיד לִשְׁלֹמֹה בְנוֹ אֶת־תַּבְנִית הָאוּלָם וְאֶת־בָּתָּיו וְגַנְזַכָּיו וַעֲלִיֹּתָיו וַחֲדָרָיו הַפְּנִימִים וּבֵית הַכַּפֹּרֶת׃ 28.12. וְתַבְנִית כֹּל אֲשֶׁר הָיָה בָרוּחַ עִמּוֹ לְחַצְרוֹת בֵּית־יְהוָה וּלְכָל־הַלְּשָׁכוֹת סָבִיב לְאֹצְרוֹת בֵּית הָאֱלֹהִים וּלְאֹצְרוֹת הַקֳּדָשִׁים׃ 28.19. הַכֹּל בִּכְתָב מִיַּד יְהוָה עָלַי הִשְׂכִּיל כֹּל מַלְאֲכוֹת הַתַּבְנִית׃ 28.11. Then David gave to Solomon his son the pattern of the porch [of the temple], and of the houses thereof, and of the treasuries thereof, and of the upper rooms thereof, and of the inner chambers thereof, and of the place of the ark-cover;" 28.12. and the pattern of all that he had by the spirit, for the courts of the house of the LORD, and for all the chambers round about, for the treasuries of the house of God, and for the treasuries of the hallowed things;" 28.19. ’All this [do I give thee] in writing, as the LORD hath made me wise by His hand upon me, even all the works of this pattern.’" 28.20. And David said to Solomon his son: ‘Be strong and of good courage, and do it; fear not, nor be dismayed; for the LORD God, even my God, is with thee; He will not fail thee, nor forsake thee, until all the work for the service of the house of the LORD be finished."
17. Aristotle, Rhetoric, 3 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

18. Septuagint, Tobit, 13.11 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

13.11. Many nations will come from afar to the name of the Lord God,bearing gifts in their hands, gifts for the King of heaven. Generations of generations will give you joyful praise.
19. Cicero, On Invention, 1.57 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.57. nunc deinceps ratiocinationis vim et naturam consideremus. Ratiocinatio est oratio ex ipsa re probabile aliquid eliciens, quod expositum et per se cognitum sua se vi et ratione confirmet. hoc de genere qui diligentius con- siderandum putaverunt, cum idem in usu dicendi se- querentur, paululum in praecipiendi ratione dissense- runt. nam partim quinque eius partes esse dixerunt, partim non plus quam in tres partes posse distribui putaverunt. eorum controversiam non incommodum vi- detur cum utrorumque ratione exponere. nam et brevis est et non eiusmodi, ut alteri prorsus nihil dicere pu- tentur, et locus hic nobis in dicendo minime neglegen- dus videtur.
20. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.63 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.63. They chose to die rather than to be defiled by food or to profane the holy covet; and they did die.
21. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 3.30, 6.28, 6.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.30. they praised the Lord who had acted marvelously for his own place. And the temple, which a little while before was full of fear and disturbance, was filled with joy and gladness, now that the Almighty Lord had appeared.' 6.28. and leave to the young a noble example of how to die a good death willingly and nobly for the revered and holy laws.'When he had said this, he went at once to the rack.' 6.31. So in this way he died, leaving in his death an example of nobility and a memorial of courage, not only to the young but to the great body of his nation.'
22. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 13.7, 17.19, 30.18, 44.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

13.7. He will shame you with his foods,until he has drained you two or three times;and finally he will deride you. Should he see you afterwards, he will forsake you,and shake his head at you. 17.19. All their works are as the sun before him,and his eyes are continually upon their ways. 30.18. Good things poured out upon a mouth that is closed are like offerings of food placed upon a grave. 44.16. Enoch pleased the Lord, and was taken up;he was an example of repentance to all generations.
23. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 17.19, 44.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

17.19. or the harsh crash of rocks hurled down,or the unseen running of leaping animals,or the sound of the most savage roaring beasts,or an echo thrown back from a hollow of the mountains,it paralyzed them with terror.
24. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 1.34, 6.15, 6.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.34. Therefore when we crave seafood and fowl and animals and all sorts of foods that are forbidden to us by the law, we abstain because of domination by reason. 6.15. We will set before you some cooked meat; save yourself by pretending to eat pork. 6.19. become a pattern of impiety to the young, in becoming an example of the eating of defiling food.
25. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 28-29, 27 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

27. But it is not right to be ignorant of this thing either, that the statement, "I am thy God," is made by a certain figurative misuse of language rather than with strict propriety; for the living God, inasmuch as he is living, does not consist in relation to anything; for he himself is full of himself, and he is sufficient for himself, and he existed before the creation of the world, and equally after the creation of the universe;
26. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.74 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.74. Therefore Moses now determined to build a tabernacle, a most holy edifice, the furniture of which he was instructed how to supply by precise commands from God, given to him while he was on the mount, contemplating with his soul the incorporeal patterns of bodies which were about to be made perfect, in due similitude to which he was bound to make the furniture, that it might be an imitation perceptible by the outward senses of an archetypal sketch and pattern, appreciable only by the intellect;
27. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 3.6, 16.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.6. To this end therefore, my brethren, He that is long-suffering, foreseeing that the people whom He had prepared in His well-beloved would believe in simplicity, manifested to us beforehand concerning all things, that we might not as novices shipwreck ourselves upon their law. 16.4. So it cometh to pass; for because they went to war it was pulled down by their enemies. Now also the very servants of their enemies shall build it up.
28. Ignatius, To The Trallians, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.1. I exhort you therefore -- yet not I, but the love of Jesus Christ -- take ye only Christian food, and abstain from strange herbage, which is heresy:
29. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.122-3.123 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.122. 4. As for the inside, Moses parted its length into three partitions. At the distance of ten cubits from the most secret end, Moses placed four pillars, the workmanship of which was the very same with that of the rest; and they stood upon the like bases with them, each a small matter distant from his fellow. Now the room within those pillars was the most holy place; but the rest of the room was the tabernacle, which was open for the priests. 3.123. However, this proportion of the measures of the tabernacle proved to be an imitation of the system of the world; for that third part thereof which was within the four pillars, to which the priests were not admitted, is, as it were, a heaven peculiar to God. But the space of the twenty cubits, is, as it were, sea and land, on which men live, and so this part is peculiar to the priests only.
30. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 10.11, 11.25, 15.46 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.11. Now all these thingshappened to them by way of example, and they were written for ouradmonition, on whom the ends of the ages have come. 11.25. In the same way he also took the cup, after supper,saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood. Do this, as often asyou drink, in memory of me. 15.46. However thatwhich is spiritual isn't first, but that which is natural, then thatwhich is spiritual.
31. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 4.3, 6.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.3. forbidding marriage and commanding to abstain from foods which God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and know the truth. 6.16. who alone has immortality, dwelling in unapproachable light; whom no man has seen, nor can see: to whom be honor and eternal power. Amen.
32. New Testament, Acts, 5.42, 7.48, 17.18, 17.24 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.42. Every day, in the temple and at home, they never stopped teaching and preaching Jesus, the Christ. 7.48. However, the Most High doesn't dwell in temples made with hands, as the prophet says 17.18. Some of the Epicurean and Stoic philosophers also encountered him. Some said, "What does this babbler want to say?"Others said, "He seems to be advocating foreign demons," because he preached Jesus and the resurrection. 17.24. The God who made the world and all things in it, he, being Lord of heaven and earth, dwells not in temples made with hands
33. New Testament, Apocalypse, 14.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.6. I saw an angel flying in mid heaven, having an eternal gospel to proclaim to those who dwell on the earth, and to every nation, tribe, language, and people.
34. New Testament, James, 5.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.10. Take, brothers, for an example of suffering and of patience, the prophets who spoke in the name of the Lord.
35. New Testament, Colossians, 2.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.16. Let no man therefore judge you in eating, or in drinking, or with respect to a feast day or a new moon or a Sabbath day
36. New Testament, Ephesians, 4.6-4.7, 4.9-4.10, 4.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.6. one God and Father of all, who is over all, and through all, and in us all. 4.7. But to each one of us was the grace given according to the measure of the gift of Christ. 4.9. Now this, "He ascended," what is it but that he also first descended into the lower parts of the earth? 4.10. He who descended is the one who also ascended far above all the heavens, that he might fill all things. 4.12. for the perfecting of the saints, to the work of serving, to the building up of the body of Christ;
37. New Testament, Galatians, 3.1-3.3, 3.25, 4.21, 5.1-5.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. Foolish Galatians, who has bewitched you not to obey thetruth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ was openly set forth among you as crucified? 3.2. I just want to learn this from you. Did you receivethe Spirit by the works of the law, or by hearing of faith? 3.3. Areyou so foolish? Having begun in the Spirit, are you now completed inthe flesh? 3.25. But now that faithis come, we are no longer under a tutor. 4.21. Tell me, you that desire to be under the law, don't you listen to thelaw? 5.1. Stand firm therefore in the liberty by which Christ has madeus free, and don't be entangled again with a yoke of bondage. 5.2. Behold, I, Paul, tell you that if you receive circumcision, Christ willprofit you nothing. 5.3. Yes, I testify again to every man whoreceives circumcision, that he is a debtor to do the whole law. 5.4. You are alienated from Christ, you who desire to be justified by thelaw. You have fallen away from grace. 5.5. For we, through the Spirit,by faith wait for the hope of righteousness. 5.6. For in Christ Jesusneither circumcision amounts to anything, nor uncircumcision, but faithworking through love. 5.7. You were running well! Who interfered withyou that you should not obey the truth?
38. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.1, 1.1-2.18, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.5-2.18, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.14, 2.1, 2.5, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.17, 2.18, 3, 3.1, 3.1-4.14, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.16, 4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.11, 4.14, 4.14-5.10, 4.15, 4.15-5.10, 4.16, 5, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11-6.20, 6, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.12, 6.19, 6.20, 7, 7.1, 7.1-10.18, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.25, 7.26, 7.27, 7.28, 8, 8.1, 8.1-10.18, 8.1-9.28, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 9, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24, 9.25, 9.26, 9.27, 9.28, 10, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9, 10.10, 10.11, 10.12, 10.13, 10.14, 10.15, 10.16, 10.17, 10.18, 10.19, 10.20, 10.21, 10.22, 10.23, 10.24, 10.25, 10.26, 10.27, 10.28, 10.29, 10.30, 10.31, 10.32, 10.33, 10.34, 10.35, 10.36, 10.37, 10.38, 10.39, 11, 11.1, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 11.10, 11.11, 11.12, 11.13, 11.14, 11.15, 11.16, 11.17, 11.18, 11.19, 11.20, 11.21, 11.22, 11.23, 11.24, 11.25, 11.26, 11.27, 11.28, 11.29, 11.30, 11.31, 11.32, 11.33, 11.34, 11.35, 11.36, 11.37, 11.38, 11.39, 11.40, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8, 12.9, 12.10, 12.11, 12.12, 12.13, 12.14, 12.15, 12.16, 12.17, 12.18, 12.19, 12.20, 12.21, 12.22, 12.23, 12.24, 12.25, 12.26, 12.27, 13.7, 13.8, 13.9, 13.10, 13.11, 13.14, 13.15, 13.20, 13.21, 13.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. God, having in the past spoken to the fathers through the prophets at many times and in various ways
39. New Testament, Romans, 3.21, 8.34, 11.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.21. But now apart from the law, a righteousness of God has been revealed, being testified by the law and the prophets; 8.34. Who is he who condemns? It is Christ who died, yes rather, who was raised from the dead, who is at the right hand of God, who also makes intercession for us. 11.34. For who has known the mind of the Lord? Or who has been his counselor?
40. New Testament, John, 1.3, 1.15, 1.26-1.34, 2.21, 6.51-6.59 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made. 1.15. John testified about him. He cried out, saying, "This was he of whom I said, 'He who comes after me has surpassed me, for he was before me.' 1.26. John answered them, "I baptize in water, but among you stands one whom you don't know. 1.27. He is the one who comes after me, who has come to be before me, whose sandal strap I'm not worthy to untie. 1.28. These things were done in Bethany beyond the Jordan, where John was baptizing. 1.29. The next day, he saw Jesus coming to him, and said, "Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world! 1.30. This is he of whom I said, 'After me comes a man who is preferred before me, for he was before me.' 1.31. I didn't know him, but for this reason I came baptizing in water: that he would be revealed to Israel. 1.32. John testified, saying, "I have seen the Spirit descending like a dove out of heaven, and it remained on him. 1.33. I didn't recognize him, but he who sent me to baptize in water, he said to me, 'On whomever you will see the Spirit descending, and remaining on him, the same is he who baptizes in the Holy Spirit.' 1.34. I have seen, and have testified that this is the Son of God. 2.21. But he spoke of the temple of his body. 6.51. I am the living bread which came down out of heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. Yes, the bread which I will give for the life of the world is my flesh. 6.52. The Jews therefore contended with one another, saying, "How can this man give us his flesh to eat? 6.53. Jesus therefore said to them, "Most assuredly I tell you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you don't have life in yourselves. 6.54. He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day. 6.55. For my flesh is food indeed, and my blood is drink indeed. 6.56. He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood lives in me, and I in him. 6.57. As the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father; so he who feeds on me, he will also live because of me. 6.58. This is the bread which came down out of heaven -- not as our fathers ate the manna, and died. He who eats this bread will live forever. 6.59. These things he said in the synagogue, as he taught in Capernaum.
41. New Testament, Luke, 3.16-3.17, 22.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.16. John answered them all, "I indeed baptize you with water, but he comes who is mightier than I, the latchet of whose sandals I am not worthy to loosen. He will baptize you in the Holy Spirit and fire 3.17. whose fan is in his hand, and he will thoroughly cleanse his threshing floor, and will gather the wheat into his barn; but he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire. 22.2. The chief priests and the scribes sought how they might put him to death, for they feared the people.
42. New Testament, Mark, 1.7-1.8, 14.22-14.23, 16.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. He preached, saying, "After me comes he who is mightier than I, the thong of whose sandals I am not worthy to stoop down and loosen. 1.8. I baptized you in water, but he will baptize you in the Holy Spirit. 14.22. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had blessed, he broke it, and gave to them, and said, "Take, eat. This is my body. 14.23. He took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave to them. They all drank of it. 16.19. So then the Lord Jesus, after he had spoken to them, was received up into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of God.
43. New Testament, Matthew, 3.11-3.12, 23.8-23.9, 26.26, 26.28, 26.64 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.11. I indeed baptize you in water for repentance, but he who comes after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to carry. He will baptize you in the Holy Spirit. 3.12. His winnowing fork is in his hand, and he will thoroughly cleanse his threshing floor. He will gather his wheat into the barn, but the chaff he will burn up with unquenchable fire. 23.8. But don't you be called 'Rabbi,' for one is your teacher, the Christ, and all of you are brothers. 23.9. Call no man on the earth your father, for one is your Father, he who is in heaven. 26.26. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, gave thanks for it, and broke it. He gave to the disciples, and said, "Take, eat; this is my body. 26.28. for this is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many for the remission of sins. 26.64. Jesus said to him, "You have said it. Nevertheless, I tell you, henceforth you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming on the clouds of the sky.
44. Clement of Alexandria, Christ The Educator, 1.6.32, 1.6.34-1.6.36 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

45. Hermogenes, Rhetorical Exercises, 16 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

46. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 47 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

47. Trypho: But if some one, knowing that this is so, after he recognises that this man is Christ, and has believed in and obeys Him, wishes, however, to observe these [institutions], will he be saved? Justin: In my opinion, Trypho, such an one will be saved, if he does not strive in every way to persuade other men - I mean those Gentiles who have been circumcised from error by Christ, to observe the same things as himself, telling them that they will not be saved unless they do so. This you did yourself at the commencement of the discourse, when you declared that I would not be saved unless I observe these institutions. Trypho: Why then have you said, 'In my opinion, such an one will be saved,' unless there are some who affirm that such will not be saved? Justin: There are such people, Trypho, and these do not venture to have any intercourse with or to extend hospitality to such persons; but I do not agree with them. But if some, through weak-mindedness, wish to observe such institutions as were given by Moses, from which they expect some virtue, but which we believe were appointed by reason of the hardness of the people's hearts, along with their hope in this Christ, and [wish to perform] the eternal and natural acts of righteousness and piety, yet choose to live with the Christians and the faithful, as I said before, not inducing them either to be circumcised like themselves, or to keep the Sabbath, or to observe any other such ceremonies, then I hold that we ought to join ourselves to such, and associate with them in all things as kinsmen and brethren. But if, Trypho, some of your race, who say they believe in this Christ, compel those Gentiles who believe in this Christ to live in all respects according to the law given by Moses, or choose not to associate so intimately with them, I in like manner do not approve of them. But I believe that even those, who have been persuaded by them to observe the legal dispensation along with their confession of God in Christ, shall probably be saved. And I hold, further, that such as have confessed and known this man to be Christ, yet who have gone back from some cause to the legal dispensation, and have denied that this man is Christ, and have repented not before death, shall by no means be saved. Further, I hold that those of the seed of Abraham who live according to the law, and do not believe in this Christ before death, shall likewise not be saved, and especially those who have anathematized and do anathematize this very Christ in the synagogues, and everything by which they might obtain salvation and escape the vengeance of fire. For the goodness and the loving-kindness of God, and His boundless riches, hold righteous and sinless the man who, as Ezekiel tells, repents of sins; and reckons sinful, unrighteous, and impious the man who fails away from piety and righteousness to unrighteousness and ungodliness. Wherefore also our Lord Jesus Christ said, 'In whatsoever things I shall take you, in these I shall judge you.'
47. Theophilus, To Autolycus, 2.10, 2.13 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.10. And first, they taught us with one consent that God made all things out of nothing; for nothing was coeval with God: but He being His own place, and wanting nothing, and existing before the ages, willed to make man by whom He might be known; for him, therefore, He prepared the world. For he that is created is also needy; but he that is uncreated stands in need of nothing. God, then, having His own Word internal within His own bowels, begot Him, emitting Him along with His own wisdom before all things. He had this Word as a helper in the things that were created by Him, and by Him He made all things. He is called governing principle [ἁρκή], because He rules, and is Lord of all things fashioned by Him. He, then, being Spirit of God, and governing principle, and wisdom, and power of the highest, came down upon the prophets, and through them spoke of the creation of the world and of all other things. For the prophets were not when the world came into existence, but the wisdom of God which was in Him, and His holy Word which was always present with Him. Wherefore He speaks thus by the prophet Solomon: When He prepared the heavens I was there, and when He appointed the foundations of the earth I was by Him as one brought up with Him. And Moses, who lived many years before Solomon, or, rather, the Word of God by him as by an instrument, says, In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. First he named the beginning, and creation, then he thus introduced God; for not lightly and on slight occasion is it right to name God. For the divine wisdom foreknew that some would trifle and name a multitude of gods that do not exist. In order, therefore, that the living God might be known by His works, and that [it might be known that] by His Word God created the heavens and the earth, and all that is therein, he said, In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. Then having spoken of their creation, he explains to us: And the earth was without form, and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the Spirit of God moved upon the water. This, sacred Scripture teaches at the outset, to show that matter, from which God made and fashioned the world, was in some manner created, being produced by God. 2.13. Moreover, his [Hesiod's] human, and mean, and very weak conception, so far as regards God, is discovered in his beginning to relate the creation of all things from the earthly things here below. For man, being below, begins to build from the earth, and cannot in order make the roof, unless he has first laid the foundation. But the power of God is shown in this, that, first of all, He creates out of nothing, according to His will, the things that are made. For the things which are impossible with men are possible with God. Luke 18:27 Wherefore, also, the prophet mentioned that the creation of the heavens first of all took place, as a kind of roof, saying: At the first God created the heavens - that is, that by means of the first principle the heavens were made, as we have already shown. And by earth he means the ground and foundation, as by the deep he means the multitude of waters; and darkness he speaks of, on account of the heaven which God made covering the waters and the earth like a lid. And by the Spirit which is borne above the waters, he means that which God gave for animating the creation, as he gave life to man, mixing what is fine with what is fine. For the Spirit is fine, and the water is fine, that the Spirit may nourish the water, and the water penetrating everywhere along with the Spirit, may nourish creation. For the Spirit being one, and holding the place of light, was between the water and the heaven, in order that the darkness might not in any way communicate with the heaven, which was nearer God, before God said, Let there be light. The heaven, therefore, being like a dome-shaped covering, comprehended matter which was like a clod. And so another prophet, Isaiah by name, spoke in these words: It is God who made the heavens as a vault, and stretched them as a tent to dwell in. Isaiah 40:22 The command, then, of God, that is, His Word, shining as a lamp in an enclosed chamber, lit up all that was under heaven, when He had made light apart from the world. And the light God called Day, and the darkness Night. Since man would not have been able to call the light Day, or the darkness Night, nor, indeed, to have given names to the other things, had not he received the nomenclature from God, who made the things themselves. In the very beginning, therefore, of the history and genesis of the world, the holy Scripture spoke not concerning this firmament [which we see], but concerning another heaven, which is to us invisible, after which this heaven which we see has been called firmament, and to which half the water was taken up that it might serve for rains, and showers, and dews to mankind. And half the water was left on earth for rivers, and fountains, and seas. The water, then, covering all the earth, and specially its hollow places, God, through His Word, next caused the waters to be collected into one collection, and the dry land to become visible, which formerly had been invisible. The earth thus becoming visible, was yet without form. God therefore formed and adorned it with all kinds of herbs, and seeds and plants.
48. Origen, Commentary On John, 1.38-1.41 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.38. But none of the names we have mentioned expresses His representation of us with the Father, as He pleads for human nature, and makes atonement for it; the Paraclete, and the propitiation, and the atonement. He has the name Paraclete in the Epistle of John: 1 John 2:1-2 If any man sin, we have a Paraclete with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous. And He is said in the same epistle to be the atonement for our sins. Similarly, in the Epistle to the Romans, He is called a propitiation: Whom God set forth to be a propitiation through faith. of this proportion there was a type in the inmost part of the temple, the Holy of Holies, namely, the golden mercy-seat placed upon the two cherubim. But how could He ever be the Paraclete, and the atonement, and the propitiation without the power of God, which makes an end of our weakness, flows over the souls of believers, and is administered by Jesus, who indeed is prior to it and Himself the power of God, who enables a man to say: Philippians 4:13 I can do all things through Jesus Christ who strengthens me. Whence we know that Simon Magus, who gave himself the title of The power of God, which is called great, was consigned to perdition and destruction, he and his money with him. We, on the contrary, who confess Christ as the true power of God, believe that we share with Him, inasmuch as He is that power, all things in which any energy resides. 1.39. We must not, however, pass over in silence that He is of right the wisdom of God, and hence is called by that name. For the wisdom of the God and Father of all things does not apprehend His substance in mere visions, like the phantasms of human thoughts. Whoever is able to conceive a bodiless existence of manifold speculations which extend to the rationale of existing things, living and, as it were, ensouled, he will see how well the Wisdom of God which is above every creature speaks of herself, when she says: Proverbs 8:22 God created me the beginning of His ways, for His works. By this creating act the whole creation was enabled to exist, not being unreceptive of that divine wisdom according to which it was brought into being; for God, according to the prophet David, made all things in wisdom. But many things came into being by the help of wisdom, which do not lay hold of that by which they were created: and few things indeed there are which lay hold not only of that wisdom which concerns themselves, but of that which has to do with many things besides, namely, of Christ who is the whole of wisdom. But each of the sages, in proportion as he embraces wisdom, partakes to that extent of Christ, in that He is wisdom; just as every one who is greatly gifted with power, in proportion as he has power, in that proportion also has a share in Christ, inasmuch as He is power. The same is to be thought about sanctification and redemption; for Jesus Himself is made sanctification to us and redemption. Each of us is sanctified with that sanctification, and redeemed with that redemption. Consider, moreover, if the words to us, added by the Apostle, have any special force. Christ, he says, was made to us of God, wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption. In other passages, he speaks about Christ as being wisdom, without any such qualification, and of His being power, saying that Christ is the power of God and the wisdom of God, though we might have conceived that He was not the wisdom of God or the power of God, absolutely, but only for us. Now, in respect of wisdom and power, we have both forms of the statement, the relative and the absolute; but in respect of sanctification and redemption, this is not the case. Consider, therefore, since Hebrews 2:11 He that sanctifies and they that are sanctified are all of one, whether the Father is the sanctification of Him who is our sanctification, as, Christ being our head, God is His head. But Christ is our redemption because we had become prisoners and needed ransoming. I do not enquire as to His own redemption, for though He was tempted in all things as we are, He was without sin, and His enemies never reduced Him to captivity. 1.40. Having expiscated the to us and the absolutely- sanctification and redemption being to us and not absolute, wisdom and redemption both to us and absolute - we must not omit to enquire into the position of righteousness in the same passage. That Christ is righteousness relatively to us appears clearly from the words: Who was made to us of God wisdom and righteousness and sanctification and redemption. And if we do not find Him to be righteousness absolutely as He is the wisdom and the power of God absolutely, then we must enquire whether to Christ Himself, as the Father is sanctification, so the Father is also righteousness. There is, we know, no unrighteousness with God; John 7:18 He is a righteous and holy Lord, Revelation 16:5, 7 and His judgments are in righteousness, and being righteous, He orders all things righteously. The heretics drew a distinction for purposes of their own between the just and the good. They did not make the matter very clear, but they considered that the demiurge was just, while the Father of Christ was good. That distinction may, I think, if carefully examined, be applied to the Father and the Son; the Son being righteousness, and having received power John 5:27 to execute judgment, because He is the Son of Man and will judge the world in righteousness, but the Father doing good to those who have been disciplined by the righteousness of the Son. This is after the kingdom of the Son; then the Father will manifest in His works His name the Good, when God becomes all in all. And perhaps by His righteousness the Saviour prepares everything at the fit times, and by His word, by His ordering, by His chastisements, and, if I may use such an expression, by His spiritual healing aids, disposes all things to receive at the end the goodness of the Father. It was from His sense of that goodness that He answered him who addressed the Only-begotten with the words Good Master, Hebrews 2:9 and said, Why do you call Me good? None is good but one, God, the Father. This we have treated of elsewhere, especially in dealing with the question of the greater than the demiurge; Christ we have taken to be the demiurge, and the Father the greater than He. Such great things, then, He is, the Paraclete, the atonement, the propitiation, the sympathizer with our weaknesses, who was tempted in all human things, as we are, without sin; and in consequence He is a great High-Priest, having offered Himself as the sacrifice which is offered once for all, and not for men only but for every rational creature. For without God He tasted death for every one. In some copies of the Epistle to the Hebrews the words are by the grace of God. Now, whether He tasted death for every one without God, He died not for men only but for all other intellectual beings too, or whether He tasted death for every one by the grace of God, He died for all without God, for by the grace of God He tasted death for every one. It would surely be absurd to say that He tasted death for human sins and not for any other being besides man which had fallen into sin, as for example for the stars. For not even the stars are clean in the eyes of God, as we read in Job, Job 25:5 The stars are not clean in His sight, unless this is to be regarded as a hyperbole. Hence he is a great High-Priest, since He restores all things to His Father's kingdom, and arranges that whatever defects exist in each part of creation shall be filled up so as to be full of the glory of the Father. This High-Priest is called, from some other notion of him than those we have noticed, Judas, that those who are Jews secretly Romans 2:29 may take the name of Jew not from Judah, son of Jacob, but from Him, since they are His brethren, and praise Him for the freedom they have attained. For it is He who sets them free, saving them from their enemies on whose backs He lays His hand to subdue them. When He has put under His feet the opposing power, and is alone in presence of His Father, then He is Jacob and Israel; and thus as we are made light by Him, since He is the light of the world, so we are made Jacob since He is called Jacob, and Israel since He is called Israel. 1.41. Now He receives the kingdom from the king whom the children of Israel appointed, beginning the monarchy not at the divine command and without even consulting God. He therefore fights the battles of the Lord and so prepares peace for His Son, His people, and this perhaps is the reason why He is called David. Then He is called a rod; Isaiah 11:1 such He is to those who need a harder and severer discipline, and have not submitted to the love and gentleness of God. On this account, if He is a rod, He has to go forth; He does not remain in Himself, but appears to go beyond His earlier state. Going forth, then, and becoming a rod, He does not remain a rod, but after the rod He becomes a flower that rises up, and after being a rod He is made known as a flower to those who, by His being a rod, have met with visitation. For God will visit their iniquities with a rod, that is, Christ. But His mercy He will not take from him, for He will have mercy on him, for on whom the Son has mercy the Father has mercy also. An interpretation may be given which makes Him a rod and a flower in respect of different persons, a rod to those who have need of chastisement, a flower to those who are being saved; but I prefer the account of the matter given above. We must add here, however, that, perhaps, looking to the end, if Christ is a rod to any man He is also a flower to him, while it is not the case that he who receives Him as a flower must also know Him as a rod. And yet as one flower is more perfect than another and plants are said to flower, even though they bring forth no perfect fruit, so the perfect receive that of Christ which transcends the flower. Those, on the other hand, who have known Him as a rod will partake along with it, not in His perfection, but in the flower which comes before the fruit. Last of all, before we come to the word Logos, Christ was a stone, set at naught by the builders but placed on the head of the corner, for the living stones are built up as on a foundation on the other stones of the Apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus Himself our Lord being the chief corner-stone, because He is a part of the building made of living stones in the land of the living; therefore He is called a stone. All this we have said to show how capricious and baseless is the procedure of those who, when so many names are given to Christ, take the mere appellation the Word, without enquiring, as in the case of His other titles, in what sense it is used; surely they ought to ask what is meant when it is said of the Son of God that He was the Word, and God, and that He was in the beginning with the Father, and that all things were made by Him.
49. Origen, On First Principles, 4.1.7, 4.2.2, 4.2.4-4.2.5 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

50. Origen, Homilies On Leviticus, 10.1 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

51. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Recognitiones (E Pseudocaesario), 1.60 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

52. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Recognitions, 1.60 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.60. And, behold, one of the disciples of John asserted that John was the Christ, and not Jesus, inasmuch as Jesus Himself declared that John was greater than all men and all prophets. Matthew 11:9, 11 'If, then,' said he, 'he be greater than all, he must be held to be greater than Moses, and than Jesus himself. But if he be the greatest of all, then must he be the Christ.' To this Simon the Canaanite, answering, asserted that John was indeed greater than all the prophets, and all who are born of women, yet that he is not greater than the Son of man. Accordingly Jesus is also the Christ, whereas John is only a prophet: and there is as much difference between him and Jesus, as between the forerunner and Him whose forerunner he is; or as between Him who gives the law, and him who keeps the law. Having made these and similar statements, the Canaanite also was silent. After him Barnabas, who also is called Matthias, who was substituted as an apostle in the place of Judas, began to exhort the people that they should not regard Jesus with hatred, nor speak evil of Him. For it were far more proper, even for one who might be in ignorance or in doubt concerning Jesus, to love than to hate Him. For God has affixed a reward to love, a penalty to hatred. 'For the very fact,' said he, 'that He assumed a Jewish body, and was born among the Jews, how has not this incited us all to love Him?' When he had spoken this, and more to the same effect, he stopped.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 175; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 56, 73, 164
abraham Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 165
access, to the holy of holies nan nan
adversus ioudaios writings Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 90
against the mathematicians (adversus mathematicos, sextus empiricus) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 620
alexandria, place of origin of letter of barnabas Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 150
altar Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 28
amplification, in narratio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 175, 178, 184
angel, angelic Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 23
angels Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 57
antisemitism Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 28
apocalypticism, apocalypse Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 169, 172
apostasy Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 61
apostles to the at last supper Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 241
apostolic church order, martha in Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 241
apostolic church order, ministry of women in Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 241
apostolic church order Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 241
artistic Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 184
artless, topics Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 175
artless Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 184
ascension nan nan
ascent to heaven Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 169, 337
atonement, application of nan
atonement, in the levitical cult nan nan
atonement, lexical issues surrounding nan
atonement, old nan
atonement, sanctions of nan
atonement, sprinkling or tossing of nan
attributes, divine, incomprehensible Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 163
barnabas, letter of Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 150
blood, of christ Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 104
blood Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 67, 73, 104, 154, 175, 176
bodies and realities Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 163
body Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 163; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 353
body of christ Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 177
christianity, corporeally-minded Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 58
christianity, early history Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 150
christianity, levels of believers in Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 67
christology Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 337; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 66, 67, 73, 154, 164, 178
church Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 337
citizen, citizenship Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 23, 28
clement of alexandria, heresy and epistemology Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 395
clement of alexandria Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 232; Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 90
commandments Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 73
commentary on matthew (origen) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 620
commentary on the song of songs (origen) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 620
community Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 23, 26
confession Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 174
connotations, setting Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 596
cosmology Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 169
covenant, mosaic Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 56, 57, 73, 176, 190
covenant, new Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 66, 73, 130, 175, 177, 178, 190, 193
covenant Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 3, 39, 61, 175, 178, 184
creation, creator Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 337
creation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 130
cross Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 169, 172
crucifixion Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 73, 154, 175, 176
cult Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 23
culture, cultural affiliations in galilee Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 150
day of atonement ritual, in hebrews Cohn, The Memory of the Temple and the Making of the Rabbis (2013) 107
death Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 193
death of christ Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 172
deliberative Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 61
diakonia women and Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 241
dualism, origen and Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 232
dualism Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 172
eliav, yaron, on the temple mount in jesus-centered sources Cohn, The Memory of the Temple and the Making of the Rabbis (2013) 107
enoch xviii, xix Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 169
enthymeme Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 184
epideictic Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 61, 184
eschatology, eschatological Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 26
eschatology Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 172; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 89, 130
ethos Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 184
example Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 184
exhortation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 57, 123, 175, 178
exordium, secondary exordium Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 39
exposition Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 39
faith Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 26
figurative/allegorical exegesis, different senses or levels of biblical meaning for Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 620
fire, sacrificial Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 104, 108, 129
frei, and dualism Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 232
fulfilment Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 56, 89, 130, 154, 176, 193
gnosis Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 23
god Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 26, 28
grace Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 26
heaven, heavenly realities Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 176, 190
heavenly hymns Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 169
hebrews, letter to Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 150
hebrews, letter to the Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 169, 172; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 174
hebrews Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 90
heresy, human origin of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 395
high priest, levitical nan nan
high priest Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 23
history Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 130, 154
holiness Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 57, 154, 175, 176, 177, 178, 193
holy of holies, holy place Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 66, 67, 123, 129, 130, 154
holy of holies Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 353
holy place Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 353
homilies and sermons, homilies on leviticus (origen) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 620
homilies and sermons, homilies on numbers (origen) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 620
house Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 89, 108, 123
identity, spiritual transformation of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 232
identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 174
image vi Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 353
image xvi Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 337
imitation Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 26
inauguration (of the covenant, temple) Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 154, 175
incidental narratio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 184
intercession Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 154
interpetation of john, spiritual Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 58
interpetation of john, the interpreter as christs representative Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 67
jacob Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 163
jesus, intercessor/advocate Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 174
jesus, jesus christ Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 26
jesus Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 90
jesus role as priest/high-priest Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 174
jews (jewish people), as resistors of divine things Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 67
john, gospel of Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 172
judaism Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 23, 28
knowledge Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 337
lamb Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 337
law, as tutor Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 67
law, legal Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 26, 28
law, the, in clement Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 395
law Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 163; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 56, 57, 73, 104, 108, 129, 164, 165, 175, 176, 177, 178, 190, 193
levitical Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 175, 178
literalism, definition of Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 58
literalism, origen opposing Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 58, 67
liturgy Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 56, 66, 67, 73, 89, 108, 123, 154, 175, 176, 190, 193
logos Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 163; Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 184
magi Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 395
martha, at last supper Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 241
martyrdom, martyr, desire Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 23, 26, 28
martyrdom, martyr, judaism, jewish Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 28
martyrdom, martyr, sacrifice Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 26, 28
martyrdom, martyr, trauma, traumatic experience Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 23, 26, 28
meal Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 26
mediation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 164
melchizedek Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 169; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 165
mercy Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 56, 57, 164
merkava xiii–xvi, xix Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 169, 337
messiah, messianic expectations Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 154
messiah, presentation of nan
metatron Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 169
moses, mosaic Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 23
moses Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 163; Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 39, 61; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 337; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 56, 66, 73, 108, 123, 129, 130, 164, 165, 175, 178
mystery Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 172
narratio, persuasion appropriate for Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 184
narratio, topoi Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 175, 178
narratio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 175, 178, 184
obedience Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 73, 193
objects Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 353
offering Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 26
old testament, in origen Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 58
ordination Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 596
origen, commentary on matthew Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 620
origen, commentary on the song of songs Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 620
origen, different senses or levels of biblical meaning Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 620
origen, hermeneutical background of Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 58
origen, homilies on leviticus Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 620
origen, homilies on numbers Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 620
origen, pedagogical concealment in Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 67
origen, spiritual interpretation by Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 58
origen Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 58, 67; Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 620
pathos Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 184
paul, pauline corpus Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 165, 175
paul Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 67; Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 90
pedagogical concealment Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 67
people of god, of israel Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 130
perfection Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 66, 67, 73, 89, 123, 130, 154, 175, 176, 177, 178, 193
peter Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 67
philocalia Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 620
platonism Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 163
pleroma Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 337
priest, priesthood Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 169, 172
priest, priestly Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 23, 26, 28
priesthood Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 23, 26, 28
priests Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 353
primary peroratio, secondary peroratio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 39
promise Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 89, 193
prophet, prophetism Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 23
purification, purity Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 130, 154, 175, 193
rabbinics Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 129
redemption, earthly nan
redemptive Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 26
rest Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 176
revelation, the apocalypse of jesus christ Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 337
revelation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 165, 190, 193
rhetorical topoi, birth Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 39
rhetorical topoi, cause Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 175, 178
rhetorical topoi, deeds Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 39
rhetorical topoi, education Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 39
rhetorics, rhetoric Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 23
sacrifice, sacrificial Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 23, 26
sacrifice Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 172; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 353
salvation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 104, 193
sanctuary Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 57, 164, 176, 190; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 353
scripture, shadow Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 58, 67
septuagint Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 108, 178
sextus empiricus, adversus mathematicos (against the mathematicians) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 620
sextus empiricus Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 620
sinai Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 56, 73, 130
solidarity Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 56, 57, 73
soteriology Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 169, 172
spatial dualism Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 172
spirit, holy Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 104, 108, 154, 175
sprinkle Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 596
sprinkling Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 596
structure (of hebrews, literary) Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 56, 57, 123, 164
structure of hebrews Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 3, 39
suffering Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 172; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 193
syncrisis, jesus/angels Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 61
syncrisis, jesus/moses Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 39, 61
syncrisis, old covenant/new covenant Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 39
syncrisis Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 61
tabernacle Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 26; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 353
teacher, office of Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 67
temple Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 337; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 190
tent Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 66, 67, 89, 123, 129, 130, 154, 176, 190
throne, enthroned Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 337
throne of god, hebrews appropriation of nan nan
throne of god, inner-sanctum cleansing rite in nan
throne of god, scapegoat rite in nan
throne of god nan
topos Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 175, 178, 184
transformation, spiritual' Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 232
transformation Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 337
trauma, traumatic Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 28
trigg, joseph w. Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 67
typological interpretation Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 67
vision Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 172
washing Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 596
water Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 596
wilderness generation Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 61
wisdom Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 172
world Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 66, 89, 130, 193
worship Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 337; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 174
yored merkava Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 337
οἴησις Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 395
φιλαυτία Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 395