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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8250
New Testament, Galatians, 5.17-5.23


ἡ γὰρ σὰρξ ἐπιθυμεῖ κατὰ τοῦ πνεύματος, τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα κατὰ τῆς σαρκός, ταῦτα γὰρ ἀλλήλοις ἀντίκειται, ἵνα μὴ ἃ ἐὰν θέλητε ταῦτα ποιῆτε.For the flesh lusts against the Spirit, and theSpirit against the flesh; and these are contrary to one other, that youmay not do the things that you desire.


εἰ δὲ πνεύματι ἄγεσθε, οὐκ ἐστὲ ὑπὸ νόμον.But if you are led by theSpirit, you are not under the law.


φανερὰ δέ ἐστιν τὰ ἔργα τῆς σαρκός, ἅτινά ἐστιν πορνεία, ἀκαθαρσία, ἀσέλγειαNow the works of the fleshare obvious, which are: adultery, sexual immorality, uncleanness,lustfulness


εἰδωλολατρία, φαρμακία, ἔχθραι, ἔρις, ζῆλος, θυμοί, ἐριθίαι, διχοστασίαι, αἱρέσειςidolatry, sorcery, hatred, strife, jealousies,outbursts of anger, rivalries, divisions, heresies


φθόνοι, μέθαι, κῶμοι, καὶ τὰ ὅμοια τούτοις, ἃ προλέγω ὑμῖν καθὼς προεῖπον ὅτι οἱ τὰ τοιαῦτα πράσσοντες βασιλείαν θεοῦ οὐ κληρονομήσουσιν.envyings,murders, drunkenness, orgies, and things like these; of which Iforewarn you, even as I also forewarned you, that those who practicesuch things will not inherit the Kingdom of God.


ὁ δὲ καρπὸς τοῦ πνεύματός ἐστιν ἀγάπη, χαρά, εἰρήνη, μακροθυμία, χρηστότης, ἀγαθωσύνη, πίστιςBut the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience,kindness, goodness, faithfulness


πραΰτης, ἐγκράτεια· κατὰ τῶν τοιούτων οὐκ ἔστιν νόμος.gentleness, and self-control.Against such things there is no law.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

67 results
1. Septuagint, Proverbs, 1.7 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2. Septuagint, Psalms, 18.10, 33.12, 35.2, 110.10 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.21. וַתֹּאמְרוּ הֵן הֶרְאָנוּ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֶת־כְּבֹדוֹ וְאֶת־גָּדְלוֹ וְאֶת־קֹלוֹ שָׁמַעְנוּ מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה רָאִינוּ כִּי־יְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם וָחָי׃ 5.21. and ye said: ‘Behold, the LORD our God hath shown us His glory and His greatness, and we have heard His voice out of the midst of the fire; we have seen this day that God doth speak with man, and he liveth."
4. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 15.1, 15.21, 20.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.1. אָז יָשִׁיר־מֹשֶׁה וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת לַיהוָה וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֵאמֹר אָשִׁירָה לַיהוָה כִּי־גָאֹה גָּאָה סוּס וְרֹכְבוֹ רָמָה בַיָּם׃ 15.1. נָשַׁפְתָּ בְרוּחֲךָ כִּסָּמוֹ יָם צָלֲלוּ כַּעוֹפֶרֶת בְּמַיִם אַדִּירִים׃ 15.21. וַתַּעַן לָהֶם מִרְיָם שִׁירוּ לַיהוָה כִּי־גָאֹה גָּאָה סוּס וְרֹכְבוֹ רָמָה בַיָּם׃ 20.17. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הָעָם אַל־תִּירָאוּ כִּי לְבַעֲבוּר נַסּוֹת אֶתְכֶם בָּא הָאֱלֹהִים וּבַעֲבוּר תִּהְיֶה יִרְאָתוֹ עַל־פְּנֵיכֶם לְבִלְתִּי תֶחֱטָאוּ׃ 15.1. Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the LORD, and spoke, saying: I will sing unto the LORD, for He is highly exalted; The horse and his rider hath He thrown into the sea." 15.21. And Miriam sang unto them: Sing ye to the LORD, for He is highly exalted: The horse and his rider hath He thrown into the sea." 20.17. And Moses said unto the people: ‘Fear not; for God is come to prove you, and that His fear may be before you, that ye sin not.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, a b c d\n0 "17.17" "17.17" "17 17"\n1 15.5 15.5 15 5 \n2 2.7 2.7 2 7 \n3 3.6 3.6 3 6 \n4 34.1 34.1 34 1 \n5 34.10 34.10 34 10 \n6 34.13 34.13 34 13 \n7 34.14 34.14 34 14 \n8 34.15 34.15 34 15 \n9 34.16 34.16 34 16 \n10 34.17 34.17 34 17 \n11 34.2 34.2 34 2 \n12 34.21 34.21 34 21 \n13 34.22 34.22 34 22 \n14 34.24 34.24 34 24 \n15 34.25 34.25 34 25 \n16 34.26 34.26 34 26 \n17 34.27 34.27 34 27 \n18 34.28 34.28 34 28 \n19 34.29 34.29 34 29 \n20 34.3 34.3 34 3 \n21 34.30 34.30 34 30 \n22 34.31 34.31 34 31 \n23 34.4 34.4 34 4 \n24 34.5 34.5 34 5 \n25 34.7 34.7 34 7 \n26 34.8 34.8 34 8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 11.25, 18.25-18.32, 19.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.25. וַיֵּרֶד יְהוָה בֶּעָנָן וַיְדַבֵּר אֵלָיו וַיָּאצֶל מִן־הָרוּחַ אֲשֶׁר עָלָיו וַיִּתֵּן עַל־שִׁבְעִים אִישׁ הַזְּקֵנִים וַיְהִי כְּנוֹחַ עֲלֵיהֶם הָרוּחַ וַיִּתְנַבְּאוּ וְלֹא יָסָפוּ׃ 18.25. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 18.26. וְאֶל־הַלְוִיִּם תְּדַבֵּר וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם כִּי־תִקְחוּ מֵאֵת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַמַּעֲשֵׂר אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לָכֶם מֵאִתָּם בְּנַחֲלַתְכֶם וַהֲרֵמֹתֶם מִמֶּנּוּ תְּרוּמַת יְהוָה מַעֲשֵׂר מִן־הַמַּעֲשֵׂר׃ 18.27. וְנֶחְשַׁב לָכֶם תְּרוּמַתְכֶם כַּדָּגָן מִן־הַגֹּרֶן וְכַמְלֵאָה מִן־הַיָּקֶב׃ 18.28. כֵּן תָּרִימוּ גַם־אַתֶּם תְּרוּמַת יְהוָה מִכֹּל מַעְשְׂרֹתֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר תִּקְחוּ מֵאֵת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּנְתַתֶּם מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת־תְּרוּמַת יְהוָה לְאַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן׃ 18.29. מִכֹּל מַתְּנֹתֵיכֶם תָּרִימוּ אֵת כָּל־תְּרוּמַת יְהוָה מִכָּל־חֶלְבּוֹ אֶת־מִקְדְּשׁוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ׃ 18.31. וַאֲכַלְתֶּם אֹתוֹ בְּכָל־מָקוֹם אַתֶּם וּבֵיתְכֶם כִּי־שָׂכָר הוּא לָכֶם חֵלֶף עֲבֹדַתְכֶם בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 18.32. וְלֹא־תִשְׂאוּ עָלָיו חֵטְא בַּהֲרִימְכֶם אֶת־חֶלְבּוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ וְאֶת־קָדְשֵׁי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא תְחַלְּלוּ וְלֹא תָמוּתוּ׃ 19.13. כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמֵת בְּנֶפֶשׁ הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר־יָמוּת וְלֹא יִתְחַטָּא אֶת־מִשְׁכַּן יְהוָה טִמֵּא וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל כִּי מֵי נִדָּה לֹא־זֹרַק עָלָיו טָמֵא יִהְיֶה עוֹד טֻמְאָתוֹ בוֹ׃ 11.25. And the LORD came down in the cloud, and spoke unto him, and took of the spirit that was upon him, and put it upon the seventy elders; and it came to pass, that, when the spirit rested upon them, they prophesied, but they did so no more." 18.25. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 18.26. ’Moreover thou shalt speak unto the Levites, and say unto them: When ye take of the children of Israel the tithe which I have given you from them for your inheritance, then ye shall set apart of it a gift for the LORD, even a tithe of the tithe." 18.27. And the gift which ye set apart shall be reckoned unto you, as though it were the corn of the threshing-floor, and as the fulness of the wine-press." 18.28. Thus ye also shall set apart a gift unto the LORD of all your tithes, which ye receive of the children of Israel; and thereof ye shall give the gift which is set apart unto the LORD to Aaron the priest." 18.29. Out of all that is given you ye shall set apart all of that which is due unto the LORD, of all the best thereof, even the hallowed part thereof out of it." 18.30. Therefore thou shalt say unto them: When ye set apart the best thereof from it, then it shall be counted unto the Levites as the increase of the threshing-floor, and as the increase of the wine-press." 18.31. And ye may eat it in every place, ye and your households; for it is your reward in return for your service in the tent of meeting." 18.32. And ye shall bear no sin by reason of it, seeing that ye have set apart from it the best thereof; and ye shall not profane the holy things of the children of Israel, that ye die not.’" 19.13. Whosoever toucheth the dead, even the body of any man that is dead, and purifieth not himself—he hath defiled the tabernacle of the LORD—that soul shall be cut off from Israel; because the water of sprinkling was not dashed against him, he shall be unclean; his uncleanness is yet upon him."
7. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 2.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.5. אָז תָּבִין יִרְאַת יְהוָה וְדַעַת אֱלֹהִים תִּמְצָא׃ 2.5. Then shalt thou understand the fear of the LORD, And find the knowledge of God."
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 33.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

33.9. כִּי הוּא אָמַר וַיֶּהִי הוּא־צִוָּה וַיַּעֲמֹד׃ 33.9. For He spoke, and it was; He commanded, and it stood."
9. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 61.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

61.1. שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ בַּיהוָה תָּגֵל נַפְשִׁי בֵּאלֹהַי כִּי הִלְבִּישַׁנִי בִּגְדֵי־יֶשַׁע מְעִיל צְדָקָה יְעָטָנִי כֶּחָתָן יְכַהֵן פְּאֵר וְכַכַּלָּה תַּעְדֶּה כֵלֶיהָ׃ 61.1. רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח יְהוָה אֹתִי לְבַשֵּׂר עֲנָוִים שְׁלָחַנִי לַחֲבֹשׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב לִקְרֹא לִשְׁבוּיִם דְּרוֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִים פְּקַח־קוֹחַ׃ 61.1. The spirit of the Lord God is upon me; Because the LORD hath anointed me To bring good tidings unto the humble; He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the eyes to them that are bound;"
10. Hesiod, Works And Days, 288-292, 287 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

287. Perses, remember this, serve righteousne
11. Septuagint, Isaiah, 2.10 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

12. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 11.5, 36.26 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.5. וַתִּפֹּל עָלַי רוּחַ יְהוָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי אֱמֹר כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה כֵּן אֲמַרְתֶּם בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמַעֲלוֹת רוּחֲכֶם אֲנִי יְדַעְתִּיהָ׃ 36.26. וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב חָדָשׁ וְרוּחַ חֲדָשָׁה אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־לֵב הָאֶבֶן מִבְּשַׂרְכֶם וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב בָּשָׂר׃ 11.5. And the spirit of the LORD fell upon me, and He said unto me: ‘Speak: Thus saith the LORD: Thus have ye said, O house of Israel; for I know the things that come into your mind." 36.26. A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you; and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh."
13. Theognis, Elegies, 912-914, 911 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

14. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

274b. noble objects, no matter what happens to us. Phaedrus. Certainly. Socrates. We have, then, said enough about the art of speaking and that which is no art. Phaedrus. Assuredly. Socrates. But we have still to speak of propriety and impropriety in writing, how it should be done and how it is improper, have we not? Phaedrus. Yes. Socrates. Do you know how you can act or speak about rhetoric so as to please God best? Phaedrus. Not at all; do you?
15. Xenophon, Memoirs, 2.1.29-2.1.34 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2.1.29. And Vice, as Prodicus tells, answered and said: Heracles, mark you how hard and long is that road to joy, of which this woman tells? but I will lead you by a short and easy road to happiness. And Virtue said: 2.1.30. What good thing is thine, poor wretch, or what pleasant thing dost thou know, if thou wilt do nought to win them? Thou dost not even tarry for the desire of pleasant things, but fillest thyself with all things before thou desirest them, eating before thou art hungry, drinking before thou art thirsty, getting thee cooks, to give zest to eating, buying thee costly wines and running to and fro in search of snow in summer, to give zest to drinking; to soothe thy slumbers it is not enough for thee to buy soft coverlets, but thou must have frames for thy beds. For not toil, but the tedium of having nothing to do, makes thee long for sleep. Thou dost rouse lust by many a trick, when there is no need, using men as women: thus thou trainest thy friends, waxing wanton by night, consuming in sleep the best hours of day. 2.1.31. Immortal art thou, yet the outcast of the gods, the scorn of good men. Praise, sweetest of all things to hear, thou hearest not: the sweetest of all sights thou beholdest not, for never yet hast thou beheld a good work wrought by thyself. Who will believe what thou dost say? who will grant what thou dost ask? Or what sane man will dare join thy throng? While thy votaries are young their bodies are weak, when they wax old, their souls are without sense; idle and sleek they thrive in youth, withered and weary they journey through old age, and their past deeds bring them shame, their present deeds distress. Pleasure they ran through in their youth: hardship they laid up for their old age. 2.1.32. But I company with gods and good men, and no fair deed of god or man is done without my aid. I am first in honour among the gods and among men that are akin to me: to craftsmen a beloved fellow-worker, to masters a faithful guardian of the house, to servants a kindly protector: good helpmate in the toils of peace, staunch ally in the deeds of war, best partner in friendship. 2.1.33. To my friends meat and drink bring sweet and simple enjoyment: for they wait till they crave them. And a sweeter sleep falls on them than on idle folk: they are not vexed at awaking from it, nor for its sake do they neglect to do their duties. The young rejoice to win the praise of the old; the elders are glad to be honoured by the young; with joy they recall their deeds past, and their present well-doing is joy to them, for through me they are dear to the gods, lovely to friends, precious to their native land. And when comes the appointed end, they lie not forgotten and dishonoured, but live on, sung and remembered for all time. O Heracles, thou son of goodly parents, if thou wilt labour earnestly on this wise, thou mayest have for thine own the most blessed happiness. 2.1.34. Such, in outline, is Prodicus’ story of the training of Heracles by Virtue; only he has clothed the thoughts in even finer phrases than I have done now. But anyhow, Aristippus, it were well that you should think on these things and try to show some regard for the life that lies before you.
16. Anon., 1 Enoch, 91.3 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

91.3. And he spake unto all the children of righteousness and said: 100. And in those days in one place the fathers together with their sons shall be smitten And brothers one with another shall fall in death Till the streams flow with their blood.",For a man shall not withhold his hand from slaying his sons and his sons' sons, And the sinner shall not withhold his hand from his honoured brother: From dawn till sunset they shall slay one another.,And the horse shall walk up to the breast in the blood of sinners, And the chariot shall be submerged to its height.,In those days the angels shall descend into the secret places And gather together into one place all those who brought down sin And the Most High will arise on that day of judgement To execute great judgement amongst sinners.",And over all the righteous and holy He will appoint guardians from amongst the holy angels To guard them as the apple of an eye, Until He makes an end of all wickedness and all sin, And though the righteous sleep a long sleep, they have nought to fear.,And (then) the children of the earth shall see the wise in security, And shall understand all the words of this book, And recognize that their riches shall not be able to save them In the overthrow of their sins.,Woe to you, Sinners, on the day of strong anguish, Ye who afflict the righteous and burn them with fire: Ye shall be requited according to your works.,Woe to you, ye obstinate of heart, Who watch in order to devise wickedness: Therefore shall fear come upon you And there shall be none to help you.,Woe to you, ye sinners, on account of the words of your mouth, And on account of the deeds of your hands which your godlessness as wrought, In blazing flames burning worse than fire shall ye burn.,And now, know ye that from the angels He will inquire as to your deeds in heaven, from the sun and from the moon and from the stars in reference to your sins because upon the earth ye execute,judgement on the righteous. And He will summon to testify against you every cloud and mist and dew and rain; for they shall all be withheld because of you from descending upon you, and they,shall be mindful of your sins. And now give presents to the rain that it be not withheld from descending upon you, nor yet the dew, when it has received gold and silver from you that it may descend. When the hoar-frost and snow with their chilliness, and all the snow-storms with all their plagues fall upon you, in those days ye shall not be able to stand before them.
17. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 37.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

37.3. O evil imagination, why were you formed to cover the land with deceit? 37.3. for overeating brings sickness,and gluttony leads to nausea.
18. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 12.10, 13.10-13.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

12.10. But judging them little by little thou gavest them a chance to repent,though thou wast not unaware that their origin was evil and their wickedness inborn,and that their way of thinking would never change. 13.10. But miserable, with their hopes set on dead things, are the men who give the name "gods" to the works of mens hands,gold and silver fashioned with skill,and likenesses of animals,or a useless stone, the work of an ancient hand. 13.11. A skilled woodcutter may saw down a tree easy to handle and skilfully strip off all its bark,and then with pleasing workmanship make a useful vessel that serves lifes needs 13.12. and burn the castoff pieces of his work to prepare his food, and eat his fill. 13.13. But a castoff piece from among them, useful for nothing,a stick crooked and full of knots,he takes and carves with care in his leisure,and shapes it with skill gained in idleness;he forms it like the image of a man 13.14. or makes it like some worthless animal,giving it a coat of red paint and coloring its surface red and covering every blemish in it with paint; 13.15. then he makes for it a niche that befits it,and sets it in the wall, and fastens it there with iron. 13.16. So he takes thought for it, that it may not fall,because he knows that it cannot help itself,for it is only an image and has need of help. 13.17. When he prays about possessions and his marriage and children,he is not ashamed to address a lifeless thing. 13.18. For health he appeals to a thing that is weak;for life he prays to a thing that is dead;for aid he entreats a thing that is utterly inexperienced;for a prosperous journey, a thing that cannot take a step; 13.19. for money-making and work and success with his hands he asks strength of a thing whose hands have no strength.
19. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 44 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

44. If therefore, O my soul, any one of the temptations of pleasure invites you, turn yourself away, and directing your views towards another point, look at the genuine beauty of virtue, and having surveyed it, remain, until a desire for it has sunk into you, and draws you to it, like a magnet, and immediately leads you and attaches you to that which has become the object of your desire. XI.
20. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 10.3-10.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10.3. Accordingly he mentioned the swine with this intent. Thou shalt not cleave, saith he, to such men who are like unto swine; that is, when they are in luxury they forget the Lord, but when they are in want they recognize the Lord, just as the swine when it eateth knoweth not his lord, but when it is hungry it crieth out, and when it has received food again it is silent. 10.4. Neither shalt thou eat eagle nor falcon nor kite nor crow. Thou shalt not, He saith, cleave unto, or be likened to, such men who now not how to provide food for themselves by toil and sweat, but in their lawlessness seize what belongeth to others, and as if they were walking in guilelessness watch and search about for some one to rob in their rapacity, just as these birds alone do not provide food for themselves, but sit idle and seek how they may eat the meat that belongeth to others, being pestilent in their evil-doings. 10.5. And thou shalt not eat, saith He, lamprey nor polypus nor cuttle fish . Thou shalt not, He meaneth, become like unto such men, who are desperately wicked, and are already condemned to death, just as these fishes alone are accursed and swim in the depths, not swimming on the surface like the rest, but dwell on the ground beneath the deep sea. 10.6. Moreover thou shalt not eat the hare. Why so? Thou shalt not be found a corrupter of boys, nor shalt thou become like such persons; for the hare gaineth one passage in the body every year; for according to the number of years it lives it has just so many orifices. 10.7. Again, neither shalt thou eat the hyena; thou shalt not, saith He, become an adulterer or a fornicator, neither shalt thou resemble such persons. Why so? Because this animal changeth its nature year by year, and becometh at one time male and at another female. 10.8. Moreover He hath hated the weasel also and with good reason. Thou shalt not, saith He, become such as those men of whom we hear as working iniquity with their mouth for uncleanness, neither shalt thou cleave unto impure women who work iniquity with their mouth. For this animal conceiveth with its mouth.
21. Anon., Didache, 1.1-6.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 5.2, 6.1, 7.1-7.2, 9.2, 10.1, 11.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.2. Yea, and we love the prophets also, because they too pointed to the Gospel in their preaching and set their hope on Him and awaited Him; in whom also having faith they were saved in the unity of Jesus Christ, being worthy of all love and admiration as holy men, approved of Jesus Christ and numbered together in the Gospel of our common hope. 6.1. But if any one propound Judaism unto you, here him not: for it is better to hear Christianity from a man who is circumcised than Judaism from one uncircumcised. But if either the one or the other speak not concerning Jesus Christ, I look on them as tombstones and graves of the dead, whereon are inscribed only the names of men. 7.1. For even though certain persons desired to deceive me after the flesh, yet the spirit is not deceived, being from God; for it knoweth whence it cometh and where it goeth, and it searcheth out the hidden things. I cried out, when I was among you; I spake with a loud voice, with God's own voice, Give ye heed to the bishop and the presbytery and deacons. 7.2. Howbeit there were those who suspected me of saying this, because I knew beforehand of the division of certain persons. But He in whom I am bound is my witness that I learned it not from flesh of man; it was the preaching of the Spirit who spake on this wise; Do nothing without the bishop; keep your flesh as a temple of God; cherish union; shun divisions; be imitators of Jesus Christ, as He Himself also was of His Father. 9.2. But the Gospel hath a singular preeminence in the advent of the Saviour, even our Lord Jesus Christ, and His passion and resurrection. For the beloved Prophets in their preaching pointed to Him; but the Gospel is the completion of immortality. All things together are good, if ye believe through love. 10.1. Seeing that in answer to your prayer and to the tender sympathy which ye have in Christ Jesus, it hath been reported to me that the church which is in Antioch of Syria hath peace, it is becoming for you, as a church of God, to appoint a deacon to go thither as God's ambassador, that he may congratulate them when they are assembled together, and may glorify the Name. 11.2. The love of the brethren which are in Troas saluteth you; from whence also I write to you by the hand of Burrhus, who was sent with me by the Ephesians and Smyrnaeans as a mark of honour. The Lord shall honour them, even Jesus Christ, on whom their hope is set in flesh and soul and spirit, by faith, by love, by concord. Fare ye well in Christ Jesus our common hope.
23. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 5.2, 6.1, 7.1-7.2, 9.2, 10.1, 11.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.2. Yea, and we love the prophets also, because they too pointed to the Gospel in their preaching and set their hope on Him and awaited Him; in whom also having faith they were saved in the unity of Jesus Christ, being worthy of all love and admiration as holy men, approved of Jesus Christ and numbered together in the Gospel of our common hope. 6.1. But if any one propound Judaism unto you, here him not: for it is better to hear Christianity from a man who is circumcised than Judaism from one uncircumcised. But if either the one or the other speak not concerning Jesus Christ, I look on them as tombstones and graves of the dead, whereon are inscribed only the names of men. 7.1. For even though certain persons desired to deceive me after the flesh, yet the spirit is not deceived, being from God; for it knoweth whence it cometh and where it goeth, and it searcheth out the hidden things. I cried out, when I was among you; I spake with a loud voice, with God's own voice, Give ye heed to the bishop and the presbytery and deacons. 7.2. Howbeit there were those who suspected me of saying this, because I knew beforehand of the division of certain persons. But He in whom I am bound is my witness that I learned it not from flesh of man; it was the preaching of the Spirit who spake on this wise; Do nothing without the bishop; keep your flesh as a temple of God; cherish union; shun divisions; be imitators of Jesus Christ, as He Himself also was of His Father. 9.2. But the Gospel hath a singular preeminence in the advent of the Saviour, even our Lord Jesus Christ, and His passion and resurrection. For the beloved Prophets in their preaching pointed to Him; but the Gospel is the completion of immortality. All things together are good, if ye believe through love. 10.1. Seeing that in answer to your prayer and to the tender sympathy which ye have in Christ Jesus, it hath been reported to me that the church which is in Antioch of Syria hath peace, it is becoming for you, as a church of God, to appoint a deacon to go thither as God's ambassador, that he may congratulate them when they are assembled together, and may glorify the Name. 11.2. The love of the brethren which are in Troas saluteth you; from whence also I write to you by the hand of Burrhus, who was sent with me by the Ephesians and Smyrnaeans as a mark of honour. The Lord shall honour them, even Jesus Christ, on whom their hope is set in flesh and soul and spirit, by faith, by love, by concord. Fare ye well in Christ Jesus our common hope.
24. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.252-2.253 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.252. The painters also, and statuaries of Greece, had herein great power, as each of them could contrive a shape [proper for a god]; the one to be formed out of clay, and the other by making a bare picture of such a one; but those workmen that were principally admired, had the use of ivory and of gold as the constant materials for their new statues; 2.253. [whereby it comes to pass that some temples are quite deserted, while others are in great esteem, and adorned with all the rites of all kinds of purification]. Besides this, the first gods, who have long flourished in the honors done them, are now grown old [while those that flourished after them are come in their room as a second rank, that I may speak the most honorably of them that I can]:
25. New Testament, 1 John, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. That which was from the beginning, that which we have heard, that which we have seen with our eyes, that which we saw, and our hands touched, concerning the Word of life
26. New Testament, 1 Peter, 2.11, 4.3-4.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. Beloved, I beg you as sojourners and pilgrims, to abstain from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul; 4.3. For we have spent enough of our past time living in doing the desire of the Gentiles, and to have walked in lewdness, lusts, drunken binges, orgies, carousings, and abominable idolatries. 4.4. They think it is strange that you don't run with them into the same excess of riot, blaspheming:
27. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.2, 1.31, 3.16-3.17, 5.5, 5.9-5.13, 6.1-6.6, 6.9-6.12, 6.18-6.19, 7.4, 7.14, 7.36-7.37, 7.39, 8.1-8.2, 10.7, 10.14, 10.19-10.20, 12.2, 15.5, 15.50 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. to the assembly of God whichis at Corinth; those who are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to besaints, with all who call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ in everyplace, both theirs and ours: 1.31. that, according as it iswritten, "He who boasts, let him boast in the Lord. 3.16. Don't you know that you are a temple of God, and that God'sSpirit lives in you? 3.17. If anyone destroys the temple of God, Godwill destroy him; for God's temple is holy, which you are. 5.5. are to deliver such a one to Satan for thedestruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day ofthe Lord Jesus. 5.9. I wrote to you in my letter to have no company with sexual sinners; 5.10. yet not at all meaning with the sexual sinners of this world, orwith the covetous and extortioners, or with idolaters; for then youwould have to leave the world. 5.11. But as it is, I wrote to you notto associate with anyone who is called a brother who is a sexualsinner, or covetous, or an idolater, or a slanderer, or a drunkard, oran extortioner. Don't even eat with such a person. 5.12. For what haveI to do with also judging those who are outside? Don't you judge thosewho are within? 5.13. But those who are outside, God judges. "Put awaythe wicked man from among yourselves. 6.1. Dare any of you, having a matter against his neighbor, go tolaw before the unrighteous, and not before the saints? 6.2. Don't youknow that the saints will judge the world? And if the world is judgedby you, are you unworthy to judge the smallest matters? 6.3. Don't youknow that we will judge angels? How much more, things that pertain tothis life? 6.4. If then, you have to judge things pertaining to thislife, do you set them to judge who are of no account in the assembly? 6.5. I say this to move you to shame. Isn't there even one wise manamong you who would be able to decide between his brothers? 6.6. Butbrother goes to law with brother, and that before unbelievers! 6.9. Or don't you know that the unrighteouswill not inherit the Kingdom of God? Don't be deceived. Neither thesexually immoral, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor male prostitutes,nor homosexuals 6.10. nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, norslanderers, nor extortioners, will inherit the Kingdom of God. 6.11. Such were some of you, but you were washed. But you were sanctified.But you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and in the Spiritof our God. 6.12. All things are lawful for me," but not all thingsare expedient. "All things are lawful for me," but I will not bebrought under the power of anything. 6.18. Flee sexual immorality! "Every sin that a man doesis outside the body," but he who commits sexual immorality sins againsthis own body. 6.19. Or don't you know that your body is a temple ofthe Holy Spirit which is in you, which you have from God? You are notyour own 7.4. The wifedoesn't have authority over her own body, but the husband. Likewisealso the husband doesn't have authority over his own body, but thewife. 7.14. For theunbelieving husband is sanctified in the wife, and the unbelieving wifeis sanctified in the husband. Otherwise your children would be unclean,but now are they holy. 7.36. But if any man thinks that he is behavinginappropriately toward his virgin, if she is past the flower of herage, and if need so requires, let him do what he desires. He doesn'tsin. Let them marry. 7.37. But he who stands steadfast in his heart,having no necessity, but has power over his own heart, to keep his ownvirgin, does well. 7.39. A wife is bound by law for as long as her husband lives;but if the husband is dead, she is free to be married to whoever shedesires, only in the Lord. 8.1. Now concerning things sacrificed to idols: We know that we allhave knowledge. Knowledge puffs up, but love builds up. 8.2. But ifanyone thinks that he knows anything, he doesn't yet know as he oughtto know. 10.7. Neither be idolaters, as someof them were. As it is written, "The people sat down to eat and drink,and rose up to play. 10.14. Therefore, my beloved, flee fromidolatry. 10.19. What am I saying then? That a thing sacrificed to idols isanything, or that an idol is anything? 10.20. But I say that thethings which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to demons, and notto God, and I don't desire that you would have communion with demons. 12.2. You know that when you were heathen, you were ledaway to those mute idols, however you might be led. 15.5. and that heappeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. 15.50. Now I say this, brothers, that flesh and blood can'tinherit the Kingdom of God; neither does corruption inheritincorruption.
28. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.8-1.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.8. For from you has sounded forth the word of the Lord, not only in Macedonia and Achaia, but also in every place your faith toward God has gone forth; so that we need not to say anything. 1.9. For they themselves report concerning us what kind of a reception we had from you; and how you turned to God from idols, to serve a living and true God
29. New Testament, 2 Peter, 2.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.15. forsaking the right way, they went astray, having followed the way of Balaam the son of Beor, who loved the wages of wrong-doing;
30. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 2.15, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 4.4, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.11, 6.14, 6.14-7.1, 6.16, 7.1, 8.3, 8.7, 8.17, 11.22, 12.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

31. New Testament, Acts, 2.38, 5.16, 8.7, 11.18, 17.27 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.38. Peter said to them, "Repent, and be baptized, everyone of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. 5.16. Multitudes also came together from the cities around Jerusalem, bringing sick people, and those who were tormented by unclean spirits: and they were all healed. 8.7. For unclean spirits came out of many of those who had them. They came out, crying with a loud voice. Many who had been paralyzed and lame were healed. 11.18. When they heard these things, they held their peace, and glorified God, saying, "Then God has also granted to the Gentiles repentance to life! 17.27. that they should seek the Lord, if perhaps they might reach out for him and find him, though he is not far from each one of us.
32. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.11, 18.2, 20.6, 21.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the assemblies. He who overcomes won't be harmed by the second death. 18.2. He cried with a mighty voice, saying, "Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great, and has become a habitation of demons, and a prison of every unclean spirit, and a prison of every unclean and hateful bird! 20.6. Blessed and holy is he who has part in the first resurrection. Over these, the second death has no power, but they will be priests of God and of Christ, and will reign with him one thousand years. 21.8. But for the cowardly, unbelieving, sinners, abominable, murderers, sexually immoral, sorcerers, idolaters, and all liars, their part is in the lake that burns with fire and sulfur, which is the second death.
33. New Testament, Philemon, 14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

34. New Testament, Colossians, 1.21-1.23, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.21. You, being in past times alienated and enemies in your mind in your evil works 1.22. yet now he has reconciled in the body of his flesh through death, to present you holy and without blemish and blameless before him 1.23. if it is so that you continue in the faith, grounded and steadfast, and not moved away from the hope of the gospel which you heard, which is being proclaimed in all creation under heaven; of which I, Paul, was made a servant. 3.5. Put to death therefore your members which are on the earth: sexual immorality, uncleanness, depraved passion, evil desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry;
35. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.4, 1.18, 2.1-2.22, 3.6, 4.1-4.24, 5.1-5.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. even as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we would be holy and without blemish before him in love; 1.18. having the eyes of your hearts enlightened, that you may know what is the hope of his calling, and what are the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints 2.1. You were made alive when you were dead in transgressions and sins 2.2. in which you once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the powers of the air, the spirit who now works in the sons of disobedience; 2.3. among whom we also all once lived in the lust of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest. 2.4. But God, being rich in mercy, for his great love with which he loved us 2.5. even when we were dead through our trespasses, made us alive together with Christ (by grace you have been saved) 2.6. and raised us up with him, and made us to sit with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus 2.7. that in the ages to come he might show the exceeding riches of his grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus; 2.8. for by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God 2.9. not of works, that no one would boast. 2.10. For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared before that we would walk in them. 2.11. Therefore remember that once you, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called "uncircumcision" by that which is called "circumcision," (in the flesh, made by hands); 2.12. that you were at that time separate from Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covets of the promise, having no hope and without God in the world. 2.13. But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off are made near in the blood of Christ. 2.14. For he is our peace, who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of partition 2.15. having abolished in the flesh the hostility, the law of commandments contained in ordices, that he might create in himself one new man of the two, making peace; 2.16. and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, having killed the hostility thereby. 2.17. He came and preached peace to you who were far off and to those who were near. 2.18. For through him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father. 2.19. So then you are no longer strangers and sojourners, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God 2.20. being built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the chief cornerstone; 2.21. in whom the whole building, fitted together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord; 2.22. in whom you also are built together for a habitation of God in the Spirit. 3.6. that the Gentiles are fellow heirs, and fellow members of the body, and fellow partakers of his promise in Christ Jesus through the gospel 4.1. I therefore, the prisoner in the Lord, beg you to walk worthily of the calling with which you were called 4.2. with all lowliness and humility, with longsuffering, bearing with one another in love; 4.3. being eager to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace. 4.4. There is one body, and one Spirit, even as you also were called in one hope of your calling; 4.5. one Lord, one faith, one baptism 4.6. one God and Father of all, who is over all, and through all, and in us all. 4.7. But to each one of us was the grace given according to the measure of the gift of Christ. 4.8. Therefore he says, "When he ascended on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts to men. 4.9. Now this, "He ascended," what is it but that he also first descended into the lower parts of the earth? 4.10. He who descended is the one who also ascended far above all the heavens, that he might fill all things. 4.11. He gave some to be apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, shepherds and teachers; 4.12. for the perfecting of the saints, to the work of serving, to the building up of the body of Christ; 4.13. until we all attain to the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to a full grown man, to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ; 4.14. that we may no longer be children, tossed back and forth and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the trickery of men, in craftiness, after the wiles of error; 4.15. but speaking truth in love, we may grow up in all things into him, who is the head, Christ; 4.16. from whom all the body, being fitted and knit together through that which every joint supplies, according to the working in measure of each individual part, makes the body increase to the building up of itself in love. 4.17. This I say therefore, and testify in the Lord, that you no longer walk as the rest of the Gentiles also walk, in the futility of their mind 4.18. being darkened in their understanding, alienated from the life of God, because of the ignorance that is in them, because of the hardening of their hearts; 4.19. who having become callous gave themselves up to lust, to work all uncleanness with greediness. 4.20. But you did not learn Christ that way; 4.21. if indeed you heard him, and were taught in him, even as truth is in Jesus: 4.22. that you put away, as concerning your former way of life, the old man, that grows corrupt after the lusts of deceit; 4.23. and that you be renewed in the spirit of your mind 4.24. and put on the new man, who in the likeness of God has been created in righteousness and holiness of truth. 5.1. Be therefore imitators of God, as beloved children. 5.2. Walk in love, even as Christ also loved you, and gave himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling fragrance. 5.3. But sexual immorality, and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not even be mentioned among you, as becomes saints; 5.4. nor filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, which are not appropriate; but rather giving of thanks. 5.5. Know this for sure, that no sexually immoral person, nor unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, has any inheritance in the Kingdom of Christ and God. 5.6. Let no one deceive you with empty words. For because of these things, the wrath of God comes on the sons of disobedience. 5.7. Therefore don't be partakers with them. 5.8. For you were once darkness, but are now light in the Lord. Walk as children of light 5.9. for the fruit of the Spirit is in all goodness and righteousness and truth 5.10. proving what is well-pleasing to the Lord. 5.11. Have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather even reprove them. 5.12. For the things which are done by them in secret, it is a shame even to speak of. 5.13. But all things, when they are reproved, are revealed by the light, for everything that is revealed is light. 5.14. Therefore he says, "Awake, you who sleep, and arise from the dead, and Christ will shine on you.
36. New Testament, Galatians, 1.6-1.9, 1.13-1.14, 2.15-2.21, 3.1-3.3, 3.5, 3.7, 3.10, 3.15-3.29, 4.1, 4.11, 4.29, 5.5-5.6, 5.13-5.16, 5.18-5.26, 6.1-6.10, 6.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.6. I marvel that you are so quickly deserting him who called you in the grace of Christ to a different gospel; 1.7. and there isn'tanother gospel. Only there are some who trouble you, and want topervert the gospel of Christ. 1.8. But even though we, or an angelfrom heaven, should preach to you any gospel other than that which wepreached to you, let him be cursed. 1.9. As we have said before, so Inow say again: if any man preaches to you any gospel other than thatwhich you received, let him be cursed. 1.13. For you have heard of my way ofliving in time past in the Jews' religion, how that beyond measure Ipersecuted the assembly of God, and ravaged it. 1.14. I advanced inthe Jews' religion beyond many of my own age among my countrymen, beingmore exceedingly zealous for the traditions of my fathers. 2.15. We, being Jews by nature, and not Gentile sinners 2.16. yet knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law butthrough the faith of Jesus Christ, even we believed in Christ Jesus,that we might be justified by faith in Christ, and not by the works ofthe law, because no flesh will be justified by the works of the law. 2.17. But if, while we sought to be justified in Christ, we ourselvesalso were found sinners, is Christ a servant of sin? Certainly not! 2.18. For if I build up again those things which I destroyed, I provemyself a law-breaker. 2.19. For I, through the law, died to the law,that I might live to God. 2.20. I have been crucified with Christ, andit is no longer I that live, but Christ living in me. That life which Inow live in the flesh, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me,and gave himself up for me. 2.21. I don't make void the grace of God.For if righteousness is through the law, then Christ died for nothing! 3.1. Foolish Galatians, who has bewitched you not to obey thetruth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ was openly set forth among you as crucified? 3.2. I just want to learn this from you. Did you receivethe Spirit by the works of the law, or by hearing of faith? 3.3. Areyou so foolish? Having begun in the Spirit, are you now completed inthe flesh? 3.5. He therefore who supplies the Spirit to you, and worksmiracles among you, does he do it by the works of the law, or byhearing of faith? 3.7. Know therefore that those whoare of faith, the same are sons of Abraham. 3.10. For as many as are of the works of the law areunder a curse. For it is written, "Cursed is everyone who doesn'tcontinue in all things that are written in the book of the law, to dothem. 3.15. Brothers, I speak like men. Though it is only aman's covet, yet when it has been confirmed, no one makes it void,or adds to it. 3.16. Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and tohis seed. He doesn't say, "To seeds," as of many, but as of one, "Toyour seed," which is Christ. 3.17. Now I say this. A covetconfirmed beforehand by God in Christ, the law, which came four hundredand thirty years after, does not annul, so as to make the promise of noeffect. 3.18. For if the inheritance is of the law, it is no more ofpromise; but God has granted it to Abraham by promise. 3.19. What then is the law? It was added because of transgressions,until the seed should come to whom the promise has been made. It wasordained through angels by the hand of a mediator. 3.20. Now amediator is not between one, but God is one. 3.21. Is the law thenagainst the promises of God? Certainly not! For if there had been a lawgiven which could make alive, most assuredly righteousness would havebeen of the law. 3.22. But the Scriptures shut up all things undersin, that the promise by faith in Jesus Christ might be given to thosewho believe. 3.23. But before faith came, we were kept in custodyunder the law, shut up to the faith which should afterwards berevealed. 3.24. So that the law has become our tutor to bring us toChrist, that we might be justified by faith. 3.25. But now that faithis come, we are no longer under a tutor. 3.26. For you are all sons ofGod, through faith in Christ Jesus. 3.27. For as many of you as werebaptized into Christ have put on Christ. 3.28. There is neither Jewnor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither malenor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. 3.29. If you are Christ's, then you are Abraham's seed and heirs according to promise. 4.1. But I say that so long as the heir is a child, he is nodifferent from a bondservant, though he is lord of all; 4.11. I am afraid for you, that I might havewasted my labor for you. 4.29. But as then, he who was born according to the flesh persecutedhim who was born according to the Spirit, so also it is now. 5.5. For we, through the Spirit,by faith wait for the hope of righteousness. 5.6. For in Christ Jesusneither circumcision amounts to anything, nor uncircumcision, but faithworking through love. 5.13. For you, brothers, were called for freedom. Only don't useyour freedom for gain to the flesh, but through love be servants to oneanother. 5.14. For the whole law is fulfilled in one word, in this:"You shall love your neighbor as yourself. 5.15. But if you bite anddevour one another, be careful that you don't consume one another. 5.16. But I say, walk by the Spirit, and you won't fulfill the lust ofthe flesh. 5.18. But if you are led by theSpirit, you are not under the law. 5.19. Now the works of the fleshare obvious, which are: adultery, sexual immorality, uncleanness,lustfulness 5.20. idolatry, sorcery, hatred, strife, jealousies,outbursts of anger, rivalries, divisions, heresies 5.21. envyings,murders, drunkenness, orgies, and things like these; of which Iforewarn you, even as I also forewarned you, that those who practicesuch things will not inherit the Kingdom of God. 5.22. But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience,kindness, goodness, faithfulness 5.23. gentleness, and self-control.Against such things there is no law. 5.24. Those who belong to Christhave crucified the flesh with its passions and lusts. 5.25. If we liveby the Spirit, let's also walk by the Spirit. 5.26. Let's not becomeconceited, provoking one another, and envying one another. 6.1. Brothers, even if a man is caught in some fault, you who arespiritual must restore such a one in a spirit of gentleness; looking toyourself so that you also aren't tempted. 6.2. Bear one another'sburdens, and so fulfill the law of Christ. 6.3. For if a man thinkshimself to be something when he is nothing, he deceives himself. 6.4. But let each man test his own work, and then he will take pride inhimself and not in his neighbor. 6.5. For each man will bear his ownburden. 6.6. But let him who is taught in the word share all goodthings with him who teaches. 6.7. Don't be deceived. God is notmocked, for whatever a man sows, that will he also reap. 6.8. For hewho sows to his own flesh will from the flesh reap corruption. But hewho sows to the Spirit will from the Spirit reap eternal life. 6.9. Let us not be weary in doing good, for we will reap in due season, ifwe don't give up. 6.10. So then, as we have opportunity, let's do whatis good toward all men, and especially toward those who are of thehousehold of the faith. 6.15. For in Christ Jesus neitheris circumcision anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation.
37. New Testament, Hebrews, 5.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.14. But solid food is for those who are full grown, who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern good and evil.
38. New Testament, Philippians, 2.1-2.11, 3.3, 3.5, 3.10-3.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. If there is therefore any exhortation in Christ, if any consolation of love, if any fellowship of the Spirit, if any tender mercies and compassion 2.2. make my joy full, by being like-minded, having the same love, being of one accord, of one mind; 2.3. doing nothing through rivalry or through conceit, but in humility, each counting others better than himself; 2.4. each of you not just looking to his own things, but each of you also to the things of others. 2.5. Have this in your mind, which was also in Christ Jesus 2.6. who, existing in the form of God, didn't consider it robbery to be equal with God 2.7. but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of men. 2.8. And being found in human form, he humbled himself, becoming obedient to death, yes, the death of the cross. 2.9. Therefore God also highly exalted him, and gave to him the name which is above every name; 2.10. that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those in heaven, those on earth, and those under the earth 2.11. and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. 3.3. For we are the circumcision, who worship God in the Spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh; 3.5. circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; concerning the law, a Pharisee; 3.10. that I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his sufferings, becoming conformed to his death; 3.11. if by any means I may attain to the resurrection from the dead.
39. New Testament, Romans, 1.3-1.5, 1.24, 2.1-2.11, 2.25-2.29, 3.18, 3.28-3.31, 4.1, 4.11-4.13, 4.16-4.18, 5.1-5.5, 5.9, 5.12, 5.14, 5.20, 6.3-6.19, 6.22-6.23, 7.5-7.25, 8.1-8.14, 8.20, 8.26-8.27, 8.29, 9.3-9.8, 9.16, 11.1, 12.2, 13.14, 16.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh 1.4. who was declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord 1.5. through whom we received grace and apostleship, for obedience of faith among all the nations, for his name's sake; 1.24. Therefore God also gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to uncleanness, that their bodies should be dishonored among themselves 2.1. Therefore you are without excuse, O man, whoever you are who judge. For in that which you judge another, you condemn yourself. For you who judge practice the same things. 2.2. We know that the judgment of God is according to truth against those who practice such things. 2.3. Do you think this, O man who judges those who practice such things, and do the same, that you will escape the judgment of God? 2.4. Or do you despise the riches of his goodness, forbearance, and patience, not knowing that the goodness of God leads you to repentance? 2.5. But according to your hardness and unrepentant heart you are treasuring up for yourself wrath in the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God; 2.6. who "will pay back to everyone according to their works: 2.7. to those who by patience in well-doing seek for glory and honor and incorruptibility, eternal life; 2.8. but to those who are self-seeking, and don't obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, will be wrath and indignation 2.9. oppression and anguish, on every soul of man who works evil, on the Jew first, and also on the Greek. 2.10. But glory and honor and peace to every man who works good, to the Jew first, and also to the Greek. 2.11. For there is no partiality with God. 2.25. For circumcision indeed profits, if you are a doer of the law, but if you are a transgressor of the law, your circumcision has become uncircumcision. 2.26. If therefore the uncircumcised keep the ordices of the law, won't his uncircumcision be accounted as circumcision? 2.27. Won't the uncircumcision which is by nature, if it fulfills the law, judge you, who with the letter and circumcision are a transgressor of the law? 2.28. For he is not a Jew who is one outwardly, neither is that circumcision which is outward in the flesh; 2.29. but he is a Jew who is one inwardly, and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit not in the letter; whose praise is not from men, but from God. 3.18. There is no fear of God before their eyes. 3.28. We maintain therefore that a man is justified by faith apart from the works of the law. 3.29. Or is God the God of Jews only? Isn't he the God of Gentiles also? Yes, of Gentiles also 3.30. since indeed there is one God who will justify the circumcised by faith, and the uncircumcised through faith. 3.31. Do we then nullify the law through faith? May it never be! No, we establish the law. 4.1. What then will we say that Abraham, our forefather, has found according to the flesh? 4.11. He received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had while he was in uncircumcision, that he might be the father of all those who believe, though they be in uncircumcision, that righteousness might also be accounted to them. 4.12. The father of circumcision to those who not only are of the circumcision, but who also walk in the steps of that faith of our father Abraham, which he had in uncircumcision. 4.13. For the promise to Abraham and to his seed that he should be heir of the world wasn't through the law, but through the righteousness of faith. 4.16. For this cause it is of faith, that it may be according to grace, to the end that the promise may be sure to all the seed, not to that only which is of the law, but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all. 4.17. As it is written, "I have made you a father of many nations." This is in the presence of him whom he believed: God, who gives life to the dead, and calls the things that are not, as though they were. 4.18. Who in hope believed against hope, to the end that he might become a father of many nations, according to that which had been spoken, "So will your seed be. 5.1. Being therefore justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ; 5.2. through whom we also have our access by faith into this grace in which we stand. We rejoice in hope of the glory of God. 5.3. Not only this, but we also rejoice in our sufferings, knowing that suffering works perseverance; 5.4. and perseverance, proven character; and proven character, hope: 5.5. and hope doesn't disappoint us, because God's love has been poured out into our hearts through the Holy Spirit who was given to us. 5.9. Much more then, being now justified by his blood, we will be saved from God's wrath through him. 5.12. Therefore, as sin entered into the world through one man, and death through sin; and so death passed to all men, because all sinned. 5.14. Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those whose sins weren't like Adam's disobedience, who is a foreshadowing of him who was to come. 5.20. The law came in besides, that the trespass might abound; but where sin abounded, grace did abound more exceedingly; 6.3. Or don't you know that all we who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? 6.4. We were buried therefore with him through baptism to death, that just like Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we also might walk in newness of life. 6.5. For if we have become united with him in the likeness of his death, we will also be part of his resurrection; 6.6. knowing this, that our old man was crucified with him, that the body of sin might be done away with, so that we would no longer be in bondage to sin. 6.7. For he who has died has been freed from sin. 6.8. But if we died with Christ, we believe that we will also live with him; 6.9. knowing that Christ, being raised from the dead, dies no more. Death no more has dominion over him! 6.10. For the death that he died, he died to sin one time; but the life that he lives, he lives to God. 6.11. Thus also consider yourselves also to be dead to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus our Lord. 6.12. Therefore don't let sin reign in your mortal body, that you should obey it in its lusts. 6.13. Neither present your members to sin as instruments of unrighteousness, but present yourselves to God, as alive from the dead, and your members as instruments of righteousness to God. 6.14. For sin will not have dominion over you. For you are not under law, but under grace. 6.15. What then? Shall we sin, because we are not under law, but under grace? May it never be! 6.16. Don't you know that to whom you present yourselves as servants to obedience, his servants you are whom you obey; whether of sin to death, or of obedience to righteousness? 6.17. But thanks be to God, that, whereas you were bondservants of sin, you became obedient from the heart to that form of teaching whereunto you were delivered. 6.18. Being made free from sin, you became bondservants of righteousness. 6.19. I speak in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh, for as you presented your members as servants to uncleanness and to wickedness upon wickedness, even so now present your members as servants to righteousness for sanctification. 6.22. But now, being made free from sin, and having become servants of God, you have your fruit of sanctification, and the result of eternal life. 6.23. For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord. 7.5. For when we were in the flesh, the sinful passions which were through the law, worked in our members to bring forth fruit to death. 7.6. But now we have been discharged from the law, having died to that in which we were held; so that we serve in newness of the spirit, and not in oldness of the letter. 7.7. What shall we say then? Is the law sin? May it never be! However, I wouldn't have known sin, except through the law. For I wouldn't have known coveting, unless the law had said, "You shall not covet. 7.8. But sin, finding occasion through the commandment, produced in me all kinds of coveting. For apart from the law, sin is dead. 7.9. I was alive apart from the law once, but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died. 7.10. The commandment, which was for life, this I found to be for death; 7.11. for sin, finding occasion through the commandment, deceived me, and through it killed me. 7.12. Therefore the law indeed is holy, and the commandment holy, and righteous, and good. 7.13. Did then that which is good become death to me? May it never be! But sin, that it might be shown to be sin, by working death to me through that which is good; that through the commandment sin might become exceeding sinful. 7.14. For we know that the law is spiritual, but I am fleshly, sold under sin. 7.15. For I don't know what I am doing. For I don't practice what I desire to do; but what I hate, that I do. 7.16. But if what I don't desire, that I do, I consent to the law that it is good. 7.17. So now it is no more I that do it, but sin which dwells in me. 7.18. For I know that in me, that is, in my flesh, dwells no good thing. For desire is present with me, but I don't find it doing that which is good. 7.19. For the good which I desire, I don't do; but the evil which I don't desire, that I practice. 7.20. But if what I don't desire, that I do, it is no more I that do it, but sin which dwells in me. 7.21. I find then the law, that, to me, while I desire to do good, evil is present. 7.22. For I delight in God's law after the inward man 7.23. but I see a different law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity under the law of sin which is in my members. 7.24. What a wretched man I am! Who will deliver me out of the body of this death? 7.25. I thank God through Jesus Christ, our Lord! So then with the mind, I myself serve God's law, but with the flesh, the sin's law. 8.1. There is therefore now no condemnation to those who are in Christ Jesus, who don't walk according to the flesh, but according to the Spirit. 8.2. For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus made me free from the law of sin and of death. 8.3. For what the law couldn't do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God did, sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh; 8.4. that the ordice of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. 8.5. For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit, the things of the Spirit. 8.6. For the mind of the flesh is death, but the mind of the Spirit is life and peace; 8.7. because the mind of the flesh is hostile towards God; for it is not subject to God's law, neither indeed can it be. 8.8. Those who are in the flesh can't please God. 8.9. But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if it is so that the Spirit of God dwells in you. But if any man doesn't have the Spirit of Christ, he is not his. 8.10. If Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the spirit is alive because of righteousness. 8.11. But if the Spirit of him who raised up Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised up Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit who dwells in you. 8.12. So then, brothers, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live after the flesh. 8.13. For if you live after the flesh, you must die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live. 8.14. For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, these are children of God. 8.20. For the creation was subjected to vanity, not of its own will, but because of him who subjected it, in hope 8.26. In the same way, the Spirit also helps our weaknesses, for we don't know how to pray as we ought. But the Spirit himself makes intercession for us with groanings which can't be uttered. 8.27. He who searches the hearts knows what is on the Spirit's mind, because he makes intercession for the saints according to God. 8.29. For whom he foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers. 9.3. For I could wish that I myself were accursed from Christ for my brothers' sake, my relatives according to the flesh 9.4. who are Israelites; whose is the adoption, the glory, the covets, the giving of the law, the service, and the promises; 9.5. of whom are the fathers, and from whom is Christ as concerning the flesh, who is over all, God, blessed forever. Amen. 9.6. But it is not as though the word of God has come to nothing. For they are not all Israel, that are of Israel. 9.7. Neither, because they are Abraham's seed, are they all children. But, "In Isaac will your seed be called. 9.8. That is, it is not the children of the flesh who are children of God, but the children of the promise are counted as a seed. 9.16. So then it is not of him who wills, nor of him who runs, but of God who has mercy. 11.1. I ask then, Did God reject his people? May it never be! For I also am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. 12.2. Don't be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, so that you may prove what is the good and acceptable and perfect will of God. 13.14. But put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh, for its lusts.
40. New Testament, Titus, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.3. For we were also once foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving various lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful, and hating one another.
41. New Testament, John, 1.14, 1.29, 3.3, 3.5-3.6, 3.15-3.16, 3.22, 4.1, 6.33, 6.63, 7.38-7.39, 14.19, 16.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. 1.29. The next day, he saw Jesus coming to him, and said, "Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world! 3.3. Jesus answered him, "Most assuredly, I tell you, unless one is born anew, he can't see the Kingdom of God. 3.5. Jesus answered, "Most assuredly I tell you, unless one is born of water and spirit, he can't enter into the Kingdom of God! 3.6. That which is born of the flesh is flesh. That which is born of the Spirit is spirit. 3.15. that whoever believes in him should not perish, but have eternal life. 3.16. For God so loved the world, that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish, but have eternal life. 3.22. After these things, Jesus came with his disciples into the land of Judea. He stayed there with them, and baptized. 4.1. Therefore when the Lord knew that the Pharisees had heard that Jesus was making and baptizing more disciples than John 6.33. For the bread of God is that which comes down out of heaven, and gives life to the world. 6.63. It is the spirit who gives life. The flesh profits nothing. The words that I speak to you are spirit, and are life. 7.38. He who believes in me, as the Scripture has said, from within him will flow rivers of living water. 7.39. But he said this about the Spirit, which those believing in him were to receive. For the Holy Spirit was not yet given, because Jesus wasn't yet glorified. 14.19. Yet a little while, and the world will see me no more; but you will see me. Because I live, you will live also. 16.11. about judgment, because the prince of this world has been judged.
42. New Testament, Luke, 6.43-6.45, 9.10, 10.18, 11.20, 12.46 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.43. For there is no good tree that brings forth rotten fruit; nor again a rotten tree that brings forth good fruit. 6.44. For each tree is known by its own fruit. For people don't gather figs from thorns, nor do they gather grapes from a bramble bush. 6.45. The good man out of the good treasure of his heart brings out that which is good, and the evil man out of the evil treasure of his heart brings out that which is evil, for out of the abundance of the heart, his mouth speaks. 9.10. The apostles, when they had returned, told him what things they had done. He took them, and withdrew apart to a deserted place of a city called Bethsaida. 10.18. He said to them, "I saw Satan having fallen like lightning from heaven. 11.20. But if I by the finger of God cast out demons, then the Kingdom of God has come to you. 12.46. then the lord of that servant will come in a day when he isn't expecting him, and in an hour that he doesn't know, and will cut him in two, and place his portion with the unfaithful.
43. New Testament, Mark, 1.4, 1.14, 1.23, 6.7, 6.30, 7.15, 7.20-7.23, 14.38 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. John came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching the baptism of repentance for forgiveness of sins. 1.14. Now after John was taken into custody, Jesus came into Galilee, preaching the gospel of the Kingdom of God 1.23. Immediately there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit, and he cried out 6.7. He called to himself the twelve, and began to send them out two by two; and he gave them authority over the unclean spirits. 6.30. The apostles gathered themselves together to Jesus, and they told him all things, whatever they had done, and whatever they had taught. 7.15. There is nothing from outside of the man, that going into him can defile him; but the things which proceed out of the man are those that defile the man. 7.20. He said, "That which proceeds out of the man, that defiles the man. 7.21. For from within, out of the hearts of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, sexual sins, murders, thefts 7.22. covetings, wickedness, deceit, lustful desires, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, and foolishness. 7.23. All these evil things come from within, and defile the man. 14.38. Watch and pray, that you not enter into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak.
44. New Testament, Matthew, 7.13, 7.16-7.20, 18.10, 26.41 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.13. Enter in by the narrow gate; for wide is the gate and broad is the way that leads to destruction, and many are those who enter in by it. 7.16. By their fruits you will know them. Do you gather grapes from thorns, or figs from thistles? 7.17. Even so, every good tree produces good fruit; but the corrupt tree produces evil fruit. 7.18. A good tree can't produce evil fruit, neither can a corrupt tree produce good fruit. 7.19. Every tree that doesn't grow good fruit is cut down, and thrown into the fire. 7.20. Therefore, by their fruits you will know them. 18.10. See that you don't despise one of these little ones, for I tell you that in heaven their angels always see the face of my Father who is in heaven. 26.41. Watch and pray, that you don't enter into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak.
45. Anon., Marytrdom of Polycarp, 20.1-20.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20.1. 1 You, indeed, asked that the events should be explained to you at length, but we have for the present explained them in summary by our brother Marcion; therefore when you have heard these things, send the letter to the brethren further on, that they also may glorify the Lord, who takes his chosen ones from his own servants. 20.2. 2 And to him who is able to bring us all in his grace and bounty, to his heavenly kingdom, by his only begotten Child, Jesus Christ, be glory, honour, might, and majesty for ever. Greet all the saints. Those who are with us, and Evarestus, who wrote the letter, with his whole house, greet you.
46. Clement of Alexandria, Excerpts From Theodotus, 1.3, 7.3, 23.5, 50.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

47. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 6.16, 7.12 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

48. Hermas, Mandates, 4.1, 12.1.1, 12.2.5 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

49. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.5.5, 5.8.3, 5.11.1, 5.12.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

50. Lucian, Alexander The False Prophet, 38 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

38. It was with his eye on this Italian propaganda, too, that he took a further step. This was the institution of mysteries, with hierophants and torch bearers complete. The ceremonies occupied three successive days. On the first, proclamation was made on the Athenian model to this effect: ‘If there be any atheist or Christian or Epicurean here spying upon our rites, let him depart in haste; and let all such as have faith in the God be initiated and all blessing attend them.’ He led the litany with, ‘Christians, avaunt!’ and the crowd responded, ‘Epicureans, avaunt!’ Then was presented the child bed of Leto and birth of Apollo, the bridal of Coronis, Asclepius born. The second day, the epiphany and nativity of the God Glycon.
51. Philostratus The Athenian, Lives of The Sophists, 531, 493 (2nd cent. CE

52. Cyprian, Testimoniorum Libri Tres Adversus Judaeos (Ad Quirinum), 3.1 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

53. Origen, Commentary On John, 1.8.44-1.8.45 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

54. Origen, Against Celsus, 1.41, 1.43-1.48, 7.33-7.34 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.41. But, that we may not have the appearance of intentionally passing by his charges through inability to refute them, we have resolved to answer each one of them separately according to our ability, attending not to the connection and sequence of the nature of the things themselves, but to the arrangement of the subjects as they occur in this book. Let us therefore notice what he has to say by way of impugning the bodily appearance of the Holy Spirit to our Saviour in the form of a dove. And it is a Jew who addresses the following language to Him whom we acknowledge to be our Lord Jesus: When you were bathing, says the Jew, beside John, you say that what had the appearance of a bird from the air alighted upon you. And then this same Jew of his, continuing his interrogations, asks, What credible witness beheld this appearance? Or who heard a voice from heaven declaring you to be the Son of God? What proof is there of it, save your own assertion, and the statement of another of those individuals who have been punished along with you? 1.46. For the law and the prophets are full of marvels similar to those recorded of Jesus at His baptism, viz., regarding the dove and the voice from heaven. And I think the wonders wrought by Jesus are a proof of the Holy Spirit's having then appeared in the form of a dove, although Celsus, from a desire to cast discredit upon them, alleges that He performed only what He had learned among the Egyptians. And I shall refer not only to His miracles, but, as is proper, to those also of the apostles of Jesus. For they could not without the help of miracles and wonders have prevailed on those who heard their new doctrines and new teachings to abandon their national usages, and to accept their instructions at the danger to themselves even of death. And there are still preserved among Christians traces of that Holy Spirit which appeared in the form of a dove. They expel evil spirits, and perform many cures, and foresee certain events, according to the will of the Logos. And although Celsus, or the Jew whom he has introduced, may treat with mockery what I am going to say, I shall say it nevertheless - that many have been converted to Christianity as if against their will, some sort of spirit having suddenly transformed their minds from a hatred of the doctrine to a readiness to die in its defense, and having appeared to them either in a waking vision or a dream of the night. Many such instances have we known, which, if we were to commit to writing, although they were seen and witnessed by ourselves, we should afford great occasion for ridicule to unbelievers, who would imagine that we, like those whom they suppose to have invented such things, had ourselves also done the same. But God is witness of our conscientious desire, not by false statements, but by testimonies of different kinds, to establish the divinity of the doctrine of Jesus. And as it is a Jew who is perplexed about the account of the Holy Spirit having descended upon Jesus in the form of a dove, we would say to him, Sir, who is it that says in Isaiah, 'And now the Lord has sent me and His Spirit.' In which sentence, as the meaning is doubtful - viz., whether the Father and the Holy Spirit sent Jesus, or the Father sent both Christ and the Holy Spirit- the latter is correct. For, because the Saviour was sent, afterwards the Holy Spirit was sent also, that the prediction of the prophet might be fulfilled; and as it was necessary that the fulfilment of the prophecy should be known to posterity, the disciples of Jesus for that reason committed the result to writing. 1.47. I would like to say to Celsus, who represents the Jew as accepting somehow John as a Baptist, who baptized Jesus, that the existence of John the Baptist, baptizing for the remission of sins, is related by one who lived no great length of time after John and Jesus. For in the 18th book of his Antiquities of the Jews, Josephus bears witness to John as having been a Baptist, and as promising purification to those who underwent the rite. Now this writer, although not believing in Jesus as the Christ, in seeking after the cause of the fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of the temple, whereas he ought to have said that the conspiracy against Jesus was the cause of these calamities befalling the people, since they put to death Christ, who was a prophet, says nevertheless - being, although against his will, not far from the truth- that these disasters happened to the Jews as a punishment for the death of James the Just, who was a brother of Jesus (called Christ), - the Jews having put him to death, although he was a man most distinguished for his justice. Paul, a genuine disciple of Jesus, says that he regarded this James as a brother of the Lord, not so much on account of their relationship by blood, or of their being brought up together, as because of his virtue and doctrine. If, then, he says that it was on account of James that the desolation of Jerusalem was made to overtake the Jews, how should it not be more in accordance with reason to say that it happened on account (of the death) of Jesus Christ, of whose divinity so many Churches are witnesses, composed of those who have been convened from a flood of sins, and who have joined themselves to the Creator, and who refer all their actions to His good pleasure. 1.48. Although the Jew, then, may offer no defense for himself in the instances of Ezekiel and Isaiah, when we compare the opening of the heavens to Jesus, and the voice that was heard by Him, to the similar cases which we find recorded in Ezekiel and Isaiah, or any other of the prophets, we nevertheless, so far as we can, shall support our position, maintaining that, as it is a matter of belief that in a dream impressions have been brought before the minds of many, some relating to divine things, and others to future events of this life, and this either with clearness or in an enigmatic manner - a fact which is manifest to all who accept the doctrine of providence; so how is it absurd to say that the mind which could receive impressions in a dream should be impressed also in a waking vision, for the benefit either of him on whom the impressions are made, or of those who are to hear the account of them from him? And as in a dream we fancy that we hear, and that the organs of hearing are actually impressed, and that we see with our eyes - although neither the bodily organs of sight nor hearing are affected, but it is the mind alone which has these sensations - so there is no absurdity in believing that similar things occurred to the prophets, when it is recorded that they witnessed occurrences of a rather wonderful kind, as when they either heard the words of the Lord or beheld the heavens opened. For I do not suppose that the visible heaven was actually opened, and its physical structure divided, in order that Ezekiel might be able to record such an occurrence. Should not, therefore, the same be believed of the Saviour by every intelligent hearer of the Gospels?- although such an occurrence may be a stumbling-block to the simple, who in their simplicity would set the whole world in movement, and split in sunder the compact and mighty body of the whole heavens. But he who examines such matters more profoundly will say, that there being, as the Scripture calls it, a kind of general divine perception which the blessed man alone knows how to discover, according to the saying of Solomon, You shall find the knowledge of God; and as there are various forms of this perceptive power, such as a faculty of vision which can naturally see things that are better than bodies, among which are ranked the cherubim and seraphim; and a faculty of hearing which can perceive voices which have not their being in the air; and a sense of taste which can make use of living bread that has come down from heaven, and that gives life unto the world; and so also a sense of smelling, which scents such things as leads Paul to say that he is a sweet savour of Christ unto God; and a sense of touch, by which John says that he handled with his hands of the Word of life; - the blessed prophets having discovered this divine perception, and seeing and hearing in this divine manner, and tasting likewise, and smelling, so to speak, with no sensible organs of perception, and laying hold on the Logos by faith, so that a healing effluence from it comes upon them, saw in this manner what they record as having seen, and heard what they say they heard, and were affected in a similar manner to what they describe when eating the roll of a book that was given them. And so also Isaac smelled the savour of his son's divine garments, and added to the spiritual blessing these words: See, the savour of my son is as the savour of a full field which the Lord blessed. And similarly to this, and more as a matter to be understood by the mind than to be perceived by the senses, Jesus touched the leper, to cleanse him, as I think, in a twofold sense - freeing him not only, as the multitude heard, from the visible leprosy by visible contact, but also from that other leprosy, by His truly divine touch. It is in this way, accordingly, that John testifies when he says, I beheld the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon Him. And I knew Him not; but He that sent me to baptize with water, the same said to me, Upon whom you will see the Spirit descending, and abiding on Him, the same is He that baptizes with the Holy Ghost. And I saw, and bear witness, that this is the Son of God. Now it was to Jesus that the heavens were opened; and on that occasion no one except John is recorded to have seen them opened. But with respect to this opening of the heavens, the Saviour, foretelling to His disciples that it would happen, and that they would see it, says, Verily, verily, I say unto you, You shall see the heavens opened, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of man. And so Paul was carried away into the third heaven, having previously seen it opened, since he was a disciple of Jesus. It does not, however, belong to our present object to explain why Paul says, Whether in the body, I know not; or whether out of the body, I know not: God knows. But I shall add to my argument even those very points which Celsus imagines, viz., that Jesus Himself related the account of the opening of the heavens, and the descent of the Holy Spirit upon Him at the Jordan in the form of a dove, although the Scripture does not assert that He said that He saw it. For this great man did not perceive that it was not in keeping with Him who commanded His disciples on the occasion of the vision on the mount, Tell what you have seen to no man, until the Son of man be risen from the dead, to have related to His disciples what was seen and heard by John at the Jordan. For it may be observed as a trait of the character of Jesus, that He on all occasions avoided unnecessary talk about Himself; and on that account said, If I speak of Myself, My witness is not true. And since He avoided unnecessary talk about Himself, and preferred to show by acts rather than words that He was the Christ, the Jews for that reason said to Him, If You are the Christ, tell us plainly. And as it is a Jew who, in the work of Celsus, uses the language to Jesus regarding the appearance of the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove, This is your own testimony, unsupported save by one of those who were sharers of your punishment, whom you adduce, it is necessary for us to show him that such a statement is not appropriately placed in the mouth of a Jew. For the Jews do not connect John with Jesus, nor the punishment of John with that of Christ. And by this instance, this man who boasts of universal knowledge is convicted of not knowing what words he ought to ascribe to a Jew engaged in a disputation with Jesus. 7.33. As Celsus supposes that we uphold the doctrine of the resurrection in order that we may see and know God, he thus follows out his notions on the subject: After they have been utterly refuted and vanquished, they still, as if regardless of all objections, come back again to the same question, 'How then shall we see and know God? How shall we go to Him?' Let any, however, who are disposed to hear us observe, that if we have need of a body for other purposes, as for occupying a material locality to which this body must be adapted, and if on that account the tabernacle is clothed in the way we have shown, we have no need of a body in order to know God. For that which sees God is not the eye of the body; it is the mind which is made in the image of the Creator, and which God has in His providence rendered capable of that knowledge. To see God belongs to the pure heart, out of which no longer proceed evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, blasphemies, the evil eye, or any other evil thing. Wherefore it is said, Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God. But as the strength of our will is not sufficient to procure the perfectly pure heart, and as we need that God should create it, he therefore who prays as he ought, offers this petition to God, Create in me a clean heart, O God. 7.34. And we do not ask the question, How shall we go to God? as though we thought that God existed in some place. God is of too excellent a nature for any place: He holds all things in His power, and is Himself not confined by anything whatever. The precept, therefore, You shall walk after the Lord your God, does not command a bodily approach to God; neither does the prophet refer to physical nearness to God, when he says in his prayer, My soul follows hard after You. Celsus therefore misrepresents us, when he says that we expect to see God with our bodily eyes, to hear Him with our ears, and to touch Him sensibly with our hands. We know that the holy Scriptures make mention of eyes, of ears, and of hands, which have nothing but the name in common with the bodily organs; and what is more wonderful, they speak of a diviner sense, which is very different from the senses as commonly spoken of. For when the prophet says, Open my eyes, that I may behold wondrous things out of your law, or, the commandment of the Lord is pure, enlightening the eyes, or, Lighten my eyes, lest I sleep the sleep of death, no one is so foolish as to suppose that the eyes of the body behold the wonders of the divine law, or that the law of the Lord gives light to the bodily eyes, or that the sleep of death falls on the eyes of the body. When our Saviour says, He that has ears to hear, let him hear, any one will understand that the ears spoken of are of a diviner kind. When it is said that the word of the Lord was in the hand of Jeremiah or of some other prophet; or when the expression is used, the law by the hand of Moses, or, I sought the Lord with my hands, and was not deceived, - no one is so foolish as not to see that the word hands is taken figuratively, as when John says, Our hands have handled the Word of life. And if you wish further to learn from the sacred writings that there is a diviner sense than the senses of the body, you have only to hear what Solomon says, You shall find a divine sense.
55. Origen, On First Principles, 3.4.1-3.4.2, 3.4.4-3.4.5 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.4.1. And now the subject of human temptations must not, in my opinion, be passed over in silence, which take their rise sometimes from flesh and blood, or from the wisdom of flesh and blood, which is said to be hostile to God. And whether the statement be true which certain allege, viz., that each individual has as it were two souls, we shall determine after we have explained the nature of those temptations, which are said to be more powerful than any of human origin, i.e., which we sustain from principalities and powers, and from the rulers of the darkness of this world, and from spiritual wickedness in high places, or to which we are subjected from wicked spirits and unclean demons. Now, in the investigation of this subject, we must, I think, inquire according to a logical method whether there be in us human beings, who are composed of soul and body and vital spirit, some other element, possessing an incitement of its own, and evoking a movement towards evil. For a question of this kind is wont to be discussed by some in this way: whether, viz., as two souls are said to co-exist within us, the one is more divine and heavenly and the other inferior; or whether, from the very fact that we inhere in bodily structures which according to their own proper nature are dead, and altogether devoid of life (seeing it is from us, i.e., from our souls, that the material body derives its life, it being contrary and hostile to the spirit), we are drawn on and enticed to the practice of those evils which are agreeable to the body; or whether, thirdly (which was the opinion of some of the Greek philosophers), although our soul is one in substance, it nevertheless consists of several elements, and one portion of it is called rational and another irrational, and that which is termed the irrational part is again separated into two affections — those of covetousness and passion. These three opinions, then, regarding the soul, which we have stated above, we have found to be entertained by some, but that one of them, which we have mentioned as being adopted by certain Grecian philosophers, viz., that the soul is tripartite, I do not observe to be greatly confirmed by the authority of holy Scripture; while with respect to the remaining two there is found a considerable number of passages in the holy Scriptures which seem capable of application to them. 3.4.2. Now, of these opinions, let us first discuss that which is maintained by some, that there is in us a good and heavenly soul, and another earthly and inferior; and that the better soul is implanted within us from heaven, such as was that which, while Jacob was still in the womb, gave him the prize of victory in supplanting his brother Esau, and which in the case of Jeremiah was sanctified from his birth, and in that of John was filled by the Holy Spirit from the womb. Now, that which they term the inferior soul is produced, they allege, along with the body itself out of the seed of the body, whence they say it cannot live or subsist beyond the body, on which account also they say it is frequently termed flesh. For the expression, The flesh lusts against the Spirit, they take to be applicable not to the flesh, but to this soul, which is properly the soul of the flesh. From these words, moreover, they endeavour notwithstanding to make good the declaration in Leviticus: The life of all flesh is the blood thereof. For, from the circumstance that it is the diffusion of the blood throughout the whole flesh which produces life in the flesh, they assert that this soul, which is said to be the life of all flesh, is contained in the blood. This statement, moreover, that the flesh struggles against the spirit, and the spirit against the flesh; and the further statement, that the life of all flesh is the blood thereof, is, according to these writers, simply calling the wisdom of the flesh by another name, because it is a kind of material spirit, which is not subject to the law of God, nor can be so, because it has earthly wishes and bodily desires. And it is with respect to this that they think the apostle uttered the words: I see another law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members. And if one were to object to them that these words were spoken of the nature of the body, which indeed, agreeably to the peculiarity of its nature, is dead, but is said to have sensibility, or wisdom which is hostile to God, or which struggles against the spirit; or if one were to say that, in a certain degree, the flesh itself was possessed of a voice, which should cry out against the endurance of hunger, or thirst, or cold, or of any discomfort arising either from abundance or poverty, — they would endeavour to weaken and impair the force of such (arguments), by showing that there were many other mental perturbations which derive their origin in no respect from the flesh, and yet against which the spirit struggles, such as ambition, avarice, emulation, envy, pride, and others like these; and seeing that with these the human mind or spirit wages a kind of contest, they lay down as the cause of all these evils, nothing else than this corporal soul, as it were, of which we have spoken above, and which is generated from the seed by a process of traducianism. They are accustomed also to adduce, in support of their assertion, the declaration of the apostle, Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, idolatry, poisonings, hatred, contentions, emulations, wrath, quarrelling, dissensions, heresies, sects, envyings, drunkenness, revellings, and the like; asserting that all these do not derive their origin from the habits or pleasures of the flesh, so that all such movements are to be regarded as inherent in that substance which has not a soul, i.e., the flesh. The declaration, moreover, For you see your calling, brethren, how that not many wise men among you according to the flesh are called, would seem to require to be understood as if there were one kind of wisdom, carnal and material, and another according to the spirit, the former of which cannot indeed be called wisdom, unless there be a soul of the flesh, which is wise in respect of what is called carnal wisdom. And in addition to these passages they adduce the following: Since the flesh lusts against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh, so that we cannot do the things that we would. What are these things now respecting which he says, that we cannot do the things that we would? It is certain, they reply, that the spirit cannot be intended; for the will of the spirit suffers no hindrance. But neither can the flesh be meant, because if it has not a soul of its own, neither can it assuredly possess a will. It remains, then, that the will of this soul be intended which is capable of having a will of its own, and which certainly is opposed to the will of the spirit. And if this be the case, it is established that the will of the soul is something intermediate between the flesh and the spirit, undoubtedly obeying and serving that one of the two which it has elected to obey. And if it yield itself up to the pleasures of the flesh, it renders men carnal; but when it unites itself with the spirit, it produces men of the Spirit, and who on that account are termed spiritual. And this seems to be the meaning of the apostle in the words, But you are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit. 3.4.4. Let us now see what answer is usually returned to these statements by those who maintain that there is in us one movement, and one life, proceeding from one and the same soul, both the salvation and the destruction of which are ascribed to itself as a result of its own actions. And, in the first place, let us notice of what nature those commotions of the soul are which we suffer, when we feel ourselves inwardly drawn in different directions; when there arises a kind of contest of thoughts in our hearts, and certain probabilities are suggested us, agreeably to which we lean now to this side, now to that, and by which we are sometimes convicted of error, and sometimes approve of our acts. It is nothing remarkable, however, to say of wicked spirits, that they have a varying and conflicting judgment, and one out of harmony with itself, since such is found to be the case in all men, whenever, in deliberating upon an uncertain event, council is taken, and men consider and consult what is to be chosen as the better and more useful course. It is not therefore surprising that, if two probabilities meet, and suggest opposite views, they should drag the mind in contrary directions. For example, if a man be led by reflection to believe and to fear God, it cannot then be said that the flesh contends against the Spirit; but, amidst the uncertainty of what may be true and advantageous, the mind is drawn in opposite directions. So, also, when it is supposed that the flesh provokes to the indulgence of lust, but better counsels oppose allurements of that kind, we are not to suppose that it is one life which is resisting another, but that it is the tendency of the nature of the body, which is eager to empty out and cleanse the places filled with seminal moisture; as, in like manner, it is not to be supposed that it is any opposing power, or the life of another soul, which excites within us the appetite of thirst, and impels us to drink, or which causes us to feel hunger, and drives us to satisfy it. But as it is by the natural movements of the body that food and drink are either desired or rejected, so also the natural seed, collected together in course of time in the various vessels, has an eager desire to be expelled and thrown away, and is so far from never being removed, save by the impulse of some exciting cause, that it is even sometimes spontaneously emitted. When, therefore, it is said that the flesh struggles against the Spirit, these persons understand the expression to mean that habit or necessity, or the delights of the flesh, arouse a man, and withdraw him from divine and spiritual things. For, owing to the necessity of the body being drawn away, we are not allowed to have leisure for divine things, which are to be eternally advantageous. So again, the soul, devoting itself to divine and spiritual pursuits, and being united to the spirit, is said to fight against the flesh, by not permitting it to be relaxed by indulgence, and to become unsteady through the influence of those pleasures for which it feels a natural delight. In this way, also, they claim to understand the words, The wisdom of the flesh is hostile to God, not that the flesh really has a soul, or a wisdom of its own. But as we are accustomed to say, by an abuse of language, that the earth is thirsty, and wishes to drink in water, this use of the word wishes is not proper, but catachrestic — as if we were to say again, that this house wants to be rebuilt, and many other similar expressions; so also is the wisdom of the flesh to be understood, or the expression, that the flesh lusts against the Spirit. They generally connect with these the expression, The voice of your brother's blood cries unto Me from the ground. For what cries unto the Lord is not properly the blood which was shed; but the blood is said improperly to cry out, vengeance being demanded upon him who had shed it. The declaration also of the apostle, I see another law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, they so understand as if he had said, That he who wishes to devote himself to the word of God is, on account of his bodily necessities and habits, which like a sort of law are ingrained in the body, distracted, and divided, and impeded, lest, by devoting himself vigorously to the study of wisdom, he should be enabled to behold the divine mysteries. 3.4.5. With respect, however, to the following being ranked among the works of the flesh, viz., heresies, and envyings, and contentions, or other (vices), they so understand the passage, that the mind, being rendered grosser in feeling, from its yielding itself to the passions of the body, and being oppressed by the mass of its vices, and having no refined or spiritual feelings, is said to be made flesh, and derives its name from that in which it exhibits more vigour and force of will. They also make this further inquiry, Who will be found, or who will be said to be, the creator of this evil sense, called the sense of the flesh? Because they defend the opinion that there is no other creator of soul and flesh than God. And if we were to assert that the good God created anything in His own creation that was hostile to Himself, it would appear to be a manifest absurdity. If, then, it is written, that carnal wisdom is enmity against God, and if this be declared to be a result of creation, God Himself will appear to have formed a nature hostile to Himself, which cannot be subject to Him nor to His law, as if it were (supposed to be) an animal of which such qualities are predicated. And if this view be admitted, in what respect will it appear to differ from that of those who maintain that souls of different natures are created, which, according to their natures, are destined either to be lost or saved? But this is an opinion of the heretics alone, who, not being able to maintain the justice of God on grounds of piety, compose impious inventions of this kind. And now we have brought forward to the best of our ability, in the person of each of the parties, what might be advanced by way of argument regarding the several views, and let the reader choose out of them for himself that which he thinks ought to be preferred.
56. Origen, Homiliae In Genesim (In Catenis), 1.2, 1.13, 1.15 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

57. Augustine, Confessions, 8, 10 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

58. Augustine, Against Fortunatus, 20-21, 15 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

59. Augustine, Against Julian, 3.26.60, 4.3.15, 4.3.21, 4.3.29, 4.8.52 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

60. Augustine, De Diversis Quaestionibus Ad Simplicianum, 66 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

61. Augustine, De Nuptiis Et Concupiscentia, 2.5.15 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

62. Augustine, The City of God, 14.2-14.3, 14.5-14.6, 14.11, 14.13, 14.24, 19.28, 22.23 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

14.3. But if any one says that the flesh is the cause of all vices and ill conduct, inasmuch as the soul lives wickedly only because it is moved by the flesh, it is certain he has not carefully considered the whole nature of man. For the corruptible body, indeed, weighs down the soul. Wisdom 9:15 Whence, too, the apostle, speaking of this corruptible body, of which he had shortly before said, though our outward man perish, 2 Corinthians 4:16 says, We know that if our earthly house of this tabernacle were dissolved, we have a building of God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. For in this we groan, earnestly desiring to be clothed upon with our house which is from heaven: if so be that being clothed we shall not be found naked. For we that are in this tabernacle do groan, being burdened: not for that we would be unclothed, but clothed upon, that mortality might be swallowed up in life. 2 Corinthians 5:1-4 We are then burdened with this corruptible body; but knowing that the cause of this burdensomeness is not the nature and substance of the body, but its corruption, we do not desire to be deprived of the body, but to be clothed with its immortality. For then, also, there will be a body, but it shall no longer be a burden, being no longer corruptible. At present, then, the corruptible body presses down the soul, and the earthly tabernacle weighs down the mind that muses upon many things, nevertheless they are in error who suppose that all the evils of the soul proceed from the body. Virgil, indeed, seems to express the sentiments of Plato in the beautiful lines, where he says - A fiery strength inspires their lives, An essence that from heaven derives, Though clogged in part by limbs of clay And the dull 'vesture of decay;' but though he goes on to mention the four most common mental emotions - desire, fear, joy, sorrow - with the intention of showing that the body is the origin of all sins and vices, saying - Hence wild desires and grovelling fears, And human laughter, human tears, Immured in dungeon-seeming nights They look abroad, yet see no light, yet we believe quite otherwise. For the corruption of the body, which weighs down the soul, is not the cause but the punishment of the first sin; and it was not the corruptible flesh that made the soul sinful, but the sinful soul that made the flesh corruptible. And though from this corruption of the flesh there arise certain incitements to vice, and indeed vicious desires, yet we must not attribute to the flesh all the vices of a wicked life, in case we thereby clear the devil of all these, for he has no flesh. For though we cannot call the devil a fornicator or drunkard, or ascribe to him any sensual indulgence (though he is the secret instigator and prompter of those who sin in these ways), yet he is exceedingly proud and envious. And this viciousness has so possessed him, that on account of it he is reserved in chains of darkness to everlasting punishment. Now these vices, which have dominion over the devil, the apostle attributes to the flesh, which certainly the devil has not. For he says hatred, variance, emulations, strife, envying are the works of the flesh; and of all these evils pride is the origin and head, and it rules in the devil though he has no flesh. For who shows more hatred to the saints? Who is more at variance with them? Who more envious, bitter, and jealous? And since he exhibits all these works, though he has no flesh, how are they works of the flesh, unless because they are the works of man, who is, as I said, spoken of under the name of flesh? For it is not by having flesh, which the devil has not, but by living according to himself - that is, according to man - that man became like the devil. For the devil too, wished to live according to himself when he did not abide in the truth; so that when he lied, this was not of God, but of himself, who is not only a liar, but the father of lies, he being the first who lied, and the originator of lying as of sin. 14.6. But the character of the human will is of moment; because, if it is wrong, these motions of the soul will be wrong, but if it is right, they will be not merely blameless, but even praiseworthy. For the will is in them all; yea, none of them is anything else than will. For what are desire and joy but a volition of consent to the things we wish? And what are fear and sadness but a volition of aversion from the things which we do not wish? But when consent takes the form of seeking to possess the things we wish, this is called desire; and when consent takes the form of enjoying the things we wish, this is called joy. In like manner, when we turn with aversion from that which we do not wish to happen, this volition is termed fear; and when we turn away from that which has happened against our will, this act of will is called sorrow. And generally in respect of all that we seek or shun, as a man's will is attracted or repelled, so it is changed and turned into these different affections. Wherefore the man who lives according to God, and not according to man, ought to be a lover of good, and therefore a hater of evil. And since no one is evil by nature, but whoever is evil is evil by vice, he who lives according to God ought to cherish towards evil men a perfect hatred, so that he shall neither hate the man because of his vice, nor love the vice because of the man, but hate the vice and love the man. For the vice being cursed, all that ought to be loved, and nothing that ought to be hated, will remain. 14.11. But because God foresaw all things, and was therefore not ignorant that man also would fall, we ought to consider this holy city in connection with what God foresaw and ordained, and not according to our own ideas, which do not embrace God's ordination. For man, by his sin, could not disturb the divine counsel, nor compel God to change what He had decreed; for God's foreknowledge had anticipated both - that is to say, both how evil the man whom He had created good should become, and what good He Himself should even thus derive from him. For though God is said to change His determinations (so that in a tropical sense the Holy Scripture says even that God repented ), this is said with reference to man's expectation, or the order of natural causes, and not with reference to that which the Almighty had foreknown that He would do. Accordingly God, as it is written, made man upright, Ecclesiastes 7:29 and consequently with a good will. For if he had not had a good will, he could not have been upright. The good will, then, is the work of God; for God created him with it. But the first evil will, which preceded all man's evil acts, was rather a kind of falling away from the work of God to its own works than any positive work. And therefore the acts resulting were evil, not having God, but the will itself for their end; so that the will or the man himself, so far as his will is bad, was as it were the evil tree bringing forth evil fruit. Moreover, the bad will, though it be not in harmony with, but opposed to nature, inasmuch as it is a vice or blemish, yet it is true of it as of all vice, that it cannot exist except in a nature, and only in a nature created out of nothing, and not in that which the Creator has begotten of Himself, as He begot the Word, by whom all things were made. For though God formed man of the dust of the earth, yet the earth itself, and every earthly material, is absolutely created out of nothing; and man's soul, too, God created out of nothing, and joined to the body, when He made man. But evils are so thoroughly overcome by good, that though they are permitted to exist, for the sake of demonstrating how the most righteous foresight of God can make a good use even of them, yet good can exist without evil, as in the true and supreme God Himself, and as in every invisible and visible celestial creature that exists above this murky atmosphere; but evil cannot exist without good, because the natures in which evil exists, in so far as they are natures, are good. And evil is removed, not by removing any nature, or part of a nature, which had been introduced by the evil, but by healing and correcting that which had been vitiated and depraved. The will, therefore, is then truly free, when it is not the slave of vices and sins. Such was it given us by God; and this being lost by its own fault, can only be restored by Him who was able at first to give it. And therefore the truth says, If the Son shall make you free, you shall be free indeed; 1 John 8:36 which is equivalent to saying, If the Son shall save you, you shall be saved indeed. For He is our Liberator, inasmuch as He is our Saviour. Man then lived with God for his rule in a paradise at once physical and spiritual. For neither was it a paradise only physical for the advantage of the body, and not also spiritual for the advantage of the mind; nor was it only spiritual to afford enjoyment to man by his internal sensations, and not also physical to afford him enjoyment through his external senses. But obviously it was both for both ends. But after that proud and therefore envious angel (of whose fall I have said as much as I was able in the eleventh and twelfth books of this work, as well as that of his fellows, who, from being God's angels, became his angels), preferring to rule with a kind of pomp of empire rather than to be another's subject, fell from the spiritual Paradise, and essaying to insinuate his persuasive guile into the mind of man, whose unfallen condition provoked him to envy now that himself was fallen, he chose the serpent as his mouthpiece in that bodily Paradise in which it and all the other earthly animals were living with those two human beings, the man and his wife, subject to them, and harmless; and he chose the serpent because, being slippery, and moving in tortuous windings, it was suitable for his purpose. And this animal being subdued to his wicked ends by the presence and superior force of his angelic nature, he abused as his instrument, and first tried his deceit upon the woman, making his assault upon the weaker part of that human alliance, that he might gradually gain the whole, and not supposing that the man would readily give ear to him, or be deceived, but that he might yield to the error of the woman. For as Aaron was not induced to agree with the people when they blindly wished him to make an idol, and yet yielded to constraint; and as it is not credible that Solomon was so blind as to suppose that idols should be worshipped, but was drawn over to such sacrilege by the blandishments of women; so we cannot believe that Adam was deceived, and supposed the devil's word to be truth, and therefore transgressed God's law, but that he by the drawings of kindred yielded to the woman, the husband to the wife, the one human being to the only other human being. For not without significance did the apostle say, And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression; 1 Timothy 2:14 but he speaks thus, because the woman accepted as true what the serpent told her, but the man could not bear to be severed from his only companion, even though this involved a partnership in sin. He was not on this account less culpable, but sinned with his eyes open. And so the apostle does not say, He did not sin, but He was not deceived. For he shows that he sinned when he says, By one man sin entered into the world, Romans 5:12 and immediately after more distinctly, In the likeness of Adam's transgression. But he meant that those are deceived who do not judge that which they do to be sin; but he knew. Otherwise how were it true Adam was not deceived? But having as yet no experience of the divine severity, he was possibly deceived in so far as he thought his sin venial. And consequently he was not deceived as the woman was deceived, but he was deceived as to the judgment which would be passed on his apology: The woman whom you gave to be with me, she gave me, and I did eat. Genesis 3:12 What need of saying more? Although they were not both deceived by credulity, yet both were entangled in the snares of the devil, and taken by sin. 14.13. Our first parents fell into open disobedience because already they were secretly corrupted; for the evil act had never been done had not an evil will preceded it. And what is the origin of our evil will but pride? For pride is the beginning of sin. Sirach 10:13 And what is pride but the craving for undue exaltation? And this is undue exaltation, when the soul abandons Him to whom it ought to cleave as its end, and becomes a kind of end to itself. This happens when it becomes its own satisfaction. And it does so when it falls away from that unchangeable good which ought to satisfy it more than itself. This falling away is spontaneous; for if the will had remained steadfast in the love of that higher and changeless good by which it was illumined to intelligence and kindled into love, it would not have turned away to find satisfaction in itself, and so become frigid and benighted; the woman would not have believed the serpent spoke the truth, nor would the man have preferred the request of his wife to the command of God, nor have supposed that it was a venial trangression to cleave to the partner of his life even in a partnership of sin. The wicked deed, then - that is to say, the trangression of eating the forbidden fruit - was committed by persons who were already wicked. That evil fruit Matthew 7:18 could be brought forth only by a corrupt tree. But that the tree was evil was not the result of nature; for certainly it could become so only by the vice of the will, and vice is contrary to nature. Now, nature could not have been depraved by vice had it not been made out of nothing. Consequently, that it is a nature, this is because it is made by God; but that it falls away from Him, this is because it is made out of nothing. But man did not so fall away as to become absolutely nothing; but being turned towards himself, his being became more contracted than it was when he clave to Him who supremely is. Accordingly, to exist in himself, that is, to be his own satisfaction after abandoning God, is not quite to become a nonentity, but to approximate to that. And therefore the holy Scriptures designate the proud by another name, self-pleasers. For it is good to have the heart lifted up, yet not to one's self, for this is proud, but to the Lord, for this is obedient, and can be the act only of the humble. There is, therefore, something in humility which, strangely enough, exalts the heart, and something in pride which debases it. This seems, indeed, to be contradictory, that loftiness should debase and lowliness exalt. But pious humility enables us to submit to what is above us; and nothing is more exalted above us than God; and therefore humility, by making us subject to God, exalts us. But pride, being a defect of nature, by the very act of refusing subjection and revolting from Him who is supreme, falls to a low condition; and then comes to pass what is written: You cast them down when they lifted up themselves. For he does not say, when they had been lifted up, as if first they were exalted, and then afterwards cast down; but when they lifted up themselves even then they were cast down - that is to say, the very lifting up was already a fall. And therefore it is that humility is specially recommended to the city of God as it sojourns in this world, and is specially exhibited in the city of God, and in the person of Christ its King; while the contrary vice of pride, according to the testimony of the sacred writings, specially rules his adversary the devil. And certainly this is the great difference which distinguishes the two cities of which we speak, the one being the society of the godly men, the other of the ungodly, each associated with the angels that adhere to their party, and the one guided and fashioned by love of self, the other by love of God. The devil, then, would not have ensnared man in the open and manifest sin of doing what God had forbidden, had man not already begun to live for himself. It was this that made him listen with pleasure to the words, You shall be as gods, Genesis 3:5 which they would much more readily have accomplished by obediently adhering to their supreme and true end than by proudly living to themselves. For created gods are gods not by virtue of what is in themselves, but by a participation of the true God. By craving to be more, man becomes less; and by aspiring to be self-sufficing, he fell away from Him who truly suffices him. Accordingly, this wicked desire which prompts man to please himself as if he were himself light, and which thus turns him away from that light by which, had he followed it, he would himself have become light - this wicked desire, I say, already secretly existed in him, and the open sin was but its consequence. For that is true which is written, Pride goes before destruction, and before honor is humility; Proverbs 18:12 that is to say, secret ruin precedes open ruin, while the former is not counted ruin. For who counts exaltation ruin, though no sooner is the Highest forsaken than a fall is begun? But who does not recognize it as ruin, when there occurs an evident and indubitable transgression of the commandment? And consequently, God's prohibition had reference to such an act as, when committed, could not be defended on any pretense of doing what was righteous. And I make bold to say that it is useful for the proud to fall into an open and indisputable transgression, and so displease themselves, as already, by pleasing themselves, they had fallen. For Peter was in a healthier condition when he wept and was dissatisfied with himself, than when he boldly presumed and satisfied himself. And this is averred by the sacred Psalmist when he says, Fill their faces with shame, that they may seek Your name, O Lord; that is, that they who have pleased themselves in seeking their own glory may be pleased and satisfied with You in seeking Your glory. 14.24. The man, then, would have sown the seed, and the woman received it, as need required, the generative organs being moved by the will, not excited by lust. For we move at will not only those members which are furnished with joints of solid bone, as the hands, feet, and fingers, but we move also at will those which are composed of slack and soft nerves: we can put them in motion, or stretch them out, or bend and twist them, or contract and stiffen them, as we do with the muscles of the mouth and face. The lungs, which are the very tenderest of the viscera except the brain, and are therefore carefully sheltered in the cavity of the chest, yet for all purposes of inhaling and exhaling the breath, and of uttering and modulating the voice, are obedient to the will when we breathe, exhale, speak, shout, or sing, just as the bellows obey the smith or the organist. I will not press the fact that some animals have a natural power to move a single spot of the skin with which their whole body is covered, if they have felt on it anything they wish to drive off - a power so great, that by this shivering tremor of the skin they can not only shake off flies that have settled on them, but even spears that have fixed in their flesh. Man, it is true, has not this power; but is this any reason for supposing that God could not give it to such creatures as He wished to possess it? And therefore man himself also might very well have enjoyed absolute power over his members had he not forfeited it by his disobedience; for it was not difficult for God to form him so that what is now moved in his body only by lust should have been moved only at will. We know, too, that some men are differently constituted from others, and have some rare and remarkable faculty of doing with their body what other men can by no effort do, and, indeed, scarcely believe when they hear of others doing. There are persons who can move their ears, either one at a time, or both together. There are some who, without moving the head, can bring the hair down upon the forehead, and move the whole scalp backwards and forwards at pleasure. Some, by lightly pressing their stomach, bring up an incredible quantity and variety of things they have swallowed, and produce whatever they please, quite whole, as if out of a bag. Some so accurately mimic the voices of birds and beasts and other men, that, unless they are seen, the difference cannot be told. Some have such command of their bowels, that they can break wind continuously at pleasure, so as to produce the effect of singing. I myself have known a man who was accustomed to sweat whenever he wished. It is well known that some weep when they please, and shed a flood of tears. But far more incredible is that which some of our brethren saw quite recently. There was a presbyter called Restitutus, in the parish of the Calamensian Church, who, as often as he pleased (and he was asked to do this by those who desired to witness so remarkable a phenomenon), on some one imitating the wailings of mourners, became so insensible, and lay in a state so like death, that not only had he no feeling when they pinched and pricked him, but even when fire was applied to him, and he was burned by it, he had no sense of pain except afterwards from the wound. And that his body remained motionless, not by reason of his self-command, but because he was insensible, was proved by the fact that he breathed no more than a dead man; and yet he said that, when any one spoke with more than ordinary distinctness, he heard the voice, but as if it were a long way off. Seeing, then, that even in this mortal and miserable life the body serves some men by many remarkable movements and moods beyond the ordinary course of nature, what reason is there for doubting that, before man was involved by his sin in this weak and corruptible condition, his members might have served his will for the propagation of offspring without lust? Man has been given over to himself because he abandoned God, while he sought to be self-satisfying; and disobeying God, he could not obey even himself. Hence it is that he is involved in the obvious misery of being unable to live as he wishes. For if he lived as he wished, he would think himself blessed; but he could not be so if he lived wickedly.
63. Augustine, Retractiones, 1.23.1, 1.24.2, 2.1.1 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

64. Augustine, Sermons, None (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

65. Gregory of Nyssa, De Vita Mosis, 1.19 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

66. Anon., 4 Ezra, 3.20-3.22, 3.26

3.20. Yet thou didst not take away from them their evil heart, so that thy law might bring forth fruit in them. 3.21. For the first Adam, burdened with an evil heart, transgressed and was overcome, as were also all who were descended from him. 3.22. Thus the disease became permanent; the law was in the people's heart along with the evil root, but what was good departed, and the evil remained. 3.26. in everything doing as Adam and all his descendants had done, for they also had the evil heart.
67. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 166, 165

165. it falls in their way to damage. The weasel class, too, is peculiar: for besides what has been said, it has a characteristic which is defiling: It conceives through the ears and brings forth through the


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 192
abram/abraham, change of name Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 268, 271
abram/abraham, faith and doubt of Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 468
abram/abraham Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 468, 480
adam Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 37, 271
adam and eve Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 301
akrasia Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 315
alexander of abonoteichus Nicklas and Spittler, Credible, Incredible: The Miraculous in the Ancient Mediterranean. (2013) 100
ambrosiaster Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 32
angels Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 271, 316
anima Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 32, 33
animus Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 32
anonymous commentator discovered by h.j. frede Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 32
apocalyptic(ism) (see also dualism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 131
apostle Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 131
apostle paul Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 487, 490
apostolate, (com)mission Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 131
apostolic tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 131
apostolus Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 32, 33
arithmology, ninety Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 468
arriano, contra iulianum Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 277
arriano, on original sin Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 277
ascent Nicklas and Spittler, Credible, Incredible: The Miraculous in the Ancient Mediterranean. (2013) 100
augustine, not two souls in humans Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 315
augustine, two wills in humans Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 315
augustine Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 423, 487, 490
augustines works, s. Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 217
babies and children, suffering of Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 277
baptism(al) Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 316
baptism, and living to god Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 109
baptism, effects of Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 277
baptism Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 130; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 131; deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 127
basilides Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 342, 343, 344
bede Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 19
betz, h. d. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 245
bible, cyprians ad quirinum, summarising divine truths of Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 158
bible, inscriptions alluding to/citing Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 19
binary, binaries Robbins et al., The Art of Visual Exegesis (2017) 239
body, bodies Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 10
body Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 32, 33
body (human) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 311
body borders of Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 153
body of sin, flesh (of man) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 311
boethius, de consolatione philosophiaenan Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 22, 23, 24
bonum Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 33
boyarin, daniel Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 160
breytenbach, cilliers Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 19
caelestius Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 192
carnal concupiscence, usefulness Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 277
caro Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 192, 255, 256; Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 32, 33
carpocratians Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 342
chadwick, henry Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 22
children/offspring, as addressees Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 250
christos Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 25
church, as one body in christ deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 143
church Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 245
churches/tradition of paul pauline Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 131
circumcision Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 160; deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 127
clement of alexandria, church father Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 315
clement of alexandria, liberal tolerance of heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 342, 343, 344
clement of alexandria Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 247
coakley, sarah Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 24
commandments, living to god (ζῆν τῷ θεῷ) Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 109
common concepts, natural concepts Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 311
compassion, conversion, significance of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 115, 127, 143, 229
concupiscentia, concupiscence, good concupiscence Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 255, 256
concupiscentia, concupiscence Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 423, 490; Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 255, 316
constantine, coet. sanct. Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 19, 20, 21
consuetudo, habit Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 37, 316
contrary, contrariety Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 311
cosmology Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 153
crawford, matthew r. Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 19
cross, crucifixion Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 10
cross; crucifixion Robbins et al., The Art of Visual Exegesis (2017) 239
cupiditas, concupiscentia Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 33
cupiditas Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 423
cynics/cynicism, free will Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 310
cynics/cynicism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 310
cyprian Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 423
cyprian of carthage, ad quirinum, summarising divine truths Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 158
cyprian of carthage, cyprian of carthage, testimonia collections of Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 158
cyprian of carthage, ordering of knowledge in Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 158
damnatio, damnatus Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 271
damnation, eternal Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 217
death, eternal / second death Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 271
death Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 271
deeds, works Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 316
delectatio, delight Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 255, 256
demons and sexual sin Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 153
demons in paul Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 153
desire Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 255
desire (epithumia) Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 85; Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 10
desires, evil, wicked Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 144
desires, good, righteousness Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 144
determinism Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 33
dialectic, positive assessment and use of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 342
dietary laws biblical Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 85
dietary laws in the second-and third-century texts Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 85
dietary laws symbolic interpretation of Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 85
difficultas, difficulty Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 271
dilectio Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 255, 316
dinah Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 480
doubt Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 468, 480
dualism Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 130
dying with christ deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 127, 200
endtime Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 25
enslavement, enslaved Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 316
epiktetos Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 247
epistemology in late antique world, materiality and Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 19, 20
eschatological expectation deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 255
eschatology Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 25
evagrius of pontus, on λύπη Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 19
evil Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 37; Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 33
exegesis, allegorical Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 342, 343, 344
exegesis, in clement of alexandria Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 344
exegesis, in gnosticism Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 344
faculty (dênamiw and similar terms) (of the soul) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 311
faith, faithfulness (pistis) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 10
faith, fides Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 255
faith, in christ deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 143
faith/belief, as gods gift Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 217
faith/belief, initial faith Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 217
faith/belief Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 217
faith Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 268, 468, 480
fall, of sin Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 271
father, fatherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 245
fear, of god or the lord Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 144
flesh Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 153; Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 268, 468; Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 37, 192, 255, 271; Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 32, 33
flesh (as negative force) deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 115, 229
fleshly, definition of Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 78
food, impurity of in second- and third-century sources Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 85
formation of christian ethos deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 200
fortunatus Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 37; Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 33
free choice (of will), liberum arbitrium Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 37, 192, 271
freedom, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 310
freedom Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 192
freedom (eleutheria) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 118
gador-whyte, sarah Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 19
galatian assembly, correspondence Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 10
gaudeo, gaudium Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 33
gavrilyuk, paul Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 24
gentiles, in christian discourse Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 130
gift of the spirit Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 301
gnosticism, orthodox appropriation of gnosis Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 342, 343, 344
gnostics Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 315
gnostics and gnosticism, as christian intellectuals Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 88
good (agathos) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 118
grace, response to deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 127
grace Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 301; Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 217
group boundaries deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 255
guiliano, zachary Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 19
guilt) Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 256, 316
guilt) , inherited guilt Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 316
harmony with nature Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 247
harrison, carol Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 19
heath, jane Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 21
hebrews/israelites, and idolatry Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 198
hebrews/israelites, and paul Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 192
heracleon (gnostic) Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 342, 343, 344
heresy, interior to church Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 344
heretics Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 85
hierarchies, social Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 153
homily Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 268, 271
homonoia Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 247
honor and dishonor deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 143, 200, 255
hope Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 301
human nature, human condition Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 192, 255, 316
humankind, unity of Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 247
humans united with god Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 247
identity Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 85
idolatry, denounced in jewish texts Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 198
idolatry, in paul Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 198
idolatry Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 153
idols Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 310
ignorance, gentile deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 229
incarnation of the soul), mortal body, body of death, captivity of the body Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 316
inheritance deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 255
intellectual independence, in christianity Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 88
intellectual independence, paul versus valentinians on Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 88
intellectual independence Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 88
irenaeus, church father Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 315
irenaeus Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 344
irenaeus of lyons Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 19
isaac Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 271
israel, seer of god Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 268
israel deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 127
jensen, robin m. Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 19
jerome Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 32
jesus, atoning/reconciling death of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 143
jesus Nicklas and Spittler, Credible, Incredible: The Miraculous in the Ancient Mediterranean. (2013) 100
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 131
jewish practices/torah observance, circumcision Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 118
jewish practices/torah observance Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 118
jews/judeans/ioudaioi, and ethnic vocabulary in paul Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 192
jews/judeans/ioudaioi, and idolatry Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 198
jews and gentiles, in the church deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 115
job Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 490
john (the baptist) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 131
josephus Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 198
joy Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 468, 480
judaism, palestinian Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 268
judaism, pharisaic Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 245
judaism Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 480
judaizing Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 118
judgment deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 255
julian of aeclanum, ad turbantium Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 277
julian of aeclanum, enters pelagian controversy Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 277
julian of eclanum Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 316
kingdom of god Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 78; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 131
knowledge Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 256
koinonia Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 247
ku¨mmel, w. g. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 245
law, laws, and living to god Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 109
law Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 316; Robbins et al., The Art of Visual Exegesis (2017) 239
law (mosaic), nature, lex naturae Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 311
law , of moses Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 256
law , of sin (in my members) Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 316
lehtipuu, o. Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 78
lex fidei Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 487
libero/libertas Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 33
libido Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 423
lineage and genealogy as identity marker, in paul Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 192
living to god (ζῆν τῷ θεῷ), and commandments Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 109
living to god (ζῆν τῷ θεῷ), and ethical imperatives Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 109
living to god (ζῆν τῷ θεῷ), and laws Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 109
living to god (ζῆν τῷ θεῷ), in luke-acts Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 109
living to god (ζῆν τῷ θεῷ), in shepherd from paul Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 109
living to god (ζῆν τῷ θεῷ), in tatian Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 109
living to god (ζῆν τῷ θεῷ), in the acts of paul Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 109
logos Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 268
longinus, neoplatonist Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 315
love Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 255, 256, 316
lucian Nicklas and Spittler, Credible, Incredible: The Miraculous in the Ancient Mediterranean. (2013) 100
luke-acts and paul, in shepherd and paul Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 109
luke-acts and paul Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 109
lull, david j. Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 159
lyman, rebecca Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 19
macedon/macedonians Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 198
maimonides, jewish philosopher, two wills in humans Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 315
malus, malum Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 32, 33
mani Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 192
manichaeans, manichaeism Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 37
manichaeans, two minds or souls in humans Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 315
manichees/manichaeism Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 32, 33
marcellinus Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 423, 487, 490
marcion Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 192
marius victorinus Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 32
marriage Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 153; Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 130
materiality Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 19, 20
maturation Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 78
medius, stoic Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 315
membrum Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 32
metaphors, arming oneself Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 144
methuselah Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 250
meyer, p. w. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 245
middle platonism Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 10
mikva, mikvaot (ritual bathhouse) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 131
mind Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 33
mind (noëw and similar terms) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 311
mix, mixture, composed, composition, compound, (un-)compounded, fusion, merger, mingle, (inter)mingling Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 311
moral purity Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 131
mortality Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 255
moses Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 268
moses and mosaic law Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 245
myth, associated with heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 344
names, change of Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 268, 271
necessitas, necessity Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 37, 192
necessity/require (anagkē, anagkazō) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 118
neil, bronwen Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 19
neither/nothing (oudeteros/ouden) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 118
new creation Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 301
new person deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 200, 229
new testament Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 247
newsom, carol Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 301
nihil, nothingness Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 271
old person deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 200, 229
ordering of knowledge, epistemology in late antique world, cyprian of carthage, testimonia collections of Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 158
origen, church father, two wills in humans Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 315
origen, commentary on psalms Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24
origen, contra celsum Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 21, 22, 23
origen, on spiritual senses Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 21, 22, 23, 24
origen of alexandria Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman, Religion and the Self in Antiquity (2005) 34
original sin, augustine on Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 277
original sin, in baptized parents Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 277
original sin, pre-augustinian traditional Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 217
paganism, heresy assimilated to Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 344
parts (of the soul), irrational parts Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 311
parts (of the soul) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 311
passions deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 115, 229
passions (pathē) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 10
paul, and faithfulness (pistis) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 10
paul, and passions (pathē) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 10
paul, and torah observance Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 160
paul, attitude of to the law Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 159, 160
paul, determinism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 310
paul, free will Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 310
paul, on intellectual independence Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 88
paul, on pneuma Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 10
paul, on the law and virtue Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 159, 160
paul, on the law as pedagogue Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 159, 160