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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8250
New Testament, Galatians, 4.25-4.26


τὸ δὲ Ἅγαρ Σινὰ ὄρος ἐστὶν ἐν τῇ Ἀραβίᾳ, συνστοιχεῖ δὲ τῇ νῦν Ἰερουσαλήμ, δουλεύει γὰρ μετὰ τῶν τέκνων αὐτῆς·For this Hagar is Mount Sinai inArabia, and answers to the Jerusalem that exists now, for she is inbondage with her children.


ἡ δὲ ἄνω Ἰερουσαλὴμ ἐλευθέρα ἐστίνBut the Jerusalem that is above isfree, which is the mother of us all.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

58 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.13, 32.43 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.13. וַיַּגֵּד לָכֶם אֶת־בְּרִיתוֹ אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה אֶתְכֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדְּבָרִים וַיִּכְתְּבֵם עַל־שְׁנֵי לֻחוֹת אֲבָנִים׃ 32.43. הַרְנִינוּ גוֹיִם עַמּוֹ כִּי דַם־עֲבָדָיו יִקּוֹם וְנָקָם יָשִׁיב לְצָרָיו וְכִפֶּר אַדְמָתוֹ עַמּוֹ׃ 4.13. And He declared unto you His covet, which He commanded you to perform, even the ten words; and He wrote them upon two tables of stone." 32.43. Sing aloud, O ye nations, of His people; For He doth avenge the blood of His servants, And doth render vengeance to His adversaries, And doth make expiation for the land of His people."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 24.7-24.8, 34.29-34.35 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.7. וַיִּקַּח סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית וַיִּקְרָא בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה וְנִשְׁמָע׃ 24.8. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַדָּם וַיִּזְרֹק עַל־הָעָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה דַם־הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַת יְהוָה עִמָּכֶם עַל כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 34.29. וַיְהִי בְּרֶדֶת מֹשֶׁה מֵהַר סִינַי וּשְׁנֵי לֻחֹת הָעֵדֻת בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה בְּרִדְתּוֹ מִן־הָהָר וּמֹשֶׁה לֹא־יָדַע כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פָּנָיו בְּדַבְּרוֹ אִתּוֹ׃ 34.31. וַיִּקְרָא אֲלֵהֶם מֹשֶׁה וַיָּשֻׁבוּ אֵלָיו אַהֲרֹן וְכָל־הַנְּשִׂאִים בָּעֵדָה וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֲלֵהֶם׃ 34.32. וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן נִגְּשׁוּ כָּל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיְצַוֵּם אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אִתּוֹ בְּהַר סִינָי׃ 34.33. וַיְכַל מֹשֶׁה מִדַּבֵּר אִתָּם וַיִּתֵּן עַל־פָּנָיו מַסְוֶה׃ 34.34. וּבְבֹא מֹשֶׁה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ יָסִיר אֶת־הַמַּסְוֶה עַד־צֵאתוֹ וְיָצָא וְדִבֶּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵת אֲשֶׁר יְצֻוֶּה׃ 34.35. וְרָאוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־פְּנֵי מֹשֶׁה כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פְּנֵי מֹשֶׁה וְהֵשִׁיב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַמַּסְוֶה עַל־פָּנָיו עַד־בֹּאוֹ לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ׃ 24.7. And he took the book of the covet, and read in the hearing of the people; and they said: ‘All that the LORD hath spoken will we do, and obey.’" 24.8. And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said: ‘Behold the blood of the covet, which the LORD hath made with you in agreement with all these words.’" 34.29. And it came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Sinai with the two tables of the testimony in Moses’hand, when he came down from the mount, that Moses knew not that the skin of his face sent forth abeams while He talked with him." 34.30. And when Aaron and all the children of Israel saw Moses, behold, the skin of his face sent forth beams; and they were afraid to come nigh him." 34.31. And Moses called unto them; and Aaron and all the rulers of the congregation returned unto him; and Moses spoke to them." 34.32. And afterward all the children of Israel came nigh, and he gave them in commandment all that the LORD had spoken with him in mount Sinai." 34.33. And when Moses had done speaking with them, he put a veil on his face." 34.34. But when Moses went in before the LORD that He might speak with him, he took the veil off, until he came out; and he came out; and spoke unto the children of Israel that which he was commanded." 34.35. And the children of Israel saw the face of Moses, that the skin of Moses’face sent forth beams; and Moses put the veil back upon his face, until he went in to speak with Him."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 4.6-4.7, 11.30, 15.6, 17.5, 17.10-17.11, 21.9-21.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.6. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־קָיִן לָמָּה חָרָה לָךְ וְלָמָּה נָפְלוּ פָנֶיךָ׃ 4.7. הֲלוֹא אִם־תֵּיטִיב שְׂאֵת וְאִם לֹא תֵיטִיב לַפֶּתַח חַטָּאת רֹבֵץ וְאֵלֶיךָ תְּשׁוּקָתוֹ וְאַתָּה תִּמְשָׁל־בּוֹ׃ 15.6. וְהֶאֱמִן בַּיהוָה וַיַּחְשְׁבֶהָ לּוֹ צְדָקָה׃ 17.5. וְלֹא־יִקָּרֵא עוֹד אֶת־שִׁמְךָ אַבְרָם וְהָיָה שִׁמְךָ אַבְרָהָם כִּי אַב־הֲמוֹן גּוֹיִם נְתַתִּיךָ׃ 17.11. וּנְמַלְתֶּם אֵת בְּשַׂר עָרְלַתְכֶם וְהָיָה לְאוֹת בְּרִית בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם׃ 21.9. וַתֵּרֶא שָׂרָה אֶת־בֶּן־הָגָר הַמִּצְרִית אֲשֶׁר־יָלְדָה לְאַבְרָהָם מְצַחֵק׃ 4.6. And the LORD said unto Cain: ‘Why art thou wroth? and why is thy countece fallen?" 4.7. If thou doest well, shall it not be lifted up? and if thou doest not well, sin coucheth at the door; and unto thee is its desire, but thou mayest rule over it.’" 11.30. And Sarai was barren; she had no child." 15.6. And he believed in the LORD; and He counted it to him for righteousness." 17.5. Neither shall thy name any more be called Abram, but thy name shall be Abraham; for the father of a multitude of nations have I made thee." 17.10. This is My covet, which ye shall keep, between Me and you and thy seed after thee: every male among you shall be circumcised." 17.11. And ye shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token of a covet betwixt Me and you." 21.9. And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, whom she had borne unto Abraham, making sport." 21.10. Wherefore she said unto Abraham: ‘Cast out this bondwoman and her son; for the son of this bondwoman shall not be heir with my son, even with Isaac.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.18. לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.18. Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD."
5. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 7.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.4. טוֹבָם כְּחֵדֶק יָשָׁר מִמְּסוּכָה יוֹם מְצַפֶּיךָ פְּקֻדָּתְךָ בָאָה עַתָּה תִהְיֶה מְבוּכָתָם׃ 7.4. The best of them is as a brier; The most upright is worse than a thorn hedge; The day of thy watchmen, even thy visitation, is come; Now shall be their perplexity."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 2.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.7. אֲסַפְּרָה אֶל חֹק יְהוָה אָמַר אֵלַי בְּנִי אַתָּה אֲנִי הַיּוֹם יְלִדְתִּיךָ׃ 2.7. I will tell of the decree: The LORD said unto me: 'Thou art My son, this day have I begotten thee."
7. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 4.13 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

4.13. כִּי הִנֵּה יוֹצֵר הָרִים וּבֹרֵא רוּחַ וּמַגִּיד לְאָדָם מַה־שֵּׂחוֹ עֹשֵׂה שַׁחַר עֵיפָה וְדֹרֵךְ עַל־בָּמֳתֵי אָרֶץ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי־צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ׃ 4.13. For, lo, He that formeth the mountains, and createth the wind, And declareth unto man what is his thought, That maketh the morning darkness, And treadeth upon the high places of the earth; The LORD, the God of hosts, is His name."
8. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 41.8, 51.2, 54.1, 57.19, 65.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

41.8. וְאַתָּה יִשְׂרָאֵל עַבְדִּי יַעֲקֹב אֲשֶׁר בְּחַרְתִּיךָ זֶרַע אַבְרָהָם אֹהֲבִי׃ 51.2. בָּנַיִךְ עֻלְּפוּ שָׁכְבוּ בְּרֹאשׁ כָּל־חוּצוֹת כְּתוֹא מִכְמָר הַמְלֵאִים חֲמַת־יְהוָה גַּעֲרַת אֱלֹהָיִךְ׃ 51.2. הַבִּיטוּ אֶל־אַבְרָהָם אֲבִיכֶם וְאֶל־שָׂרָה תְּחוֹלֶלְכֶם כִּי־אֶחָד קְרָאתִיו וַאֲבָרְכֵהוּ וְאַרְבֵּהוּ׃ 54.1. רָנִּי עֲקָרָה לֹא יָלָדָה פִּצְחִי רִנָּה וְצַהֲלִי לֹא־חָלָה כִּי־רַבִּים בְּנֵי־שׁוֹמֵמָה מִבְּנֵי בְעוּלָה אָמַר יְהוָה׃ 54.1. כִּי הֶהָרִים יָמוּשׁוּ וְהַגְּבָעוֹת תְּמוּטֶנָה וְחַסְדִּי מֵאִתֵּךְ לֹא־יָמוּשׁ וּבְרִית שְׁלוֹמִי לֹא תָמוּט אָמַר מְרַחֲמֵךְ יְהוָה׃ 57.19. בּוֹרֵא נוב [נִיב] שְׂפָתָיִם שָׁלוֹם שָׁלוֹם לָרָחוֹק וְלַקָּרוֹב אָמַר יְהוָה וּרְפָאתִיו׃ 65.23. לֹא יִיגְעוּ לָרִיק וְלֹא יֵלְדוּ לַבֶּהָלָה כִּי זֶרַע בְּרוּכֵי יְהוָה הֵמָּה וְצֶאֱצָאֵיהֶם אִתָּם׃ 41.8. But thou, Israel, My servant, Jacob whom I have chosen, The seed of Abraham My friend;" 51.2. Look unto Abraham your father, And unto Sarah that bore you; For when he was but one I called him, And I blessed him, and made him many." 54.1. Sing, O barren, thou that didst not bear, Break forth into singing, and cry aloud, thou that didst not travail; For more are the children of the desolate Than the children of the married wife, saith the LORD." 57.19. Peace, peace, to him that is far off and to him that is near, Saith the LORD that createth the fruit of the lips; And I will heal him." 65.23. They shall not labour in vain, Nor bring forth for terror; For they are the seed blessed of the LORD, And their offspring with them."
9. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 34.27 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

34.27. וְנָתַן עֵץ הַשָּׂדֶה אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ וְהָאָרֶץ תִּתֵּן יְבוּלָהּ וְהָיוּ עַל־אַדְמָתָם לָבֶטַח וְיָדְעוּ כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה בְּשִׁבְרִי אֶת־מֹטוֹת עֻלָּם וְהִצַּלְתִּים מִיַּד הָעֹבְדִים בָּהֶם׃ 34.27. And the tree of the field shall yield its fruit, and the earth shall yield her produce, and they shall be safe in their land; and they shall know that I am the LORD, when I have broken the bars of their yoke, and have delivered them out of the hand of those that made bondmen of them."
10. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 2.12 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2.12. כִּי כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אַחַר כָּבוֹד שְׁלָחַנִי אֶל־הַגּוֹיִם הַשֹּׁלְלִים אֶתְכֶם כִּי הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּכֶם נֹגֵעַ בְּבָבַת עֵינוֹ׃ 2.12. For thus saith the LORD of hosts who sent me after glory unto the nations which spoiled you: ‘Surely, he that toucheth you toucheth the apple of his eye."
11. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 16.1-16.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 16.1-16.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 24.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

24.23. All this is the book of the covet of the Most High God,the law which Moses commanded us as an inheritance for the congregations of Jacob.
14. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 24.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 251 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

251. And that you may have no suspicion of any jealousy on my part, take, if you will, my own handmaid to wife; who is a slave indeed as to her body, but free and noble as to her mind; whose good qualities I have for a long time proved and experienced from the day when she was first introduced into my house, being an Egyptian by blood, and a Hebrew by deliberate choice.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 8-10 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

10. Why then do we wonder if God once for all banished Adam, that is to say, the mind out of the district of the virtues, after he had once contracted folly, that incurable disease, and if he never permitted him again to return, when he also drives out and banishes from wisdom and from the wise man every sophist, and the mother of sophists, the teaching that is of elementary instruction, while he calls the names of wisdom and of the wise man Abraham, and Sarah. IV. 10. He also considered this point, in the second place, that it is indispensable that the soul of the man who is about to receive sacred laws should be thoroughly cleansed and purified from all stains, however difficult to be washed out, which the promiscuous multitude of mixed men from all quarters has impregnated cities with;
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 12-13, 139, 14, 141, 15, 154, 16-18, 180, 19-24, 9, 11 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

11. And as you must know that it is common for there to be great preludes to great propositions, and the greatest of all propositions is virtue, for it is conversant about the most important of all materials, namely, about the universal life of man; very naturally, therefore, that will not employ any short preface, but rather it will use as such, grammar, geometry, astronomy, rhetoric, music, and all the other sorts of contemplation which proceed in accordance with reason; of which Hagar, the handmaid of Sarah, is an emblem, as we will proceed to show.
18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 87-93, 86 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

86. What then is the fourth gift? The having a great name, for God says, "I will magnify thy Name;" and the meaning of this, as it appears to me, is as follows; as to be good is honourable, so also to appear to be so is advantageous. And truth is better than appearance, but perfect happiness is when the two are combined. For there are great numbers of people who apply themselves to virtue in genuine honesty and sincerity, and who admire its genuine beauty, having no regard to the reputation which they may have with the multitude, and who in consequence have been plotted against, being thought wicked though in reality they are good.
19. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 255 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

255. But nevertheless, she is thought worthy of such an honourable reception from the prince, that her womb is opened by him, so as to receive the seed of divine generation, in order to cause the production of honourable pursuits and actions. Learn therefore, O soul, that Sarrah, that is, virtue, will bring forth to thee a son; and that Hagar, or intermediate instruction, is not the only one who will do so; for her offspring is one which has its knowledge from teaching, but the offspring of the other is entirely self-taught.
20. Philo of Alexandria, On Rewards And Punishments, 161 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

161. and hope is joy before joy, even though it may be somewhat defective in comparison with perfect joy. But still, it is in both these respects better than that which comes after; first, because it relaxes and softens the dry rigidity of care; and secondly, because by its anticipations it gives a forewarning of the impending perfect good. XXVIII.
21. Philo of Alexandria, On Sobriety, 9, 8 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

22. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.240 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1.240. Do you not see that encyclical instruction, that is, Hagar, says to the angel, "Art thou God who seest Me?" for she was not capable of beholding the most ancient cause, inasmuch as she was by birth a native of Egypt. But now the mind begins to be improved, so as to be able to contemplate the governor of all the powers;
23. Anon., 2 Baruch, 85.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Epictetus, Discourses, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.1. But if any one propound Judaism unto you, here him not: for it is better to hear Christianity from a man who is circumcised than Judaism from one uncircumcised. But if either the one or the other speak not concerning Jesus Christ, I look on them as tombstones and graves of the dead, whereon are inscribed only the names of men.
26. Ignatius, To The Magnesians, 8.1, 10.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.1. Be not seduced by strange doctrines nor by antiquated fables, which are profitless. For if even unto this day we live after the manner of Judaism, we avow that we have not received grace: 10.3. It is monstrous to talk of Jesus Christ and to practise Judaism. For Christianity did not believe in Judaism, but Judaism in Christianity, wherein every tongue believed and was gathered together unto God.
27. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.1. But if any one propound Judaism unto you, here him not: for it is better to hear Christianity from a man who is circumcised than Judaism from one uncircumcised. But if either the one or the other speak not concerning Jesus Christ, I look on them as tombstones and graves of the dead, whereon are inscribed only the names of men.
28. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 20.168, 20.170 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20.168. and pretended that they would exhibit manifest wonders and signs, that should be performed by the providence of God. And many that were prevailed on by them suffered the punishments of their folly; for Felix brought them back, and then punished them.
29. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.259, 2.264, 6.285-6.287 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.259. These were such men as deceived and deluded the people under pretense of Divine inspiration, but were for procuring innovations and changes of the government; and these prevailed with the multitude to act like madmen, and went before them into the wilderness, as pretending that God would there show them the signals of liberty. 2.264. 6. Now, when these were quieted, it happened, as it does in a diseased body, that another part was subject to an inflammation; for a company of deceivers and robbers got together, and persuaded the Jews to revolt, and exhorted them to assert their liberty, inflicting death on those that continued in obedience to the Roman government, and saying, that such as willingly chose slavery ought to be forced from such their desired inclinations; 6.285. A false prophet was the occasion of these people’s destruction, who had made a public proclamation in the city that very day, that God commanded them to get up upon the temple, and that there they should receive miraculous signs of their deliverance. 6.286. Now, there was then a great number of false prophets suborned by the tyrants to impose on the people, who denounced this to them, that they should wait for deliverance from God; and this was in order to keep them from deserting, and that they might be buoyed up above fear and care by such hopes. 6.287. Now, a man that is in adversity does easily comply with such promises; for whensuch a seducer makes him believe that he shall be delivered from those miseries which oppress him, then it is that the patient is full of hopes of such his deliverance.
30. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the chosen ones who are living as strangers in the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia
31. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.30, 5.6-5.8, 5.13, 7.1, 7.18, 7.21-7.23, 9.10, 9.19-9.21, 9.24-9.27, 10.1-10.13, 10.32, 11.7-11.10, 12.13, 15.46, 16.1-16.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.30. But of him, you are in ChristJesus, who was made to us wisdom from God, and righteousness andsanctification, and redemption: 5.6. Your boasting is not good. Don't you know that a little yeastleavens the whole lump? 5.7. Purge out the old yeast, that you may bea new lump, even as you are unleavened. For indeed Christ, ourPassover, has been sacrificed in our place. 5.8. Therefore let us keepthe feast, not with old yeast, neither with the yeast of malice andwickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth. 5.13. But those who are outside, God judges. "Put awaythe wicked man from among yourselves. 7.1. Now concerning the things about which you wrote to me: it isgood for a man not to touch a woman. 7.18. Was anyone called having been circumcised? Let him not becomeuncircumcised. Has anyone been called in uncircumcision? Let him not becircumcised. 7.21. Were you calledbeing a bondservant? Don't let that bother you, but if you get anopportunity to become free, use it. 7.22. For he who was called in theLord being a bondservant is the Lord's free man. Likewise he who wascalled being free is Christ's bondservant. 7.23. You were bought witha price. Don't become bondservants of men. 9.10. or does he say it assuredly for oursake? Yes, it was written for our sake, because he who plows ought toplow in hope, and he who threshes in hope should partake of his hope. 9.19. For though I was free fromall, I brought myself under bondage to all, that I might gain the more. 9.20. To the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain Jews; to thosewho are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain those whoare under the law; 9.21. to those who are without law, as without law(not being without law toward God, but under law toward Christ), that Imight win those who are without law. 9.24. Don't youknow that those who run in a race all run, but one receives the prize?Run like that, that you may win. 9.25. Every man who strives in thegames exercises self-control in all things. Now they do it to receive acorruptible crown, but we an incorruptible. 9.26. I therefore run likethat, as not uncertainly. I fight like that, as not beating the air 9.27. but I beat my body and bring it into submission, lest by anymeans, after I have preached to others, I myself should be rejected. 10.1. Now I would not have you ignorant, brothers, that our fatherswere all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; 10.2. andwere all baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea; 10.3. andall ate the same spiritual food; 10.4. and all drank the samespiritual drink. For they drank of a spiritual rock that followed them,and the rock was Christ. 10.5. However with most of them, God was notwell pleased, for they were overthrown in the wilderness. 10.6. Nowthese things were our examples, to the intent we should not lust afterevil things, as they also lusted. 10.7. Neither be idolaters, as someof them were. As it is written, "The people sat down to eat and drink,and rose up to play. 10.8. Neither let us commit sexual immorality,as some of them committed, and in one day twenty-three thousand fell. 10.9. Neither let us test the Lord, as some of them tested, andperished by the serpents. 10.10. Neither grumble, as some of them alsogrumbled, and perished by the destroyer. 10.11. Now all these thingshappened to them by way of example, and they were written for ouradmonition, on whom the ends of the ages have come. 10.12. Thereforelet him who thinks he stands be careful that he doesn't fall. 10.13. No temptation has taken you but such as man can bear. God isfaithful, who will not allow you to be tempted above what you are able,but will with the temptation also make the way of escape, that you maybe able to endure it. 10.32. Give no occasions for stumbling, either to Jews, or to Greeks,or to the assembly of God; 11.7. For a man indeed ought not to have his head covered,because he is the image and glory of God, but the woman is the glory ofthe man. 11.8. For man is not from woman, but woman from man; 11.9. for neither was man created for the woman, but woman for the man. 11.10. For this cause the woman ought to have authority on her head,because of the angels. 12.13. For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whetherJews or Greeks, whether bond or free; and were all given to drink intoone Spirit. 15.46. However thatwhich is spiritual isn't first, but that which is natural, then thatwhich is spiritual. 16.1. Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I commandedthe assemblies of Galatia, you do likewise. 16.2. On the first day ofthe week, let each one of you save, as he may prosper, that nocollections be made when I come. 16.3. When I arrive, I will sendwhoever you approve with letters to carry your gracious gift toJerusalem. 16.4. If it is appropriate for me to go also, they will gowith me.
32. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 2.14, 3.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.14. For you, brothers, became imitators of the assemblies of God which are in Judea in Christ Jesus; for you also suffered the same things from your own countrymen, even as they did from the Jews; 3.13. to the end he may establish your hearts blameless in holiness before our God and Father, at the coming of our Lord Jesus with all his saints.
33. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.16, 3.5-3.18, 4.4, 5.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

34. New Testament, Acts, 1.8, 2.14-2.21, 2.41-2.47, 4.1-4.31, 5.35-5.37, 6.1, 7.51-7.56, 8.14-8.17, 9.20, 10.34, 10.44-10.48, 13.5, 13.14-13.41, 13.44-13.47, 14.1, 15.2-15.29, 17.1-17.2, 17.10, 17.17, 18.4, 18.19, 19.8, 21.19-21.26, 22.17-22.21, 24.12, 26.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.8. But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come on you. You will be witnesses to me in Jerusalem, in all Judea and Samaria, and to the uttermost parts of the earth. 2.14. But Peter, standing up with the eleven, lifted up his voice, and spoke out to them, "You men of Judea, and all you who dwell at Jerusalem, let this be known to you, and listen to my words. 2.15. For these aren't drunken, as you suppose, seeing it is only the third hour of the day. 2.16. But this is what has been spoken through the prophet Joel: 2.17. 'It will be in the last days, says God, I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh. Your sons and your daughters will prophesy. Your young men will see visions. Your old men will dream dreams. 2.18. Yes, and on my servants and on my handmaidens in those days, I will pour out my Spirit, and they will prophesy. 2.19. I will show wonders in the the sky above, And signs on the earth beneath; Blood, and fire, and billows of smoke. 2.20. The sun will be turned into darkness, And the moon into blood, Before the great and glorious day of the Lord comes. 2.21. It will be, that whoever will call on the name of the Lord will be saved.' 2.41. Then those who gladly received his word were baptized. There were added that day about three thousand souls. 2.42. They continued steadfastly in the apostles' teaching and fellowship, in the breaking of bread, and prayer. 2.43. Fear came on every soul, and many wonders and signs were done through the apostles. 2.44. All who believed were together, and had all things common. 2.45. They sold their possessions and goods, and distributed them to all, according as anyone had need. 2.46. Day by day, continuing steadfastly with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread at home, they took their food with gladness and singleness of heart 2.47. praising God, and having favor with all the people. The Lord added to the assembly day by day those who were being saved. 4.1. As they spoke to the people, the priests and the captain of the temple and the Sadducees came to them 4.2. being upset because they taught the people and proclaimed in Jesus the resurrection from the dead. 4.3. They laid hands on them, and put them in custody until the next day, for it was now evening. 4.4. But many of those who heard the word believed, and the number of the men came to be about five thousand. 4.5. It happened in the morning, that their rulers, elders, and scribes were gathered together in Jerusalem. 4.6. Annas the high priest was there, with Caiaphas, John, Alexander, and as many as were relatives of the high priest. 4.7. When they had stood them in the midst, they inquired, "By what power, or in what name, have you done this? 4.8. Then Peter, filled with the Holy Spirit, said to them, "You rulers of the people, and elders of Israel 4.9. if we are examined today concerning a good deed done to a crippled man, by what means this man has been healed 4.10. be it known to you all, and to all the people of Israel, that in the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom you crucified, whom God raised from the dead, in him does this man stand here before you whole. 4.11. He is 'the stone which was regarded as worthless by you, the builders, which was made the head of the corner.' 4.12. There is salvation in none other, for neither is there any other name under heaven, that is given among men, in which we must be saved! 4.13. Now when they saw the boldness of Peter and John, and had perceived that they were unlearned and ignorant men, they marveled. They recognized that they had been with Jesus. 4.14. Seeing the man who was healed standing with them, they could say nothing against it. 4.15. But when they had commanded them to go aside out of the council, they conferred among themselves 4.16. saying, "What shall we do to these men? Because indeed a notable miracle has been done through them, as can be plainly seen by all who dwell in Jerusalem, and we can't deny it. 4.17. But so that this spreads no further among the people, let's threaten them, that from now on they don't speak to anyone in this name. 4.18. They called them, and charged them not to speak at all nor teach in the name of Jesus. 4.19. But Peter and John answered them, "Whether it is right in the sight of God to listen to you rather than to God, judge for yourselves 4.20. for we can't help telling the things which we saw and heard. 4.21. They, when they had further threatened them, let them go, finding no way to punish them, because of the people; for everyone glorified God for that which was done. 4.22. For the man was more than forty years old, on whom this miracle of healing was performed. 4.23. Being let go, they came to their own company, and reported all that the chief priests and the elders had said to them. 4.24. They, when they heard it, lifted up their voice to God with one accord, and said, "O Lord, you are God, who made the heaven, the earth, the sea, and all that is in them; 4.25. who by the mouth of your servant, David, said, 'Why do the nations rage, And the peoples plot a vain thing? 4.26. The kings of the earth take a stand, And the rulers take council together, Against the Lord, and against his Christ.' 4.27. For truly, in this city against your holy servant, Jesus, whom you anointed, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles and the people of Israel, were gathered together 4.28. to do whatever your hand and your council foreordained to happen. 4.29. Now, Lord, look at their threats, and grant to your servants to speak your word with all boldness 4.30. while you stretch out your hand to heal; and that signs and wonders may be done through the name of your holy Servant Jesus. 4.31. When they had prayed, the place was shaken where they were gathered together. They were all filled with the Holy Spirit, and they spoke the word of God with boldness. 5.35. He said to them, "You men of Israel, be careful concerning these men, what you are about to do. 5.36. For before these days Theudas rose up, making himself out to be somebody; to whom a number of men, about four hundred, joined themselves: who was slain; and all, as many as obeyed him, were dispersed, and came to nothing. 5.37. After this man, Judas of Galilee rose up in the days of the enrollment, and drew away some people after him. He also perished, and all, as many as obeyed him, were scattered abroad. 6.1. Now in those days, when the number of the disciples was multiplying, there arose a grumbling of the Grecian Jews against the Hebrews because their widows were neglected in the daily service. 7.51. You stiff-necked and uncircumcised in heart and ears, you always resist the Holy Spirit! As your fathers did, so you do. 7.52. Which of the prophets didn't your fathers persecute? They killed those who foretold the coming of the Righteous One, of whom you have now become betrayers and murderers. 7.53. You received the law as it was ordained by angels, and didn't keep it! 7.54. Now when they heard these things, they were cut to the heart, and they gnashed at him with their teeth. 7.55. But he, being full of the Holy Spirit, looked up steadfastly into heaven, and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right hand of God 7.56. and said, "Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of Man standing on the right hand of God! 8.14. Now when the apostles who were at Jerusalem heard that Samaria had received the word of God, they sent Peter and John to them 8.15. who, when they had come down, prayed for them, that they might receive the Holy Spirit; 8.16. for as yet he had fallen on none of them. They had only been baptized into the name of the Lord Jesus. 8.17. Then they laid their hands on them, and they received the Holy Spirit. 9.20. Immediately in the synagogues he proclaimed the Christ, that he is the Son of God. 10.34. Peter opened his mouth and said, "Truly I perceive that God doesn't show favoritism; 10.44. While Peter was still speaking these words, the Holy Spirit fell on all those who heard the word. 10.45. They of the circumcision who believed were amazed, as many as came with Peter, because the gift of the Holy Spirit was also poured out on the Gentiles. 10.46. For they heard them speak with other languages and magnify God. Then Peter answered 10.47. Can any man forbid the water, that these who have received the Holy Spirit as well as we should not be baptized? 10.48. He commanded them to be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ. Then they asked him to stay some days. 13.5. When they were at Salamis, they proclaimed the word of God in the synagogues of the Jews. They had also John as their attendant. 13.14. But they, passing through from Perga, came to Antioch of Pisidia. They went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and sat down. 13.15. After the reading of the law and the prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, saying, "Brothers, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, speak. 13.16. Paul stood up, and beckoning with his hand said, "Men of Israel, and you who fear God, listen. 13.17. The God of this people Israel chose our fathers, and exalted the people when they stayed as aliens in the land of Egypt , and with an uplifted arm, he led them out of it. 13.18. For about the time of forty years he put up with them in the wilderness. 13.19. When he had destroyed seven nations in the land of Canaan, he gave them their land for an inheritance, for about four hundred fifty years. 13.20. After these things he gave them judges until Samuel the prophet. 13.21. Afterward they asked for a king, and God gave to them Saul the son of Kish, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, for forty years. 13.22. When he had removed him, he raised up David to be their king, to whom he also testified, 'I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after my heart, who will do all my will.' 13.23. From this man's seed, God has brought salvation to Israel according to his promise 13.24. before his coming, when John had first preached the baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel. 13.25. As John was fulfilling his course, he said, 'What do you suppose that I am? I am not he. But behold, one comes after me the sandals of whose feet I am not worthy to untie.' 13.26. Brothers, children of the stock of Abraham, and those among you who fear God, the word of this salvation is sent out to you. 13.27. For those who dwell in Jerusalem, and their rulers, because they didn't know him, nor the voices of the prophets which are read every Sabbath, fulfilled them by condemning him. 13.28. Though they found no cause for death, they still asked Pilate to have him killed. 13.29. When they had fulfilled all things that were written about him, they took him down from the tree, and laid him in a tomb. 13.30. But God raised him from the dead 13.31. and he was seen for many days by those who came up with him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who are his witnesses to the people. 13.32. We bring you good news of the promise made to the fathers 13.33. that God has fulfilled the same to us, their children, in that he raised up Jesus. As it is also written in the second psalm, 'You are my Son. Today I have become your father.' 13.34. Concerning that he raised him up from the dead, now no more to return to corruption, he has spoken thus: 'I will give you the holy and sure blessings of David.' 13.35. Therefore he says also in another psalm, 'You will not allow your Holy One to see decay.' 13.36. For David, after he had in his own generation served the counsel of God, fell asleep, and was laid with his fathers, and saw decay. 13.37. But he whom God raised up saw no decay. 13.38. Be it known to you therefore, brothers, that through this man is proclaimed to you remission of sins 13.39. and by him everyone who believes is justified from all things, from which you could not be justified by the law of Moses. 13.40. Beware therefore, lest that come on you which is spoken in the prophets: 13.41. 'Behold, you scoffers, and wonder, and perish; For I work a work in your days, A work which you will in no way believe, if one declares it to you.' 13.44. The next Sabbath almost the whole city was gathered together to hear the word of God. 13.45. But when the Jews saw the multitudes, they were filled with jealousy, and contradicted the things which were spoken by Paul, and blasphemed. 13.46. Paul and Barnabas spoke out boldly, and said, "It was necessary that God's word should be spoken to you first. Since indeed you thrust it from you, and judge yourselves unworthy of eternal life, behold, we turn to the Gentiles. 13.47. For so has the Lord commanded us, saying, 'I have set you as a light of the Gentiles, That you should be for salvation to the uttermost parts of the earth.' 14.1. It happened in Iconium that they entered together into the synagogue of the Jews, and so spoke that a great multitude both of Jews and of Greeks believed. 15.2. Therefore when Paul and Barnabas had no small discord and discussion with them, they appointed Paul and Barnabas, and some others of them, to go up to Jerusalem to the apostles and elders about this question. 15.3. They, being sent on their way by the assembly, passed through both Phoenicia and Samaria, declaring the conversion of the Gentiles. They caused great joy to all the brothers. 15.4. When they had come to Jerusalem, they were received by the assembly and the apostles and the elders, and they reported all things that God had done with them. 15.5. But some of the sect of the Pharisees who believed rose up, saying, "It is necessary to circumcise them, and to charge them to keep the law of Moses. 15.6. The apostles and the elders were gathered together to see about this matter. 15.7. When there had been much discussion, Peter rose up and said to them, "Brothers, you know that a good while ago God made choice among you, that by my mouth the Gentiles should hear the word of the gospel, and believe. 15.8. God, who knows the heart, testified about them, giving them the Holy Spirit, just like he did to us. 15.9. He made no distinction between us and them, cleansing their hearts by faith. 15.10. Now therefore why do you tempt God, that you should put a yoke on the neck of the disciples which neither our fathers nor we were able to bear? 15.11. But we believe that we are saved through the grace of the Lord Jesus, just as they are. 15.12. All the multitude kept silence, and they listened to Barnabas and Paul reporting what signs and wonders God had done among the Gentiles through them. 15.13. After they were silent, James answered, "Brothers, listen to me. 15.14. Simeon has reported how God first visited the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name. 15.15. This agrees with the words of the prophets. As it is written 15.16. 'After these things I will return. I will again build the tent of David, which has fallen. I will again build its ruins. I will set it up 15.17. That the rest of men may seek after the Lord; All the Gentiles who are called by my name, Says the Lord, who does all these things. 15.18. All his works are known to God from eternity.' 15.19. Therefore my judgment is that we don't trouble those from among the Gentiles who turn to God 15.20. but that we write to them that they abstain from the pollution of idols, from sexual immorality, from what is strangled, and from blood. 15.21. For Moses from generations of old has in every city those who preach him, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath. 15.22. Then it seemed good to the apostles and the elders, with the whole assembly, to choose men out of their company, and send them to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas: Judas called Barsabbas, and Silas, chief men among the brothers. 15.23. They wrote these things by their hand: "The apostles, the elders, and the brothers, to the brothers who are of the Gentiles in Antioch, Syria, and Cilicia: greetings. 15.24. Because we have heard that some who went out from us have troubled you with words, unsettling your souls, saying, 'You must be circumcised and keep the law,' to whom we gave no commandment; 15.25. it seemed good to us, having come to one accord, to choose out men and send them to you with our beloved Barnabas and Paul 15.26. men who have risked their lives for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. 15.27. We have sent therefore Judas and Silas, who themselves will also tell you the same things by word of mouth. 15.28. For it seemed good to the Holy Spirit, and to us, to lay no greater burden on you than these necessary things: 15.29. that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality, from which if you keep yourselves, it will be well with you. Farewell. 17.1. Now when they had passed through Amphipolis and Apollonia, they came to Thessalonica, where there was a synagogue of the Jews. 17.2. Paul, as was his custom, went in to them, and for three Sabbath days reasoned with them from the Scriptures 17.10. The brothers immediately sent Paul and Silas away by night to Beroea. When they arrived, they went into the Jewish synagogue. 17.17. So he reasoned in the synagogue with Jews and the devout persons, and in the marketplace every day with those who met him. 18.4. He reasoned in the synagogue every Sabbath, and persuaded Jews and Greeks. 18.19. He came to Ephesus, and he left them there; but he himself entered into the synagogue, and reasoned with the Jews. 19.8. He entered into the synagogue, and spoke boldly for a period of three months, reasoning and persuading about the things concerning the Kingdom of God. 21.19. When he had greeted them, he reported one by one the things which God had worked among the Gentiles through his ministry. 21.20. They, when they heard it, glorified God. They said to him, "You see, brother, how many thousands there are among the Jews of those who have believed, and they are all zealous for the law. 21.21. They have been informed about you, that you teach all the Jews who are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, telling them not to circumcise their children neither to walk after the customs. 21.22. What then? The assembly must certainly meet, for they will hear that you have come. 21.23. Therefore do what we tell you. We have four men who have a vow on them. 21.24. Take them, and purify yourself with them, and pay their expenses for them, that they may shave their heads. Then all will know that there is no truth in the things that they have been informed about you, but that you yourself also walk keeping the law. 21.25. But concerning the Gentiles who believe, we have written our decision that they should observe no such thing, except that they should keep themselves from food offered to idols, from blood, from strangled things, and from sexual immorality. 21.26. Then Paul took the men, and the next day, purified himself and went with them into the temple, declaring the fulfillment of the days of purification, until the offering was offered for every one of them. 22.17. It happened that, when I had returned to Jerusalem, and while I prayed in the temple, I fell into a trance 22.18. and saw him saying to me, 'Hurry and get out of Jerusalem quickly, because they will not receive testimony concerning me from you.' 22.19. I said, 'Lord, they themselves know that I imprisoned and beat in every synagogue those who believed in you. 22.20. When the blood of Stephen, your witness, was shed, I also was standing by, and consenting to his death, and guarding the cloaks of those who killed him.' 22.21. He said to me, 'Depart, for I will send you out far from here to the Gentiles.' 24.12. In the temple they didn't find me disputing with anyone or stirring up a crowd, either in the synagogues, or in the city. 26.11. Punishing them often in all the synagogues, I tried to make them blaspheme. Being exceedingly enraged against them, I persecuted them even to foreign cities.
35. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.1, 3.11-3.12, 3.21, 17.18, 18.2, 19.6-19.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. To the angel of the assembly in Ephesus write: "He who holds the seven stars in his right hand, he who walks in the midst of the seven golden lampstands says these things: 3.11. I come quickly. Hold firmly that which you have, so that no one takes your crown. 3.12. He who overcomes, I will make him a pillar in the temple of my God, and he will go out from there no more. I will write on him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, the new Jerusalem, which comes down out of heaven from my God, and my own new name. 3.21. He who overcomes, I will give to him to sit down with me on my throne, as I also overcame, and sat down with my Father on his throne. 17.18. The woman whom you saw is the great city, which reigns over the kings of the earth. 18.2. He cried with a mighty voice, saying, "Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great, and has become a habitation of demons, and a prison of every unclean spirit, and a prison of every unclean and hateful bird! 19.6. I heard something like the voice of a great multitude, and like the voice of many waters, and like the voice of mighty thunders, saying, "Hallelujah! For the Lord our God, the Almighty, reigns! 19.7. Let us rejoice and be exceedingly glad, and let us give the glory to him. For the marriage of the Lamb has come, and his wife has made herself ready. 19.8. It was given to her that she would array herself in bright, pure, fine linen: for the fine linen is the righteous acts of the saints. 19.9. He said to me, "Write, 'Blessed are those who are invited to the marriage supper of the Lamb.'" He said to me, "These are true words of God.
36. New Testament, James, 1.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.11. For the sun arises with the scorching wind, and withers the grass, and the flower in it falls, and the beauty of its appearance perishes. So also will the rich man fade away in his pursuits.
37. New Testament, Colossians, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.16. For by him were all things created, in the heavens and on the earth, things visible and things invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers; all things have been created through him, and for him.
38. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.13-1.14, 1.21, 2.11-2.22, 3.4, 3.6, 3.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.13. in whom you also, having heard the word of the truth, the gospel of your salvation, -- in whom, having also believed, you were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise 1.14. who is a pledge of our inheritance, to the redemption of God's own possession, to the praise of his glory. 1.21. far above all rule, and authority, and power, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come. 2.11. Therefore remember that once you, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called "uncircumcision" by that which is called "circumcision," (in the flesh, made by hands); 2.12. that you were at that time separate from Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covets of the promise, having no hope and without God in the world. 2.13. But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off are made near in the blood of Christ. 2.14. For he is our peace, who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of partition 2.15. having abolished in the flesh the hostility, the law of commandments contained in ordices, that he might create in himself one new man of the two, making peace; 2.16. and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, having killed the hostility thereby. 2.17. He came and preached peace to you who were far off and to those who were near. 2.18. For through him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father. 2.19. So then you are no longer strangers and sojourners, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God 2.20. being built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the chief cornerstone; 2.21. in whom the whole building, fitted together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord; 2.22. in whom you also are built together for a habitation of God in the Spirit. 3.4. by which, when you read, you can perceive my understanding in the mystery of Christ; 3.6. that the Gentiles are fellow heirs, and fellow members of the body, and fellow partakers of his promise in Christ Jesus through the gospel 3.9. and to make all men see what is the administration of the mystery which for ages has been hidden in God, who created all things through Jesus Christ;
39. New Testament, Galatians, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

40. New Testament, Hebrews, 7.5, 7.14, 7.16, 7.18, 9.19, 9.22, 12.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.5. They indeed of the sons of Levi who receive the priest's office have a commandment to take tithes of the people according to the law, that is, of their brothers, though these have come out of the loins of Abraham 7.14. For it is evident that our Lord has sprung out of Judah, about which tribe Moses spoke nothing concerning priesthood. 7.16. who has been made, not after the law of a fleshly commandment, but after the power of an endless life: 7.18. For there is an annulling of a foregoing commandment because of its weakness and uselessness 9.19. For when every commandment had been spoken by Moses to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of the calves and the goats, with water and scarlet wool and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people 9.22. According to the law, nearly everything is cleansed with blood, and apart from shedding of blood there is no remission. 12.22. But you have come to Mount Zion, and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to innumerable hosts of angels
41. New Testament, Philippians, 1.12-1.18, 2.16, 3.3-3.9, 3.19-3.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.12. Now I desire to have you know, brothers, that the things which happened to me have turned out rather to the progress of the gospel; 1.13. so that it became evident to the whole praetorian guard, and to all the rest, that my bonds are in Christ; 1.14. and that most of the brothers in the Lord, being confident through my bonds, are more abundantly bold to speak the word of God without fear. 1.15. Some indeed preach Christ even out of envy and strife, and some also out of good will. 1.16. The former insincerly preach Christ from selfish ambition, thinking that they add affliction to my chains; 1.17. but the latter out of love, knowing that I am appointed for the defense of the gospel. 1.18. What does it matter? Only that in every way, whether in pretense or in truth, Christ is proclaimed. I rejoice in this, yes, and will rejoice. 2.16. holding up the word of life; that I may have something to boast in the day of Christ, that I didn't run in vain nor labor in vain. 3.3. For we are the circumcision, who worship God in the Spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh; 3.4. though I myself might have confidence even in the flesh. If any other man thinks that he has confidence in the flesh, I yet more: 3.5. circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; concerning the law, a Pharisee; 3.6. concerning zeal, persecuting the assembly; concerning the righteousness which is in the law, found blameless. 3.7. However, what things were gain to me, these have I counted loss for Christ. 3.8. Yes most assuredly, and I count all things to be loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus, my Lord, for whom I suffered the loss of all things, and count them nothing but refuse, that I may gain Christ 3.9. and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own, that which is of the law, but that which is through faith in Christ, the righteousness which is from God by faith; 3.19. whose end is destruction, whose god is the belly, and whose glory is in their shame, who think about earthly things. 3.20. For our citizenship is in heaven, from where we also wait for a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ; 3.21. who will change the body of our humiliation to be conformed to the body of his glory, according to the working by which he is able even to subject all things to himself.
42. New Testament, Romans, 1.3-1.4, 1.14, 2.5, 2.11-2.13, 2.21-2.29, 3.1-3.2, 3.20, 3.24, 3.27, 3.29, 4.3-4.5, 4.9-4.15, 4.17-4.24, 5.20, 6.16-6.22, 7.4-7.12, 7.14, 7.23, 7.25, 8.2, 8.4-8.5, 8.13, 8.15, 8.23, 9.1-9.6, 9.8, 9.21-9.23, 11.1-11.2, 11.5-11.6, 11.11-11.36, 14.15, 14.21, 15.8-15.10, 15.19, 15.25-15.26, 15.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh 1.4. who was declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord 1.14. I am debtor both to Greeks and to foreigners, both to the wise and to the foolish. 2.5. But according to your hardness and unrepentant heart you are treasuring up for yourself wrath in the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God; 2.11. For there is no partiality with God. 2.12. For as many as have sinned without law will also perish without the law. As many as have sinned under the law will be judged by the law. 2.13. For it isn't the hearers of the law who are righteous before God, but the doers of the law will be justified 2.21. You therefore who teach another, don't you teach yourself? You who preach that a man shouldn't steal, do you steal? 2.22. You who say a man shouldn't commit adultery, do you commit adultery? You who abhor idols, do you rob temples? 2.23. You who glory in the law, through your disobedience of the law do you dishonor God? 2.24. For "the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you," just as it is written. 2.25. For circumcision indeed profits, if you are a doer of the law, but if you are a transgressor of the law, your circumcision has become uncircumcision. 2.26. If therefore the uncircumcised keep the ordices of the law, won't his uncircumcision be accounted as circumcision? 2.27. Won't the uncircumcision which is by nature, if it fulfills the law, judge you, who with the letter and circumcision are a transgressor of the law? 2.28. For he is not a Jew who is one outwardly, neither is that circumcision which is outward in the flesh; 2.29. but he is a Jew who is one inwardly, and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit not in the letter; whose praise is not from men, but from God. 3.1. Then what advantage does the Jew have? Or what is the profit of circumcision? 3.2. Much in every way! Because first of all, they were entrusted with the oracles of God. 3.20. Because by the works of the law, no flesh will be justified in his sight. For through the law comes the knowledge of sin. 3.24. being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus; 3.27. Where then is the boasting? It is excluded. By what manner of law? of works? No, but by a law of faith. 3.29. Or is God the God of Jews only? Isn't he the God of Gentiles also? Yes, of Gentiles also 4.3. For what does the Scripture say? "Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness. 4.4. Now to him who works, the reward is not accounted as of grace, but as of debt. 4.5. But to him who doesn't work, but believes in him who justifies the ungodly, his faith is accounted for righteousness. 4.9. Is this blessing then pronounced on the circumcised, or on the uncircumcised also? For we say that faith was accounted to Abraham for righteousness. 4.10. How then was it counted? When he was in circumcision, or in uncircumcision? Not in circumcision, but in uncircumcision. 4.11. He received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had while he was in uncircumcision, that he might be the father of all those who believe, though they be in uncircumcision, that righteousness might also be accounted to them. 4.12. The father of circumcision to those who not only are of the circumcision, but who also walk in the steps of that faith of our father Abraham, which he had in uncircumcision. 4.13. For the promise to Abraham and to his seed that he should be heir of the world wasn't through the law, but through the righteousness of faith. 4.14. For if those who are of the law are heirs, faith is made void, and the promise is made of no effect. 4.15. For the law works wrath, for where there is no law, neither is there disobedience. 4.17. As it is written, "I have made you a father of many nations." This is in the presence of him whom he believed: God, who gives life to the dead, and calls the things that are not, as though they were. 4.18. Who in hope believed against hope, to the end that he might become a father of many nations, according to that which had been spoken, "So will your seed be. 4.19. Without being weakened in faith, he didn't consider his own body, already having been worn out, (he being about a hundred years old), and the deadness of Sarah's womb. 4.20. Yet, looking to the promise of God, he didn't waver through unbelief, but grew strong through faith, giving glory to God 4.21. and being fully assured that what he had promised, he was able also to perform. 4.22. Therefore it also was "reckoned to him for righteousness. 4.23. Now it was not written that it was accounted to him for his sake alone 4.24. but for our sake also, to whom it will be accounted, who believe in him who raised Jesus, our Lord, from the dead 5.20. The law came in besides, that the trespass might abound; but where sin abounded, grace did abound more exceedingly; 6.16. Don't you know that to whom you present yourselves as servants to obedience, his servants you are whom you obey; whether of sin to death, or of obedience to righteousness? 6.17. But thanks be to God, that, whereas you were bondservants of sin, you became obedient from the heart to that form of teaching whereunto you were delivered. 6.18. Being made free from sin, you became bondservants of righteousness. 6.19. I speak in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh, for as you presented your members as servants to uncleanness and to wickedness upon wickedness, even so now present your members as servants to righteousness for sanctification. 6.20. For when you were servants of sin, you were free in regard to righteousness. 6.21. What fruit then did you have at that time in the things of which you are now ashamed? For the end of those things is death. 6.22. But now, being made free from sin, and having become servants of God, you have your fruit of sanctification, and the result of eternal life. 7.4. Therefore, my brothers, you also were made dead to the law through the body of Christ, that you would be joined to another, to him who was raised from the dead, that we might bring forth fruit to God. 7.5. For when we were in the flesh, the sinful passions which were through the law, worked in our members to bring forth fruit to death. 7.6. But now we have been discharged from the law, having died to that in which we were held; so that we serve in newness of the spirit, and not in oldness of the letter. 7.7. What shall we say then? Is the law sin? May it never be! However, I wouldn't have known sin, except through the law. For I wouldn't have known coveting, unless the law had said, "You shall not covet. 7.8. But sin, finding occasion through the commandment, produced in me all kinds of coveting. For apart from the law, sin is dead. 7.9. I was alive apart from the law once, but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died. 7.10. The commandment, which was for life, this I found to be for death; 7.11. for sin, finding occasion through the commandment, deceived me, and through it killed me. 7.12. Therefore the law indeed is holy, and the commandment holy, and righteous, and good. 7.14. For we know that the law is spiritual, but I am fleshly, sold under sin. 7.23. but I see a different law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity under the law of sin which is in my members. 7.25. I thank God through Jesus Christ, our Lord! So then with the mind, I myself serve God's law, but with the flesh, the sin's law. 8.2. For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus made me free from the law of sin and of death. 8.4. that the ordice of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. 8.5. For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit, the things of the Spirit. 8.13. For if you live after the flesh, you must die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live. 8.15. For you didn't receive the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you received the Spirit of adoption, by whom we cry, "Abba! Father! 8.23. Not only so, but ourselves also, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for adoption, the redemption of our body. 9.1. I tell the truth in Christ. I am not lying, my conscience testifying with me in the Holy Spirit 9.2. that I have great sorrow and unceasing pain in my heart. 9.3. For I could wish that I myself were accursed from Christ for my brothers' sake, my relatives according to the flesh 9.4. who are Israelites; whose is the adoption, the glory, the covets, the giving of the law, the service, and the promises; 9.5. of whom are the fathers, and from whom is Christ as concerning the flesh, who is over all, God, blessed forever. Amen. 9.6. But it is not as though the word of God has come to nothing. For they are not all Israel, that are of Israel. 9.8. That is, it is not the children of the flesh who are children of God, but the children of the promise are counted as a seed. 9.21. Or hasn't the potter a right over the clay, from the same lump to make one part a vessel for honor, and another for dishonor? 9.22. What if God, willing to show his wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much patience vessels of wrath made for destruction 9.23. and that he might make known the riches of his glory on vessels of mercy, which he prepared beforehand for glory 11.1. I ask then, Did God reject his people? May it never be! For I also am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. 11.2. God didn't reject his people, which he foreknew. Or don't you know what the Scripture says about Elijah? How he pleads with God against Israel: 11.5. Even so then at this present time also there is a remt according to the election of grace. 11.6. And if by grace, then it is no longer of works; otherwise grace is no longer grace. But if it is of works, it is no longer grace; otherwise work is no longer work. 11.11. I ask then, did they stumble that they might fall? May it never be! But by their fall salvation has come to the Gentiles, to provoke them to jealousy. 11.12. Now if their fall is the riches of the world, and their loss the riches of the Gentiles; how much more their fullness? 11.13. For I speak to you who are Gentiles. Since then as I am an apostle to Gentiles, I glorify my ministry; 11.14. if by any means I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh, and may save some of them. 11.15. For if the rejection of them is the reconciling of the world, what would their acceptance be, but life from the dead? 11.16. If the first fruit is holy, so is the lump. If the root is holy, so are the branches. 11.17. But if some of the branches were broken off, and you, being a wild olive, were grafted in among them, and became partaker with them of the root and of the richness of the olive tree; 11.18. don't boast over the branches. But if you boast, it is not you who support the root, but the root supports you. 11.19. You will say then, "Branches were broken off, that I might be grafted in. 11.20. True; by their unbelief they were broken off, and you stand by your faith. Don't be conceited, but fear; 11.21. for if God didn't spare the natural branches, neither will he spare you. 11.22. See then the goodness and severity of God. Toward those who fell, severity; but toward you, goodness, if you continue in his goodness; otherwise you also will be cut off. 11.23. They also, if they don't continue in their unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again. 11.24. For if you were cut out of that which is by nature a wild olive tree, and were grafted contrary to nature into a good olive tree, how much more will these, which are the natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree? 11.25. For I don't desire, brothers, to have you ignorant of this mystery, so that you won't be wise in your own conceits, that a partial hardening has happened to Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in 11.26. and so all Israel will be saved. Even as it is written, "There will come out of Zion the Deliverer, And he will turn away ungodliness from Jacob. 11.27. This is my covet to them, When I will take away their sins. 11.28. Concerning the gospel, they are enemies for your sake. But concerning the election, they are beloved for the fathers' sake. 11.29. For the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable. 11.30. For as you in time past were disobedient to God, but now have obtained mercy by their disobedience 11.31. even so these also have now been disobedient, that by the mercy shown to you they may also obtain mercy. 11.32. For God has shut up all to disobedience, that he might have mercy on all. 11.33. Oh the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and the knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past tracing out! 11.34. For who has known the mind of the Lord? Or who has been his counselor? 11.35. Or who has first given to him, And it will be repaid to him again? 11.36. For of him, and through him, and to him, are all things. To him be the glory for ever! Amen. 14.15. Yet if because of food your brother is grieved, you walk no longer in love. Don't destroy with your food him for whom Christ died. 14.21. It is good to not eat meat, drink wine, nor do anything by which your brother stumbles, is offended, or is made weak. 15.8. Now I say that Christ has been made a minister of the circumcision for the truth of God, that he might confirm the promises given to the fathers 15.9. and that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy. As it is written, "Therefore will I give praise to you among the Gentiles, And sing to your name. 15.10. Again he says, "Rejoice, you Gentiles, with his people. 15.19. in the power of signs and wonders, in the power of God's Spirit; so that from Jerusalem, and around as far as to Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Christ; 15.25. But now, I say, I am going to Jerusalem, serving the saints. 15.26. For it has been the good pleasure of Macedonia and Achaia to make a certain contribution for the poor among the saints who are at Jerusalem. 15.31. that I may be delivered from those who are disobedient in Judea, and that my service which I have for Jerusalem may be acceptable to the saints;
43. New Testament, John, 6.59, 12.3, 18.19, 20.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.59. These things he said in the synagogue, as he taught in Capernaum. 12.3. Mary, therefore, took a pound of ointment of pure nard, very precious, and anointed the feet of Jesus, and wiped his feet with her hair. The house was filled with the fragrance of the ointment. 18.19. The high priest therefore asked Jesus about his disciples, and about his teaching. 20.17. Jesus said to her, "Don't touch me, for I haven't yet ascended to my Father; but go to my brothers, and tell them, 'I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.'
44. New Testament, Luke, 4.14-4.38, 5.27-5.28, 6.6-6.11, 13.10-13.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.14. Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit to Galilee, and news about him spread through all the surrounding area. 4.15. He taught in their synagogues, being glorified by all. 4.16. He came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. He entered, as was his custom, into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read. 4.17. The book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. He opened the book, and found the place where it was written 4.18. The Spirit of the Lord is on me, Because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim release to the captives, Recovering of sight to the blind, To deliver those who are crushed 4.19. And to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord. 4.20. He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on him. 4.21. He began to tell them, "Today, this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing. 4.22. All testified about him, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth, and they said, "Isn't this Joseph's son? 4.23. He said to them, "Doubtless you will tell me this parable, 'Physician, heal yourself! Whatever we have heard done at Capernaum, do also here in your hometown.' 4.24. He said, "Most assuredly I tell you, no prophet is acceptable in his hometown. 4.25. But truly I tell you, there were many widows in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the the sky was shut up three years and six months, when a great famine came over all the land. 4.26. Elijah was sent to none of them, except to Zarephath, in the land of Sidon, to a woman who was a widow. 4.27. There were many lepers in Israel in the time of Elisha the prophet, yet not one of them was cleansed, except Naaman, the Syrian. 4.28. They were all filled with wrath in the synagogue, as they heard these things. 4.29. They rose up, threw him out of the city, and led him to the brow of the hill that their city was built on, that they might throw him off the cliff. 4.30. But he, passing through the midst of them, went his way. 4.31. He came down to Capernaum, a city of Galilee. He was teaching them on the Sabbath day 4.32. and they were astonished at his teaching, for his word was with authority. 4.33. In the synagogue there was a man who had a spirit of an unclean demon, and he cried out with a loud voice 4.34. saying, "Ah! what have we to do with you, Jesus of Nazareth? Have you come to destroy us? I know you who you are: the Holy One of God! 4.35. Jesus rebuked him, saying, "Be silent, and come out of him!" When the demon had thrown him down in their midst, he came out of him, having done him no harm. 4.36. Amazement came on all, and they spoke together, one with another, saying, "What is this word? For with authority and power he commands the unclean spirits, and they come out! 4.37. News about him went out into every place of the surrounding region. 4.38. He rose up from the synagogue, and entered into Simon's house. Simon's mother-in-law was afflicted with a great fever, and they begged him for her. 5.27. After these things he went out, and saw a tax collector named Levi sitting at the tax office, and said to him, "Follow me! 5.28. He left everything, and rose up and followed him. 6.6. It also happened on another Sabbath that he entered into the synagogue and taught. There was a man there, and his right hand was withered. 6.7. The scribes and the Pharisees watched him, to see whether he would heal on the Sabbath, that they might find an accusation against him. 6.8. But he knew their thoughts; and he said to the man who had the withered hand, "Rise up, and stand in the middle." He arose and stood. 6.9. Then Jesus said to them, "I will ask you something: Is it lawful on the Sabbath to do good, or to do harm? To save a life, or to kill? 6.10. He looked around at them all, and said to him, "Stretch out your hand." He did, and his hand was restored as sound as the other. 6.11. But they were filled with rage, and talked with one another about what they might do to Jesus. 13.10. He was teaching in one of the synagogues on the Sabbath day. 13.11. Behold, there was a woman who had a spirit of infirmity eighteen years, and she was bent over, and could in no way straighten herself up. 13.12. When Jesus saw her, he called her, and said to her, "Woman, you are freed from your infirmity. 13.13. He laid his hands on her, and immediately she stood up straight, and glorified God. 13.14. The ruler of the synagogue, being indigt because Jesus had healed on the Sabbath, said to the multitude, "There are six days in which men ought to work. Therefore come on those days and be healed, and not on the Sabbath day! 13.15. Therefore the Lord answered him, "You hypocrites! Doesn't each one of you free his ox or his donkey from the stall on the Sabbath, and lead him away to water? 13.16. Ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan had bound eighteen long years, be freed from this bondage on the Sabbath day? 13.17. As he said these things, all his adversaries were put to shame, and all the multitude rejoiced for all the glorious things that were done by him. 13.18. He said, "What is the Kingdom of God like? To what shall I compare it? 13.19. It is like a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and put in his own garden. It grew, and became a large tree, and the birds of the sky lodged in its branches. 13.20. Again he said, "To what shall I compare the Kingdom of God?
45. New Testament, Mark, 8.11, 13.22, 15.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.11. The Pharisees came out and began to question him, seeking from him a sign from heaven, and testing him. 13.22. For there will arise false christs and false prophets, and will show signs and wonders, that they may lead astray, if possible, even the chosen ones. 15.29. Those who passed by blasphemed him, wagging their heads, and saying, "Ha! You who destroy the temple, and build it in three days
46. New Testament, Matthew, 3.9, 3.17, 23.13-23.15, 27.63 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.9. Don't think to yourselves, 'We have Abraham for our father,' for I tell you that God is able to raise up children to Abraham from these stones. 3.17. Behold, a voice out of the heavens said, "This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased. 23.13. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you devour widows' houses, and as a pretense you make long prayers. Therefore you will receive greater condemnation. 23.14. But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! Because you shut up the Kingdom of Heaven against men; for you don't enter in yourselves, neither do you allow those who are entering in to enter. 23.15. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you travel around by sea and land to make one proselyte; and when he becomes one, you make him twice as much of a son of Gehenna as yourselves. 27.63. saying, "Sir, we remember what that deceiver said while he was still alive: 'After three days I will rise again.'
47. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 39.11 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

39.11. וְאֶעֶשֶׂךָ לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל (בראשית יב, ב), אָמַר לוֹ וּמִנֹחַ לֹא הֶעֱמַדְתָּ שִׁבְעִים אֻמּוֹת, אָמַר לוֹ אוֹתָהּ אֻמָּה שֶׁכָּתוּב בָּהּ (דברים ד, ז): כִּי מִי גּוֹי גָּדוֹל, אֲנִי מַעֲמִיד מִמָּךְ. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אֶתֶּנְךָ וַאֲשִׂימְךָ, אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ, מִשֶּׁאֲנִי עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתְךָ בְּרִיָּה חֲדָשָׁה אַתְּ פָּרֶה וְרָבֶה. רַבִּי לֵוִי בַּר חִוְיָת וְרַבִּי אַבָּא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא אָמְרוּ, שְׁלשָׁה גְּדֻלּוֹת וְאַרְבַּע בְּרָכוֹת כְּתִיב כָּאן, בִּשְֹּׂרוֹ שֶׁהֵן שְׁלשָׁה אָבוֹת וְאַרְבַּע אִמָּהוֹת. אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּא לְפִי שֶׁהַדֶּרֶךְ מַגְרֶמֶת לִשְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים, מְמַעֶטֶת פְּרִיָּה וּרְבִיָּה, וּמְמַעֶטֶת אֶת הַיְצִיאָה, וּמְמַעֶטֶת אֶת הַשֵּׁם. מְמַעֶטֶת פְּרִיָּה וּרְבִיָּה, וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָדוֹל. מְמַעֶטֶת אֶת הַיְצִיאָה, וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ. מְמַעֶטֶת אֶת הַשֵּׁם, וַאֲגַדְלָה שְׁמֶךָ. וּלְפוּם דְּאָמְרִין אִינְשֵׁי מִבַּיִת לְבַיִת, חֲלוּק, מֵאֲתַר לַאֲתַר, נָפֶשׁ. בְּרַם אַתְּ לֹא נֶפֶשׁ אַתְּ חָסֵר וְלֹא מָמוֹן. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ אָמַר, שֶׁיָּצָא מוֹנִיטִין שֶׁלּוֹ בָּעוֹלָם. אַרְבָּעָה הֵם שֶׁיָּצָא לָהֶם מוֹנִיטִין בָּעוֹלָם, אַבְרָהָם, וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל, יָצָא לוֹ מוֹנִיטִין, וּמַהוּ מוֹנִיטִין שֶׁלּוֹ, זָקֵן וּזְקֵנָה מִכָּאן בָּחוּר וּבְתוּלָה מִכָּאן. יְהוֹשֻׁעַ (יהושע ו, כז): וַיְהִי ה' אֶת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיְהִי שָׁמְעוֹ בְּכָל הָאָרֶץ, יָצָא לוֹ מוֹנִיטִין בָּעוֹלָם, מַהוּ, שׁוֹר מִכָּאן וּרְאֵם מִכָּאן, עַל שֵׁם (דברים לג, יז): בְּכוֹר שׁוֹרוֹ הָדָר לוֹ וְקַרְנֵי רְאֵם קַרְנָיו. דָּוִד (דברי הימים א יד, יז): וַיֵּצֵא שֵׁם דָּוִיד בְּכָל הָאֲרָצוֹת, יָצָא לוֹ מוֹנִיטִין בָּעוֹלָם, וּמָה הָיָה מוֹנִיטִין שֶׁלּוֹ מַקֵּל וְתַרְמִיל מִכָּאן וּמִגְדָּל מִכָּאן, עַל שֵׁם (שיר השירים ד, ד): כְּמִגְדַּל דָּוִיד צַוָּארֵךְ. מָרְדְּכַי (אסתר ט, ד): כִּי גָּדוֹל מָרְדְּכַי בְּבֵית הַמֶּלֶךְ וְשָׁמְעוֹ הוֹלֵךְ בְּכָל הַמְדִינוֹת, יָצָא לוֹ מוֹנִיטִין, וּמַה מּוֹנִיטִין שֶׁלּוֹ שַׂק וָאֵפֶר מִכָּאן וַעֲטֶרֶת זָהָב מִכָּאן. אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן קוֹבֵעַ אֲנִי לְךָ בְּרָכָה בִּשְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה, אֲבָל אֵין אַתְּ יוֹדֵעַ אִם שֶׁלִּי קוֹדֶמֶת אִם שֶׁלְּךָ קוֹדֶמֶת, אָמַר רַבִּי אֲחוּיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי זְעֵירָא שֶׁלְּךָ קוֹדֶמֶת לְשֶׁלִּי, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר מָגֵן אַבְרָהָם אַחַר כָּךְ מְחַיֵּה הַמֵּתִים. רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ אָמַר הַבֶּט נָא שָׁמַיִם אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא (בראשית טו, ה): הַשָּׁמַיְמָה, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּהֵ"א בָּרָאתִי אֶת הָעוֹלָם הֲרֵינִי מוֹסִיף הֵ"א עַל שִׁמְךָ וְאַתְּ פָּרֶה וְרָבֶה. וְאָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן וְהָיוּ אוֹתוֹתֶיךָ מִנְיַן אֲבָרֶכְכָה, מָאתַיִם וְאַרְבָּעִים וּשְׁמוֹנֶה. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי לֹא שָׁם אָדָם פָּרָה מֵאַבְרָהָם עַד שֶׁנִּתְבָּרֵךְ, וְלֹא שָׁמָהּ לוֹ עַד שֶׁנִּתְבָּרֵךְ מֵאַבְרָהָם, כֵּיצַד אַבְרָהָם הָיָה מִתְפַּלֵּל עַל עֲקָרוֹת וְהֵם נִפְקָדוֹת, וְעַל הַחוֹלִים וְהֵם מַרְוִיחִים. רַב הוּנָא אָמַר לֹא סוֹף דָּבָר אַבְרָהָם הוֹלֵךְ אֵצֶל הַחוֹלֶה, אֶלָּא הַחוֹלֶה רוֹאֶה אוֹתוֹ וּמַרְוִיחַ. אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא אֲפִלּוּ סְפִינוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ מְפָרְשׁוֹת בַּיָּם הַגָּדוֹל הָיוּ נִצּוֹלוֹת בִּזְכוּתוֹ שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם. וְלֹא שֶׁל יַיִן נֶסֶךְ הָיוּ, אֶתְמְהָא, אֶלָּא חָלָא מֵזִיל חַמְרָא, בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיַּיִן עוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים מָצוּי יַיִן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל נִמְכַּר בְּזוֹל. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אַף לְאִיּוֹב עָשָׂה כֵן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איוב א, י): מַעֲשֵׂה יָדָיו בֵּרַכְתָּ, לֹא נָטַל אָדָם פְרוּטָה מֵאִיּוֹב וְנִצְטָרֵךְ לִטֹּל מִמֶּנּוּ פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה. וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, קְרִי בֵיהּ בְּרֵכָה, מַה בְּרֵכָה זוֹ מְטַהֶרֶת אֶת הַטְּמֵאִים, אַף אַתְּ מְקָרֵב רְחוֹקִים וּמְטַהֲרָם לַאֲבִיהֶם שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה כְּבָר כָּתוּב וַאֲבָרֶכְכָה, מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, אֶלָּא אָמַר לוֹ עַד כָּאן הָיִיתִי זָקוּק לְבָרֵךְ אֶת עוֹלָמִי, מִכָּאן וָאֵילָךְ הֲרֵי הַבְּרָכוֹת מְסוּרוֹת לָךְ, לְמַאן דְּחָזֵי לְךָ לִמְבָרְכָא בָּרֵיךְ.
48. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 4.19.2, 4.24.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

49. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 134.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

50. Tertullian, Against Marcion, 5.3.1, 5.3.4-5.3.5, 5.4.8, 5.18.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

51. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

10a. כל פרשה שהיתה חביבה על דוד פתח בה באשרי וסיים בה באשרי פתח באשרי דכתיב (תהלים א, א) אשרי האיש וסיים באשרי דכתיב (תהלים ב, יב) אשרי כל חוסי בו:,הנהו בריוני דהוו בשבבותיה דר"מ והוו קא מצערו ליה טובא הוה קא בעי ר' מאיר רחמי עלויהו כי היכי דלימותו אמרה לי' ברוריא דביתהו מאי דעתך משום דכתיב (תהלים קד, לה) יתמו חטאים מי כתיב חוטאים חטאים כתיב,ועוד שפיל לסיפיה דקרא ורשעים עוד אינם כיון דיתמו חטאים ורשעים עוד אינם אלא בעי רחמי עלויהו דלהדרו בתשובה ורשעים עוד אינם,בעא רחמי עלויהו והדרו בתשובה:,אמר לה ההוא צדוקי לברוריא כתיב (ישעיהו נד, א) רני עקרה לא ילדה משום דלא ילדה רני,אמרה ליה שטיא שפיל לסיפיה דקרא דכתיב כי רבים בני שוממה מבני בעולה אמר ה',אלא מאי עקרה לא ילדה רני כנסת ישראל שדומה לאשה עקרה שלא ילדה בנים לגיהנם כותייכו:,א"ל ההוא צדוקי לר' אבהו כתיב (תהלים ג, א) מזמור לדוד בברחו מפני אבשלום בנו וכתיב (תהלים נז, א) לדוד מכתם בברחו מפני שאול במערה הי מעשה הוה ברישא מכדי מעשה שאול הוה ברישא לכתוב ברישא,אמר ליה אתון דלא דרשיתון סמוכין קשיא לכו אנן דדרשינן סמוכים לא קשיא לן,דא"ר יוחנן סמוכין מן התורה מנין שנא' (תהלים קיא, ח) סמוכים לעד לעולם עשוים באמת וישר,למה נסמכה פרשת אבשלום לפרשת גוג ומגוג שאם יאמר לך אדם כלום יש עבד שמורד ברבו אף אתה אמור לו כלום יש בן שמורד באביו אלא הוה הכא נמי הוה:,אמר ר' יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי מאי דכתיב (משלי לא, כו) פיה פתחה בחכמה ותורת חסד על לשונה כנגד מי אמר שלמה מקרא זה לא אמרו אלא כנגד דוד אביו שדר בחמשה עולמים ואמר שירה,דר במעי אמו ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, א) ברכי נפשי את ה' וכל קרבי את שם קדשו,יצא לאויר העולם ונסתכל בכוכבים ומזלות ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, כ) ברכו ה' מלאכיו גבורי כח עושי דברו לשמוע בקול דברו ברכו ה' כל צבאיו וגו',ינק משדי אמו ונסתכל בדדיה ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, ב) ברכי נפשי את ה' ואל תשכחי כל גמוליו,מאי כל גמוליו אמר ר' אבהו שעשה לה דדים במקום בינה,טעמא מאי אמר (רבי) יהודה כדי שלא יסתכל במקום ערוה רב מתנא אמר כדי שלא יינק ממקום הטנופת,ראה במפלתן של רשעים ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קד, לה) יתמו חטאים מן הארץ ורשעים עוד אינם ברכי נפשי את ה' הללויה,נסתכל ביום המיתה ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קד, א) ברכי נפשי את ה' ה' אלהי גדלת מאד הוד והדר לבשת,מאי משמע דעל יום המיתה נאמר אמר רבה בר רב שילא מסיפא דעניינא דכתיב (תהלים קד, כט) תסתיר פניך יבהלון תוסף רוחם יגועון וגו',רב שימי בר עוקבא ואמרי לה מר עוקבא הוה שכיח קמיה דר' שמעון בן פזי והוה מסדר אגדתא קמיה דר' יהושע בן לוי אמר ליה מאי דכתיב (תהלים קג, א) ברכי נפשי את ה' וכל קרבי את שם קדשו אמר ליה בא וראה שלא כמדת הקדוש ברוך הוא מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם צר צורה על גבי הכותל ואינו יכול להטיל בה רוח ונשמה קרבים ובני מעים והקב"ה אינו כן צר צורה בתוך צורה ומטיל בה רוח ונשמה קרבים ובני מעים והיינו דאמרה חנה (שמואל א ב, ב) אין קדוש כה' כי אין בלתך ואין צור כאלהינו.,מאי אין צור כאלהינו אין צייר כאלהינו,מאי כי אין בלתך אמר ר' יהודה בר מנסיא אל תקרי כי אין בלתך אלא אין לבלותך שלא כמדת הקדוש ברוך הוא מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם מעשה ידיו מבלין אותו והקב"ה מבלה מעשיו,א"ל אנא הכי קא אמינא לך הני חמשה ברכי נפשי כנגד מי אמרן דוד לא אמרן אלא כנגד הקב"ה וכנגד נשמה,מה הקב"ה מלא כל העולם אף נשמה מלאה את כל הגוף מה הקדוש ברוך הוא רואה ואינו נראה אף נשמה רואה ואינה נראית מה הקב"ה זן את כל העולם כלו אף נשמה זנה את כל הגוף מה הקב"ה טהור אף נשמה טהורה מה הקב"ה יושב בחדרי חדרים אף נשמה יושבת בחדרי חדרים יבא מי שיש בו חמשה דברים הללו וישבח למי שיש בו חמשה דברים הללו:,אמר רב המנונא מאי דכתיב (קהלת ח, א) מי כהחכם ומי יודע פשר דבר מי כהקדוש ברוך הוא שיודע לעשות פשרה בין שני צדיקים בין חזקיהו לישעיהו חזקיהו אמר ליתי ישעיהו גבאי דהכי אשכחן באליהו דאזל לגבי אחאב (שנאמר (מלכים א יח, ב) וילך אליהו להראות אל אחאב) ישעיהו אמר ליתי חזקיהו גבאי דהכי אשכחן ביהורם בן אחאב דאזל לגבי אלישע,מה עשה הקב"ה הביא יסורים על חזקיהו ואמר לו לישעיהו לך ובקר את החולה שנאמר (מלכים ב כ, א) בימים ההם חלה חזקיהו למות ויבא אליו ישעיהו בן אמוץ הנביא ויאמר אליו כה אמר ה' (צבאות) צו לביתך כי מת אתה ולא תחיה וגו' מאי כי מת אתה ולא תחיה מת אתה בעולם הזה ולא תחיה לעולם הבא,אמר ליה מאי כולי האי אמר ליה משום דלא עסקת בפריה ורביה א"ל משום דחזאי לי ברוח הקדש דנפקי מינאי בנין דלא מעלו,א"ל בהדי כבשי דרחמנא למה לך מאי דמפקדת איבעי לך למעבד ומה דניחא קמיה קודשא בריך הוא לעביד,אמר ליה השתא הב לי ברתך אפשר דגרמא זכותא דידי ודידך ונפקי מנאי בנין דמעלו א"ל כבר נגזרה עליך גזירה א"ל בן אמוץ כלה נבואתך וצא,כך מקובלני מבית אבי אבא אפי' חרב חדה מונחת על צוארו של אדם אל ימנע עצמו מן הרחמים,אתמר נמי רבי יוחנן ורבי (אליעזר) דאמרי תרוייהו אפילו חרב חדה מונחת על צוארו של אדם אל ימנע עצמו מן הרחמים שנא' (איוב יג, טו) הן יקטלני לו איחל 10a. bEvery chapter that was dear to David, he began with “happy is” and concluded with “happy is.” He opened with “happy is,” as it is written: “Happy is the manwho has not walked in the counsel of the wicked or stood in the way of sinners or sat in the dwelling place of the scornful” (Psalms 1:1). bAnd he concluded with “happy,” as it is writtenat the end of the chapter: “Pay homage in purity, lest He be angry, and you perish on the way when His anger is kindled suddenly. bHappy are those who take refuge in Him”(Psalms 2:12). We see that these two chapters actually constitute a single chapter.,With regard to the statement of Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, that David did not say iHalleluyauntil he saw the downfall of the wicked, the Gemara relates: bThere were these hooligans in Rabbi Meir’s neighborhood who caused him a great deal of anguish. Rabbi Meir prayed forGod to have bmercy on them, that they should die. Rabbi Meir’s wife, Berurya, said to him: What is your thinking?On what basis do you pray for the death of these hooligans? Do you base yourself on the verse, bas it is written: “Let sins cease from the land”(Psalms 104:35), which you interpret to mean that the world would be better if the wicked were destroyed? But bis it written,let bsinnerscease?” Let bsinscease, bis written.One should pray for an end to their transgressions, not for the demise of the transgressors themselves., bMoreover, go to the end of the verse,where it says: b“And the wicked will be no more.”If, as you suggest, btransgressions shall ceaserefers to the demise of the evildoers, how is it possible that bthe wicked will be no more,i.e., that they will no longer be evil? bRather, pray forGod to have bmercy on them, that they should repent,as if they repent, then the wicked will be no more, as they will have repented.,Rabbi Meir saw that Berurya was correct band he prayed forGod to have bmercy on them, and they repented. /b,The Gemara relates an additional example of Berurya’s incisive insight: bA certain heretic said to Berurya: It is written: “Sing, barren woman who has not given birth,open forth in song and cry, you did not travail, for more are the children of the desolate than the children of the married wife, said the Lord” (Isaiah 54:1). bBecause she has not given birth,she should bsingand rejoice?,Berurya responded to this heretic’s mockery and bsaid: Fool! Go to the end of the verse, where it is written: “For the children of the desolate shall be more numerous than the children of the married wife, said the Lord.” /b, bRather, whatis the meaning of: b“Sing, barren woman who has not given birth”?It means: bSing congregation of Israel, which is like a barren woman who did not give birth to children who aredestined bfor Gehenna like you. /b,In explaining passages from Psalms, the Gemara relates another instance of a response to the question of a heretic: bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Abbahu, it is written: “A Psalm of David, when he fled from his son, Absalom”(Psalms 3:1), bandsimilarly bit is said:“To the chief musician, ial tashḥet /i, ba imikhtamof David when fleeing from Saul into the cave”(Psalms 57:1). bWhich event was first? Since the event with Saul was first,it would have been appropriate bto write it first. /b,Rabbi Abbahu bsaid to him:For byou, who donot employ the bhomileticmethod bof juxtapositionof verses, bit is difficult.But for bus, whoemploy the bhomileticmethod bof juxtapositionof verses, bit is not difficult,as the Sages commonly homiletically infer laws and moral lessons from the juxtaposition of two verses.,Regarding the juxtaposition of verses, bRabbi Yoḥa said: From wherein the Bible is it derived that one may draw homiletical inferences from the bjuxtapositionof verses? bAs it is said:“The works of His hands in truth and justice, all His commandments are sure. bAdjoined forever and ever, made in truth and uprightness”(Psalms 111:7–8). Conclude from here that it is appropriate to draw inferences from the juxtaposition of God’s commandments. Accordingly, David’s fleeing from Absalom is situated where it is in order to juxtapose it to the next chapter, which mentions the war of Gog and Magog; the second chapter of Psalms opens: “Why are the nations in an uproar?”, bWhy was the chapter of Absalom juxtaposed with the chapter of Gog and Magog?They are juxtaposed bsothat bif a person should say to you,expressing doubt with regard to the prophecy of the war of Gog and Magog “against the Lord and against His anointed”: bIs there a slave who rebels against his master?Is there someone capable of rebelling against God? bYou too say to him: Is there a son who rebels against his fatherand severs the relationship with the one who brought him into the world and raised him? bYet,nevertheless, bthere wassuch a son, Absalom, and bso too therecan bbea situation where people will seek to rebel against God., bRabbi Yoḥa saidexplanations of other verses bin the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “She opens her mouth with wisdom, and the teaching of loving-kindness is on her tongue”(Proverbs 31:26)? The Sages explain that this chapter discusses the wisdom of Torah and those who engage in its study, so bwith reference to whom did Solomon say this verse? He said thisverse babout none other than his father, David,who was the clearest example of one who opens his mouth in wisdom, and bwho resided in five worldsor stages of life bandhis soul bsaid a songof praise corresponding to each of them. Five times David said: “Bless the Lord, O my soul,” each corresponding to a different stage of life., bHe resided in his mother’s womb,his first world, band said a songof praise of the pregcy, bas it is stated:“of David. bBless the Lord, O my soul and all that is within me bless His holy name”(Psalms 103:1), in which he thanks God for creating all that is within his mother, i.e., her womb., bHe emerged into the atmosphere of the world,his second world, blooked upon the stars and constellations and said a songof praise of God for the entirety of creation, bas it is stated: “Bless the Lord, His angels, mighty in strength, that fulfill His word, listening to the voice of His word. Bless the Lord, all His hosts,His servants, that do His will. Bless the Lord, all His works, in all places of His kingship, bless my soul, Lord” (Psalms 103:20–23). David saw the grandeur of all creation and recognized that they are mere servants, carrying out the will of their Creator ( iMa’ayan HaBerakhot /i)., bHe nursed from his mother’s breast,his third world, band he looked upon her bosom and said a songof praise, bas it is stated: “Bless the Lord, O my soul, and do not forget all His benefits [ igemulav /i]”(Psalms 103:2). The etymological association is between igemulavand igemulei meḥalav /i, which means weaned from milk (Isaiah 28:9).,We still must understand, however, bwhat ismeant by ball His benefits?What in particular is praiseworthy in what God provided, beyond merely providing for the infant? bRabbi Abbahu said:In contrast with most other animals, God bplaced her breastsnear her heart, bthe placethat is the source bof understanding. /b, bWhat is the reasonthat God did this? bRav Yehuda said: So thatthe nursing child bwould not look upon the place ofhis mother’s bnakedness. Rav Mattana said: So thatthe child bwould not nurse from a place of uncleanliness. /b, bHe witnessedin both vision and reality bthe downfall of the wicked and he said a songof praise, bas it is stated: “Let sinners cease from the earth, and let the wicked be no more. Bless the Lord, O my soul, iHalleluya /i”(Psalms 104:35).,The fifth world was when David blooked upon the day of death and said a songof praise, bas it is stated: “Bless the Lord, O my soul. Lord my God, You are very great; You are clothed in glory and majesty”(Psalms 104:1); for even death is a time of transcendence for the righteous.,The connection between this final praise and the day of death is unclear. The Gemara asks: bFrom where is it inferredthat bthisverse bwas stated with regard to the day of death?Rabba bar Rav Sheila says: We can derive this bfromthe verses at bthe end of the matter,where bit is written: “You hide Your face, they vanish; You gather Your breath, they perishand return to the dust” (Psalms 104:29).,Other interpretations of this verse exist. The Gemara relates how bRav Shimi bar Ukva, and some say Mar Ukva, would regularlystudy bbefore Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi,who was well versed in iaggadaand bwould arrange the iaggadabefore Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. brOnce, Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi bsaid to him: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “Bless the Lord, my soul, and all that is within me bless His Holy name”? brRav Shimi bar Ukva bsaid toRabbi Shimon ben Pazi: bCome and see that the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is not like the attribute of flesh and blood,as this verse praises the formation of man in his mother’s womb. bThe attribute of flesh and blood issuch that he bshapes a form on the wallfor all to see, yet bhe cannot instill it with a spirit and soul, bowels and intestines.While bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, is not so,as God bshapes one form within another form,a child in its mother’s womb, band instills it with spirit and soul, bowels and intestines. And this isthe explanation of bwhat Hannah saidwith regard to the birth of Samuel: b“There is none holy like the Lord, for there is none like You, and there is no Rock like our God”(I Samuel 2:2)., bWhat isthe meaning of bthere is no rock [ itzur /i] like our God? There is no artist [ itzayyar /i] like our God. /b,The Gemara continues to interpret the rest of that verse homiletically: bWhat isthe meaning of b“there is none like You”? Rabbi Yehuda ben Menasya said: Do not readthe verse to mean b“there is none like You [ ibiltekha /i]”; rather, readit to mean b“none can outlast You [ ilevalotkha /i],” as the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is not like the attribute of flesh and blood: The attribute of flesh and blood issuch bthat his creations outlast him,but bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, outlasts His actions. /b,This did not satisfy Rav Shimi bar Ukva, who bsaid toRabbi Shimon ben Pazi: bImeant to bsay to you as follows: Corresponding to whom did David say these fiveinstance of b“Blessthe Lord, bO my soul”?He answered him: bHe said them about none other than the Holy One, Blessed be He, and corresponding to the soul,as the verse refers to the relationship between man’s soul and God. The five instances of “Bless the Lord, O my soul” correspond to the five parallels between the soul in man’s body and God’s power in His world., bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, fills the entire world, so too the soul fills the entire body. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, sees but is not seen, so too does the soul see, but is not seen. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, sustains the entire world, so too the soul sustains the entire body. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, is pure, so too is the soul pure. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, resides in a chamber within a chamber,in His inner sanctum, bso too the soul resides in a chamber within a chamber,in the innermost recesses of the body. brTherefore, bthat which has these five characteristics,the soul, bshould come and praise He Who has these five characteristics. /b,With regard to redemption and prayer, the Gemara tells the story of Hezekiah’s illness, his prayer to God, and subsequent recuperation. bRav Hamnuna said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is writtenpraising the Holy One, Blessed be He: b“Who is like the wise man, and who knows the interpretation [ ipesher /i] of the matter”(Ecclesiastes 8:1)? This verse means: bWho is like the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who knows how to effect compromise [ ipeshara /i] between two righteous individuals, between Hezekiah,the king of Judea, band Isaiahthe prophet. They disagreed over which of them should visit the other. bHezekiah said: Let Isaiah come to me, as that is what we find with regard to Elijahthe prophet, bwho went to Ahab,the king of Israel, bas it is stated: “And Elijah went to appear to Ahab”(I Kings 18:2). This proves that it is the prophet who must seek out the king. bAnd Isaiah said: Let Hezekiah come to me, as that is what we find with regard to Yehoram ben Ahab,king of Israel, bwho went to Elishathe prophet, as it is stated: “So the king of Israel, Jehosaphat and the king of Edom went down to him” (II Kings 3:12)., bWhat did the Holy One, Blessed be He, doto effect compromise between Hezekiah and Isaiah? bHe brought the sufferingof illness bupon Hezekiah and told Isaiah: Go and visit the sick.Isaiah did as God instructed, bas it is stated: “In those days Hezekiah became deathly ill, and Isaiah ben Amoz the prophet came and said to him: Thus says the Lord of Hosts: Set your house in order, for you will die and you will not live”(Isaiah 38:1). This seems redundant; bwhat isthe meaning of byou will die and you will not live?This repetition means: bYou will die in this world, and you will not live,you will have no share, bin the World-to-Come. /b,Hezekiah bsaid to him: What is all of this?For what transgression am I being punished? brIsaiah bsaid to him: Because you did notmarry and bengage in procreation. brHezekiah apologized and bsaid:I had no children bbecause I envisaged through divine inspiration that the children that emerge from me will not be virtuous.Hezekiah meant that he had seen that his children were destined to be evil. In fact, his son Menashe sinned extensively, and he thought it preferable to have no children at all.,Isaiah bsaid to him: Why do youinvolve byourself with the secrets of the Holy One, Blessed be He? That which you have been commanded,the mitzva of procreation, byou are required to perform, and that which is acceptablein the eyes of bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, let Him perform,as He has so decided.,Hezekiah bsaid toIsaiah: bNow give me your daughteras my wife; bperhaps my merit and your merit will cause virtuous children to emerge from me. brIsaiah bsaid to him: The decree has already been decreed against youand this judgment cannot be changed. brHezekiah bsaid to him: Son of Amoz, cease your prophecy and leave.As long as the prophet spoke as God’s emissary, Hezekiah was obligated to listen to him. He was not, however, obligated to accept Isaiah’s personal opinion that there was no possibility for mercy and healing.,Hezekiah continued: bI have received a tradition from the house of my father’s father,from King David, the founding father of the dynasty of kings of Judea: bEvenif ba sharp sword rests upon a person’s neck, he should not prevent himself frompraying for bmercy.One may still hold out hope that his prayers will be answered, as was David himself when he saw the Angel of Destruction, but nonetheless prayed for mercy and his prayers were answered.,With regard to the fact that one should not despair of God’s mercy, the Gemara cites that bit was also saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Eliezer both said: Even if a sharp sword is resting upon a person’s neck, he should not prevent himself frompraying for bmercy, as it is statedin the words of Job: b“Though He slay me, I will trust in Him”(Job 13:15). Even though God is about to take his life, he still prays for God’s mercy.
52. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

101a. big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הדלת שבמוקצה וחדקים שבפרצה ומחצלות אין נועלין בהן אלא אם כן גבוהים מן הארץ:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ורמינהו דלת הנגררת ומחצלת הנגררת וקנקן הנגרר בזמן שקשורין ותלויין נועלין בהן בשבת ואין צריך לומר ביום טוב,אמר אביי בשיש להם ציר רבא אמר בשהיה להן ציר,מיתיבי דלת הנגררת ומחצלת הנגררת וקנקן הנגרר בזמן שקשורין ותלויין וגבוהים מן הארץ אפילו מלא נימא נועלין בהן ואם לאו אין נועלין בהן,אביי מתרץ לטעמיה ורבא מתרץ לטעמיה אביי מתרץ לטעמיה או שיש להן ציר או שגבוהין מן הארץ רבא מתרץ לטעמיה כשהיה להן ציר או שגבוהין מן הארץ,ת"ר סוכי קוצים וחבילין שהתקינן לפירצה שבחצר בזמן שקשורין ותלויין נועלין בהן בשבת וא"צ לומר ביו"ט,תני ר' חייא דלת אלמנה הנגררת אין נועלין בה היכי דמי דלת אלמנה איכא דאמרי דחד שיפא ואיכא דאמרי דלית ליה גשמה,אמר רב יהודה האי מדורתא ממעלה למטה שרי ממטה למעלה אסיר,וכן ביעתא וכן קידרא וכן פוריא וכן חביתא,א"ל ההוא צדוקי לרבי יהושע בן חנניה חדקאה דכתיב בכו (מיכה ז, ד) טובם כחדק אמר ליה שטיא שפיל לסיפיה דקרא דכתיב ישר ממסוכה ואלא מאי טובם כחדק כשם שחדקים הללו מגינין על הפירצה כך טובים שבנו מגינים עלינו דבר אחר טובם כחדק שמהדקין את הרשעים לגיהנם שנאמר (מיכה ד, יג) קומי ודושי בת ציון כי קרנך אשים ברזל ופרסותיך אשים נחושה והדיקות עמים רבים וגו':, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big לא יעמוד אדם ברשות היחיד ויפתח ברשות הרבים ברשות הרבים ויפתח ברשות היחיד אא"כ עשה מחיצה גבוה עשרה טפחים דברי ר' מאיר,אמרו לו מעשה בשוק של פטמים שהיה בירושלים שהיו נועלין ומניחין את המפתח בחלון שעל גבי הפתח רבי יוסי אומר שוק של צמרים הוה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ורבנן אמר רבי מאיר רשות הרבים ומהדרו אינהו כרמלית דאמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן ירושלים אלמלא דלתותיה ננעלות בלילה חייבין עליה משום רשות הרבים,אמר רב פפא כאן קודם שנפרצו בה פרצות כאן לאחר שנפרצו בה פרצות,רבא אמר סיפא אתאן לשערי גינה והכי קאמר וכן לא יעמוד ברשות היחיד ויפתח בכרמלית בכרמלית ויפתח ברשות היחיד 101a. strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to bthe door to a rear court,i.e., a door that opens from a house to the courtyard situated behind it, which is typically not a proper door but merely a wooden board without hinges that closes off the doorway; bandlikewise bbundles of thornsthat seal ba breach; andreed bmats, onemay bnot closean opening bwith themon Shabbat. This would be considered building or completing a building, bunless theyremain babove the groundeven when they are open., strongGEMARA: /strong bAndthe Gemara braises a contradictionfrom a ibaraita /i: With regard to ba door, or a mat, or a lattice [ ikankan /i] that dragalong the ground and are used for closing up openings, bwhen they are tied and suspendedin place bonemay bclosean opening bwith them on Shabbat; and needless to saythis is permitted bon a Festival.According to the ibaraita /i, the critical factor is apparently that they must be tied and suspended, not that they have to be held up above the ground., bAbaye said:The ibaraitais referring btoones bthat have a hinge.As they are considered proper doors, closing them does not appear like building. bRava said:The ibaraitais referring even btodoors bthatonce bhad a hinge,even though they no longer have one. These partitions also bear the clear form of a door, and therefore one’s action does not have the appearance of building.,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom another ibaraita /i: With regard to ba door, or a mat, or a lattice that dragalong the ground, bwhen they are tied and suspendedin place bandthey are held babove the ground even byas little as ba hairbreadth, onemay bclosean opening bwith them. However, ifthey are bnotraised in this manner, bonemay bnot closean opening bwith them.Clearly, these doors must indeed be raised above the ground as well.,The Gemara answers: bAbaye reconcilesthe objection bin accordance with his reasoning, and Rava reconcilesthe objection bin accordance with his reasoning.The Gemara elaborates: bAbaye reconcilesthe objection bin accordance with his reasoningby adding to the ibaraita /i: They must beither have a hinge orbe held babove the ground. Ravalikewise breconcilesthe objection bin accordance with his reasoning,as he reads: They must bhave had a hinge orelse be held babove the ground. /b, bThe Sages taughta ibaraita /i: With regard to bbranches of thorn bushes or bundlesof wood bthat were arrangedso that they sealed off ba breach in a courtyard, when they are tied and suspendedin place, bonemay bclosean opening bwith them on Shabbat; and needless to say,this is permitted bon a Festival. /b, bRabbi Ḥiyya taughta ibaraita /i: With regard to ba widowed door that dragsalong the ground, bonemay bnot closean opening bwith it.The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstancesof ba widowed door? Some sayit refers to a door built bfrom a single plank,which does not look like a door, band others sayit is ba door that does not have a lower doorsill( ige’onim /i) and that touches the ground when closed.,With regard to activities that are prohibited because of their similarity to building, the Gemara cites a teaching that bRav Yehuda said:When arranging a pile of wood for ba fireon a Festival, if the logs are arranged bfrom the top down,i.e., the upper logs are temporarily suspended in the air while the lower logs are inserted below them, bit is permitted.However, if the wood is placed from bthe bottom up, it is prohibited,as the arrangement of wood in the regular manner is a form of building., bAnd the sameapplies to beggsthat are to be arranged in a pile, band the sameapplies to ba cauldronthat is to be set down on a fire by means of supports, band the sameapplies to a bbedthat will be placed on its frame, band the sameapplies to bbarrelsarranged in a cellar. In all these cases, the part that goes on top must be temporarily suspended in the air while the lower section is inserted beneath it.,With regard to bundles of thorns used to seal a breach, the Gemara cites a related incident: bA certain hereticonce bsaid to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya: Man of thorns! For it says about you: “The best of them is as a brier”(Micah 7:4), which indicates that even Israel’s best are merely thorns. bHe said to him: Fool, go down to the end of the verse: “The most upright is worse than a thorn hedge,”a derogatory expression meant as praise. bRather, what isthe meaning of bthe best of them is as a brier?It means that bjust as these thorns protect a breach, so the best among us protect us. Alternatively: The best of them is as a brier [ iḥedek /i]means bthat they grind [ imehaddekin /i] the nations of the world into Gehenna, as it is stated: “Arise and thresh, O daughter of Zion, for I will make your horn iron, and I will make your hoofs brass, and you shall beat in pieces [ ivahadikot /i] many peoples;and you shall devote their gain to God, and their substance to the God of the whole earth” (Micah 4:13)., strongMISHNA: /strong bA personmay bnot stand in the private domain and opena door located bin the public domainwith a key, lest he inadvertently transfer the key from one domain to the other. Likewise, one may not stand bin the public domain and opena door bin the private domainwith a key, bunlessin the latter case bhe erected a partition ten handbreadths higharound the door and stands inside it. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. /b,The Rabbis bsaid to him:There was ban incident at the poultry dealers’ market in Jerusalem,where they would fatten fowl for slaughter (Rabbeinu Ḥael), band they would lockthe doors to their shops band place the key in the window that was over the door,which was more than ten handbreadths off the ground, and nobody was concerned about the possible violation of any prohibition. bRabbi Yosei says:That place bwas a market of wool dealers. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bAndthose bRabbis,who cited the case of the poultry dealers of Jerusalem to rebut Rabbi Meir’s opinion, bRabbi Meir spoketo them about unlocking a door in a private domain while standing bin the public domain, and they respondedwith an incident involving ba ikarmelit /i. As Rabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:With regard to bJerusalem, were it notfor the fact that bits doors are locked at night, one would be liable forcarrying in biton Shabbat, bbecauseits thoroughfares have the status of bthe public domain.However, since Jerusalem’s doors are typically locked, it is considered one large ikarmelit /i, which is subject to rabbinic prohibitions. How, then, could a proof be cited from the markets of Jerusalem with regard to the transfer of objects between a public domain and a private domain, which is prohibited by Torah law?, bRav Pappa said: Here,in the statement of Rabbi Yoha, Jerusalem was considered a ikarmelitduring the period bbefore breaches were made in itswalls. Its doors did not turn it into a public domain, as they were locked. Whereas bthere,the Rabbis in the mishna are referring to the time bafter breaches had been made inthe walls, and it therefore acquired the status of a public domain., bRava said: In the latter clauseof the mishna bwe came toa different issue, i.e., the final section of the mishna is not designed to counter Rabbi Meir’s statement with regard to the public domain. Rather, it refers btothe bgates of a gardenwith an area greater than two ibeit se’ain size, whose legal status is that of a ikarmelit /i. Consequently, the mishna bis saying as follows: And likewise,one may bnot stand in the private domain and opena door bin a ikarmelit /i;neither may one stand bin a ikarmelitand opena door bin the private domain, /b
53. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

54. Origen, Against Celsus, 4.48-4.50 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.48. In the next place, as if he had devoted himself solely to the manifestation of his hatred and dislike of the Jewish and Christian doctrine, he says: The more modest of Jewish and Christian writers give all these things an allegorical meaning; and, Because they are ashamed of these things, they take refuge in allegory. Now one might say to him, that if we must admit fables and fictions, whether written with a concealed meaning or with any other object, to be shameful narratives when taken in their literal acceptation, of what histories can this be said more truly than of the Grecian? In these histories, gods who are sons castrate the gods who are their fathers, and gods who are parents devour their own children, and a goddess-mother gives to the father of gods and men a stone to swallow instead of his own son, and a father has intercourse with his daughter, and a wife binds her own husband, having as her allies in the work the brother of the fettered god and his own daughter! But why should I enumerate these absurd stories of the Greeks regarding their gods, which are most shameful in themselves, even though invested with an allegorical meaning? (Take the instance) where Chrysippus of Soli, who is considered to be an ornament of the Stoic sect, on account of his numerous and learned treatises, explains a picture at Samos, in which Juno was represented as committing unspeakable abominations with Jupiter. This reverend philosopher says in his treatises, that matter receives the spermatic words of the god, and retains them within herself, in order to ornament the universe. For in the picture at Samos Juno represents matter, and Jupiter god. Now it is on account of these, and of countless other similar fables, that we would not even in word call the God of all things Jupiter, or the sun Apollo, or the moon Diana. But we offer to the Creator a worship which is pure, and speak with religious respect of His noble works of creation, not contaminating even in word the things of God; approving of the language of Plato in the Philebus, who would not admit that pleasure was a goddess, so great is my reverence, Protarchus, he says, for the very names of the gods. We verily entertain such reverence for the name of God, and for His noble works of creation, that we would not, even under pretext of an allegorical meaning, admit any fable which might do injury to the young. 4.49. If Celsus had read the Scriptures in an impartial spirit, he would not have said that our writings are incapable of admitting an allegorical meaning. For from the prophetic Scriptures, in which historical events are recorded (not from the historical), it is possible to be convinced that the historical portions also were written with an allegorical purpose, and were most skilfully adapted not only to the multitude of the simpler believers, but also to the few who are able or willing to investigate matters in an intelligent spirit. If, indeed, those writers at the present day who are deemed by Celsus the more modest of the Jews and Christians were the (first) allegorical interpreters of our Scriptures, he would have the appearance, perhaps, of making a plausible allegation. But since the very fathers and authors of the doctrines themselves give them an allegorical signification, what other inference can be drawn than that they were composed so as to be allegorically understood in their chief signification? And we shall adduce a few instances out of very many to show that Celsus brings an empty charge against the Scriptures, when he says that they are incapable of admitting an allegorical meaning. Paul, the apostle of Jesus, says: It is written in the law, You shall not muzzle the mouth of the ox that treads out the grain. Does God take care for oxen? Or says He it altogether for our sakes? For our sakes, no doubt, this is written, that he that ploughs should plough in hope, and he that threshes in hope of partaking. And in another passage the same Paul says: For it is written, For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother and shall be joined to his wife, and they two shall be one flesh. This is a great mystery; but I speak concerning Christ and the Church. And again, in another place: We know that all our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; and were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud, and in the sea. Then, explaining the history relating to the manna, and that referring to the miraculous issue of the water from the rock, he continues as follows: And they did all eat the same spiritual meat, and did all drink the same spiritual drink. For they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them, and that Rock was Christ. Asaph, moreover, who, in showing the histories in Exodus and Numbers to be full of difficulties and parables, begins in the following manner, as recorded in the book of Psalms, where he is about to make mention of these things: Give ear, O my people, to my law: incline your ears to the words of my mouth. I will open my mouth in parables; I will utter dark sayings of old, which we have heard and known, and our fathers have told us. 4.50. Moreover, if the law of Moses had contained nothing which was to be understood as having a secret meaning, the prophet would not have said in his prayer to God, Open my eyes, and I will behold wondrous things out of Your law; whereas he knew that there was a veil of ignorance lying upon the heart of those who read but do not understand the figurative meaning, which veil is taken away by the gift of God, when He hears him who has done all that he can, and who by reason of habit has his senses exercised to distinguish between good and evil, and who continually utters the prayer, Open my eyes, and I will behold wondrous things out of Your law. And who is there that, on reading of the dragon that lives in the Egyptian river, and of the fishes which lurk in his scales, or of the excrement of Pharaoh which fills the mountains of Egypt, is not led at once to inquire who he is that fills the Egyptian mountains with his stinking excrement, and what the Egyptian mountains are; and what the rivers in Egypt are, of which the aforesaid Pharaoh boastfully says, The rivers are mine, and I have made them; and who the dragon is, and the fishes in its scales - and this so as to harmonize with the interpretation to be given of the rivers? But why establish at greater length what needs no demonstration? For to these things applies the saying: Who is wise, and he shall understand these things? Or who is prudent, and he shall know them? Now I have gone at some length into the subject, because I wished to show the unsoundness of the assertion of Celsus, that the more modest among the Jews and Christians endeavour somehow to give these stories an allegorical signification, although some of them do not admit of this, but on the contrary are exceedingly silly inventions. Much rather are the stories of the Greeks not only very silly, but very impious inventions. For our narratives keep expressly in view the multitude of simpler believers, which was not done by those who invented the Grecian fables. And therefore not without propriety does Plato expel from his state all fables and poems of such a nature as those of which we have been speaking.
55. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Recognitiones (E Pseudocaesario), 1.27-1.71 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

56. Anon., Numbers Rabba, 8.4 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

8.4. אִישׁ אוֹ אִשָּׁה וגו', הֲדָא הוּא דִּכְתִיב (תהלים קלח, ד): יוֹדוּךָ ה' כָּל מַלְכֵי אָרֶץ כִּי שָׁמְעוּ אִמְרֵי פִיךָ, אָמַר רַבִּי פִּינְחָס שְׁנֵי דְּבָרִים שָׁמְעוּ מַלְכֵי אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם מִפִּי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְעָמְדוּ מִכִּסְאוֹתָם וְהוֹדוּ, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנָּתַן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא תּוֹרָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַר (שמות כ, ב): אָנֹכִי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ, אָמְרוּ מַלְכֵי אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם זֶה כָּמוֹנוּ אוֹמֵר, אֵיזֶה מֶלֶךְ רוֹצֶה שֶׁיְהֵא אַחֵר מַכְּחִישׁ, וְכֵן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאָמַר (שמות כ, ג): לֹא יִהְיֶה לְךָ, אָמְרוּ, אֵי זֶה מֶלֶךְ רוֹצֶה שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לוֹ שֻׁתָּף וְכֵן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאָמַר (שמות כ, ז): לֹא תִשָֹּׂא, אָמְרוּ, אֵי זֶה מֶלֶךְ רוֹצֶה שֶׁיִּהְיוּ נִשְׁבָּעִים בּוֹ וּמְשַׁקְּרִים וְכֵן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאָמַר (שמות כ, ח): זָכוֹר אֶת יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת, אָמְרוּ, אֵי זֶה מֶלֶךְ רוֹצֶה שֶׁלֹא יִהְיוּ הַבְּרִיוֹת מְכַבְּדִים אֶת יוֹם שֶׁשָּׁבַת, אֲבָל בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאָמַר (שמות כ, יב): כַּבֵּד, אָמְרוּ בַּנִּימוֹסוֹת שֶׁלָּנוּ כָּל מִי שֶׁמַּכְתִּיב אֶת עַצְמוֹ סֶגְרוֹן לַמֶּלֶךְ, הוּא כּוֹפֵר בַּאֲבוֹתָיו, וְזֶה מַכְרִיז וְאוֹמֵר: כַּבֵּד אֶת אָבִיךָ וְאֶת אִמֶּךָ, עָמְדוּ מִכִּסְאוֹתָם וְהוֹדוּ לוֹ. בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא (ויקרא ה, טז): וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר חָטָא מִן הַקֹּדֶשׁ יְשַׁלֵּם, אָמְרוּ בַּנִּימוֹסוֹת שֶׁלָּנוּ כָּל דְּאָכֵיל צִנּוֹרָא מִן קֵיסָר יָהֵב בֵּיהּ סַכִּין דְּפַדָּן, וְזֶה מַכְרִיז וְאוֹמֵר: וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר חָטָא מִן הַקֹּדֶשׁ יְשַׁלֵּם, וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא שֶׁהֶחְמִיר בְּהֶדְיוֹט יוֹתֵר מִגָּבוֹהַּ, שֶׁבְּגָבוֹהַּ כְּתִיב (ויקרא ה, טו): נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תִמְעֹל מַעַל וגו', וּבְהֶדְיוֹט כְּתִיב (ויקרא ה, כא): נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶחֱטָא וגו', עֲשָׂאוֹ כַּמֵּזִיד, וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא שֶׁבָּזֶה הִקְדִּים מְעִילָה לַחֵטְא, וּבָזֶה הִקְדִּים חֵטְא לַמְּעִילָה. וְלֹא עוֹד לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ בְּגוֹזֵל הַגֵּר כֵּן, מִי הוּא אֱלוֹהַּ כָּזֶה הָאוֹהֵב אֶת אוֹהֲבָיו וּמְקָרֵב רְחוֹקִים כַּקְּרוֹבִים הַבָּאִים לִשְׁמוֹ, עָמְדוּ מִכִּסְאוֹתָם וְהוֹדוּ לוֹ. וְלֹא תֹאמַר בְּגֵרֵי הַצֶּדֶק שֶׁנִּתְגַּיְרוּ לְשֵׁם שָׁמַיִם קֵרַב הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ אוֹתָן שֶׁנִּתְגַּיְּרוּ שֶׁלֹא לְשֵׁם שָׁמַיִם, מָצִינוּ שֶׁתָּבַע הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עֶלְבּוֹנָם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שמואל ב כא, א): וַיְהִי רָעָב בִּימֵי דָוִד וגו', מַהוּ (שמואל ב כא, א): שָׁנָה אַחֲרֵי שָׁנָה, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיוּ שָׁלשׁ שָׁנִים רְצוּפוֹת, כְּשֶׁרָאָה דָּוִד שֶׁהִתְחִיל הָרָעָב לָבוֹא בְּיָמָיו, אָמַר בַּעֲוֹן חֲמִשָּׁה דְּבָרִים הַגְּשָׁמִים אֵינָן יוֹרְדִין, בַּעֲוֹן עוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים, וּמְגַלֵּי עֲרָיוֹת, וְשׁוֹפְכֵי דָמִים, וּפוֹסְקֵי צְדָקָה בָּרַבִּים וְאֵינָן נוֹתְנִין, וּבַעֲוֹן שֶׁאֵינָן נוֹתְנִין מַעַשְׂרוֹתֵיהֶם כְּתִקְּנָן. בַּעֲוֹן עוֹבְדֵי עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יא, טז): הִשָּׁמְרוּ לָכֶם פֶּן יִפְתֶּה וגו', וְאוֹמֵר (דברים יא, יז): וְחָרָה אַף ה' בָּכֶם וגו'. בַּעֲוֹן מְגַלֵי עֲרָיוֹת מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה ג, ב): וַתַּחֲנִיפִי הָאָרֶץ בִּזְנוּתַיִּךְ וגו', וְאוֹמֵר (ירמיה ג, ג): וַיִּמָּנְעוּ רְבִבִים וּמַלְקוֹשׁ וגו'. בַּעֲוֹן שׁוֹפְכֵי דָמִים מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר לה, לג): כִּי הַדָּם הוּא יַחֲנִיף אֶת הָאָרֶץ, כִּי הַדָּם הוּא יַחַן אַף עַל הָאָרֶץ. בַּעֲוֹן פּוֹסְקֵי צְדָקָה בָּרַבִּים וְאֵינָן נוֹתְנִין מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי כה, יד): נְשִׂיאִים וְרוּחַ וְגֶשֶׁם אָיִן, לָמָּה (משלי כה, יד): אִישׁ מִתְהַלֵּל בְּמַתַּת שָׁקֶר. בַּעֲוֹן שֶׁאֵין נוֹתְנִין מַעְשְׂרוֹתֵיהֶן כְּתִקְּנָן מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלאכי ג, י): הָבִיאוּ אֶת כָּל הַמַּעֲשֵׂר אֶל בֵּית הָאוֹצָר וגו'. שָׁנָה רִאשׁוֹנָה הִתְחִיל דָּוִד לְהוֹכִיחַ דּוֹרוֹ בְּעֵת הָרֶגֶל וְאָמַר לָהֶן שֶׁמָּא יֵשׁ בָּכֶם בְּנֵי אָדָם שֶׁהֵן עוֹבְדִים עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים שֶׁאֵין הַשָּׁמַיִם נֶעֱצָרִים מֵהוֹרִיד טַל וּמָטָר, אֶלָּא בְּעָוֹן זֶה יָצְאוּ וּבִקְּשׁוּ וְלֹא מָצְאוּ. שָׁנָה שְׁנִיָּה אָמַר לָהֶם שֶׁמָּא גִּלּוּי עֲרָיוֹת יֵשׁ בָּכֶם, שֶׁאֵין הַשָּׁמַיִם נֶעֱצָרִים אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי כָּךְ, יָצְאוּ וּבִקְּשׁוּ וְלֹא מָצְאוּ. שָׁנָה שְׁלִישִׁית אָמַר לָהֶם שֶׁמָּא שׁוֹפְכֵי דָמִים אוֹ פּוֹסְקֵי צְדָקָה בָּרַבִּים וְאֵינָן נוֹתְנִין יֵשׁ בָּכֶם, אוֹ מוֹנְעֵי הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת יֵשׁ בָּכֶם, שֶׁאֵין הַגְּשָׁמִים נֶעֱצָרִים אֶלָּא עֲלֵיהֶם, יָצְאוּ וּבִקְּשׁוּ וְלֹא מָצְאוּ, מִכָּאן וָאֵילָךְ אָמַר דָּוִד אֵין הַדָּבָר תָּלוּי אֶלָּא בִּי, הִתְחִיל שׁוֹאֵל בָּאוּרִים וְתֻמִּים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שמואל ב כא, א): וַיְבַקֵּשׁ דָּוִד אֶת פְּנֵי ה', אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ שֶׁשָּׁאַל בָּאוּרִים וְתֻמִּים. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר טַעֲמֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ אַתְיָא פְּנֵי פְּנֵי, כְּתִיב הָכָא: וַיְבַקֵּשׁ דָּוִד אֶת פְּנֵי ה', וּכְתִיב הָתָם (במדבר כז, כא): וְלִפְנֵי אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן יַעֲמֹד וְשָׁאַל לוֹ וגו', אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא דָּוִד מֻצָּל אַתָּה אֶלָּא עַל שָׁאוּל וְעַל בֵּית הַדָּמִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שמואל ב כא, כ): וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל שָׁאוּל וְאֶל בֵּית הַדָּמִים וגו', עַל שָׁאוּל, שֶׁלֹא עֲשִׂיתֶם עִמּוֹ חֶסֶד וְלֹא נִסְפַּד כַּהֲלָכָה, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא דָּוִד אֵינוֹ שָׁאוּל שֶׁנִּמְשַׁח בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה, אֵינוֹ שָׁאוּל שֶׁבְּיָמָיו לֹא נַעֲשָׂה עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, אֵינוֹ שָׁאוּל שֶׁחֶלְקוֹ עִם שְׁמוּאֵל הַנָּבִיא, וְאַתָּה בָּאָרֶץ וְהוּא בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ, וְאֶל בֵּית הַדָּמִים עַל אֲשֶׁר הֵמִית אֶת הַגִּבְעֹנִים, וְהֵיכָן מָצִינוּ שֶׁהֵמִית גִּבְעוֹנִים, אֶלָּא מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁהָרַג נוֹב עִיר הַכֹּהֲנִים שֶׁהָיוּ מַסְפִּיקִין לָהֶם מַיִם וּמָזוֹן, מַעֲלֶה עָלָיו הַכָּתוּב כְּאִלּוּ הֲרָגָן. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר כְּתִיב (צפניה ב, ג): בַּקְּשׁוּ אֶת ה' כָּל עַנְוֵי הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר מִשְׁפָּטוֹ פָּעָלוּ, מַהוּ אֲשֶׁר מִשְׁפָּטוֹ פָּעָלוּ, שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּפָעֳלוֹ כְּאַחַת, אַתְּ מוֹצֵא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא תּוֹבֵעַ מִשְׁפָּטָן שֶׁל גִּבְעוֹנִים מִן שָׁאוּל וְזוֹכֵר פְּעֻלָּתוֹ שֶׁל שָׁאוּל לְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ שָׂכָר טוֹב, בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה אָמַר דָּוִד וְכִי בִּשְׁבִיל הַגֵּרִים הַלָּלוּ עָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְעַמּוֹ כֵּן, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אִם תַּרְחִיק אֶת הָרְחוֹקִים סוֹפְךָ לְרַחֵק אֶת הַקְּרוֹבִים, צֵא וּלְמַד מִיהוֹשֻׁעַ רַבָּךְ שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאָמְרוּ הַגִּבְעוֹנִים (יהושע י, ו): עֲלֵה אֵלֵינוּ מְהֵרָה וְהוֹשִׁיעָה לָנוּ וְעָזְרֵנוּ, בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה אָמַר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְכִי בִּשְׁבִיל הַגֵּרִים הַלָּלוּ אָנוּ מַטְרִיחִים עַל הַצִּבּוּר. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אִם תַּרְחִיק אֶת הָרְחוֹקִים סוֹפְךָ לְרַחֵק אֶת הַקְּרוֹבִים, צֵא וּלְמַד מֵהֵיכָן הוּא מַטָּעֲךָ לֹא מִן הַגֵרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית מו, כ): וַיִּוָּלֵד לְיוֹסֵף בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם וגו', וּכְתִיב (במדבר יג, ח): לְמַטֵּה אֶפְרָיִם הוֹשֵׁעַ בִּן נוּן, מִיָּד (שמואל ב כא, ב): וַיִּקְרָא הַמֶּלֶךְ לַגִּבְעֹנִים וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם וְהַגִּבְעֹנִים וגו', מַה שֶּׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב: וְהַגִּבְעֹנִים לֹא מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הֵמָּה, וְכִי מָה עִנְיָן זֶה לָזֶה, אֶלָּא כָּךְ אָמַר הַכָּתוּב לְפִי שֶׁקָּרָא דָּוִד לַגִּבְעֹנִים וְאָמַר אֲלֵיהֶם מַה שֶּׁאָמַר וְלֹא קִבְּלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ, לְכָךְ וְהַגִּבְעֹנִים לֹא מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הֵמָּה, שֶׁעָמַד דָּוִד וְרִחֲקָן שֶׁלֹא יָבוֹאוּ בַּקָּהָל, וְזוֹ הִיא שֶׁשָּׁנִינוּ (גמרא יבמות עט-א): שֶׁנְּתִינִים אֲסוּרִים לָבוֹא בַּקָּהָל, בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה אָמַר דָּוִד שָׁלשׁ מַתָּנוֹת נָתַן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, רַחֲמָנִין וּבַיְשָׁנִין וְגוֹמְלֵי חֲסָדִים. רַחֲמָנִין, דִּכְתִיב (דברים יג, יח): וְנָתַן לְךָ רַחֲמִים וְרִחַמְךָ וְהִרְבֶּךָ. בַּיְשָׁנִים, דִּכְתִיב (שמות כ, יז): וּבַעֲבוּר תִּהְיֶה יִרְאָתוֹ עַל פְּנֵיכֶם לְבִלְתִּי תֶחֱטָאוּ, זֶה סִימָן לַבַּיְשָׁן שֶׁאֵינוֹ חוֹטֵא, וְכָל מִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ בּשֶׁת פָּנִים דָּבָר בָּרִי שֶׁלֹא עָמְדוּ אֲבוֹתָיו עַל הַר סִינַי וגו'. גּוֹמְלֵי חֲסָדִים מִנַּיִן, דִּכְתִיב (בראשית יח, יט): לְמַעַן אֲשֶׁר יְצַוֶּה אֶת בָּנָיו וְאֶת בֵּיתוֹ וגו', וּכְתִיב (דברים ז, יב): וְשָׁמַר ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְךָ אֶת הַבְּרִית וְאֶת הַחֶסֶד, וְאֵלּוּ אֵין בָּהֶם אֶחָד מֵאֵלֶּה, מִיָּד עָמַד וְרִחֲקָן, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: וְהַגִּבְעוֹנִים לֹא מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הֵמָּה, אֵין רְאוּיִן אֵלֶּה לְהִתְעָרֵב עִמָּהֶם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁגֵּרִים הֵם לֹא עָמְדוּ אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם עַל הַר סִינַי, כִּי עַל שֵׁם כְּנַעֲנִים מִתְחַשְּׁבִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שמואל ב כא, ב): כִּי אִם מִיֶּתֶר הָאֱמֹרִי. מַה כְּתִיב בָּהֶם (דברים ז, ג): וְלֹא תִתְחַתֵּן בָּם וגו', אַף אֵלּוּ כְּמוֹתָן אֵינָן רְאוּיִן לִדָּבֵק בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל. כָּתוּב אֶחָד אוֹמֵר (יהושע ט, ז): וַיֹּאמֶר אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל הַחִוִּי וגו', וְכָאן קָרֵי לֵיהּ אֱמוֹרִי, אֶלָּא מִן הָאֱמוֹרִי הָיוּ וְלָמָּה קוֹרֵא אוֹתָן חִוִּי, עַל שֶׁעָשׂוּ מַעֲשֵׂה חִוִּי, מַעֲשֵׂה נָחָשׁ. הַנָּחָשׁ אָמַר יוֹדֵעַ אֲנִי שֶׁאָמַר לָהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא (בראשית ב, יז): כִּי בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְךָ מִמֶּנּוּ מוֹת תָּמוּת, אֶלָּא הֲרֵינִי הוֹלֵךְ וּמְרַמֶּה בָּהֶם וְהֵם אוֹכְלִין וְנֶעֱנָשִׁים וַאֲנִי יוֹרֵשׁ אֶת הָאָרֶץ לְעַצְמִי, כָּךְ עָשׂוּ הַגִּבְעוֹנִים, אָמְרוּ יוֹדְעִים אָנוּ שֶׁאָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל (דברים כ, יז): כִּי הַחֲרֵם תַּחֲרִימֵם הַחִתִּי וְהָאֱמֹרִי וגו' (דברים ז, ב): לֹא תִכְרֹת לָהֶם בְּרִית וגו', אֶלָּא הֲרֵי אָנוּ הוֹלְכִין וּמְרַמִּין בָּהֶם וְהֵם כּוֹרְתִים אִתָּנוּ בְּרִית, מַה נַּפְשָׁךְ, יַהַרְגוּ אוֹתָנוּ יַעַבְרוּ עַל הַשְּׁבוּעָה, יְקַיְּמוּ אוֹתָנוּ עוֹבְרִים עַל הַגְּזֵרָה, בֵּין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ נֶעֱנָשִׁים וְאָנוּ יוֹרְשִׁין אֶת הָאָרֶץ לְעַצְמֵנוּ, לְפִיכָךְ כְּשֶׁרָאָה יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כֵּן, אָמַר לָהֶם (יהושע ט, כב): לָמָּה רִמִּיתֶם אֹתָנוּ וגו', אָמַר לָהֶם יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אַתֶּם עֲשִׂיתֶם מַעֲשֵׂה נָחָשׁ לְפִיכָךְ תִּטְלּוּ שְׂכָרוֹ שֶׁל נָחָשׁ. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אֵרֲרָן כְּנָחָשׁ, דִּכְתִיב (יהושע ט, כג): וְעַתָּה אֲרוּרִים אַתֶּם, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁכָּתוּב בַּנָּחָשׁ (בראשית ג, יד): אָרוּר אַתָּה מִכָּל הַבְּהֵמָה, מַהוּ (שמואל ב כא, ב): וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל נִשְׁבְּעוּ לָהֶם, אָמַר דָּוִד בְּעֵת שֶׁבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל נִשְׁבְּעוּ לָהֶם תָּלוּ הַדָּבָר בִּי, שֶׁאִם אֶחְפֹּץ לְרַחֲקָן וּלְקָרְבָן הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדִי, הֲרֵינִי מְרַחֲקָן. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁתָּלוּ הַדָּבָר בְּדָוִד, דִּכְתִיב (יהושע ט, כז): וַיִּתְּנֵם יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא חֹטְבֵי עֵצִים וְשֹׁאֲבֵי מַיִם וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי אַמֵּי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי אַחַר שֶׁאָמַר (יהושע ט, כז): לָעֵדָה וּלְמִזְבַּח ה', מַה צֹּרֶךְ לוֹמַר (יהושע ט, כז): אֶל הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחָר, אֶלָּא תְּלָאוֹ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בְּדָוִד, אָמַר אֲנִי אֵינִי לֹא מְקָרְבָן וְלֹא מְרַחֲקָן, אֶלָּא מִי שֶׁהוּא עָתִיד לִבְנוֹת בֵּית הַבְּחִירָה, אִם רָאֲתָה דַּעְתּוֹ לְקָרֵב יְקָרֵב, לְרַחֵק יְרַחֵק, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁבָּא דָּוִד וְרָאָה שֶׁהָיוּ אַכְזָרִים רִחֲקָן, אַף עֶזְרָא רִחֲקָן, דִּכְתִיב (נחמיה יא, כא): וְהַנְּתִינִים ישְׁבִים בָּעֹפֶל וגו'. אַף לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְרַחֲקָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יחזקאל מח, יט): וְהָעֹבֵד הָעִיר יַעַבְדוּהוּ מִכֹּל שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, יְאַבְּדוּהוּ מִכֹּל שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, (שמואל ב כא, ב): וַיְבַקֵּשׁ שָׁאוּל לְהַכֹּתָם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹא הִכָּם נִתְאַכְזְרוּ עָלָיו, לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁלֹא עַל חִנָּם רִחֲקָן דָּוִד (שמואל ב כא, ב): בְּקַנֹּאתוֹ לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהוּדָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹא כָּעַס עֲלֵיהֶם שָׁאוּל אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל קִנְאָה שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהוּדָה וְלֹא עָשָׂה בִּשְׁבִיל שִׂנְאָה שֶׁהָיָה שׂוֹנְאָם, וְלֹא רִחֲמוּ עַל בָּנָיו. מַה הִיא הַקִּנְאָה, שֶׁלֹא הָיוּ מְגַלִּים לוֹ הֵיכָן דָּוִד מִתְחַבֵּא, מִיָּד שָׁלַח דָּוִד וְקָרָא לָהֶם מַה לָּכֶם וּלְבֵית שָׁאוּל, אֲמַרוּן לֵיהּ עַל שֶׁפָּסַק מְזוֹנֵנוּ וְעַל שֶׁהֵמִית מִמֶּנּוּ שִׁבְעָה אֲנָשִׁים, שְׁנֵי חוֹטְבֵי עֵצִים, וּשְׁנֵי שׁוֹאֲבֵי מַיִם, וְחַזָּן, וְסוֹפֵר, וְשַׁמָּשׁ. אֲמַר לוֹן וּמָה אַתּוּן בָּעֲיִן כַּדּוּן, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שמואל ב כא, ג): וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל הַגִּבְעֹנִים מָה אֶעֱשֶׂה לָכֶם וּבַמָּה אֲכַפֵּר וּבָרְכוּ אֶת נַחֲלַת ה', אָמַר לָהֶם מָה הֲנָיָה לֶהֱוֵי לְכוֹן אִם תִּקְטְלוּן מִן בֵּית שָׁאוּל נַפְשָׁא, אֶלָּא אִמְרוּ לִי מַה תַּקָנָה אֶעֱשֶׂה לָכֶם שֶׁאַתֶּם מִתְפַּיְסִין וְכַמָּה כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב אֶתֵּן לָכֶם כֹּפֶר נַפְשְׁכֶם, וּבַמָּה אֲכַפֵּר, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (שמות כא, ל): אִם כֹּפֶר יוּשַׁת עָלָיו וְנָתַן פִּדְיֹן נַפְשׁוֹ, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּפְסֹק הָרָעָב, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: וּבָרְכוּ אֶת נַחֲלַת ה', וּכְמָה דְתֵימָא (בראשית מז, ז): וַיְבָרֶךְ יַעֲקֹב אֶת פַּרְעֹה, שֶׁבֵּרֲכוֹ שֶׁיִּכְלֶה הָרָעָב. (שמואל ב כא, ד): וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ הַגִּבְעֹנִים אֵין לָנוּ כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב עִם שָׁאוּל וְעִם בֵּיתוֹ, לִי כְתִיב לָנוּ קְרִי, לָמָּה כֵן, אָמַר לָהֶם דָּוִד, מָה הֲנָיָה לְכוֹן דְּאִנּוּן מִתְקַטְלִין, סְבוּ לְכוֹן כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב. אָמְרוּ לוֹ אֵין אָנוּ מְבַקְּשִׁין כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב עִם שָׁאוּל וְעִם בְּנֵי בֵיתוֹ, לֹא הָיָה לָנוּ חַיָּב מָמוֹן שֶׁמָּמוֹן נִטֹּל מִמֶּנּוּ, אֶלָּא נְפָשׁוֹת חַיָּב לָנוּ, וּנְפָשׁוֹת אָנוּ מְבַקְּשִׁין. אָמַר דָּוִד דִּלְמָא דְּאִנּוּן בָּהֲתִין פַּלְגוֹן מִן פַּלְגוֹן, נְסַב כָּל חַד וְחַד מִנְּהוֹן וַהֲוָה מְפַיֵּס לֵיהּ, קֳבֵל גַּרְמֵיהּ, וְהוּא אֲמַר לֵיהּ מָה הֲנָיָה לָךְ וְאִינוּן מִתְקַטְּלִין סַב לָךְ מָמוֹן, וְהוּא אֲמַר לֵיהּ: אֵין לִי כֶסֶף וְזָהָב עִם שָׁאוּל וְעִם בֵּיתוֹ, וְאֵין לָנוּ לַחֲזֹר עַל אֲחֵרִים אֶלָּא עָלָיו, שֶׁעֲבָדָיו לֹא רָצוּ לִשְׁלוֹחַ יָד בַּכֹּהֲנִים וְלֹא בָּנוּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל א כב, יז): וְלֹא אָבוּ עַבְדֵּי הַמֶּלֶךְ לִשְׁלוֹחַ אֶת יָדָם לִפְגֹּעַ בְּכֹהֲנֵי ה', הֱוֵי (שמואל ב כא, ד): וְאֵין לָנוּ אִישׁ לְהָמִית בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל. כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאָה דָּוִד שֶׁלֹא קִבְּלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ, אָמַר לָהֶם מָה אַתֶּם אוֹמְרִים אֲנִי עוֹשֶׂה לָכֶם, אִם נְפָשׁוֹת אַתֶּם מְבַקְּשִׁים אֲנִי אֶעֱשֶׂה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שמואל ב כא, ד): וַיֹּאמֶר מָה אַתֶּם אֹמְרִים אֶעֱשֶׂה לָכֶם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאָמַר לָהֶם דָּוִד כֵּן, אָמְרוּ לוֹ אֵין אָנוּ מְבַקְּשִׁים לִפְרֹעַ לוֹ כְּכָל מִדָּתוֹ, הוּא כִּלָּנוּ וְחָשַׁב לְהַשְׁמִידֵנוּ שֶׁלֹא יִהְיֶה לָנוּ עֲמִידָה בְּכָל גְּבוּל יִשְׂרָאֵל, אֵין אָנוּ מְבַקְּשִׁין מִכָּל בָּנָיו אֶלָּא שִׁבְעָה, כְּנֶגֶד הַשִּׁבְעָה אֲשֶׁר הֲרָגָם מִמֶּנּוּ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שמואל ב כא, ה): וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֶל הַמֶּלֶךְ הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר כִּלָּנוּ וַאֲשֶׁר דִּמָּה לָנוּ וגו', אֲשֶׁר כִּלָּנוּ שֶׁבַע אוֹתִיּוֹת הֵן, כְּנֶגֶד שֶׁבַע נְפָשׁוֹת שֶׁהָרַג מֵהֶם, לְפִיכָךְ (שמואל ב כא, ו): יֻתַּן לָנוּ שִׁבְעָה אֲנָשִׁים מִבָּנָיו וְהוֹקַעֲנוּם לַה' בְּגִבְעַת שָׁאוּל בְּחִיר ה' וגו', כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּרְאוּ כָּל הָעוֹלָם וְיִתְיָרְאוּ וְלֹא יוֹסִיפוּ עוֹד לְהָרַע לַגֵּרִים, לְכָךְ כְּתִיב לַה', שֶׁהוּא צִוָּה לְהֵיטִיב לַגֵּרִים, וְהוּא הֵרַע לָהֶם, לָמָּה בְּגִבְעַת שָׁאוּל, כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּדְעוּ אִם לַמֶּלֶךְ לֹא נָשָׂא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא פָּנִים קַל וָחֹמֶר לָהֶדְיוֹטִים. בְּחִיר ה', אֶתְמְהָה, הֵם מְקַטְרְגִים עָלָיו, וְקָרְיִין לֵיהּ בְּחִיר ה'. אֶלָּא הֵם אָמְרוּ: בְּגִבְעַת שָׁאוּל, יָצְתָה בַּת קוֹל וְאָמְרָה: בְּחִיר ה'. כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאָה דָּוִד צָרָתוֹ צָרָה, הִתְחִיל אוֹמֵר לָהֶם אֲנִי אֶתֵּן, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שמואל ב כא, ו): וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲנִי אֶתֵּן, (שמואל ב כא, ז): וַיַּחְמֹל הַמֶּלֶךְ עַל מְפִיבשֶׁת בֶּן יְהוֹנָתָן וגו', עַל שֶׁהָיָה אָדָם גָּדוֹל בַּתּוֹרָה נָתַן דָּוִד עֵינָיו בּוֹ לְהַצִּילוֹ מִיָּדָם, אָמַר דָּוִד הֲרֵינִי מַעֲבִירָן לִפְנֵי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, וְכָל מִי שֶׁהַמִּזְבֵּחַ קוֹלְטוֹ הֲרֵי הוּא שֶׁלּוֹ, וְהֶעֱבִירָן לִפְנֵי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, וְנִתְפַּלֵּל עָלָיו וְהָלַךְ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּקְלָטוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים נז, ג): אֶקְרָא לֵאלֹהִים עֶלְיוֹן לָאֵל גֹּמֵר עָלָי, שֶׁהִסְכִּים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עִם דָּוִד. (שמואל ב כא, ח): וַיִּקַּח הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי רִצְפָּה בַת אַיָּה אֲשֶׁר יָלְדָה לְשָׁאוּל וגו', וְהָכְתִיב (שמואל ב ו, כג): וּלְמִיכַל בַּת שָׁאוּל לֹא הָיָה לָהּ יָלֶד עַד יוֹם מוֹתָהּ, וּמֵרַב הֵיכָן הִיא, אֱמֹר מֵעַתָּה בְּנֵי מֵרַב הָיוּ וְגִדְּלָתַם מִיכַל וְנִקְרְאוּ עַל שְׁמָהּ. (שמואל ב כא, ט): וַיִּתְּנֵם בְּיַד הַגִּבְעֹנִים וַיֹּקִיעֻם בָּהָר לִפְנֵי ה' וַיִּפְּלוּ שְׁבַעְתָּם יָחַד, שְׁבַעְתָּם כְּתִיב חָסֵר יו"ד, זֶה מְפִיבשֶׁת בֶּן יוֹנָתָן שֶׁנִּצַּל, שֶׁהָיָה חָסֵר מִן הַשִּׁבְעָה. (שמואל ב כא, ט): וְהֵמָּה הֻמְתוּ בִּימֵי קָצִיר בָּרִאשֹׁנִים בִּתְחִלַּת קְצִיר שְׂעֹרִים, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהוּמְתוּ בְּשִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר בְּנִיסָן, יוֹם שֶׁהָיוּ מַקְרִיבִים אֶת הָעוֹמֶר. (שמואל ב כא, י): וַתִּקַּח רִצְפָּה בַת אַיָּה אֶת הַשַֹּׂק וַתַּטֵּהוּ לָהּ אֶל הַצּוּר, מַהוּ אֶל הַצּוּר, אָמַר רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא שֶׁהָיְתָה אוֹמֶרֶת (דברים לב, ד): הַצּוּר תָּמִים פָּעֳלוֹ. (שמואל ב כא, י): מִתְּחִלַּת קָצִיר עַד נִתַּךְ מַיִם עֲלֵיהֶם מִן הַשָּׁמָיִם, רַבִּי אַחָא בַּר זְבִינָא אָמַר בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא גָּדוֹל הוּא קִדּוּשׁ הַשֵּׁם מֵחִלּוּל הַשֵּׁם, בְּחִלּוּל הַשֵּׁם כְּתִיב (דברים כא, כג): לֹא תָלִין נִבְלָתוֹ עַל הָעֵץ, וּבְקִדּוּשׁ הַשֵּׁם כְּתִיב: מִתְּחִלַת קָצִיר עַד נִתַּךְ מַיִם עֲלֵיהֶם מִן הַשָּׁמָיִם, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁעָמְדוּ תְּלוּיִם מִשִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר בְּנִיסָן עַד שִׁבְעָה עָשָׂר בְּמַרְחֶשְׁוָן. וְהָכְתִיב (דברים כד, טז): לֹא יוּמְתוּ אָבוֹת עַל בָּנִים, וּבָנִים מֵתוּ בַּעֲוֹן אֲבִיהֶם, אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן מוּטָב שֶׁתֵּעָקֵר אוֹת אַחַת מִן הַתּוֹרָה וְאַל יִתְחַלֵּל שֵׁם שָׁמַיִם בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא, וְהָיוּ אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם אוֹמְרִים תּוֹרָתָן שֶׁל אֵלּוּ פְּלַסְטוֹן הִיא, כָּתוּב בְּתוֹרָתָן: לֹא תָלִין נִבְלָתוֹ, וְאֵלּוּ תְּלוּיִם שִׁבְעָה חֳדָשִׁים. כָּתוּב בְּתוֹרָתָן אֵין דָּנִים שְׁנַיִם בְּיוֹם אֶחָד, וְאֵלוּ שְׁבַעְתָּם יָחַד. כָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה: לֹא יוּמְתוּ אָבוֹת עַל בָּנִים, וְאֵלּוּ מֵתִים בַּעֲוֹן אֲבוֹתָם. וְהָיוּ שׁוֹאֲלִים עֲלֵיהֶם מֶה חָטְאוּ אֵלּוּ שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנֵּית מִדַּת הַדִּין, וְהָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹמְרִים לָהֶם אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם שֶׁל אֵלּוּ פָּשְׁטוּ יְדֵיהֶם בְּגֵרִים גְּרוּרִים, אָמְרוּ לָהֶם וְכִי מַה טִּיבָן, אָמְרוּ לָהֶם אֵלּוּ הַגֵּרִים שֶׁנִּתְגַּיְּרוּ בִּימֵי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ. אָמְרוּ לָהֶם וְכִי בִּשְׁבִיל הַגֵּרִים הַגְּרוּרִים הָאֲרוּרִים הַלָּלוּ עָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְעַמּוֹ כֵן, מַה בִּבְנֵי מְלָכִים כֵּן בְּהֶדְיוֹטוֹת עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה, מָה אִם אֵלּוּ שֶׁלֹא נִתְגַּיְּרוּ לְשֵׁם שָׁמַיִם רְאוּ הֵיאַךְ תָּבַע הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת דָּמָן, הַמִּתְגַּיֵּר לְשֵׁם שָׁמַיִם עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה, וַדַּאי אֵין אֱלוֹהַּ כֵּאלֹהֵיהֶם וְאֵין אֻמָּה כְּאֻמָּתָם, וְאֵין לָנוּ לִדָּבֵק אֶלָּא בְּאֻמָּה זוֹ שֶׁאֱלֹהֶיהָ גָּדוֹל מִכָּל אֱלֹהִים. מִיָּד נִתְגַּיְּרוּ הַרְבֵּה גֵרִים מֵאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה מֵאָה וַחֲמִשִּׁים אֶלֶף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברי הימים ב ב, טז): וַיִסְפֹּר שְׁלֹמֹה כָּל הָאֲנָשִׁים הַגֵּירִים אֲשֶׁר בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֲרֵי הַסְּפָר אֲשֶׁר סְפָרָם דָּוִיד אָבִיו וַיִּמָּצְאוּ מֵאָה וַחֲמִשִּׁים אֶלֶף וּשְׁלשֶׁת אֲלָפִים וְשֵׁשׁ מֵאוֹת. מֵהֶם עָשָׂה שְׁלֹמֹה שִׁבְעִים אֶלֶף נוֹשֵׂא סַבָּל, וּשְׁמוֹנִים אֶלֶף חוֹצֵב בָּהָר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברי הימים ב ב, א): וַיִּסְפֹּר שְׁלֹמֹה שִׁבְעִים אֶלֶף אִישׁ סַבָּל וגו'. וְכָל כָּךְ לָמָּה לְהוֹדִיעַ שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הוּא מְקָרֵב אֶת הָרְחוֹקִים, וְסָמַךְ לָרְחוֹקִים כַּקְּרוֹבִים, וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא שֶׁמַּקְדִּים שָׁלוֹם לָרְחוֹקִים מִן הַקְּרוֹבִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה נז, יט): שָׁלוֹם שָׁלוֹם לָרָחוֹק וְלַקָּרוֹב, הֱוֵי: עַד נִתַּךְ מַיִם עֲלֵיהֶם מִן הַשָּׁמָיִם. מַהוּ (שמואל ב כא, י): וְלֹא נָתְנָה עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם לָנוּחַ עֲלֵיהֶם, בּוֹא וּרְאֵה הַחֶסֶד שֶׁעָשְׂתָה רִצְפָּה בַת אַיָּה עִמָּהֶם, שֶׁהָיְתָה שׁוֹמַרְתָּם בַּיּוֹם מֵעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַלַּיְלָה מֵחַיַּת הַשָֹּׂדֶה שִׁבְעָה חֳדָשִׁים, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְדָוִד עַל שָׁאוּל שֶׁלֹא נִסְפַּד כַּהֲלָכָה וְהוּא נִקְבַּר בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ, הָיָה דָּוִד מִתְעַצֵּל בְּהֶסְפֵּדוֹ, שֶׁאָמַר שָׁאוּל כְּבָר עָבְרוּ עָלָיו תְּרֵיסַר יַרְחֵי שַׁתָּא וְלָא אָרְחֵיהּ לְאַסְפּוּדֵיהּ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּידוּ לוֹ מַעֲשִׂים שֶׁל רִצְפָּה בַת אַיָּה, נָשָׂא קַל וָחֹמֶר בְּעַצְמוֹ, וְאָמַר: מַה זּוֹ שֶׁהִיא אִשָּׁה כָּךְ עָשְׂתָה לִגְמִילוּת חֲסָדִים, אֲנִי שֶׁאֲנִי מֶלֶךְ עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה, מִיָּד הָלַךְ לִגְמֹל חֶסֶד עִמָּהֶם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שמואל ב כא, יא): וַיֻּגַּד לְדָוִד אֵת אֲשֶׁר עָשְׂתָה וגו', (שמואל ב כא, יב יג): וַיֵּלֶךְ דָּוִד וַיִּקַּח אֶת עַצְמוֹת שָׁאוּל וגו' וַיַּעַל מִשָּׁם אֶת עַצְמוֹת שָׁאוּל וגו'. מֶה עָשָׂה דָּוִד, עָמַד וְכִנֵּס כָּל זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּגְדוֹלֵיהֶם, וְעָבְרוּ אֶת הַיַּרְדֵּן וּבָאוּ לְיָבֵישׁ גִּלְעָד, וּמָצְאוּ אֶת עַצְמוֹת שָׁאוּל וִיהוֹנָתָן בְּנוֹ וְנָתְנוּ אוֹתָם בְּתוֹךְ אֲרוֹן הַמֵּת וְעָבְרוּ אֶת הַיַּרְדֵּן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל ב כא, יד): וַיִּקְבְּרוּ אֶת עַצְמוֹת שָׁאוּל וִיהוֹנָתָן בְּנוֹ וגו', מַהוּ (שמואל ב כא, יד): בְּצֵלָע בְּקֶבֶר קִישׁ אָבִיו, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהֱבִיאוּהוּ לִגְבוּל יְרוּשָׁלַיִם וּקְבָרוּהוּ שָׁם, וְצֵלָע הִיא בְּצַד יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יהושע יח, כח): וְצֵלַע הָאֶלֶף וְהַיְבוּסִי הִיא יְרוּשָׁלָיִם וגו'. (שמואל ב כא, יד): וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה הַמֶּלֶךְ, וּמַה צִּוָּה הַמֶּלֶךְ, צִוָּה לִהְיוֹת מַעֲבִירִים אֲרוֹנוֹ שֶׁל שָׁאוּל בְּכָל שֵׁבֶט וְשֵׁבֶט וְהָיָה הַשֵּׁבֶט שֶׁהָיָה נִכְנַס בּוֹ אֲרוֹנוֹ שֶׁל שָׁאוּל יוֹצְאִים הֵם וּנְשֵׁיהֶם וּבְנֵיהֶם וּבְנוֹתֵיהֶם וְגוֹמְלִים חֶסֶד עִם שָׁאוּל וּבָנָיו, כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּצְאוּ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן בִּגְמִילוּת חֲסָדִים, עַד שֶׁבָּאוּ לְאֶרֶץ אֲחֻזָּתוֹ לִגְבוּל יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁרָאָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁגָּמְלוּ לוֹ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל חֶסֶד וְעָשׂוּ דִּינָם שֶׁל גִּבְעוֹנִים, מִיָּד נִתְמַלֵּא רַחֲמִים וְנָתַן מָטָר עַל הָאָרֶץ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל ב כא, יד): וַיֵּעָתֵר אֱלֹהִים לָאָרֶץ אַחֲרֵי כֵן, הָא לָמַדְנוּ כַּמָּה קֵרַב הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת הָרְחוֹקִים, אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁנִּתְגַּיְּרוּ שֶׁלֹא לְשֵׁם שָׁמַיִם, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר עַל גֵּרֵי הַצֶּדֶק, הֱוֵי: יוֹדוּךָ ה' כָּל מַלְכֵי אָרֶץ וגו'. 8.4. ... “And David went and he took the bones of Saul and the bones of Jonathan his son from the men of Jabesh- gilead… And he brought up from there the bones of Saul and the bones of Jonathan his son…” (Shmuel II 21:12-13) What did David do? He went and gathered all the elders and great ones of Israel, crossed the Jordan River, and came to Yavesh-gilead. He found the bones of Shaul and his son Yonatan, placed them in a casket and crossed back over the Jordan, as it says “And they buried the bones of Saul and Jonathan his son in the country of Benjamin in Zela, in the tomb of Kish his father and they did all that the king commanded…” (Shmuel II 21:14) What does ‘in Zela, in the tomb of Kish his father’ mean? It comes to teach us that they brought them to the border of Jerusalem and buried them there. Zela is next to Jerusalem, as it says “And Zelah, Eleph, and the Jebusite, which is Jerusalem…” (Yehoshua 18:28) ‘and they did all that the king commanded’ And what did the king command? He commanded that they carry Shaul’s casket from tribe to tribe. As Shaul’s casket entered each tribe’s territory all the men, women and children came out in order to perform an act of loving kindness to Shaul and his sons and thereby all of Israel would fulfill its obligation to loving kindness. This went on until they reached the land of his portion on the border of Jerusalem. Since the Holy One saw that they did loving kindness to Shaul and fulfilled the judgement of the Givonites He was immediately filled with mercy and sent rain upon the land, as it says “And God was entreated for the land after that.” (Shmuel II 21:14) From this we learn how close the Holy One brings those that are far away, even though they converted not for the sake of heaven. There is no need to even mention how he draws near righteous converts, “O Lord, all the kings of the earth will acknowledge You…” (Tehillim 138:4)"
57. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Recognitions, 1.27-1.71 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.27. In the beginning, when God had made the heaven and the earth, Genesis 1:1 as one house, the shadow which was cast by the mundane bodies involved in darkness those things which were enclosed in it. But when the will of God had introduced light, that darkness which had been caused by the shadows of bodies was straightway dispelled: then at length light is appointed for the day, darkness for the night. And now the water which was within the world, in the middle space of that first heaven and earth, congealed as if with frost, and solid as crystal, is distended, and the middle spaces of the heaven and earth are separated as by a firmament of this sort; and that firmament the Creator called heaven, so called by the name of that previously made: and so He divided into two portions that fabric of the universe, although it was but one house. The reason of the division was this, that the upper portion might afford a dwelling-place to angels, and the lower to men. After this, the place of the sea and the chaos which had been made received that portion of the water which remained below, by order of the eternal Will; and these flowing down to the sunk and hollow places, the dry land appeared; and the gatherings of the waters were made seas. And after this the earth, which had appeared, produced various species of herbs and shrubs. It gave forth fountains also, and rivers, not only in the plains, but on the mountains. And so all things were prepared, that men who were to dwell in it might have it in their power to use all these things according to their will, that is, either for good or evil. 1.28. After this He adorns that visible heaven with stars. He places in it also the sun and the moon, that the day might enjoy the light of the one, the night that of the other; and that at the same time they might be for an indication of things past, present, and future. For they were made for signs of seasons and of days, which, although they are seen indeed by all, are understood only by the learned and intelligent. And when, after this, He had ordered living creatures to be produced from the earth and the waters, He made Paradise, which also He named a place of delights. But after all these things He made man, on whose account He had prepared all things, whose internal species is older, and for whose sake all things that are were made, given up to his service, and assigned to the uses of his habitation. 1.29. All things therefore being completed which are in heaven, and in earth, and in the waters, and the human race also having multiplied, in the eighth generation, righteous men, who had lived the life of angels, being allured by the beauty of women, fell into promiscuous and illicit connections with these; and thenceforth acting in all things without discretion, and disorderly, they changed the state of human affairs and the divinely prescribed order of life, so that either by persuasion or force they compelled all men to sin against God their Creator. In the ninth generation are born the giants, so called from of old, not dragon-footed, as the fables of the Greeks relate, but men of immense bodies, whose bones, of enormous size, are still shown in some places for confirmation. But against these the righteous providence of God brought a flood upon the world, that the earth might be purified from their pollution, and every place might be turned into a sea by the destruction of the wicked. Yet there was then found one righteous man, by name Noah, who, being delivered in an ark with his three sons and their wives, became the colonizer of the world after the subsiding of the waters, with those animals and seeds which he had shut up with him. 1.30. In the twelfth generation, when God had blessed men, and they had begun to multiply, Genesis 9:1 they received a commandment that they should not taste blood, for on account of this also the deluge had been sent. In the thirteenth generation, when the second of Noah's three sons had done an injury to his father, and had been cursed by him, he brought the condition of slavery upon his posterity. His elder brother meantime obtained the lot of a dwelling-place in the middle region of the world, in which is the country of Jud a; the younger obtained the eastern quarter, and he the western. In the fourteenth generation one of the cursed progeny first erected an altar to demons, for the purpose of magical arts, and offered there bloody sacrifices. In the fifteenth generation, for the first time, men set up an idol and worshipped it. Until that time the Hebrew language, which had been given by God to men, bore sole sway. In the sixteenth generation the sons of men migrated from the east, and, coming to the lands that had been assigned to their fathers, each one marked the place of his own allotment by his own name. In the seventeenth generation Nimrod I. reigned in Babylonia, and built a city, and thence migrated to the Persians, and taught them to worship fire. 1.31. In the eighteenth generation walled cities were built, armies were organized and armed, judges and laws were sanctioned, temples were built, and the princes of nations were adored as gods. In the nineteenth generation the descendants of him who had been cursed after the flood, going beyond their proper bounds which they had obtained by lot in the western regions, drove into the eastern lands those who had obtained the middle portion of the world, and pursued them as far as Persia, while themselves violently took possession of the country from which they expelled them. In the twentieth generation a son for the first time died before his father, Genesis 11:28 on account of an incestuous crime. 1.32. In the twenty-first generation there was a certain wise man, of the race of those who were expelled, of the family of Noah's eldest son, by name Abraham, from whom our Hebrew nation is derived. When the whole world was again overspread with errors, and when for the hideousness of its crimes destruction was ready for it, this time not by water, but fire, and when already the scourge was hanging over the whole earth, beginning with Sodom, this man, by reason of his friendship with God, who was well pleased with him, obtained from God that the whole world should not equally perish. From the first this same man, being an astrologer, was able, from the account and order of the stars, to recognise the Creator, while all others were in error, and understood that all things are regulated by His providence. Whence also an angel, standing by him in a vision, instructed him more fully concerning those things which he was beginning to perceive. He showed him also what belonged to his race and posterity, and promised him that those districts should be restored rather than given to them. 1.33. Therefore Abraham, when he was desirous to learn the causes of things, and was intently pondering upon what had been told him, the true Prophet appeared to him, who alone knows the hearts and purpose of men, and disclosed to him all things which he desired. He taught him the knowledge of the Divinity; intimated the origin of the world, and likewise its end; showed him the immortality of the soul, and the manner of life which was pleasing to God; declared also the resurrection of the dead, the future judgment, the reward of the good, the punishment of the evil - all to be regulated by righteous judgment: and having given him all this information plainly and sufficiently, He departed again to the invisible abodes. But while Abraham was still in ignorance, as we said to you before, two sons were born to him, of whom the one was called Ismael, and the other Heliesdros. From the one are descended the barbarous nations, from the other the people of the Persians, some of whom have adopted the manner of living and the institutions of their neighbours, the Brachmans. Others settled in Arabia, of whose posterity some also have spread into Egypt. From them some of the Indians and of the Egyptians have learned to be circumcised, and to be of purer observance than others, although in process of time most of them have turned to impiety what was the proof and sign of purity. 1.34. Nevertheless, as he had got these two sons during the time while he still lived in ignorance of things, having received the knowledge of God, he asked of the Righteous One that he might merit to have offspring by Sarah, who was his lawful wife, though she was barren. She obtained a son. whom he named Isaac, from whom came Jacob, and from him the twelve patriarchs, and from these twelve seventy-two. These, when famine befell came into Egypt with all their family; and in the course of four hundred years, being multiplied by the blessing and promise of God, they were afflicted by the Egyptians. And when they were afflicted the true Prophet appeared to Moses, Exodus iii and struck the Egyptians with ten plagues, when they refused to let the Hebrew people depart from them, and return to their native land; and he brought the people of God out of Egypt. But those of the Egyptians who survived the plagues, being infected with the animosity of their king, pursued after the Hebrews. And when they had overtaken them at the sea-shore, and thought to destroy and exterminate them all, Moses, pouring out prayer to God, divided the sea into two parts, so that the water was held on the right hand and on the left as if it had been frozen, and the people of God passed as over a dry road; but the Egyptians who were pursuing them, rashly entering, were drowned. For when the last of the Hebrews came out, the last of the Egyptians went down into the sea; and straightway the waters of the sea, which by his command were held bound as with frost, were loosed by his command who had bound them, and recovering their natural freedom, inflicted punishment on the wicked nation. 1.35. After this, Moses, by the command of God, whose providence is over all, led out the people of the Hebrews into the wilderness; and, leaving the shortest road which leads from Egypt to Jud a, he led the people through long windings of the wilderness, that, by the discipline of forty years, the novelty of a changed manner of life might root out the evils which had clung to them by a long-continued familiarity with the customs of the Egyptians. Meantime they came to Mount Sinai, and thence the law was given to them with voices and sights from heaven, written in ten precepts, of which the first and greatest was that they should worship God Himself alone, and not make to themselves any appearance or form to worship. But when Moses had gone up to the mount, and was staying there forty days, the people, although they had seen Egypt struck with the ten plagues, and the sea parted and passed over by them on foot, manna also given to them from heaven for bread, and drink supplied to them out of the rock that followed 1 Corinthians 10:4 them, which kind of food was turned into whatever taste any one desired; and although, being placed under the torrid region of heaven, they were shaded by a cloud in the day-time, that they might not be scorched by the heat, and by night were enlightened by a pillar of fire, lest the horror of darkness should be added to the wasteness of the wilderness;- those very people, I say, when Moses stayed in the mount, made and worshipped a golden calf's head, after the fashion of Apis, whom they had seen worshipped in Egypt; and after so many and so great marvels which they had seen, were unable to cleanse and wash out from themselves the defilements of old habit. On this account, leaving the short road which leads from Egypt to Jud a, Moses conducted them by an immense circuit of the desert, if haply he might be able, as we mentioned before, to shake off the evils of old habit by the change of a new education. 1.36. When meantime Moses, that faithful and wise steward, perceived that the vice of sacrificing to idols had been deeply ingrained into the people from their association with the Egyptians, and that the root of this evil could not be extracted from them, he allowed them indeed to sacrifice, but permitted it to be done only to God, that by any means he might cut off one half of the deeply ingrained evil, leaving the other half to be corrected by another, and at a future time; by Him, namely, concerning whom he said himself, 'A prophet shall the Lord your God raise unto you, whom you shall hear even as myself, according to all things which He shall say to you. Whosoever shall not hear that prophet, his soul shall be cut off from his people. 1.37. In addition to these things, he also appointed a place in which alone it should be lawful to them to sacrifice to God. And all this was arranged with this view, that when the fitting time should come, and they should learn by means of the Prophet that God desires mercy and not sacrifice, they might see Him who should teach them that the place chosen of God, in which it was suitable that victims should be offered to God, is his Wisdom; and that on the other hand they might hear that this place, which seemed chosen for a time, often harassed as it had been by hostile invasions and plunderings, was at last to be wholly destroyed. And in order to impress this upon them, even before the coming of the true Prophet, who was to reject at once the sacrifices and the place, it was often plundered by enemies and burnt with fire, and the people carried into captivity among foreign nations, and then brought back when they betook themselves to the mercy of God; that by these things they might be taught that a people who offer sacrifices are driven away and delivered up into the hands of the enemy, but they who do mercy and righteousness are without sacrifices freed from captivity, and restored to their native land. But it fell out that very few understood this; for the greater number, though they could perceive and observe these things, yet were held by the irrational opinion of the vulgar: for right opinion with liberty is the prerogative of a few. 1.38. Moses, then, having arranged these things, and having set over the people one Auses to bring them to the land of their fathers, himself by the command of the living God went up to a certain mountain, and there died. Yet such was the manner of his death, that till this day no one has found his burial-place. When, therefore, the people reached their fathers' land, by the providence of God, at their first onset the inhabitants of wicked races are routed, and they enter upon their paternal inheritance, which was distributed among them by lot. For some time thereafter they were ruled not by kings, but judges, and remained in a somewhat peaceful condition. But when they sought for themselves tyrants rather than kings, then also with regal ambition they erected a temple in the place which had been appointed to them for prayer; and thus, through a succession of wicked kings, the people fell away to greater and still greater impiety. 1.39. But when the time began to draw near that what was wanting in the Mosaic institutions should be supplied, as we have said, and that the Prophet should appear, of whom he had foretold that He should warn them by the mercy of God to cease from sacrificing; lest haply they might suppose that on the cessation of sacrifice there was no remission of sins for them, He instituted baptism by water among them, in which they might be absolved from all their sins on the invocation of His name, and for the future, following a perfect life, might abide in immortality, being purified not by the blood of beasts, but by the purification of the Wisdom of God. Subsequently also an evident proof of this great mystery is supplied in the fact, that every one who, believing in this Prophet who had been foretold by Moses, is baptized in His name, shall be kept unhurt from the destruction of war which impends over the unbelieving nation, and the place itself; but that those who do not believe shall be made exiles from their place and kingdom, that even against their will they may understand and obey the will of God. 1.40. These things therefore having been fore-arranged, He who was expected comes, bringing signs and miracles as His credentials by which He should be made manifest. But not even so did the people believe, though they had been trained during so many ages to the belief of these things. And not only did they not believe, but they added blasphemy to unbelief, saying that He was a gluttonous man and a belly-slave, and that He was actuated by a demon, even He who had come for their salvation. To such an extent does wickedness prevail by the agency of evil ones; so that, but for the Wisdom of God assisting those who love the truth, almost all would have been involved in impious delusion. Therefore He chose us twelve, Matthew x the first who believed in Him, whom He named apostles; and afterwards other seventy-two most approved disciples, Luke x that, at least in this way recognising the pattern of Moses, Numbers 11:16 the multitude might believe that this is He of whom Moses foretold, the Prophet that was to come. Deuteronomy 18:15 1.41. But some one perhaps may say that it is possible for any one to imitate a number; but what shall we say of the signs and miracles which He wrought? For Moses had wrought miracles and cures in Egypt. He also of whom he foretold that He should rise up a prophet like himself, though He cured every sickness and infirmity among the people, wrought innumerable miracles, and preached eternal life, was hurried by wicked men to the cross; which deed was, however, by His power turned to good. In short, while He was suffering, all the world suffered with Him; for the sun was darkened, the mountains were torn asunder, the graves were opened, the veil of the temple was rent, as in lamentation for the destruction impending over the place. And yet, though all the world was moved, they themselves are not even now moved to the consideration of these so great things. 1.42. But inasmuch as it was necessary that the Gentiles should be called into the room of those who remained unbelieving, so that the number might be filled up which had been shown to Abraham, the preaching of the blessed kingdom of God is sent into all the world. On this account worldly spirits are disturbed, who always oppose those who are in quest of liberty, and who make use of the engines of error to destroy God's building; while those who press on to the glory of safety and liberty, being rendered braver by their resistance to these spirits, and by the toil of great struggles against them, attain the crown of safety not without the palm of victory. Meantime, when He had suffered, and darkness had overwhelmed the world from the sixth even to the ninth hour, Matthew 27:45 as soon as the sun shone out again, and things were returned to their usual course, even wicked men returned to themselves and their former practices, their fear having abated. For some of them, watching the place with all care, when they could not prevent His rising again, said that He was a magician; others pretended that he was stolen away. Matthew 28:13 1.43. Nevertheless, the truth everywhere prevailed; for, in proof that these things were done by divine power, we who had been very few became in the course of a few days, by the help of God, far more than they. So that the priests at one time were afraid, lest haply, by the providence of God, to their confusion, the whole of the people should come over to our faith. Therefore they often sent to us, and asked us to discourse to them concerning Jesus, whether He were the Prophet whom Moses foretold, who is the eternal Christ. John 12:34 For on this point only does there seem to be any difference between us who believe in Jesus, and the unbelieving Jews. But while they often made such requests to us, and we sought for a fitting opportunity, a week of years was completed from the passion of the Lord, the Church of the Lord which was constituted in Jerusalem was most plentifully multiplied and grew, being governed with most righteous ordices by James, who was ordained bishop in it by the Lord. 1.44. But when we twelve apostles, on the day of the passover, had come together with an immense multitude, and entered into the church of the brethren, each one of us, at the request of James, stated briefly, in the hearing of the people, what we had done in every place. While this was going on, Caiaphas, the high priest, sent priests to us, and asked us to come to him, that either we should prove to him that Jesus is the eternal Christ, or he to us that He is not, and that so all the people should agree upon the one faith or the other; and this he frequently entreated us to do. But we often put it off, always seeking for a more convenient time. Then I, Clement, answered to this: I think that this very question, whether He is the Christ, is of great importance for the establishment of the faith; otherwise the high priest would not so frequently ask that he might either learn or teach concerning the Christ. Then Peter: You have answered rightly, O Clement; for as no one can see without eyes, nor hear without ears, nor smell without nostrils, nor taste without a tongue, nor handle anything without hands, so it is impossible, without the true Prophet, to know what is pleasing to God. And I answered: I have already learned from your instruction that this true prophet is the Christ; but I should wish to learn what the Christ means, or why He is so called, that a matter of so great importance may not be vague and uncertain to me. 1.45. Then Peter began to instruct me in this manner: When God had made the world, as Lord of the universe, He appointed chiefs over the several creatures, over the trees even, and the mountains, and the fountains, and the rivers, and all things which He had made, as we have told you; for it were too long to mention them one by one. He set, therefore, an angel as chief over the angels, a spirit over the spirits, a star over the stars, a demon over the demons, a bird over the birds, a beast over the beasts, a serpent over the serpents, a fish over the fishes, a man over men, who is Christ Jesus. But He is called Christ by a certain excellent rite of religion; for as there are certain names common to kings, as Arsaces among the Persians, C sar among the Romans, Pharaoh among the Egyptians, so among the Jews a king is called Christ. And the reason of this appellation is this: Although indeed He was the Son of God, and the beginning of all things, He became man; Him first God anointed with oil which was taken from the wood of the tree of life: from that anointing therefore He is called Christ. Thence, moreover, He Himself also, according to the appointment of His Father, anoints with similar oil every one of the pious when they come to His kingdom, for their refreshment after their labours, as having got over the difficulties of the way; so that their light may shine, and being filled with the Holy Spirit, they may be endowed with immortality. But it occurs to me that I have sufficiently explained to you the whole nature of that branch from which that ointment is taken. 1.46. But now also I shall, by a very short representation, recall you to the recollection of all these things. In the present life, Aaron, the first high priest, was anointed with a composition of chrism, which was made after the pattern of that spiritual ointment of which we have spoken before. He was prince of the people, and as a king received first-fruits and tribute from the people, man by man; and having undertaken the office of judging the people, he judged of things clean and things unclean. But if any one else was anointed with the same ointment, as deriving virtue from it, he became either king, or prophet, or priest. If, then, this temporal grace, compounded by men, had such efficacy, consider now how potent was that ointment extracted by God from a branch of the tree of life, when that which was made by men could confer so excellent dignities among men. For what in the present age is more glorious than a prophet, more illustrious than a priest, more exalted than a king? 1.47. To this, I replied: I remember, Peter, that you told me of the first man that he was a prophet; but you did not say that he was anointed. If then there be no prophet without anointing, how could the first man be a prophet, since he was not anointed? Then Peter, smiling, said: If the first man prophesied, it is certain that he was also anointed. For although he who has recorded the law in his pages is silent as to his anointing, yet he has evidently left us to understand these things. For as, if he had said that he was anointed, it would not be doubted that he was also a prophet, although it were not written in the law; so, since it is certain that he was a prophet, it is in like manner certain that he was also anointed, because without anointing he could not be a prophet. But you should rather have said, If the chrism was compounded by Aaron, by the perfumer's art, how could the first man be anointed before Aaron's time, the arts of composition not yet having been discovered? Then I answered, Do not misunderstand me, Peter; for I do not speak of that compounded ointment and temporal oil, but of that simple and eternal ointment, which you told me was made by God, after whose likeness you say that that other was compounded by men. 1.48. Then Peter answered, with an appearance of indignation: What! Do you suppose, Clement, that all of us can know all things before the time? But not to be drawn aside now from our proposed discourse, we shall at another time, when your progress is more manifest, explain these things more distinctly. Then, however, a priest or a prophet, being anointed with the compounded ointment, putting fire to the altar of God, was held illustrious in all the world. But after Aaron, who was a priest, another is taken out of the waters. I do not speak of Moses, but of Him who, in the waters of baptism, was called by God His Son. Matthew 3:17 For it is Jesus who has put out, by the grace of baptism, that fire which the priest kindled for sins; for, from the time when He appeared, the chrism has ceased, by which the priesthood or the prophetic or the kingly office was conferred. 1.49. His coming, therefore, was predicted by Moses, who delivered the law of God to men; but by another also before him, as I have already informed you. He therefore intimated that He should come, humble indeed in His first coming, but glorious in His second. And the first, indeed, has been already accomplished; since He has come and taught, and He, the Judge of all, has been judged and slain. But at His second coming He shall come to judge, and shall indeed condemn the wicked, but shall take the pious into a share and association with Himself in His kingdom. Now the faith of His second coming depends upon His first. For the prophets- especially Jacob and Moses- spoke of the first, but some also of the second. But the excellency of prophecy is chiefly shown in this, that the prophets spoke not of things to come, according to the sequence of things; otherwise they might seem merely as wise men to have conjectured what the sequence of things pointed out. 1.50. But what I say is this: It was to be expected that Christ should be received by the Jews, to whom He came, and that they should believe in Him who was expected for the salvation of the people, according to the traditions of the fathers; but that the Gentiles should be averse to Him, since neither promise nor announcement concerning Him had been made to them, and indeed he had never been made known to them even by name. Yet the prophets, contrary to the order and sequence of things, said that He should be the expectation of the Gentiles, and not of the Jews. Genesis 49:10 And so it happened. For when He came, he was not at all acknowledged by those who seemed to expect Him, in consequence of the tradition of their ancestors; whereas those who had heard nothing at all of Him, both believe that He has come, and hope that he is to come. And thus in all things prophecy appears faithful, which said that He was the expectation of the Gentiles. The Jews, therefore, have erred concerning the first coming of the Lord; and on this point only there is disagreement between us and them. For they themselves know and expect that Christ shall come; but that he has come already in humility - even he who is called Jesus - they do not know. And this is a great confirmation of His coming, that all do not believe in Him. 1.51. Him, therefore, has God appointed in the end of the world; because it was impossible that the evils of men could be removed by any other, provided that the nature of the human race were to remain entire, i.e., the liberty of the will being preserved. This condition, therefore, being preserved inviolate, He came to invite to His kingdom all righteous ones, and those who have been desirous to please Him. For these He has prepared unspeakable good things, and the heavenly city Jerusalem, which shall shine above the brightness of the sun, for the habitation of the saints. But the unrighteous, and the wicked and those who have despised God, and have devoted the life given them to diverse wickednesses, and have given to the practice of evil the time which was given them for the work of righteousness He shall hand over to fitting and condign vengeance. But the rest of the things which shall then be done, it is neither in the power of angels nor of men to tell or to describe. This only it is enough for us to know, that God shall confer upon the good an eternal possession of good things. 1.52. When he had thus spoken, I answered: If those shall enjoy the kingdom of Christ, whom His coming shall find righteous, shall then those be wholly deprived of the kingdom who have died before His coming? Then Peter says: You compel me, O Clement, to touch upon things that are unspeakable. But so far as it is allowed to declare them, I shall not shrink from doing so. Know then that Christ, who was from the beginning, and always, was ever present with the pious, though secretly, through all their generations: especially with those who waited for Him, to whom He frequently appeared. But the time was not yet that there should be a resurrection of the bodies that were dissolved; but this seemed rather to be their reward from God, that whoever should be found righteous, should remain longer in the body; or, at least, as is clearly related in the writings of the law concerning a certain righteous man, that God translated him. Genesis 5:24 In like manner others were dealt with, who pleased His will, that, being translated to Paradise, they should be kept for the kingdom. But as to those who have not been able completely to fulfil the rule of righteousness, but have had some remts of evil in their flesh, their bodies are indeed dissolved, but their souls are kept in good and blessed abodes, that at the resurrection of the dead, when they shall recover their own bodies, purified even by the dissolution, they may obtain an eternal inheritance in proportion to their good deeds. And therefore blessed are all those who shall attain to the kingdom of Christ; for not only shall they escape the pains of hell, but shall also remain incorruptible, and shall be the first to see God the Father, and shall obtain the rank of honour among the first in the presence of God. 1.53. Wherefore there is not the least doubt concerning Christ; and all the unbelieving Jews are stirred up with boundless rage against us, fearing lest haply He against whom they have sinned should be He. And their fear grows all the greater, because they know that, as soon as they fixed Him on the cross, the whole world showed sympathy with Him; and that His body, although they guarded it with strict care, could nowhere be found; and that innumerable multitudes are attaching themselves to His faith. Whence they, together with the high priest Caiaphas, were compelled to send to us again and again, that an inquiry might be instituted concerning the truth of His name. And when they were constantly entreating that they might either learn or teach concerning Jesus, whether He were the Christ, it seemed good to us to go up into the temple, and in the presence of all the people to bear witness concerning Him, and at the same time to charge the Jews with many foolish things which they were doing. For the people was now divided into many parties, ever since the days of John the Baptist. 1.54. For when the rising of Christ was at hand for the abolition of sacrifices, and for the bestowal of the grace of baptism, the enemy, understanding from the predictions that the time was at hand, wrought various schisms among the people, that, if haply it might be possible to abolish the former sin, the latter fault might be incorrigible. The first schism, therefore, was that of those who were called Sadducees, which took their rise almost in the time of John. These, as more righteous than others, began to separate themselves from the assembly of the people, and to deny the resurrection of the dead, Matthew 22:23 and to assert that by an argument of infidelity, saying that it was unworthy that God should be worshipped, as it were, under the promise of a reward. The first author of this opinion was Dositheus; the second was Simon. Another schism is that of the Samaritans; for they deny the resurrection of the dead, and assert that God is not to be worshipped in Jerusalem, but on Mount Gerizim. They indeed rightly, from the predictions of Moses, expect the one true Prophet; but by the wickedness of Dositheus they were hindered from believing that Jesus is He whom they were expecting. The scribes also, and Pharisees, are led away into another schism; but these, being baptized by John, and holding the word of truth received from the tradition of Moses as the key of the kingdom of heaven, have hid it from the hearing of the people. Luke 11:52 Yea, some even of the disciples of John, who seemed to be great ones, have separated themselves from the people, and proclaimed their own master as the Christ. But all these schisms have been prepared, that by means of them the faith of Christ and baptism might be hindered. 1.55. However, as we were proceeding to say, when the high priest had often sent priests to ask us that we might discourse with one another concerning Jesus; when it seemed a fit opportunity, and it pleased all the Church, we went up to the temple, and, standing on the steps together with our faithful brethren, the people kept perfect silence; and first the high priest began to exhort the people that they should hear patiently and quietly, and at the same time witness and judge of those things that were to be spoken. Then, in the next place, exalting with many praises the rite or sacrifice which had been bestowed by God upon the human race for the remission of sins, he found fault with the baptism of our Jesus, as having been recently brought in in opposition to the sacrifices. But Matthew, meeting his propositions, showed clearly, that whosoever shall not obtain the baptism of Jesus shall not only be deprived of the kingdom of heaven, but shall not be without peril at the resurrection of the dead, even though he be fortified by the prerogative of a good life and an upright disposition. Having made these and such like statements, Matthew stopped. 1.56. But the party of the Sadducees, who deny the resurrection of the dead, were in a rage, so that one of them cried out from among the people, saying that those greatly err who think that the dead ever arise. In opposition to him, Andrew, my brother, answering, declared that it is not an error, but the surest matter of faith, that the dead rise, in accordance with the teaching of Him of whom Moses foretold that He should come the true Prophet. 'Or if,' says he, 'you do not think that this is He whom Moses foretold, let this first be inquired into, so that when this is clearly proved to be He, there may be no further doubt concerning the things which He taught.' These, and many such like things, Andrew proclaimed, and then stopped. 1.57. But a certain Samaritan, speaking against the people and against God, and asserting that neither are the dead to rise, nor is that worship of God to be maintained which is in Jerusalem, but that Mount Gerizim is to be reverenced, added also this in opposition to us, that our Jesus was not He whom Moses foretold as a Prophet to come into the world. Against him, and another who supported him in what he said, James and John, the sons of Zebedee, strove vigorously; and although they had a command not to enter into their cities, Matthew 10:5 nor to bring the word of preaching to them, yet, lest their discourse, unless it were confined, should hurt the faith of others, they replied so prudently and so powerfully, that they put them to perpetual silence. For James made an oration concerning the resurrection of the dead, with the approbation of all the people; while John showed that if they would abandon the error of Mount Gerizim, they should consequently acknowledge that Jesus was indeed He who, according to the prophecy of Moses, was expected to come; since, indeed, as Moses wrought signs and miracles, so also did Jesus. And there is no doubt but that the likeness of the signs proves Him to be that prophet of whom he said that He should come, 'like himself.' Having declared these things, and more to the same effect, they ceased. 1.58. And, behold, one of the scribes, shouting out from the midst of the people, says: 'The signs and miracles which your Jesus wrought, he wrought not as a prophet, but as a magician.' Him Philip eagerly encounters, showing that by this argument he accused Moses also. For when Moses wrought signs and miracles in Egypt, in like manner as Jesus also did in Jud a, it cannot be doubted that what was said of Jesus might as well be said of Moses. Having made these and such like protestations, Philip was silent. 1.59. Then a certain Pharisee, hearing this, chid Philip because he put Jesus on a level with Moses. To whom Bartholomew, answering, boldly declared that we do not only say that Jesus was equal to Moses, but that He was greater than he, because Moses was indeed a prophet, as Jesus was also, but that Moses was not the Christ, as Jesus was, and therefore He is doubtless greater who is both a prophet and the Christ, than he who is only a prophet. After following out this train of argument, he stopped. After him James the son of Alph us gave an address to the people, with the view of showing that we are not to believe in Jesus on the ground that the prophets foretold concerning Him, but rather that we are to believe the prophets, that they were really prophets, because the Christ bears testimony to them; for it is the presence and coming of Christ that show that they are truly prophets: for testimony must be borne by the superior to his inferiors, not by the inferiors to their superior. After these and many similar statements, James also was silent. After him Lebb us began vehemently to charge it upon the people that they did not believe in Jesus, who had done them so much good by teaching them the things that are of God, by comforting the afflicted, healing the sick, relieving the poor; yet for all these benefits their return had been hatred and death. When he had declared these and many more such things to the people, he ceased. 1.60. And, behold, one of the disciples of John asserted that John was the Christ, and not Jesus, inasmuch as Jesus Himself declared that John was greater than all men and all prophets. Matthew 11:9, 11 'If, then,' said he, 'he be greater than all, he must be held to be greater than Moses, and than Jesus himself. But if he be the greatest of all, then must he be the Christ.' To this Simon the Canaanite, answering, asserted that John was indeed greater than all the prophets, and all who are born of women, yet that he is not greater than the Son of man. Accordingly Jesus is also the Christ, whereas John is only a prophet: and there is as much difference between him and Jesus, as between the forerunner and Him whose forerunner he is; or as between Him who gives the law, and him who keeps the law. Having made these and similar statements, the Canaanite also was silent. After him Barnabas, who also is called Matthias, who was substituted as an apostle in the place of Judas, began to exhort the people that they should not regard Jesus with hatred, nor speak evil of Him. For it were far more proper, even for one who might be in ignorance or in doubt concerning Jesus, to love than to hate Him. For God has affixed a reward to love, a penalty to hatred. 'For the very fact,' said he, 'that He assumed a Jewish body, and was born among the Jews, how has not this incited us all to love Him?' When he had spoken this, and more to the same effect, he stopped. 1.61. Then Caiaphas attempted to impugn the doctrine of Jesus, saying that He spoke vain things, for He said that the poor are blessed; and promised earthly rewards; and placed the chief gift in an earthly inheritance; and promised that those who maintain righteousness shall be satisfied with meat and drink; and many things of this sort He is charged with teaching. Thomas, in reply, proves that his accusation is frivolous; showing that the prophets, in whom Caiaphas believes, taught these things much more, and did not show in what manner these things are to be, or how they are to be understood; whereas Jesus pointed out how they are to be taken. And when he had spoken these things, and others of like kind, Thomas also held his peace. 1.62. Therefore Caiaphas, again looking at me, and sometimes in the way of warning and sometimes in that of accusation, said that I ought for the future to refrain from preaching Christ Jesus, lest I should do it to my own destruction, and lest, being deceived myself, I should also deceive others. Then, moreover, he charged me with presumption, because, though I was unlearned, a fisherman, and a rustic, I dared to assume the office of a teacher. As he spoke these things, and many more of like kind, I said in reply, that I incurred less danger, if, as he said, this Jesus were not the Christ, because I received Him as a teacher of the law; but that he was in terrible danger if this be the very Christ, as assuredly He is: for I believe in Him who has appeared; but for whom else, who has never appeared, does he reserve his faith? But if I, an unlearned and uneducated man, as you say, a fisherman and a rustic, have more understanding than wise elders, this, said I, ought the more to strike terror into you. For if I disputed with any learning, and won over you wise and learned men, it would appear that I had acquired this power by long learning, and not by the grace of divine power; but now, when, as I have said, we unskilled men convince and overcome you wise men, who that has any sense does not perceive that this is not a work of human subtlety, but of divine will and gift? 1.63. Thus we argued and bore witness; and we who were unlearned men and fishermen, taught the priests concerning the one only God of heaven; the Sadducees, concerning the resurrection of the dead; the Samaritans, concerning the sacredness of Jerusalem (not that we entered into their cities, but disputed with them in public); the scribes and Pharisees, concerning the kingdom of heaven; the disciples of John, that they should not suffer John to be a stumbling-block to them; and all the people, that Jesus is the eternal Christ. At last, however, I warned them, that before we should go forth to the Gentiles, to preach to them the knowledge of God the Father, they should themselves be reconciled to God, receiving His Son; for I showed them that in no way else could they be saved, unless through the grace of the Holy Spirit they hasted to be washed with the baptism of threefold invocation, and received the Eucharist of Christ the Lord, whom alone they ought to believe concerning those things which He taught, that so they might merit to attain eternal salvation; but that otherwise it was utterly impossible for them to be reconciled to God, even if they should kindle a thousand altars and a thousand high altars to Him. 1.64. 'For we,' said I, 'have ascertained beyond doubt that God is much rather displeased with the sacrifices which you offer, the time of sacrifices having now passed away; and because ye will not acknowledge that the time for offering victims is now past, therefore the temple shall be destroyed, and the abomination of desolation shall stand in the holy place; and then the Gospel shall be preached to the Gentiles for a testimony against you, that your unbelief may be judged by their faith. For the whole world at different times suffers under various maladies, either spreading generally over all, or affecting specially. Therefore it needs a physician to visit it for its salvation. We therefore bear witness to you, and declare to you what has been hidden from every one of you. It is for you to consider what is for your advantage.' 1.65. When I had thus spoken, the whole multitude of the priests were in a rage, because I had foretold to them the overthrow of the temple. Which when Gamaliel, a chief of the people, saw - who was secretly our brother in the faith, but by our advice remained among them - because they were greatly enraged and moved with intense fury against us, he stood up, and said, Acts 5:35-39 'Be quiet for a little, O men of Israel, for you do not perceive the trial which hangs over you. Wherefore refrain from these men; and if what they are engaged in be of human counsel, it will soon come to an end; but if it be from God, why will you sin without cause, and prevail nothing? For who can overpower the will of God? Now therefore, since the day is declining towards evening, I shall myself dispute with these men tomorrow, in this same place, in your hearing, so that I may openly oppose and clearly confute every error.' By this speech of his their fury was to some extent checked, especially in the hope that next day we should be publicly convicted of error; and so he dismissed the people peacefully. 1.66. Now when we had come to our James, while we detailed to him all that had been said and done, we supped, and remained with him, spending the whole night in supplication to Almighty God, that the discourse of the approaching disputation might show the unquestionable truth of our faith. Therefore, on the following day, James the bishop went up to the temple with us, and with the whole church. There we found a great multitude, who had been waiting for us from the middle of the night. Therefore we took our stand in the same place as before, in order that, standing on an elevation, we might be seen by all the people. Then, when profound silence was obtained, Gamaliel, who, as we have said, was of our faith, but who by a dispensation remained among them, that if at any time they should attempt anything unjust or wicked against us, he might either check them by skillfully adopted counsel, or might warn us, that we might either be on our guard or might turn it aside;- he therefore, as if acting against us, first of all looking to James the bishop, addressed him in this manner:- 1.67. 'If I, Gamaliel, deem it no reproach either to my learning or to my old age to learn something from babes and unlearned ones, if haply there be anything which it is for profit or for safety to acquire (for he who lives reasonably knows that nothing is more precious than the soul), ought not this to be the object of love and desire to all, to learn what they do not know, and to teach what they have learned? For it is most certain that neither friendship, nor kindred, nor lofty power, ought to be more precious to men than truth. Therefore you, O brethren, if you know anything more, shrink not from laying it before the people of God who are present, and also before your brethren; while the whole people shall willingly and in perfect quietness hear what you say. For why should not the people do this, when they see even me equally with themselves willing to learn from you, if haply God has revealed something further to you? But if you in anything are deficient, be not ye ashamed in like manner to be taught by us, that God may fill up whatever is wanting on either side. But if any fear now agitates you on account of some of our people whose minds are prejudiced against you, and if through fear of their violence you dare not openly speak your sentiments, in order that I may deliver you from this fear, I openly swear to you by Almighty God, who lives for ever, that I will suffer no one to lay hands upon you. Since, then, you have all this people witnesses of this my oath, and you hold the covet of our sacrament as a fitting pledge, let each one of you, without any hesitation, declare what he has learned; and let us, brethren, listen eagerly and in silence.' 1.68. These sayings of Gamaliel did not much please Caiaphas; and holding him in suspicion, as it seemed, he began to insinuate himself cunningly into the discussions: for, smiling at what Gamaliel had said, the chief of the priests asked of James, the chief of the bishops, that the discourse concerning Christ should not be drawn but from the Scriptures; 'that we may know,' said he, 'whether Jesus be the very Christ or no.' Then said James, 'We must first inquire from what Scriptures we are especially to derive our discussion.' Then he, with difficulty, at length overcome by reason, answered, that it must be derived from the law; and afterwards he made mention also of the prophets. 1.69. To him our James began to show, that whatsoever things the prophets say they have taken from the law, and what they have spoken is in accordance with the law. He also made some statements respecting the books of the Kings, in what way, and when, and by whom they were written, and how they ought to be used. And when he had discussed most fully concerning the law, and had, by a most clear exposition, brought into light whatever things are in it concerning Christ, he showed by most abundant proofs that Jesus is the Christ, and that in Him are fulfilled all the prophecies which related to His humble advent. For he showed that two advents of Him are foretold: one in humiliation, which He has accomplished; the other in glory, which is hoped for to be accomplished, when He shall come to give the kingdom to those who believe in Him, and who observe all things which He has commanded. And when he had plainly taught the people concerning these things, he added this also: That unless a man be baptized in water, in the name of the threefold blessedness, as the true Prophet taught, he can neither receive remission of sins nor enter into the kingdom of heaven; and he declared that this is the prescription of the unbegotten God. To which he added this also: 'Do not think that we speak of two unbegotten Gods, or that one is divided into two, or that the same is made male and female. But we speak of the only-begotten Son of God, not sprung from another source, but ineffably self-originated; and in like manner we speak of the Paraclete.' But when he had spoken some things also concerning baptism, through seven successive days he persuaded all the people and the high priest that they should hasten straightway to receive baptism. 1.70. And when matters were at that point that they should come and be baptized, some one of our enemies, entering the temple with a few men, began to cry out, and to say, 'What mean ye, O men of Israel? Why are you so easily hurried on? Why are you led headlong by most miserable men, who are deceived by Simon, a magician.' While he was thus speaking, and adding more to the same effect, and while James the bishop was refuting him, he began to excite the people and to raise a tumult, so that the people might not be able to hear what was said. Therefore he began to drive all into confusion with shouting, and to undo what had been arranged with much labour, and at the same time to reproach the priests, and to enrage them with revilings and abuse, and, like a madman, to excite every one to murder, saying, 'What are you doing? Why do you hesitate? Oh sluggish and inert, why do we not lay hands upon them, and pull all these fellows to pieces?' When he had said this, he first, seizing a strong brand from the altar, set the example of smiting. Then others also, seeing him, were carried away with like readiness. Then ensued a tumult on either side, of the beating and the beaten. Much blood is shed; there is a confused flight, in the midst of which that enemy attacked James, and threw him headlong from the top of the steps; and supposing him to be dead, he cared not to inflict further violence upon him. 1.71. But our friends lifted him up, for they were both more numerous and more powerful than the others; but, from their fear of God, they rather suffered themselves to be killed by an inferior force, than they would kill others. But when the evening came the priests shut up the temple, and we returned to the house of James, and spent the night there in prayer. Then before daylight we went down to Jericho, to the number of 5000 men. Then after three days one of the brethren came to us from Gamaliel, whom we mentioned before, bringing to us secret tidings that that enemy had received a commission from Caiaphas, the chief priest, that he should arrest all who believed in Jesus, and should go to Damascus with his letters, and that there also, employing the help of the unbelievers, he should make havoc among the faithful; and that he was hastening to Damascus chiefly on this account, because he believed that Peter had fled there. And about thirty days thereafter he stopped on his way while passing through Jericho going to Damascus. At that time we were absent, having gone out to the sepulchres of two brethren which were whitened of themselves every year, by which miracle the fury of many against us was restrained, because they saw that our brethren were had in remembrance before God.
58. Anon., 4 Ezra, 5.50-5.51

5.50. Then I inquired and said, "Since thou hast now given me the opportunity, let me speak before thee. Is our mother, of whom thou hast told me, still young? Or is she now approaching old age? 5.51. He replied to me, "Ask a woman who bears children, and she will tell you.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abel O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 190, 191
abraham,as model of trust Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 57
abraham,covenant of Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 91, 97
abraham,gods promise to Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 57
abraham,r. aḥa Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 132
abraham,r. aḥa Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 132
abraham,sons of Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 91, 97, 102, 123, 124, 129, 130, 167, 168
abraham,symbolism of sarah and hagar O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 190, 191
abraham,the patriarch,descent from Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 226
abraham,the patriarch,paul on Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 25
abraham,two wives of Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 91, 97, 102, 123, 124, 129, 130
abraham Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 121, 122, 123, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131; Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 91, 97, 102, 123, 124, 129, 130, 171; Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 157; Lieu (2004), Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World, 79; Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 235, 249, 250; Robbins et al. (2017), The Art of Visual Exegesis, 42; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 166, 202, 203
adoption Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 102, 167, 168
allegorical interpretation Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 188
allegory,allegorical interpretation Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
allegory/allegorical,a short history of Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 168
allegory/allegorical,and midrash Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 129, 171
allegory/allegorical,and typology Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 91, 102
allegory/allegorical,antinomian potential of Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 129
allegory/allegorical,as hermeneutical goal Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 129
allegory/allegorical,as solving riddles Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 129
allegory/allegorical,genealogical allegory Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 129, 130, 167, 168, 171
allegory/allegorical,in alexandria Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 102, 129, 168
allegory/allegorical,jewish-hellenistic allegory Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 129, 168
allegory/allegorical,of hagar/sarah Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 23, 91, 97, 102, 123, 124, 129, 130, 167, 168
allegory/allegorical,philonic allegory Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 123, 124, 129, 168
allegory/allegorical,philos allegory of hagar/sarah Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 123, 124
allegory/allegorical,philosophic allegory Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 129
allegory/allegorical,radical allegory Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 129
allegory/allegorical,tannaitic allegory Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 129, 168
allegory Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 250, 365, 409; Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 363
allowance,permission (of god or providence) Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 49
ambiguity,ambiguous Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 188
analogy Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 91
antithesis Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 130
apocalyptic Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 66
apostle Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 190
apostolic fathers and early christian apologists O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 58
apostolikon,marcions Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 235, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252
argumentation Robbins et al. (2017), The Art of Visual Exegesis, 42
aristobulus,allegorical exegesis of ot Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
aristobulus,paul comparison Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
aristobulus Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
ascent to heaven Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 93
athletics/training Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 96, 99
babylon,symbolism of O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 58
barren woman Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 102
bible,translations of O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 191
bloom,harold Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 226
boyarin,daniel,on circumcision Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 226
boyarin,daniel,on divine performance Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 24, 25
boyarin,daniel,on identity of israel Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 24
boyarin,daniel,poststructuralism of Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 19
cain O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 190, 191
child,childhood Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 332
child,children,childhood Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 172
christ assembly (see also synagogue) Keith (2020), The Gospel as Manuscript: An Early History of the Jesus Tradition as Material Artifact, 213
christian myth,nascent christian,community,outlook of Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 190
church,as new israel Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 19
church,symbolized by abel O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 190
church Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 363; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 175; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 202
churches/tradition of paul pauline Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 182
circumcision,boyarin on Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 226
circumcision,in jewish identity Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 19
circumcision,of the heart Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 19
circumcision Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 97, 129, 130
colossians Papaioannou et al. (2021), Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome, 177; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou (2021), Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome, 177
commandment/s Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 129
commentary Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 23
compassion,conversion,significance of deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 136, 137
contract,relation to trust Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 57
cosmopolitanism Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 96
covenant,abrahamic Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 202
covenant,in pauline theology Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 121, 122, 123
covenant,mosaic Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 202, 203
covenant,old/new Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 91, 168
covenant,with abraham Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 91
covenant Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 91, 97; Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 145
covenant and creation,relation to pistis Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 57
creation Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 177
culture,cultural affiliations in galilee Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 186
david,the king,davidic kingdom Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 66
demetrius,chronographer,hellenistic historiography Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
demetrius,chronographer Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
diaspora Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
difference,erasure of Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 24
discourse,boundary-creating Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 139
dispensations,economy (of god) Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 49
divine performance,boyarin on Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 24, 25
domination,human desire for O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 191
dorshei rashumot Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 129
dunn,james d. g. Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 126, 127
egypt Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 157
egyptians Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 157
elder),paul comparison Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
elder) Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
election (of israel) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 182
endtime Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 129, 130, 171
ephesians Papaioannou et al. (2021), Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome, 177; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou (2021), Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome, 177
epictetus Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 177
eschatology,eschatological,belonging to the end-of-days,messianic age Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 66
eschatology Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 57; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 93
exodus Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 175, 177, 181, 188
ezekiel,tragedian,paul comparison Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
ezekiel,tragedian Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
faith Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 226; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 166
faithfulness,of god Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 57
father,fatherhood Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 331, 332
foreknowledge (prògnvsiw),anticipate Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 49
free/freedom (ἐλεύθερος/ἐλευθερία,liber/libertas),paul on Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 105
freedom Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 172, 175, 177, 181, 188
freedom (eleutheria) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 99
fulfilment Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 203
furnish,victor paul Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 126
galatia Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 175
gehenna (hell) Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 134, 139, 142
genealogy,as flesh Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 226
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 182
gentiles,and the torah/law Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 97, 129, 130, 167, 168, 171
gentiles,gentile,nations Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 190
gentiles Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 102
god,intervention of Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 226
good (agathos) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 96, 99
gospels Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 175
grace,and faith Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 226
grace,as gods beneficence deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 136
grace,divine O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 190, 191
grace Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 175
greek paideia,jewish use Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
haftarah Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 102
hagar,as encyclical education Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 123, 124
hagar,paul on Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 24, 25
hagar Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 23, 91, 97, 102, 123, 124, 129, 130, 167, 168; Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 157
hahn,scott w. Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 127
hapax legomenon Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 159
hays,richard b.,echoes of scripture in the letters of paul Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 226
heavenly abode Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 66
hebrew language Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 182
hellenistic,jewish hellenistic,diaspora Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 190
hermeneutics,and making communities Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 130, 171
hermeneutics,and the endtime Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 129, 130, 167, 168
hermeneutics,and unveiling Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 168
hermeneutics,as riddle solving Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 129
hermeneutics,hellenistic and rabbinic Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 23, 123, 129
hermeneutics,methods of interpretation Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 91
history,as christian history Lieu (2004), Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World, 79
history,of israel Lieu (2004), Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World, 79
history,rewritten by christians Lieu (2004), Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World, 79
homer,model for hellenistic jews Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
homer Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
hope Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 177, 181
identity,jewish,circumcision in Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 19
identity,jewish,transformation of Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 24
image,imagery Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 175, 181
implicit/explicit interpretation Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 23
inconsistency,in paul Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 1
inner texture Robbins et al. (2017), The Art of Visual Exegesis, 42
intercourse,sexual Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131
intertextuality and intertext,literal Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 129
intertextuality and intertext Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 97
intertextuality vii Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 172, 177, 181, 188
isaac,as sophos Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 123, 124
isaac Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 91, 102; Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 157
isaiah Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 181
ishmael,as sophistry Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 123, 124
ishmael Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 91; Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 157; Lieu (2004), Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World, 79
israel,and gentiles deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 136, 137
israel,community of,as textual signifier Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 24
israel,community of,boyarin on Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 19
israel,community of,paul on Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 24, 226
israel,community of,transformation of Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 24
israel,the people of,redemption/restoration of,the kingdom of,israelite Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 66
israel,used of christians Lieu (2004), Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World, 79
israel deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 136, 137
jerusalem,earthly jerusalem Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 91, 97
jerusalem,heavenly jerusalem Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 97
jerusalem,present jerusalem Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 91, 97
jerusalem,symbolism of O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 58, 190, 191
jerusalem Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 172; Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 190
jesus,as a prophetic anointed of the spirit Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 66
jesus,disciples,early followers,messianic movement Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 66
jesus,divine status Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 66
jesus,failure of his messianic enterprise vii Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 190
jesus,kingly/davidic messiahship/descent Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 66
jesus Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 66, 190
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 182
jewish practices/torah observance,circumcision Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 1, 99
jewish practices/torah observance Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 1
jews,jewry,jewish,jewish matrix,jewish setting,anti-jewish,non-jewish Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 66, 190
jews/judeans/ioudaioi,and ethnicity in philo Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 157
jews and gentiles,in the church deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 136, 137
judaism,acceptance of hellenism Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
judaism and hellenism Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
judaization Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 97
judaizing Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 99
judea,judah Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 190
kinship Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 102, 167, 168, 171
lamb Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 93
law,biblical Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 249, 409
law,in early christian theology Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 121, 122, 123
law,paul Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 186
law/law Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 172, 181
law Papaioannou et al. (2021), Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome, 177; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou (2021), Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome, 177; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 166, 203
law of nature/natural law,stoic politics Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 96
lawlessness Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 129
letter/spirit Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 91
letter and spirit,paul on Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 19
liberation Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 172, 175, 177, 181, 188
literal sense Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 23, 129
literature,rabbinic,and oral traditions Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 139
liturgy,liturgical Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 181
logocentrism Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 91, 171
love Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 172
lundbom,jack r. Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 126
mad,madness (about manichaeism) Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 49
marius victorinus Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 126
mark,jesus before sanhedrin Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 741
mark,trial of jesus Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 741
mark Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 741
marriage Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 124; Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 102, 124
mary Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 125
masoretic text,and the septuagint Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 129, 130, 131, 159
matter (ïlh) Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 49
mcknight,scot Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 126, 127
meaning,promise as Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 24, 25
mediterranean Robbins et al. (2017), The Art of Visual Exegesis, 42
melchizedek Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 166
messiah,gods anointed,messiahship,messianic,davidic,kingly Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 66
messiah,political redeemer Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 741
messiah Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 182
metaphor Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 91, 123; Papaioannou et al. (2021), Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome, 177; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou (2021), Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome, 177; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 172
metzger,bruce m. Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 127
midrash,and allegory Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 129, 171
midrash Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 182
modesty Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 168
moses,veil of Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 168
moses Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 168; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 166; Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 145
moses (mosaic) Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 105
moth,as a symbol of destruction Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 159
mother,motherhood Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 331, 332
murphy-oconnor,jerome Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 127
myth and mythmaking Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 130, 168
nag hammadi texts O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 58
narrative Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 91, 102, 123, 124, 129, 167, 168
new covenant,and old covenant Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 126
new creation Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 57
nomos/nomoi Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 129, 167
orality Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 139
paideia/greek education Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 157
parents Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 331, 332
pastoral epistles Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 235
patriarchal,patriarchy Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 363
paul,allegory use Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
paul,and the gospels Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 126
paul,aristobulus comparison Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
paul,jewish law Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 186
paul,knowledge of hebrew Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 129, 130
paul,missionary activity Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 186
paul,on freedom (ἐλευθερία) from the mosaic law Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 105
paul,on slavery Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 105
paul,pauline Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 66
paul,pauline corpus Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 166, 202, 203
paul,the apostle,epistle to the romans Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 24
paul,the apostle,interpretation of israel Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 24, 226
paul,the apostle,jewish identity of Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 19
paul,the apostle,on letter and spirit Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 19
paul,the apostle,supersessionism of Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 24, 25
paul,the covenant in Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 145
paul Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 105; Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 248, 249, 250, 252, 409; O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 190, 191
paul (saul) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 182
paul (the apostle) Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 172, 175, 177, 181
pauline letter corpus Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 235
peace deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 137
pedagogue Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 123
performance Papaioannou et al. (2021), Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome, 177; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou (2021), Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome, 177
pharisees Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 331; Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 741
philo Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 157
philo of alexandria Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
pistis Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 123, 130, 168
plato,aristobulus Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
plato Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
platonism Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 96
politeia (citizenship/constitution) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 182
politeuma (body of citizens) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 182
porter,stanley e. Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 127
poststructuralism,boyarins Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 19
prayer Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 93
promise,as meaning Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 24, 25
promise Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 202, 203
promises of god Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 57
prooftext Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 97, 129
prophecy Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 181
prophet,prophecy,prophetic Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 190
prophetic Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 181
proselyte,proselytism Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 182
pythagoras,pythagorean,neopythagoean Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
pythagorean opposites Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 91
q-source Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 331
qumran Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 23, 129, 130, 168
qumran community Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 182