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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8250
New Testament, Galatians, 4.22-4.29


γέγραπται γὰρ ὅτι Ἀβραὰμ δύο υἱοὺς ἔσχεν, ἕνα ἐκ τῆς παιδίσκης καὶ ἕνα ἐκ τῆς ἐλευθέρας·For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by thehandmaid, and one by the free woman.


ἀλλʼ ὁ [μὲν] ἐκ τῆς παιδίσκης κατὰ σάρκα γεγέννηται, ὁ δὲ ἐκ τῆς ἐλευθέρας διʼ ἐπαγγελίας.However, the son by thehandmaid was born according to the flesh, but the son by the free womanwas born through promise.


ἅτινά ἐστιν ἀλληγορούμενα· αὗται γάρ εἰσιν δύο διαθῆκαι, μία μὲν ἀπὸ ὄρους Σινά, εἰς δουλείαν γεννῶσα, ἥτις ἐστὶν ἍγαρThese things contain an allegory, forthese are two covenants. One is from Mount Sinai, bearing children tobondage, which is Hagar.


τὸ δὲ Ἅγαρ Σινὰ ὄρος ἐστὶν ἐν τῇ Ἀραβίᾳ, συνστοιχεῖ δὲ τῇ νῦν Ἰερουσαλήμ, δουλεύει γὰρ μετὰ τῶν τέκνων αὐτῆς·For this Hagar is Mount Sinai inArabia, and answers to the Jerusalem that exists now, for she is inbondage with her children.


ἡ δὲ ἄνω Ἰερουσαλὴμ ἐλευθέρα ἐστίνBut the Jerusalem that is above isfree, which is the mother of us all.


ἥτις ἐστὶν μήτηρ ἡμῶν· γέγραπται γάρFor it is written,"Rejoice, you barren who don't bear. Break forth and shout, you that don't travail. For more are the children of the desolate than of her who has a husband.


ἡμεῖς δέ, ἀδελφοί, κατὰ Ἰσαὰκ ἐπαγγελίας τέκνα ἐσμέν·Now we, brothers, as Isaac was, are children of promise.


ἀλλʼ ὥσπερ τότε ὁ κατὰ σάρκα γεννηθεὶς ἐδίωκε τὸν κατὰ πνεῦμα, οὕτως καὶ νῦν.But as then, he who was born according to the flesh persecutedhim who was born according to the Spirit, so also it is now.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

51 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.13, 9.4, 30.12-30.14, 32.43 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.13. וַיַּגֵּד לָכֶם אֶת־בְּרִיתוֹ אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה אֶתְכֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדְּבָרִים וַיִּכְתְּבֵם עַל־שְׁנֵי לֻחוֹת אֲבָנִים׃ 9.4. אַל־תֹּאמַר בִּלְבָבְךָ בַּהֲדֹף יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֹתָם מִלְּפָנֶיךָ לֵאמֹר בְּצִדְקָתִי הֱבִיאַנִי יְהוָה לָרֶשֶׁת אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת וּבְרִשְׁעַת הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה יְהוָה מוֹרִישָׁם מִפָּנֶיךָ׃ 30.12. לֹא בַשָּׁמַיִם הִוא לֵאמֹר מִי יַעֲלֶה־לָּנוּ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וְיִקָּחֶהָ לָּנוּ וְיַשְׁמִעֵנוּ אֹתָהּ וְנַעֲשֶׂנָּה׃ 30.13. וְלֹא־מֵעֵבֶר לַיָּם הִוא לֵאמֹר מִי יַעֲבָר־לָנוּ אֶל־עֵבֶר הַיָּם וְיִקָּחֶהָ לָּנוּ וְיַשְׁמִעֵנוּ אֹתָהּ וְנַעֲשֶׂנָּה׃ 30.14. כִּי־קָרוֹב אֵלֶיךָ הַדָּבָר מְאֹד בְּפִיךָ וּבִלְבָבְךָ לַעֲשֹׂתוֹ׃ 32.43. הַרְנִינוּ גוֹיִם עַמּוֹ כִּי דַם־עֲבָדָיו יִקּוֹם וְנָקָם יָשִׁיב לְצָרָיו וְכִפֶּר אַדְמָתוֹ עַמּוֹ׃ 4.13. And He declared unto you His covet, which He commanded you to perform, even the ten words; and He wrote them upon two tables of stone." 9.4. Speak not thou in thy heart, after that the LORD thy God hath thrust them out from before thee, saying: ‘For my righteousness the LORD hath brought me in to possess this land’; whereas for the wickedness of these nations the LORD doth drive them out from before thee." 30.12. It is not in heaven, that thou shouldest say: ‘Who shall go up for us to heaven, and bring it unto us, and make us to hear it, that we may do it?’" 30.13. Neither is it beyond the sea, that thou shouldest say: ‘Who shall go over the sea for us, and bring it unto us, and make us to hear it, that we may do it?’" 30.14. But the word is very nigh unto thee, in thy mouth, and in thy heart, that thou mayest do it." 32.43. Sing aloud, O ye nations, of His people; For He doth avenge the blood of His servants, And doth render vengeance to His adversaries, And doth make expiation for the land of His people."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 24.7-24.8, 34.29-34.35 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.7. וַיִּקַּח סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית וַיִּקְרָא בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה וְנִשְׁמָע׃ 24.8. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַדָּם וַיִּזְרֹק עַל־הָעָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה דַם־הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַת יְהוָה עִמָּכֶם עַל כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 34.29. וַיְהִי בְּרֶדֶת מֹשֶׁה מֵהַר סִינַי וּשְׁנֵי לֻחֹת הָעֵדֻת בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה בְּרִדְתּוֹ מִן־הָהָר וּמֹשֶׁה לֹא־יָדַע כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פָּנָיו בְּדַבְּרוֹ אִתּוֹ׃ 34.31. וַיִּקְרָא אֲלֵהֶם מֹשֶׁה וַיָּשֻׁבוּ אֵלָיו אַהֲרֹן וְכָל־הַנְּשִׂאִים בָּעֵדָה וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֲלֵהֶם׃ 34.32. וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן נִגְּשׁוּ כָּל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיְצַוֵּם אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אִתּוֹ בְּהַר סִינָי׃ 34.33. וַיְכַל מֹשֶׁה מִדַּבֵּר אִתָּם וַיִּתֵּן עַל־פָּנָיו מַסְוֶה׃ 34.34. וּבְבֹא מֹשֶׁה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ יָסִיר אֶת־הַמַּסְוֶה עַד־צֵאתוֹ וְיָצָא וְדִבֶּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵת אֲשֶׁר יְצֻוֶּה׃ 34.35. וְרָאוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־פְּנֵי מֹשֶׁה כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פְּנֵי מֹשֶׁה וְהֵשִׁיב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַמַּסְוֶה עַל־פָּנָיו עַד־בֹּאוֹ לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ׃ 24.7. And he took the book of the covet, and read in the hearing of the people; and they said: ‘All that the LORD hath spoken will we do, and obey.’" 24.8. And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said: ‘Behold the blood of the covet, which the LORD hath made with you in agreement with all these words.’" 34.29. And it came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Sinai with the two tables of the testimony in Moses’hand, when he came down from the mount, that Moses knew not that the skin of his face sent forth abeams while He talked with him." 34.30. And when Aaron and all the children of Israel saw Moses, behold, the skin of his face sent forth beams; and they were afraid to come nigh him." 34.31. And Moses called unto them; and Aaron and all the rulers of the congregation returned unto him; and Moses spoke to them." 34.32. And afterward all the children of Israel came nigh, and he gave them in commandment all that the LORD had spoken with him in mount Sinai." 34.33. And when Moses had done speaking with them, he put a veil on his face." 34.34. But when Moses went in before the LORD that He might speak with him, he took the veil off, until he came out; and he came out; and spoke unto the children of Israel that which he was commanded." 34.35. And the children of Israel saw the face of Moses, that the skin of Moses’face sent forth beams; and Moses put the veil back upon his face, until he went in to speak with Him."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, a b c d\n0 "29.31" "29.31" "29 31" \n1 11.30 11.30 11 30 \n2 15 15 15 None\n3 17.5 17.5 17 5 \n4 21.10 21.10 21 10 \n5 21.12 21.12 21 12 \n6 21.9 21.9 21 9 \n7 38.15 38.15 38 15 \n8 38.16 38.16 38 16 \n9 38.17 38.17 38 17 \n10 38.18 38.18 38 18 \n11 38.19 38.19 38 19 \n12 38.20 38.20 38 20 \n13 38.21 38.21 38 21 \n14 38.22 38.22 38 22 \n15 38.23 38.23 38 23 \n16 38.24 38.24 38 24 \n17 38.25 38.25 38 25 \n18 38.26 38.26 38 26 \n19 4.6 4.6 4 6 \n20 4.7 4.7 4 7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 18.5, 19.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.5. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם הָאָדָם וָחַי בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.18. לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 18.5. Ye shall therefore keep My statutes, and Mine ordices, which if a man do, he shall live by them: I am the LORD." 19.18. Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD."
5. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 7.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.4. טוֹבָם כְּחֵדֶק יָשָׁר מִמְּסוּכָה יוֹם מְצַפֶּיךָ פְּקֻדָּתְךָ בָאָה עַתָּה תִהְיֶה מְבוּכָתָם׃ 7.4. The best of them is as a brier; The most upright is worse than a thorn hedge; The day of thy watchmen, even thy visitation, is come; Now shall be their perplexity."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 2.7, 8.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.7. אֲסַפְּרָה אֶל חֹק יְהוָה אָמַר אֵלַי בְּנִי אַתָּה אֲנִי הַיּוֹם יְלִדְתִּיךָ׃ 8.4. כִּי־אֶרְאֶה שָׁמֶיךָ מַעֲשֵׂי אֶצְבְּעֹתֶיךָ יָרֵחַ וְכוֹכָבִים אֲשֶׁר כּוֹנָנְתָּה׃ 2.7. I will tell of the decree: The LORD said unto me: 'Thou art My son, this day have I begotten thee." 8.4. When I behold Thy heavens, the work of Thy fingers, The moon and the stars, which Thou hast established;"
7. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 4.13 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

4.13. כִּי הִנֵּה יוֹצֵר הָרִים וּבֹרֵא רוּחַ וּמַגִּיד לְאָדָם מַה־שֵּׂחוֹ עֹשֵׂה שַׁחַר עֵיפָה וְדֹרֵךְ עַל־בָּמֳתֵי אָרֶץ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי־צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ׃ 4.13. For, lo, He that formeth the mountains, and createth the wind, And declareth unto man what is his thought, That maketh the morning darkness, And treadeth upon the high places of the earth; The LORD, the God of hosts, is His name."
8. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 28.11, 54.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

28.11. כִּי בְּלַעֲגֵי שָׂפָה וּבְלָשׁוֹן אַחֶרֶת יְדַבֵּר אֶל־הָעָם הַזֶּה׃ 54.1. רָנִּי עֲקָרָה לֹא יָלָדָה פִּצְחִי רִנָּה וְצַהֲלִי לֹא־חָלָה כִּי־רַבִּים בְּנֵי־שׁוֹמֵמָה מִבְּנֵי בְעוּלָה אָמַר יְהוָה׃ 54.1. כִּי הֶהָרִים יָמוּשׁוּ וְהַגְּבָעוֹת תְּמוּטֶנָה וְחַסְדִּי מֵאִתֵּךְ לֹא־יָמוּשׁ וּבְרִית שְׁלוֹמִי לֹא תָמוּט אָמַר מְרַחֲמֵךְ יְהוָה׃ 28.11. For with stammering lips and with a strange tongue Shall it be spoken to this people;" 54.1. Sing, O barren, thou that didst not bear, Break forth into singing, and cry aloud, thou that didst not travail; For more are the children of the desolate Than the children of the married wife, saith the LORD."
9. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 34.27 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

34.27. וְנָתַן עֵץ הַשָּׂדֶה אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ וְהָאָרֶץ תִּתֵּן יְבוּלָהּ וְהָיוּ עַל־אַדְמָתָם לָבֶטַח וְיָדְעוּ כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה בְּשִׁבְרִי אֶת־מֹטוֹת עֻלָּם וְהִצַּלְתִּים מִיַּד הָעֹבְדִים בָּהֶם׃ 34.27. And the tree of the field shall yield its fruit, and the earth shall yield her produce, and they shall be safe in their land; and they shall know that I am the LORD, when I have broken the bars of their yoke, and have delivered them out of the hand of those that made bondmen of them."
10. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 2.12 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2.12. כִּי כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אַחַר כָּבוֹד שְׁלָחַנִי אֶל־הַגּוֹיִם הַשֹּׁלְלִים אֶתְכֶם כִּי הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּכֶם נֹגֵעַ בְּבָבַת עֵינוֹ׃ 2.12. For thus saith the LORD of hosts who sent me after glory unto the nations which spoiled you: ‘Surely, he that toucheth you toucheth the apple of his eye."
11. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 24.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

24.23. All this is the book of the covet of the Most High God,the law which Moses commanded us as an inheritance for the congregations of Jacob.
12. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 24.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

13. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 251 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

251. And that you may have no suspicion of any jealousy on my part, take, if you will, my own handmaid to wife; who is a slave indeed as to her body, but free and noble as to her mind; whose good qualities I have for a long time proved and experienced from the day when she was first introduced into my house, being an Egyptian by blood, and a Hebrew by deliberate choice.
14. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 8-10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Why then do we wonder if God once for all banished Adam, that is to say, the mind out of the district of the virtues, after he had once contracted folly, that incurable disease, and if he never permitted him again to return, when he also drives out and banishes from wisdom and from the wise man every sophist, and the mother of sophists, the teaching that is of elementary instruction, while he calls the names of wisdom and of the wise man Abraham, and Sarah. IV. 10. He also considered this point, in the second place, that it is indispensable that the soul of the man who is about to receive sacred laws should be thoroughly cleansed and purified from all stains, however difficult to be washed out, which the promiscuous multitude of mixed men from all quarters has impregnated cities with;
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 12-13, 139, 14, 140-141, 15, 154, 16-18, 180, 19-24, 9, 11 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

11. And as you must know that it is common for there to be great preludes to great propositions, and the greatest of all propositions is virtue, for it is conversant about the most important of all materials, namely, about the universal life of man; very naturally, therefore, that will not employ any short preface, but rather it will use as such, grammar, geometry, astronomy, rhetoric, music, and all the other sorts of contemplation which proceed in accordance with reason; of which Hagar, the handmaid of Sarah, is an emblem, as we will proceed to show.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 87-93, 86 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

86. What then is the fourth gift? The having a great name, for God says, "I will magnify thy Name;" and the meaning of this, as it appears to me, is as follows; as to be good is honourable, so also to appear to be so is advantageous. And truth is better than appearance, but perfect happiness is when the two are combined. For there are great numbers of people who apply themselves to virtue in genuine honesty and sincerity, and who admire its genuine beauty, having no regard to the reputation which they may have with the multitude, and who in consequence have been plotted against, being thought wicked though in reality they are good.
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 255 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

255. But nevertheless, she is thought worthy of such an honourable reception from the prince, that her womb is opened by him, so as to receive the seed of divine generation, in order to cause the production of honourable pursuits and actions. Learn therefore, O soul, that Sarrah, that is, virtue, will bring forth to thee a son; and that Hagar, or intermediate instruction, is not the only one who will do so; for her offspring is one which has its knowledge from teaching, but the offspring of the other is entirely self-taught.
18. Philo of Alexandria, On Rewards And Punishments, 161 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

161. and hope is joy before joy, even though it may be somewhat defective in comparison with perfect joy. But still, it is in both these respects better than that which comes after; first, because it relaxes and softens the dry rigidity of care; and secondly, because by its anticipations it gives a forewarning of the impending perfect good. XXVIII.
19. Philo of Alexandria, On Sobriety, 9, 8 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.240 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.240. Do you not see that encyclical instruction, that is, Hagar, says to the angel, "Art thou God who seest Me?" for she was not capable of beholding the most ancient cause, inasmuch as she was by birth a native of Egypt. But now the mind begins to be improved, so as to be able to contemplate the governor of all the powers;
21. Epictetus, Discourses, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.1. But if any one propound Judaism unto you, here him not: for it is better to hear Christianity from a man who is circumcised than Judaism from one uncircumcised. But if either the one or the other speak not concerning Jesus Christ, I look on them as tombstones and graves of the dead, whereon are inscribed only the names of men.
23. Ignatius, To The Magnesians, 8.1, 10.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.1. Be not seduced by strange doctrines nor by antiquated fables, which are profitless. For if even unto this day we live after the manner of Judaism, we avow that we have not received grace: 10.3. It is monstrous to talk of Jesus Christ and to practise Judaism. For Christianity did not believe in Judaism, but Judaism in Christianity, wherein every tongue believed and was gathered together unto God.
24. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.1. But if any one propound Judaism unto you, here him not: for it is better to hear Christianity from a man who is circumcised than Judaism from one uncircumcised. But if either the one or the other speak not concerning Jesus Christ, I look on them as tombstones and graves of the dead, whereon are inscribed only the names of men.
25. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.19, 1.30-1.31, 2.9, 3.19, 5.6-5.8, 5.13, 7.1, 7.18, 7.21-7.23, 9.9-9.10, 9.19-9.21, 9.24-9.27, 10.1-10.13, 10.32, 11.7-11.10, 12.13, 14.21, 15.44, 15.46-15.47, 15.53-15.54, 16.1-16.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.19. For it is written,"I will destroy the wisdom of the wise,I will bring the discernment of the discerning to nothing. 1.30. But of him, you are in ChristJesus, who was made to us wisdom from God, and righteousness andsanctification, and redemption: 1.31. that, according as it iswritten, "He who boasts, let him boast in the Lord. 2.9. But as it is written,"Things which an eye didn't see, and an ear didn't hear,Which didn't enter into the heart of man,These God has prepared for those who love him. 3.19. Forthe wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written,"He has taken the wise in their craftiness. 5.6. Your boasting is not good. Don't you know that a little yeastleavens the whole lump? 5.7. Purge out the old yeast, that you may bea new lump, even as you are unleavened. For indeed Christ, ourPassover, has been sacrificed in our place. 5.8. Therefore let us keepthe feast, not with old yeast, neither with the yeast of malice andwickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth. 5.13. But those who are outside, God judges. "Put awaythe wicked man from among yourselves. 7.1. Now concerning the things about which you wrote to me: it isgood for a man not to touch a woman. 7.18. Was anyone called having been circumcised? Let him not becomeuncircumcised. Has anyone been called in uncircumcision? Let him not becircumcised. 7.21. Were you calledbeing a bondservant? Don't let that bother you, but if you get anopportunity to become free, use it. 7.22. For he who was called in theLord being a bondservant is the Lord's free man. Likewise he who wascalled being free is Christ's bondservant. 7.23. You were bought witha price. Don't become bondservants of men. 9.9. For it is written in the law of Moses,"You shall not muzzle an ox while it treads out the grain." Is it forthe oxen that God cares 9.10. or does he say it assuredly for oursake? Yes, it was written for our sake, because he who plows ought toplow in hope, and he who threshes in hope should partake of his hope. 9.19. For though I was free fromall, I brought myself under bondage to all, that I might gain the more. 9.20. To the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain Jews; to thosewho are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain those whoare under the law; 9.21. to those who are without law, as without law(not being without law toward God, but under law toward Christ), that Imight win those who are without law. 9.24. Don't youknow that those who run in a race all run, but one receives the prize?Run like that, that you may win. 9.25. Every man who strives in thegames exercises self-control in all things. Now they do it to receive acorruptible crown, but we an incorruptible. 9.26. I therefore run likethat, as not uncertainly. I fight like that, as not beating the air 9.27. but I beat my body and bring it into submission, lest by anymeans, after I have preached to others, I myself should be rejected. 10.1. Now I would not have you ignorant, brothers, that our fatherswere all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; 10.2. andwere all baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea; 10.3. andall ate the same spiritual food; 10.4. and all drank the samespiritual drink. For they drank of a spiritual rock that followed them,and the rock was Christ. 10.5. However with most of them, God was notwell pleased, for they were overthrown in the wilderness. 10.6. Nowthese things were our examples, to the intent we should not lust afterevil things, as they also lusted. 10.7. Neither be idolaters, as someof them were. As it is written, "The people sat down to eat and drink,and rose up to play. 10.8. Neither let us commit sexual immorality,as some of them committed, and in one day twenty-three thousand fell. 10.9. Neither let us test the Lord, as some of them tested, andperished by the serpents. 10.10. Neither grumble, as some of them alsogrumbled, and perished by the destroyer. 10.11. Now all these thingshappened to them by way of example, and they were written for ouradmonition, on whom the ends of the ages have come. 10.12. Thereforelet him who thinks he stands be careful that he doesn't fall. 10.13. No temptation has taken you but such as man can bear. God isfaithful, who will not allow you to be tempted above what you are able,but will with the temptation also make the way of escape, that you maybe able to endure it. 10.32. Give no occasions for stumbling, either to Jews, or to Greeks,or to the assembly of God; 11.7. For a man indeed ought not to have his head covered,because he is the image and glory of God, but the woman is the glory ofthe man. 11.8. For man is not from woman, but woman from man; 11.9. for neither was man created for the woman, but woman for the man. 11.10. For this cause the woman ought to have authority on her head,because of the angels. 12.13. For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whetherJews or Greeks, whether bond or free; and were all given to drink intoone Spirit. 14.21. In the law it is written,"By men of strange languages and by the lips of strangers I will speakto this people. Not even thus will they hear me, says the Lord. 15.44. It is sown a natural body; it is raised aspiritual body. There is a natural body and there is also a spiritualbody. 15.46. However thatwhich is spiritual isn't first, but that which is natural, then thatwhich is spiritual. 15.47. The first man is of the earth, made ofdust. The second man is the Lord from heaven. 15.53. For thiscorruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put onimmortality. 15.54. But when this corruptible will have put onincorruption, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then whatis written will happen: "Death is swallowed up in victory. 16.1. Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I commandedthe assemblies of Galatia, you do likewise. 16.2. On the first day ofthe week, let each one of you save, as he may prosper, that nocollections be made when I come. 16.3. When I arrive, I will sendwhoever you approve with letters to carry your gracious gift toJerusalem. 16.4. If it is appropriate for me to go also, they will gowith me.
26. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 3.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.13. to the end he may establish your hearts blameless in holiness before our God and Father, at the coming of our Lord Jesus with all his saints.
27. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 3.6-3.18, 5.1, 5.15-5.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

28. New Testament, Acts, 2.4, 6.14, 7.48, 7.55-7.56, 10.34, 17.18, 17.24, 17.31 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.4. They were all filled with the Holy Spirit, and began to speak with other languages, as the Spirit gave them the ability to speak. 6.14. For we have heard him say that this Jesus of Nazareth will destroy this place, and will change the customs which Moses delivered to us. 7.48. However, the Most High doesn't dwell in temples made with hands, as the prophet says 7.55. But he, being full of the Holy Spirit, looked up steadfastly into heaven, and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right hand of God 7.56. and said, "Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of Man standing on the right hand of God! 10.34. Peter opened his mouth and said, "Truly I perceive that God doesn't show favoritism; 17.18. Some of the Epicurean and Stoic philosophers also encountered him. Some said, "What does this babbler want to say?"Others said, "He seems to be advocating foreign demons," because he preached Jesus and the resurrection. 17.24. The God who made the world and all things in it, he, being Lord of heaven and earth, dwells not in temples made with hands 17.31. because he has appointed a day in which he will judge the world in righteousness by the man whom he has ordained; whereof he has given assurance to all men, in that he has raised him from the dead.
29. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.1, 3.11, 19.6-19.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. To the angel of the assembly in Ephesus write: "He who holds the seven stars in his right hand, he who walks in the midst of the seven golden lampstands says these things: 3.11. I come quickly. Hold firmly that which you have, so that no one takes your crown. 19.6. I heard something like the voice of a great multitude, and like the voice of many waters, and like the voice of mighty thunders, saying, "Hallelujah! For the Lord our God, the Almighty, reigns! 19.7. Let us rejoice and be exceedingly glad, and let us give the glory to him. For the marriage of the Lamb has come, and his wife has made herself ready. 19.8. It was given to her that she would array herself in bright, pure, fine linen: for the fine linen is the righteous acts of the saints. 19.9. He said to me, "Write, 'Blessed are those who are invited to the marriage supper of the Lamb.'" He said to me, "These are true words of God.
30. New Testament, Colossians, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.16. For by him were all things created, in the heavens and on the earth, things visible and things invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers; all things have been created through him, and for him.
31. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.21, 2.11-2.22, 3.9, 4.12-4.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.21. far above all rule, and authority, and power, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come. 2.11. Therefore remember that once you, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called "uncircumcision" by that which is called "circumcision," (in the flesh, made by hands); 2.12. that you were at that time separate from Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covets of the promise, having no hope and without God in the world. 2.13. But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off are made near in the blood of Christ. 2.14. For he is our peace, who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of partition 2.15. having abolished in the flesh the hostility, the law of commandments contained in ordices, that he might create in himself one new man of the two, making peace; 2.16. and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, having killed the hostility thereby. 2.17. He came and preached peace to you who were far off and to those who were near. 2.18. For through him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father. 2.19. So then you are no longer strangers and sojourners, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God 2.20. being built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the chief cornerstone; 2.21. in whom the whole building, fitted together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord; 2.22. in whom you also are built together for a habitation of God in the Spirit. 3.9. and to make all men see what is the administration of the mystery which for ages has been hidden in God, who created all things through Jesus Christ; 4.12. for the perfecting of the saints, to the work of serving, to the building up of the body of Christ; 4.13. until we all attain to the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to a full grown man, to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ; 4.14. that we may no longer be children, tossed back and forth and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the trickery of men, in craftiness, after the wiles of error; 4.15. but speaking truth in love, we may grow up in all things into him, who is the head, Christ; 4.16. from whom all the body, being fitted and knit together through that which every joint supplies, according to the working in measure of each individual part, makes the body increase to the building up of itself in love.
32. New Testament, Galatians, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

33. New Testament, Hebrews, 2.14-2.16, 7.14, 9.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.14. Since then the children have shared in flesh and blood, he also himself in like manner partook of the same, that through death he might bring to nothing him who had the power of death, that is, the devil 2.15. and might deliver all of them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage. 2.16. For most assuredly, not to angels does he give help, but he gives help to the seed of Abraham. 7.14. For it is evident that our Lord has sprung out of Judah, about which tribe Moses spoke nothing concerning priesthood. 9.11. But Christ having come as a high priest of the coming good things, through the greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this creation
34. New Testament, Philippians, 1.12-1.18, 2.16, 3.3-3.9, 3.19-3.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.12. Now I desire to have you know, brothers, that the things which happened to me have turned out rather to the progress of the gospel; 1.13. so that it became evident to the whole praetorian guard, and to all the rest, that my bonds are in Christ; 1.14. and that most of the brothers in the Lord, being confident through my bonds, are more abundantly bold to speak the word of God without fear. 1.15. Some indeed preach Christ even out of envy and strife, and some also out of good will. 1.16. The former insincerly preach Christ from selfish ambition, thinking that they add affliction to my chains; 1.17. but the latter out of love, knowing that I am appointed for the defense of the gospel. 1.18. What does it matter? Only that in every way, whether in pretense or in truth, Christ is proclaimed. I rejoice in this, yes, and will rejoice. 2.16. holding up the word of life; that I may have something to boast in the day of Christ, that I didn't run in vain nor labor in vain. 3.3. For we are the circumcision, who worship God in the Spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh; 3.4. though I myself might have confidence even in the flesh. If any other man thinks that he has confidence in the flesh, I yet more: 3.5. circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; concerning the law, a Pharisee; 3.6. concerning zeal, persecuting the assembly; concerning the righteousness which is in the law, found blameless. 3.7. However, what things were gain to me, these have I counted loss for Christ. 3.8. Yes most assuredly, and I count all things to be loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus, my Lord, for whom I suffered the loss of all things, and count them nothing but refuse, that I may gain Christ 3.9. and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own, that which is of the law, but that which is through faith in Christ, the righteousness which is from God by faith; 3.19. whose end is destruction, whose god is the belly, and whose glory is in their shame, who think about earthly things. 3.20. For our citizenship is in heaven, from where we also wait for a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ; 3.21. who will change the body of our humiliation to be conformed to the body of his glory, according to the working by which he is able even to subject all things to himself.
35. New Testament, Romans, 1.3-1.4, 1.17, 2.11, 2.24-2.25, 2.29, 3.1-3.2, 3.4, 3.10, 3.24, 4.17, 4.19, 4.23, 6.16-6.22, 7.4-7.12, 7.14, 7.25, 8.3-8.5, 8.13, 8.15, 8.23, 9.2-9.8, 9.21-9.23, 9.33, 10.5-10.13, 10.15, 11.1-11.2, 11.5-11.6, 11.8, 11.11-11.36, 12.19, 13.14, 14.15, 14.21, 15.8-15.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh 1.4. who was declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord 1.17. For in it is revealed God's righteousness from faith to faith. As it is written, "But the righteous shall live by faith. 2.11. For there is no partiality with God. 2.24. For "the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you," just as it is written. 2.25. For circumcision indeed profits, if you are a doer of the law, but if you are a transgressor of the law, your circumcision has become uncircumcision. 2.29. but he is a Jew who is one inwardly, and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit not in the letter; whose praise is not from men, but from God. 3.1. Then what advantage does the Jew have? Or what is the profit of circumcision? 3.2. Much in every way! Because first of all, they were entrusted with the oracles of God. 3.4. May it never be! Yes, let God be found true, but every man a liar. As it is written, "That you might be justified in your words, And might prevail when you come into judgment. 3.10. As it is written, "There is no one righteous. No, not one. 3.24. being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus; 4.17. As it is written, "I have made you a father of many nations." This is in the presence of him whom he believed: God, who gives life to the dead, and calls the things that are not, as though they were. 4.19. Without being weakened in faith, he didn't consider his own body, already having been worn out, (he being about a hundred years old), and the deadness of Sarah's womb. 4.23. Now it was not written that it was accounted to him for his sake alone 6.16. Don't you know that to whom you present yourselves as servants to obedience, his servants you are whom you obey; whether of sin to death, or of obedience to righteousness? 6.17. But thanks be to God, that, whereas you were bondservants of sin, you became obedient from the heart to that form of teaching whereunto you were delivered. 6.18. Being made free from sin, you became bondservants of righteousness. 6.19. I speak in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh, for as you presented your members as servants to uncleanness and to wickedness upon wickedness, even so now present your members as servants to righteousness for sanctification. 6.20. For when you were servants of sin, you were free in regard to righteousness. 6.21. What fruit then did you have at that time in the things of which you are now ashamed? For the end of those things is death. 6.22. But now, being made free from sin, and having become servants of God, you have your fruit of sanctification, and the result of eternal life. 7.4. Therefore, my brothers, you also were made dead to the law through the body of Christ, that you would be joined to another, to him who was raised from the dead, that we might bring forth fruit to God. 7.5. For when we were in the flesh, the sinful passions which were through the law, worked in our members to bring forth fruit to death. 7.6. But now we have been discharged from the law, having died to that in which we were held; so that we serve in newness of the spirit, and not in oldness of the letter. 7.7. What shall we say then? Is the law sin? May it never be! However, I wouldn't have known sin, except through the law. For I wouldn't have known coveting, unless the law had said, "You shall not covet. 7.8. But sin, finding occasion through the commandment, produced in me all kinds of coveting. For apart from the law, sin is dead. 7.9. I was alive apart from the law once, but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died. 7.10. The commandment, which was for life, this I found to be for death; 7.11. for sin, finding occasion through the commandment, deceived me, and through it killed me. 7.12. Therefore the law indeed is holy, and the commandment holy, and righteous, and good. 7.14. For we know that the law is spiritual, but I am fleshly, sold under sin. 7.25. I thank God through Jesus Christ, our Lord! So then with the mind, I myself serve God's law, but with the flesh, the sin's law. 8.3. For what the law couldn't do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God did, sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh; 8.4. that the ordice of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. 8.5. For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit, the things of the Spirit. 8.13. For if you live after the flesh, you must die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live. 8.15. For you didn't receive the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you received the Spirit of adoption, by whom we cry, "Abba! Father! 8.23. Not only so, but ourselves also, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for adoption, the redemption of our body. 9.2. that I have great sorrow and unceasing pain in my heart. 9.3. For I could wish that I myself were accursed from Christ for my brothers' sake, my relatives according to the flesh 9.4. who are Israelites; whose is the adoption, the glory, the covets, the giving of the law, the service, and the promises; 9.5. of whom are the fathers, and from whom is Christ as concerning the flesh, who is over all, God, blessed forever. Amen. 9.6. But it is not as though the word of God has come to nothing. For they are not all Israel, that are of Israel. 9.7. Neither, because they are Abraham's seed, are they all children. But, "In Isaac will your seed be called. 9.8. That is, it is not the children of the flesh who are children of God, but the children of the promise are counted as a seed. 9.21. Or hasn't the potter a right over the clay, from the same lump to make one part a vessel for honor, and another for dishonor? 9.22. What if God, willing to show his wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much patience vessels of wrath made for destruction 9.23. and that he might make known the riches of his glory on vessels of mercy, which he prepared beforehand for glory 9.33. even as it is written, "Behold, I lay in Zion a stumbling stone and a rock of offense; And no one who believes in him will be put to shame. 10.5. For Moses writes about the righteousness of the law, "The one who does them will live by them. 10.6. But the righteousness which is of faith says this, "Don't say in your heart, 'Who will ascend into heaven?' (that is, to bring Christ down); 10.7. or, 'Who will descend into the abyss?' (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead.) 10.8. But what does it say? "The word is near you, in your mouth, and in your heart;" that is, the word of faith, which we preach: 10.9. that if you will confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus, and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. 10.10. For with the heart, one believes unto righteousness; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation. 10.11. For the Scripture says, "Whoever believes in him will not be put to shame. 10.12. For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; for the same Lord is Lord of all, and is rich to all who call on him. 10.13. For, "Whoever will call on the name of the Lord will be saved. 10.15. And how will they preach unless they are sent? As it is written: "How beautiful are the feet of those who preach the gospel of peace, Who bring glad tidings of good things! 11.1. I ask then, Did God reject his people? May it never be! For I also am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. 11.2. God didn't reject his people, which he foreknew. Or don't you know what the Scripture says about Elijah? How he pleads with God against Israel: 11.5. Even so then at this present time also there is a remt according to the election of grace. 11.6. And if by grace, then it is no longer of works; otherwise grace is no longer grace. But if it is of works, it is no longer grace; otherwise work is no longer work. 11.8. According as it is written, "God gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear, to this very day. 11.11. I ask then, did they stumble that they might fall? May it never be! But by their fall salvation has come to the Gentiles, to provoke them to jealousy. 11.12. Now if their fall is the riches of the world, and their loss the riches of the Gentiles; how much more their fullness? 11.13. For I speak to you who are Gentiles. Since then as I am an apostle to Gentiles, I glorify my ministry; 11.14. if by any means I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh, and may save some of them. 11.15. For if the rejection of them is the reconciling of the world, what would their acceptance be, but life from the dead? 11.16. If the first fruit is holy, so is the lump. If the root is holy, so are the branches. 11.17. But if some of the branches were broken off, and you, being a wild olive, were grafted in among them, and became partaker with them of the root and of the richness of the olive tree; 11.18. don't boast over the branches. But if you boast, it is not you who support the root, but the root supports you. 11.19. You will say then, "Branches were broken off, that I might be grafted in. 11.20. True; by their unbelief they were broken off, and you stand by your faith. Don't be conceited, but fear; 11.21. for if God didn't spare the natural branches, neither will he spare you. 11.22. See then the goodness and severity of God. Toward those who fell, severity; but toward you, goodness, if you continue in his goodness; otherwise you also will be cut off. 11.23. They also, if they don't continue in their unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again. 11.24. For if you were cut out of that which is by nature a wild olive tree, and were grafted contrary to nature into a good olive tree, how much more will these, which are the natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree? 11.25. For I don't desire, brothers, to have you ignorant of this mystery, so that you won't be wise in your own conceits, that a partial hardening has happened to Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in 11.26. and so all Israel will be saved. Even as it is written, "There will come out of Zion the Deliverer, And he will turn away ungodliness from Jacob. 11.27. This is my covet to them, When I will take away their sins. 11.28. Concerning the gospel, they are enemies for your sake. But concerning the election, they are beloved for the fathers' sake. 11.29. For the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable. 11.30. For as you in time past were disobedient to God, but now have obtained mercy by their disobedience 11.31. even so these also have now been disobedient, that by the mercy shown to you they may also obtain mercy. 11.32. For God has shut up all to disobedience, that he might have mercy on all. 11.33. Oh the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and the knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past tracing out! 11.34. For who has known the mind of the Lord? Or who has been his counselor? 11.35. Or who has first given to him, And it will be repaid to him again? 11.36. For of him, and through him, and to him, are all things. To him be the glory for ever! Amen. 12.19. Don't seek revenge yourselves, beloved, but give place to God's wrath. For it is written, "Vengeance belongs to me; I will repay, says the Lord. 13.14. But put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh, for its lusts. 14.15. Yet if because of food your brother is grieved, you walk no longer in love. Don't destroy with your food him for whom Christ died. 14.21. It is good to not eat meat, drink wine, nor do anything by which your brother stumbles, is offended, or is made weak. 15.8. Now I say that Christ has been made a minister of the circumcision for the truth of God, that he might confirm the promises given to the fathers 15.9. and that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy. As it is written, "Therefore will I give praise to you among the Gentiles, And sing to your name. 15.10. Again he says, "Rejoice, you Gentiles, with his people.
36. New Testament, John, 12.3, 20.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.3. Mary, therefore, took a pound of ointment of pure nard, very precious, and anointed the feet of Jesus, and wiped his feet with her hair. The house was filled with the fragrance of the ointment. 20.17. Jesus said to her, "Don't touch me, for I haven't yet ascended to my Father; but go to my brothers, and tell them, 'I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.'
37. New Testament, Luke, 5.27-5.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.27. After these things he went out, and saw a tax collector named Levi sitting at the tax office, and said to him, "Follow me! 5.28. He left everything, and rose up and followed him.
38. New Testament, Matthew, 12.7, 12.12-12.13, 23.13-23.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.7. But if you had known what this means, 'I desire mercy, and not sacrifice,' you would not have condemned the guiltless. 12.12. of how much more value then is a man than a sheep! Therefore it is lawful to do good on the Sabbath day. 12.13. Then he told the man, "Stretch out your hand." He stretched it out; and it was restored whole, just like the other. 23.13. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you devour widows' houses, and as a pretense you make long prayers. Therefore you will receive greater condemnation. 23.14. But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! Because you shut up the Kingdom of Heaven against men; for you don't enter in yourselves, neither do you allow those who are entering in to enter. 23.15. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you travel around by sea and land to make one proselyte; and when he becomes one, you make him twice as much of a son of Gehenna as yourselves.
39. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 8.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

40. Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, 8.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

41. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 39.11 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

39.11. וְאֶעֶשֶׂךָ לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל (בראשית יב, ב), אָמַר לוֹ וּמִנֹחַ לֹא הֶעֱמַדְתָּ שִׁבְעִים אֻמּוֹת, אָמַר לוֹ אוֹתָהּ אֻמָּה שֶׁכָּתוּב בָּהּ (דברים ד, ז): כִּי מִי גּוֹי גָּדוֹל, אֲנִי מַעֲמִיד מִמָּךְ. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אֶתֶּנְךָ וַאֲשִׂימְךָ, אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ, מִשֶּׁאֲנִי עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתְךָ בְּרִיָּה חֲדָשָׁה אַתְּ פָּרֶה וְרָבֶה. רַבִּי לֵוִי בַּר חִוְיָת וְרַבִּי אַבָּא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא אָמְרוּ, שְׁלשָׁה גְּדֻלּוֹת וְאַרְבַּע בְּרָכוֹת כְּתִיב כָּאן, בִּשְֹּׂרוֹ שֶׁהֵן שְׁלשָׁה אָבוֹת וְאַרְבַּע אִמָּהוֹת. אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּא לְפִי שֶׁהַדֶּרֶךְ מַגְרֶמֶת לִשְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים, מְמַעֶטֶת פְּרִיָּה וּרְבִיָּה, וּמְמַעֶטֶת אֶת הַיְצִיאָה, וּמְמַעֶטֶת אֶת הַשֵּׁם. מְמַעֶטֶת פְּרִיָּה וּרְבִיָּה, וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָדוֹל. מְמַעֶטֶת אֶת הַיְצִיאָה, וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ. מְמַעֶטֶת אֶת הַשֵּׁם, וַאֲגַדְלָה שְׁמֶךָ. וּלְפוּם דְּאָמְרִין אִינְשֵׁי מִבַּיִת לְבַיִת, חֲלוּק, מֵאֲתַר לַאֲתַר, נָפֶשׁ. בְּרַם אַתְּ לֹא נֶפֶשׁ אַתְּ חָסֵר וְלֹא מָמוֹן. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ אָמַר, שֶׁיָּצָא מוֹנִיטִין שֶׁלּוֹ בָּעוֹלָם. אַרְבָּעָה הֵם שֶׁיָּצָא לָהֶם מוֹנִיטִין בָּעוֹלָם, אַבְרָהָם, וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל, יָצָא לוֹ מוֹנִיטִין, וּמַהוּ מוֹנִיטִין שֶׁלּוֹ, זָקֵן וּזְקֵנָה מִכָּאן בָּחוּר וּבְתוּלָה מִכָּאן. יְהוֹשֻׁעַ (יהושע ו, כז): וַיְהִי ה' אֶת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיְהִי שָׁמְעוֹ בְּכָל הָאָרֶץ, יָצָא לוֹ מוֹנִיטִין בָּעוֹלָם, מַהוּ, שׁוֹר מִכָּאן וּרְאֵם מִכָּאן, עַל שֵׁם (דברים לג, יז): בְּכוֹר שׁוֹרוֹ הָדָר לוֹ וְקַרְנֵי רְאֵם קַרְנָיו. דָּוִד (דברי הימים א יד, יז): וַיֵּצֵא שֵׁם דָּוִיד בְּכָל הָאֲרָצוֹת, יָצָא לוֹ מוֹנִיטִין בָּעוֹלָם, וּמָה הָיָה מוֹנִיטִין שֶׁלּוֹ מַקֵּל וְתַרְמִיל מִכָּאן וּמִגְדָּל מִכָּאן, עַל שֵׁם (שיר השירים ד, ד): כְּמִגְדַּל דָּוִיד צַוָּארֵךְ. מָרְדְּכַי (אסתר ט, ד): כִּי גָּדוֹל מָרְדְּכַי בְּבֵית הַמֶּלֶךְ וְשָׁמְעוֹ הוֹלֵךְ בְּכָל הַמְדִינוֹת, יָצָא לוֹ מוֹנִיטִין, וּמַה מּוֹנִיטִין שֶׁלּוֹ שַׂק וָאֵפֶר מִכָּאן וַעֲטֶרֶת זָהָב מִכָּאן. אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן קוֹבֵעַ אֲנִי לְךָ בְּרָכָה בִּשְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה, אֲבָל אֵין אַתְּ יוֹדֵעַ אִם שֶׁלִּי קוֹדֶמֶת אִם שֶׁלְּךָ קוֹדֶמֶת, אָמַר רַבִּי אֲחוּיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי זְעֵירָא שֶׁלְּךָ קוֹדֶמֶת לְשֶׁלִּי, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר מָגֵן אַבְרָהָם אַחַר כָּךְ מְחַיֵּה הַמֵּתִים. רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ אָמַר הַבֶּט נָא שָׁמַיִם אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא (בראשית טו, ה): הַשָּׁמַיְמָה, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּהֵ"א בָּרָאתִי אֶת הָעוֹלָם הֲרֵינִי מוֹסִיף הֵ"א עַל שִׁמְךָ וְאַתְּ פָּרֶה וְרָבֶה. וְאָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן וְהָיוּ אוֹתוֹתֶיךָ מִנְיַן אֲבָרֶכְכָה, מָאתַיִם וְאַרְבָּעִים וּשְׁמוֹנֶה. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי לֹא שָׁם אָדָם פָּרָה מֵאַבְרָהָם עַד שֶׁנִּתְבָּרֵךְ, וְלֹא שָׁמָהּ לוֹ עַד שֶׁנִּתְבָּרֵךְ מֵאַבְרָהָם, כֵּיצַד אַבְרָהָם הָיָה מִתְפַּלֵּל עַל עֲקָרוֹת וְהֵם נִפְקָדוֹת, וְעַל הַחוֹלִים וְהֵם מַרְוִיחִים. רַב הוּנָא אָמַר לֹא סוֹף דָּבָר אַבְרָהָם הוֹלֵךְ אֵצֶל הַחוֹלֶה, אֶלָּא הַחוֹלֶה רוֹאֶה אוֹתוֹ וּמַרְוִיחַ. אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא אֲפִלּוּ סְפִינוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ מְפָרְשׁוֹת בַּיָּם הַגָּדוֹל הָיוּ נִצּוֹלוֹת בִּזְכוּתוֹ שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם. וְלֹא שֶׁל יַיִן נֶסֶךְ הָיוּ, אֶתְמְהָא, אֶלָּא חָלָא מֵזִיל חַמְרָא, בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיַּיִן עוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים מָצוּי יַיִן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל נִמְכַּר בְּזוֹל. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אַף לְאִיּוֹב עָשָׂה כֵן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איוב א, י): מַעֲשֵׂה יָדָיו בֵּרַכְתָּ, לֹא נָטַל אָדָם פְרוּטָה מֵאִיּוֹב וְנִצְטָרֵךְ לִטֹּל מִמֶּנּוּ פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה. וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, קְרִי בֵיהּ בְּרֵכָה, מַה בְּרֵכָה זוֹ מְטַהֶרֶת אֶת הַטְּמֵאִים, אַף אַתְּ מְקָרֵב רְחוֹקִים וּמְטַהֲרָם לַאֲבִיהֶם שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה כְּבָר כָּתוּב וַאֲבָרֶכְכָה, מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, אֶלָּא אָמַר לוֹ עַד כָּאן הָיִיתִי זָקוּק לְבָרֵךְ אֶת עוֹלָמִי, מִכָּאן וָאֵילָךְ הֲרֵי הַבְּרָכוֹת מְסוּרוֹת לָךְ, לְמַאן דְּחָזֵי לְךָ לִמְבָרְכָא בָּרֵיךְ.
42. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 4.19.2, 4.24.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

43. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 134.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

44. Tertullian, Against Marcion, 5.3.1, 5.3.4-5.3.5, 5.4.8, 5.18.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

45. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

10a. כל פרשה שהיתה חביבה על דוד פתח בה באשרי וסיים בה באשרי פתח באשרי דכתיב (תהלים א, א) אשרי האיש וסיים באשרי דכתיב (תהלים ב, יב) אשרי כל חוסי בו:,הנהו בריוני דהוו בשבבותיה דר"מ והוו קא מצערו ליה טובא הוה קא בעי ר' מאיר רחמי עלויהו כי היכי דלימותו אמרה לי' ברוריא דביתהו מאי דעתך משום דכתיב (תהלים קד, לה) יתמו חטאים מי כתיב חוטאים חטאים כתיב,ועוד שפיל לסיפיה דקרא ורשעים עוד אינם כיון דיתמו חטאים ורשעים עוד אינם אלא בעי רחמי עלויהו דלהדרו בתשובה ורשעים עוד אינם,בעא רחמי עלויהו והדרו בתשובה:,אמר לה ההוא צדוקי לברוריא כתיב (ישעיהו נד, א) רני עקרה לא ילדה משום דלא ילדה רני,אמרה ליה שטיא שפיל לסיפיה דקרא דכתיב כי רבים בני שוממה מבני בעולה אמר ה',אלא מאי עקרה לא ילדה רני כנסת ישראל שדומה לאשה עקרה שלא ילדה בנים לגיהנם כותייכו:,א"ל ההוא צדוקי לר' אבהו כתיב (תהלים ג, א) מזמור לדוד בברחו מפני אבשלום בנו וכתיב (תהלים נז, א) לדוד מכתם בברחו מפני שאול במערה הי מעשה הוה ברישא מכדי מעשה שאול הוה ברישא לכתוב ברישא,אמר ליה אתון דלא דרשיתון סמוכין קשיא לכו אנן דדרשינן סמוכים לא קשיא לן,דא"ר יוחנן סמוכין מן התורה מנין שנא' (תהלים קיא, ח) סמוכים לעד לעולם עשוים באמת וישר,למה נסמכה פרשת אבשלום לפרשת גוג ומגוג שאם יאמר לך אדם כלום יש עבד שמורד ברבו אף אתה אמור לו כלום יש בן שמורד באביו אלא הוה הכא נמי הוה:,אמר ר' יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי מאי דכתיב (משלי לא, כו) פיה פתחה בחכמה ותורת חסד על לשונה כנגד מי אמר שלמה מקרא זה לא אמרו אלא כנגד דוד אביו שדר בחמשה עולמים ואמר שירה,דר במעי אמו ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, א) ברכי נפשי את ה' וכל קרבי את שם קדשו,יצא לאויר העולם ונסתכל בכוכבים ומזלות ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, כ) ברכו ה' מלאכיו גבורי כח עושי דברו לשמוע בקול דברו ברכו ה' כל צבאיו וגו',ינק משדי אמו ונסתכל בדדיה ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, ב) ברכי נפשי את ה' ואל תשכחי כל גמוליו,מאי כל גמוליו אמר ר' אבהו שעשה לה דדים במקום בינה,טעמא מאי אמר (רבי) יהודה כדי שלא יסתכל במקום ערוה רב מתנא אמר כדי שלא יינק ממקום הטנופת,ראה במפלתן של רשעים ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קד, לה) יתמו חטאים מן הארץ ורשעים עוד אינם ברכי נפשי את ה' הללויה,נסתכל ביום המיתה ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קד, א) ברכי נפשי את ה' ה' אלהי גדלת מאד הוד והדר לבשת,מאי משמע דעל יום המיתה נאמר אמר רבה בר רב שילא מסיפא דעניינא דכתיב (תהלים קד, כט) תסתיר פניך יבהלון תוסף רוחם יגועון וגו',רב שימי בר עוקבא ואמרי לה מר עוקבא הוה שכיח קמיה דר' שמעון בן פזי והוה מסדר אגדתא קמיה דר' יהושע בן לוי אמר ליה מאי דכתיב (תהלים קג, א) ברכי נפשי את ה' וכל קרבי את שם קדשו אמר ליה בא וראה שלא כמדת הקדוש ברוך הוא מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם צר צורה על גבי הכותל ואינו יכול להטיל בה רוח ונשמה קרבים ובני מעים והקב"ה אינו כן צר צורה בתוך צורה ומטיל בה רוח ונשמה קרבים ובני מעים והיינו דאמרה חנה (שמואל א ב, ב) אין קדוש כה' כי אין בלתך ואין צור כאלהינו.,מאי אין צור כאלהינו אין צייר כאלהינו,מאי כי אין בלתך אמר ר' יהודה בר מנסיא אל תקרי כי אין בלתך אלא אין לבלותך שלא כמדת הקדוש ברוך הוא מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם מעשה ידיו מבלין אותו והקב"ה מבלה מעשיו,א"ל אנא הכי קא אמינא לך הני חמשה ברכי נפשי כנגד מי אמרן דוד לא אמרן אלא כנגד הקב"ה וכנגד נשמה,מה הקב"ה מלא כל העולם אף נשמה מלאה את כל הגוף מה הקדוש ברוך הוא רואה ואינו נראה אף נשמה רואה ואינה נראית מה הקב"ה זן את כל העולם כלו אף נשמה זנה את כל הגוף מה הקב"ה טהור אף נשמה טהורה מה הקב"ה יושב בחדרי חדרים אף נשמה יושבת בחדרי חדרים יבא מי שיש בו חמשה דברים הללו וישבח למי שיש בו חמשה דברים הללו:,אמר רב המנונא מאי דכתיב (קהלת ח, א) מי כהחכם ומי יודע פשר דבר מי כהקדוש ברוך הוא שיודע לעשות פשרה בין שני צדיקים בין חזקיהו לישעיהו חזקיהו אמר ליתי ישעיהו גבאי דהכי אשכחן באליהו דאזל לגבי אחאב (שנאמר (מלכים א יח, ב) וילך אליהו להראות אל אחאב) ישעיהו אמר ליתי חזקיהו גבאי דהכי אשכחן ביהורם בן אחאב דאזל לגבי אלישע,מה עשה הקב"ה הביא יסורים על חזקיהו ואמר לו לישעיהו לך ובקר את החולה שנאמר (מלכים ב כ, א) בימים ההם חלה חזקיהו למות ויבא אליו ישעיהו בן אמוץ הנביא ויאמר אליו כה אמר ה' (צבאות) צו לביתך כי מת אתה ולא תחיה וגו' מאי כי מת אתה ולא תחיה מת אתה בעולם הזה ולא תחיה לעולם הבא,אמר ליה מאי כולי האי אמר ליה משום דלא עסקת בפריה ורביה א"ל משום דחזאי לי ברוח הקדש דנפקי מינאי בנין דלא מעלו,א"ל בהדי כבשי דרחמנא למה לך מאי דמפקדת איבעי לך למעבד ומה דניחא קמיה קודשא בריך הוא לעביד,אמר ליה השתא הב לי ברתך אפשר דגרמא זכותא דידי ודידך ונפקי מנאי בנין דמעלו א"ל כבר נגזרה עליך גזירה א"ל בן אמוץ כלה נבואתך וצא,כך מקובלני מבית אבי אבא אפי' חרב חדה מונחת על צוארו של אדם אל ימנע עצמו מן הרחמים,אתמר נמי רבי יוחנן ורבי (אליעזר) דאמרי תרוייהו אפילו חרב חדה מונחת על צוארו של אדם אל ימנע עצמו מן הרחמים שנא' (איוב יג, טו) הן יקטלני לו איחל 10a. bEvery chapter that was dear to David, he began with “happy is” and concluded with “happy is.” He opened with “happy is,” as it is written: “Happy is the manwho has not walked in the counsel of the wicked or stood in the way of sinners or sat in the dwelling place of the scornful” (Psalms 1:1). bAnd he concluded with “happy,” as it is writtenat the end of the chapter: “Pay homage in purity, lest He be angry, and you perish on the way when His anger is kindled suddenly. bHappy are those who take refuge in Him”(Psalms 2:12). We see that these two chapters actually constitute a single chapter.,With regard to the statement of Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, that David did not say iHalleluyauntil he saw the downfall of the wicked, the Gemara relates: bThere were these hooligans in Rabbi Meir’s neighborhood who caused him a great deal of anguish. Rabbi Meir prayed forGod to have bmercy on them, that they should die. Rabbi Meir’s wife, Berurya, said to him: What is your thinking?On what basis do you pray for the death of these hooligans? Do you base yourself on the verse, bas it is written: “Let sins cease from the land”(Psalms 104:35), which you interpret to mean that the world would be better if the wicked were destroyed? But bis it written,let bsinnerscease?” Let bsinscease, bis written.One should pray for an end to their transgressions, not for the demise of the transgressors themselves., bMoreover, go to the end of the verse,where it says: b“And the wicked will be no more.”If, as you suggest, btransgressions shall ceaserefers to the demise of the evildoers, how is it possible that bthe wicked will be no more,i.e., that they will no longer be evil? bRather, pray forGod to have bmercy on them, that they should repent,as if they repent, then the wicked will be no more, as they will have repented.,Rabbi Meir saw that Berurya was correct band he prayed forGod to have bmercy on them, and they repented. /b,The Gemara relates an additional example of Berurya’s incisive insight: bA certain heretic said to Berurya: It is written: “Sing, barren woman who has not given birth,open forth in song and cry, you did not travail, for more are the children of the desolate than the children of the married wife, said the Lord” (Isaiah 54:1). bBecause she has not given birth,she should bsingand rejoice?,Berurya responded to this heretic’s mockery and bsaid: Fool! Go to the end of the verse, where it is written: “For the children of the desolate shall be more numerous than the children of the married wife, said the Lord.” /b, bRather, whatis the meaning of: b“Sing, barren woman who has not given birth”?It means: bSing congregation of Israel, which is like a barren woman who did not give birth to children who aredestined bfor Gehenna like you. /b,In explaining passages from Psalms, the Gemara relates another instance of a response to the question of a heretic: bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Abbahu, it is written: “A Psalm of David, when he fled from his son, Absalom”(Psalms 3:1), bandsimilarly bit is said:“To the chief musician, ial tashḥet /i, ba imikhtamof David when fleeing from Saul into the cave”(Psalms 57:1). bWhich event was first? Since the event with Saul was first,it would have been appropriate bto write it first. /b,Rabbi Abbahu bsaid to him:For byou, who donot employ the bhomileticmethod bof juxtapositionof verses, bit is difficult.But for bus, whoemploy the bhomileticmethod bof juxtapositionof verses, bit is not difficult,as the Sages commonly homiletically infer laws and moral lessons from the juxtaposition of two verses.,Regarding the juxtaposition of verses, bRabbi Yoḥa said: From wherein the Bible is it derived that one may draw homiletical inferences from the bjuxtapositionof verses? bAs it is said:“The works of His hands in truth and justice, all His commandments are sure. bAdjoined forever and ever, made in truth and uprightness”(Psalms 111:7–8). Conclude from here that it is appropriate to draw inferences from the juxtaposition of God’s commandments. Accordingly, David’s fleeing from Absalom is situated where it is in order to juxtapose it to the next chapter, which mentions the war of Gog and Magog; the second chapter of Psalms opens: “Why are the nations in an uproar?”, bWhy was the chapter of Absalom juxtaposed with the chapter of Gog and Magog?They are juxtaposed bsothat bif a person should say to you,expressing doubt with regard to the prophecy of the war of Gog and Magog “against the Lord and against His anointed”: bIs there a slave who rebels against his master?Is there someone capable of rebelling against God? bYou too say to him: Is there a son who rebels against his fatherand severs the relationship with the one who brought him into the world and raised him? bYet,nevertheless, bthere wassuch a son, Absalom, and bso too therecan bbea situation where people will seek to rebel against God., bRabbi Yoḥa saidexplanations of other verses bin the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “She opens her mouth with wisdom, and the teaching of loving-kindness is on her tongue”(Proverbs 31:26)? The Sages explain that this chapter discusses the wisdom of Torah and those who engage in its study, so bwith reference to whom did Solomon say this verse? He said thisverse babout none other than his father, David,who was the clearest example of one who opens his mouth in wisdom, and bwho resided in five worldsor stages of life bandhis soul bsaid a songof praise corresponding to each of them. Five times David said: “Bless the Lord, O my soul,” each corresponding to a different stage of life., bHe resided in his mother’s womb,his first world, band said a songof praise of the pregcy, bas it is stated:“of David. bBless the Lord, O my soul and all that is within me bless His holy name”(Psalms 103:1), in which he thanks God for creating all that is within his mother, i.e., her womb., bHe emerged into the atmosphere of the world,his second world, blooked upon the stars and constellations and said a songof praise of God for the entirety of creation, bas it is stated: “Bless the Lord, His angels, mighty in strength, that fulfill His word, listening to the voice of His word. Bless the Lord, all His hosts,His servants, that do His will. Bless the Lord, all His works, in all places of His kingship, bless my soul, Lord” (Psalms 103:20–23). David saw the grandeur of all creation and recognized that they are mere servants, carrying out the will of their Creator ( iMa’ayan HaBerakhot /i)., bHe nursed from his mother’s breast,his third world, band he looked upon her bosom and said a songof praise, bas it is stated: “Bless the Lord, O my soul, and do not forget all His benefits [ igemulav /i]”(Psalms 103:2). The etymological association is between igemulavand igemulei meḥalav /i, which means weaned from milk (Isaiah 28:9).,We still must understand, however, bwhat ismeant by ball His benefits?What in particular is praiseworthy in what God provided, beyond merely providing for the infant? bRabbi Abbahu said:In contrast with most other animals, God bplaced her breastsnear her heart, bthe placethat is the source bof understanding. /b, bWhat is the reasonthat God did this? bRav Yehuda said: So thatthe nursing child bwould not look upon the place ofhis mother’s bnakedness. Rav Mattana said: So thatthe child bwould not nurse from a place of uncleanliness. /b, bHe witnessedin both vision and reality bthe downfall of the wicked and he said a songof praise, bas it is stated: “Let sinners cease from the earth, and let the wicked be no more. Bless the Lord, O my soul, iHalleluya /i”(Psalms 104:35).,The fifth world was when David blooked upon the day of death and said a songof praise, bas it is stated: “Bless the Lord, O my soul. Lord my God, You are very great; You are clothed in glory and majesty”(Psalms 104:1); for even death is a time of transcendence for the righteous.,The connection between this final praise and the day of death is unclear. The Gemara asks: bFrom where is it inferredthat bthisverse bwas stated with regard to the day of death?Rabba bar Rav Sheila says: We can derive this bfromthe verses at bthe end of the matter,where bit is written: “You hide Your face, they vanish; You gather Your breath, they perishand return to the dust” (Psalms 104:29).,Other interpretations of this verse exist. The Gemara relates how bRav Shimi bar Ukva, and some say Mar Ukva, would regularlystudy bbefore Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi,who was well versed in iaggadaand bwould arrange the iaggadabefore Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. brOnce, Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi bsaid to him: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “Bless the Lord, my soul, and all that is within me bless His Holy name”? brRav Shimi bar Ukva bsaid toRabbi Shimon ben Pazi: bCome and see that the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is not like the attribute of flesh and blood,as this verse praises the formation of man in his mother’s womb. bThe attribute of flesh and blood issuch that he bshapes a form on the wallfor all to see, yet bhe cannot instill it with a spirit and soul, bowels and intestines.While bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, is not so,as God bshapes one form within another form,a child in its mother’s womb, band instills it with spirit and soul, bowels and intestines. And this isthe explanation of bwhat Hannah saidwith regard to the birth of Samuel: b“There is none holy like the Lord, for there is none like You, and there is no Rock like our God”(I Samuel 2:2)., bWhat isthe meaning of bthere is no rock [ itzur /i] like our God? There is no artist [ itzayyar /i] like our God. /b,The Gemara continues to interpret the rest of that verse homiletically: bWhat isthe meaning of b“there is none like You”? Rabbi Yehuda ben Menasya said: Do not readthe verse to mean b“there is none like You [ ibiltekha /i]”; rather, readit to mean b“none can outlast You [ ilevalotkha /i],” as the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is not like the attribute of flesh and blood: The attribute of flesh and blood issuch bthat his creations outlast him,but bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, outlasts His actions. /b,This did not satisfy Rav Shimi bar Ukva, who bsaid toRabbi Shimon ben Pazi: bImeant to bsay to you as follows: Corresponding to whom did David say these fiveinstance of b“Blessthe Lord, bO my soul”?He answered him: bHe said them about none other than the Holy One, Blessed be He, and corresponding to the soul,as the verse refers to the relationship between man’s soul and God. The five instances of “Bless the Lord, O my soul” correspond to the five parallels between the soul in man’s body and God’s power in His world., bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, fills the entire world, so too the soul fills the entire body. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, sees but is not seen, so too does the soul see, but is not seen. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, sustains the entire world, so too the soul sustains the entire body. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, is pure, so too is the soul pure. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, resides in a chamber within a chamber,in His inner sanctum, bso too the soul resides in a chamber within a chamber,in the innermost recesses of the body. brTherefore, bthat which has these five characteristics,the soul, bshould come and praise He Who has these five characteristics. /b,With regard to redemption and prayer, the Gemara tells the story of Hezekiah’s illness, his prayer to God, and subsequent recuperation. bRav Hamnuna said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is writtenpraising the Holy One, Blessed be He: b“Who is like the wise man, and who knows the interpretation [ ipesher /i] of the matter”(Ecclesiastes 8:1)? This verse means: bWho is like the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who knows how to effect compromise [ ipeshara /i] between two righteous individuals, between Hezekiah,the king of Judea, band Isaiahthe prophet. They disagreed over which of them should visit the other. bHezekiah said: Let Isaiah come to me, as that is what we find with regard to Elijahthe prophet, bwho went to Ahab,the king of Israel, bas it is stated: “And Elijah went to appear to Ahab”(I Kings 18:2). This proves that it is the prophet who must seek out the king. bAnd Isaiah said: Let Hezekiah come to me, as that is what we find with regard to Yehoram ben Ahab,king of Israel, bwho went to Elishathe prophet, as it is stated: “So the king of Israel, Jehosaphat and the king of Edom went down to him” (II Kings 3:12)., bWhat did the Holy One, Blessed be He, doto effect compromise between Hezekiah and Isaiah? bHe brought the sufferingof illness bupon Hezekiah and told Isaiah: Go and visit the sick.Isaiah did as God instructed, bas it is stated: “In those days Hezekiah became deathly ill, and Isaiah ben Amoz the prophet came and said to him: Thus says the Lord of Hosts: Set your house in order, for you will die and you will not live”(Isaiah 38:1). This seems redundant; bwhat isthe meaning of byou will die and you will not live?This repetition means: bYou will die in this world, and you will not live,you will have no share, bin the World-to-Come. /b,Hezekiah bsaid to him: What is all of this?For what transgression am I being punished? brIsaiah bsaid to him: Because you did notmarry and bengage in procreation. brHezekiah apologized and bsaid:I had no children bbecause I envisaged through divine inspiration that the children that emerge from me will not be virtuous.Hezekiah meant that he had seen that his children were destined to be evil. In fact, his son Menashe sinned extensively, and he thought it preferable to have no children at all.,Isaiah bsaid to him: Why do youinvolve byourself with the secrets of the Holy One, Blessed be He? That which you have been commanded,the mitzva of procreation, byou are required to perform, and that which is acceptablein the eyes of bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, let Him perform,as He has so decided.,Hezekiah bsaid toIsaiah: bNow give me your daughteras my wife; bperhaps my merit and your merit will cause virtuous children to emerge from me. brIsaiah bsaid to him: The decree has already been decreed against youand this judgment cannot be changed. brHezekiah bsaid to him: Son of Amoz, cease your prophecy and leave.As long as the prophet spoke as God’s emissary, Hezekiah was obligated to listen to him. He was not, however, obligated to accept Isaiah’s personal opinion that there was no possibility for mercy and healing.,Hezekiah continued: bI have received a tradition from the house of my father’s father,from King David, the founding father of the dynasty of kings of Judea: bEvenif ba sharp sword rests upon a person’s neck, he should not prevent himself frompraying for bmercy.One may still hold out hope that his prayers will be answered, as was David himself when he saw the Angel of Destruction, but nonetheless prayed for mercy and his prayers were answered.,With regard to the fact that one should not despair of God’s mercy, the Gemara cites that bit was also saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Eliezer both said: Even if a sharp sword is resting upon a person’s neck, he should not prevent himself frompraying for bmercy, as it is statedin the words of Job: b“Though He slay me, I will trust in Him”(Job 13:15). Even though God is about to take his life, he still prays for God’s mercy.
46. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

101a. big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הדלת שבמוקצה וחדקים שבפרצה ומחצלות אין נועלין בהן אלא אם כן גבוהים מן הארץ:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ורמינהו דלת הנגררת ומחצלת הנגררת וקנקן הנגרר בזמן שקשורין ותלויין נועלין בהן בשבת ואין צריך לומר ביום טוב,אמר אביי בשיש להם ציר רבא אמר בשהיה להן ציר,מיתיבי דלת הנגררת ומחצלת הנגררת וקנקן הנגרר בזמן שקשורין ותלויין וגבוהים מן הארץ אפילו מלא נימא נועלין בהן ואם לאו אין נועלין בהן,אביי מתרץ לטעמיה ורבא מתרץ לטעמיה אביי מתרץ לטעמיה או שיש להן ציר או שגבוהין מן הארץ רבא מתרץ לטעמיה כשהיה להן ציר או שגבוהין מן הארץ,ת"ר סוכי קוצים וחבילין שהתקינן לפירצה שבחצר בזמן שקשורין ותלויין נועלין בהן בשבת וא"צ לומר ביו"ט,תני ר' חייא דלת אלמנה הנגררת אין נועלין בה היכי דמי דלת אלמנה איכא דאמרי דחד שיפא ואיכא דאמרי דלית ליה גשמה,אמר רב יהודה האי מדורתא ממעלה למטה שרי ממטה למעלה אסיר,וכן ביעתא וכן קידרא וכן פוריא וכן חביתא,א"ל ההוא צדוקי לרבי יהושע בן חנניה חדקאה דכתיב בכו (מיכה ז, ד) טובם כחדק אמר ליה שטיא שפיל לסיפיה דקרא דכתיב ישר ממסוכה ואלא מאי טובם כחדק כשם שחדקים הללו מגינין על הפירצה כך טובים שבנו מגינים עלינו דבר אחר טובם כחדק שמהדקין את הרשעים לגיהנם שנאמר (מיכה ד, יג) קומי ודושי בת ציון כי קרנך אשים ברזל ופרסותיך אשים נחושה והדיקות עמים רבים וגו':, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big לא יעמוד אדם ברשות היחיד ויפתח ברשות הרבים ברשות הרבים ויפתח ברשות היחיד אא"כ עשה מחיצה גבוה עשרה טפחים דברי ר' מאיר,אמרו לו מעשה בשוק של פטמים שהיה בירושלים שהיו נועלין ומניחין את המפתח בחלון שעל גבי הפתח רבי יוסי אומר שוק של צמרים הוה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ורבנן אמר רבי מאיר רשות הרבים ומהדרו אינהו כרמלית דאמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן ירושלים אלמלא דלתותיה ננעלות בלילה חייבין עליה משום רשות הרבים,אמר רב פפא כאן קודם שנפרצו בה פרצות כאן לאחר שנפרצו בה פרצות,רבא אמר סיפא אתאן לשערי גינה והכי קאמר וכן לא יעמוד ברשות היחיד ויפתח בכרמלית בכרמלית ויפתח ברשות היחיד 101a. strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to bthe door to a rear court,i.e., a door that opens from a house to the courtyard situated behind it, which is typically not a proper door but merely a wooden board without hinges that closes off the doorway; bandlikewise bbundles of thornsthat seal ba breach; andreed bmats, onemay bnot closean opening bwith themon Shabbat. This would be considered building or completing a building, bunless theyremain babove the groundeven when they are open., strongGEMARA: /strong bAndthe Gemara braises a contradictionfrom a ibaraita /i: With regard to ba door, or a mat, or a lattice [ ikankan /i] that dragalong the ground and are used for closing up openings, bwhen they are tied and suspendedin place bonemay bclosean opening bwith them on Shabbat; and needless to saythis is permitted bon a Festival.According to the ibaraita /i, the critical factor is apparently that they must be tied and suspended, not that they have to be held up above the ground., bAbaye said:The ibaraitais referring btoones bthat have a hinge.As they are considered proper doors, closing them does not appear like building. bRava said:The ibaraitais referring even btodoors bthatonce bhad a hinge,even though they no longer have one. These partitions also bear the clear form of a door, and therefore one’s action does not have the appearance of building.,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom another ibaraita /i: With regard to ba door, or a mat, or a lattice that dragalong the ground, bwhen they are tied and suspendedin place bandthey are held babove the ground even byas little as ba hairbreadth, onemay bclosean opening bwith them. However, ifthey are bnotraised in this manner, bonemay bnot closean opening bwith them.Clearly, these doors must indeed be raised above the ground as well.,The Gemara answers: bAbaye reconcilesthe objection bin accordance with his reasoning, and Rava reconcilesthe objection bin accordance with his reasoning.The Gemara elaborates: bAbaye reconcilesthe objection bin accordance with his reasoningby adding to the ibaraita /i: They must beither have a hinge orbe held babove the ground. Ravalikewise breconcilesthe objection bin accordance with his reasoning,as he reads: They must bhave had a hinge orelse be held babove the ground. /b, bThe Sages taughta ibaraita /i: With regard to bbranches of thorn bushes or bundlesof wood bthat were arrangedso that they sealed off ba breach in a courtyard, when they are tied and suspendedin place, bonemay bclosean opening bwith them on Shabbat; and needless to say,this is permitted bon a Festival. /b, bRabbi Ḥiyya taughta ibaraita /i: With regard to ba widowed door that dragsalong the ground, bonemay bnot closean opening bwith it.The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstancesof ba widowed door? Some sayit refers to a door built bfrom a single plank,which does not look like a door, band others sayit is ba door that does not have a lower doorsill( ige’onim /i) and that touches the ground when closed.,With regard to activities that are prohibited because of their similarity to building, the Gemara cites a teaching that bRav Yehuda said:When arranging a pile of wood for ba fireon a Festival, if the logs are arranged bfrom the top down,i.e., the upper logs are temporarily suspended in the air while the lower logs are inserted below them, bit is permitted.However, if the wood is placed from bthe bottom up, it is prohibited,as the arrangement of wood in the regular manner is a form of building., bAnd the sameapplies to beggsthat are to be arranged in a pile, band the sameapplies to ba cauldronthat is to be set down on a fire by means of supports, band the sameapplies to a bbedthat will be placed on its frame, band the sameapplies to bbarrelsarranged in a cellar. In all these cases, the part that goes on top must be temporarily suspended in the air while the lower section is inserted beneath it.,With regard to bundles of thorns used to seal a breach, the Gemara cites a related incident: bA certain hereticonce bsaid to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya: Man of thorns! For it says about you: “The best of them is as a brier”(Micah 7:4), which indicates that even Israel’s best are merely thorns. bHe said to him: Fool, go down to the end of the verse: “The most upright is worse than a thorn hedge,”a derogatory expression meant as praise. bRather, what isthe meaning of bthe best of them is as a brier?It means that bjust as these thorns protect a breach, so the best among us protect us. Alternatively: The best of them is as a brier [ iḥedek /i]means bthat they grind [ imehaddekin /i] the nations of the world into Gehenna, as it is stated: “Arise and thresh, O daughter of Zion, for I will make your horn iron, and I will make your hoofs brass, and you shall beat in pieces [ ivahadikot /i] many peoples;and you shall devote their gain to God, and their substance to the God of the whole earth” (Micah 4:13)., strongMISHNA: /strong bA personmay bnot stand in the private domain and opena door located bin the public domainwith a key, lest he inadvertently transfer the key from one domain to the other. Likewise, one may not stand bin the public domain and opena door bin the private domainwith a key, bunlessin the latter case bhe erected a partition ten handbreadths higharound the door and stands inside it. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. /b,The Rabbis bsaid to him:There was ban incident at the poultry dealers’ market in Jerusalem,where they would fatten fowl for slaughter (Rabbeinu Ḥael), band they would lockthe doors to their shops band place the key in the window that was over the door,which was more than ten handbreadths off the ground, and nobody was concerned about the possible violation of any prohibition. bRabbi Yosei says:That place bwas a market of wool dealers. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bAndthose bRabbis,who cited the case of the poultry dealers of Jerusalem to rebut Rabbi Meir’s opinion, bRabbi Meir spoketo them about unlocking a door in a private domain while standing bin the public domain, and they respondedwith an incident involving ba ikarmelit /i. As Rabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:With regard to bJerusalem, were it notfor the fact that bits doors are locked at night, one would be liable forcarrying in biton Shabbat, bbecauseits thoroughfares have the status of bthe public domain.However, since Jerusalem’s doors are typically locked, it is considered one large ikarmelit /i, which is subject to rabbinic prohibitions. How, then, could a proof be cited from the markets of Jerusalem with regard to the transfer of objects between a public domain and a private domain, which is prohibited by Torah law?, bRav Pappa said: Here,in the statement of Rabbi Yoha, Jerusalem was considered a ikarmelitduring the period bbefore breaches were made in itswalls. Its doors did not turn it into a public domain, as they were locked. Whereas bthere,the Rabbis in the mishna are referring to the time bafter breaches had been made inthe walls, and it therefore acquired the status of a public domain., bRava said: In the latter clauseof the mishna bwe came toa different issue, i.e., the final section of the mishna is not designed to counter Rabbi Meir’s statement with regard to the public domain. Rather, it refers btothe bgates of a gardenwith an area greater than two ibeit se’ain size, whose legal status is that of a ikarmelit /i. Consequently, the mishna bis saying as follows: And likewise,one may bnot stand in the private domain and opena door bin a ikarmelit /i;neither may one stand bin a ikarmelitand opena door bin the private domain, /b
47. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

48. Origen, Against Celsus, 4.48-4.50 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.48. In the next place, as if he had devoted himself solely to the manifestation of his hatred and dislike of the Jewish and Christian doctrine, he says: The more modest of Jewish and Christian writers give all these things an allegorical meaning; and, Because they are ashamed of these things, they take refuge in allegory. Now one might say to him, that if we must admit fables and fictions, whether written with a concealed meaning or with any other object, to be shameful narratives when taken in their literal acceptation, of what histories can this be said more truly than of the Grecian? In these histories, gods who are sons castrate the gods who are their fathers, and gods who are parents devour their own children, and a goddess-mother gives to the father of gods and men a stone to swallow instead of his own son, and a father has intercourse with his daughter, and a wife binds her own husband, having as her allies in the work the brother of the fettered god and his own daughter! But why should I enumerate these absurd stories of the Greeks regarding their gods, which are most shameful in themselves, even though invested with an allegorical meaning? (Take the instance) where Chrysippus of Soli, who is considered to be an ornament of the Stoic sect, on account of his numerous and learned treatises, explains a picture at Samos, in which Juno was represented as committing unspeakable abominations with Jupiter. This reverend philosopher says in his treatises, that matter receives the spermatic words of the god, and retains them within herself, in order to ornament the universe. For in the picture at Samos Juno represents matter, and Jupiter god. Now it is on account of these, and of countless other similar fables, that we would not even in word call the God of all things Jupiter, or the sun Apollo, or the moon Diana. But we offer to the Creator a worship which is pure, and speak with religious respect of His noble works of creation, not contaminating even in word the things of God; approving of the language of Plato in the Philebus, who would not admit that pleasure was a goddess, so great is my reverence, Protarchus, he says, for the very names of the gods. We verily entertain such reverence for the name of God, and for His noble works of creation, that we would not, even under pretext of an allegorical meaning, admit any fable which might do injury to the young. 4.49. If Celsus had read the Scriptures in an impartial spirit, he would not have said that our writings are incapable of admitting an allegorical meaning. For from the prophetic Scriptures, in which historical events are recorded (not from the historical), it is possible to be convinced that the historical portions also were written with an allegorical purpose, and were most skilfully adapted not only to the multitude of the simpler believers, but also to the few who are able or willing to investigate matters in an intelligent spirit. If, indeed, those writers at the present day who are deemed by Celsus the more modest of the Jews and Christians were the (first) allegorical interpreters of our Scriptures, he would have the appearance, perhaps, of making a plausible allegation. But since the very fathers and authors of the doctrines themselves give them an allegorical signification, what other inference can be drawn than that they were composed so as to be allegorically understood in their chief signification? And we shall adduce a few instances out of very many to show that Celsus brings an empty charge against the Scriptures, when he says that they are incapable of admitting an allegorical meaning. Paul, the apostle of Jesus, says: It is written in the law, You shall not muzzle the mouth of the ox that treads out the grain. Does God take care for oxen? Or says He it altogether for our sakes? For our sakes, no doubt, this is written, that he that ploughs should plough in hope, and he that threshes in hope of partaking. And in another passage the same Paul says: For it is written, For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother and shall be joined to his wife, and they two shall be one flesh. This is a great mystery; but I speak concerning Christ and the Church. And again, in another place: We know that all our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; and were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud, and in the sea. Then, explaining the history relating to the manna, and that referring to the miraculous issue of the water from the rock, he continues as follows: And they did all eat the same spiritual meat, and did all drink the same spiritual drink. For they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them, and that Rock was Christ. Asaph, moreover, who, in showing the histories in Exodus and Numbers to be full of difficulties and parables, begins in the following manner, as recorded in the book of Psalms, where he is about to make mention of these things: Give ear, O my people, to my law: incline your ears to the words of my mouth. I will open my mouth in parables; I will utter dark sayings of old, which we have heard and known, and our fathers have told us. 4.50. Moreover, if the law of Moses had contained nothing which was to be understood as having a secret meaning, the prophet would not have said in his prayer to God, Open my eyes, and I will behold wondrous things out of Your law; whereas he knew that there was a veil of ignorance lying upon the heart of those who read but do not understand the figurative meaning, which veil is taken away by the gift of God, when He hears him who has done all that he can, and who by reason of habit has his senses exercised to distinguish between good and evil, and who continually utters the prayer, Open my eyes, and I will behold wondrous things out of Your law. And who is there that, on reading of the dragon that lives in the Egyptian river, and of the fishes which lurk in his scales, or of the excrement of Pharaoh which fills the mountains of Egypt, is not led at once to inquire who he is that fills the Egyptian mountains with his stinking excrement, and what the Egyptian mountains are; and what the rivers in Egypt are, of which the aforesaid Pharaoh boastfully says, The rivers are mine, and I have made them; and who the dragon is, and the fishes in its scales - and this so as to harmonize with the interpretation to be given of the rivers? But why establish at greater length what needs no demonstration? For to these things applies the saying: Who is wise, and he shall understand these things? Or who is prudent, and he shall know them? Now I have gone at some length into the subject, because I wished to show the unsoundness of the assertion of Celsus, that the more modest among the Jews and Christians endeavour somehow to give these stories an allegorical signification, although some of them do not admit of this, but on the contrary are exceedingly silly inventions. Much rather are the stories of the Greeks not only very silly, but very impious inventions. For our narratives keep expressly in view the multitude of simpler believers, which was not done by those who invented the Grecian fables. And therefore not without propriety does Plato expel from his state all fables and poems of such a nature as those of which we have been speaking.
49. Jerome, Letters, 109, 108 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

50. Jerome, Letters, 109, 108 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

51. Jerome, Letters, 109, 108 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abel O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 190, 191
abraham, r. aḥa Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 132
abraham, r. aḥa Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 132
abraham, sons of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 102, 123, 124, 129, 130, 164, 167, 168
abraham, symbolism of sarah and hagar O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 190, 191
abraham, the patriarch, descent from Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
abraham, the patriarch, paul on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 25
abraham, two wives of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 102, 123, 124, 129, 130
abraham Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 121, 122, 123, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131; Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 102, 123, 124, 129, 130, 164, 171; Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 157; Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 235, 249, 250; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 202, 203
adoption Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 102, 167, 168
allegorical interpretation Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 188
allegory/allegoresis, theological Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 573
allegory/allegorical, a short history of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 168
allegory/allegorical, and midrash Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 129, 171
allegory/allegorical, and typology Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 102
allegory/allegorical, antinomian potential of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 129
allegory/allegorical, as hermeneutical goal Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 129
allegory/allegorical, as solving riddles Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 129
allegory/allegorical, genealogical allegory Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 129, 130, 167, 168, 171
allegory/allegorical, in alexandria Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 102, 129, 168
allegory/allegorical, jewish-hellenistic allegory Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 129, 168
allegory/allegorical, of hagar/sarah Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 23, 102, 123, 124, 129, 130, 167, 168
allegory/allegorical, philonic allegory Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 123, 124, 129, 168
allegory/allegorical, philos allegory of hagar/sarah Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 123, 124
allegory/allegorical, philosophic allegory Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 129
allegory/allegorical, radical allegory Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 129
allegory/allegorical, tannaitic allegory Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 129, 168
allegory Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 250, 365, 409; Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 363
ambiguity, ambiguous Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 188
antithesis Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 130
apocalyptic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 66
apostolikon, marcions Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 235, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252
appropriation Tupamahu, Contesting Languages: Heteroglossia and the Politics of Language in the Early Church (2022) 87
ascough, richard Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 122
asia minor Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 78
athletics/training Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 96, 99
barren woman Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 102
bible, translations of O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 191
blood Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 94
bloom, harold Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
body of christ Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 94
borders, ethnic Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 78
boyarin, daniel, on circumcision Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
boyarin, daniel, on divine performance Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24, 25
boyarin, daniel, on identity of israel Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24
boyarin, daniel, poststructuralism of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19
caesarea Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 78
cain O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 190, 191
causes of corruption, harmonization Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 14
child, childhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 332
child, children, childhood Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 172
chosenness Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 124
church, as new israel Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19
church, symbolized by abel O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 190
church Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 363; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 175; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 202
circumcision, boyarin on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
circumcision, in jewish identity Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19
circumcision, of the heart Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19
circumcision Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 129, 130
colossians Papaioannou et al., Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 177; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou, Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 177
commandment/s Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 129
commentary Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 23
compassion, conversion, significance of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 137
cornelius Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 78
cosmopolitanism Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 96
covenant, abrahamic Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 202
covenant, in pauline theology Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 121, 122, 123
covenant, mosaic Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 202, 203
covenant, old/new Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 168
covenant Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 145
creation Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 177
criteria in textual criticism, lectio difficilior Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 14
criteria in textual criticism Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 14
crucifixion Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 94
culture, cultural affiliations in galilee Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 186
david, the king, davidic kingdom Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 66
descent from abraham Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 124
difference, erasure of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24
discourse, boundary-creating Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 139
divine performance, boyarin on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24, 25
domination, human desire for O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 191
dorshei rashumot Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 129
dunn, james d. g. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 126, 127
education Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 573
egypt Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 157
egyptians Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 157
endtime Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 129, 130, 171
ephesians Papaioannou et al., Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 177; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou, Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 177
epictetus Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 177
eschatology, eschatological, belonging to the end-of-days, messianic age Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 66
eternity Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 573
ethnicity Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 78
exodus Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 175, 177, 181, 188
faith, christian Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 94
faith Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226; Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 124
father, fatherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 331, 332
finance Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 122
flesh Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 94
foreign languages Tupamahu, Contesting Languages: Heteroglossia and the Politics of Language in the Early Church (2022) 87
fragmentation Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 164
free/freedom (ἐλεύθερος/ἐλευθερία, liber/libertas), paul on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 105
freedom Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 172, 175, 177, 181, 188
freedom (eleutheria) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 99
fulfilment Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 94, 203
furnish, victor paul Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 126
galatia Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 175
gaza Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 78
gehenna (hell) Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 134, 139, 142
genealogy, as flesh Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
genealogy Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 124
gentiles, and the torah/law Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 129, 130, 164, 167, 168, 171
gentiles Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 78; Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 102
glossolalia Tupamahu, Contesting Languages: Heteroglossia and the Politics of Language in the Early Church (2022) 87
god, intervention of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
god, kingdom of Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 78
gods Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 122
good (agathos) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 96, 99
gospels Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 175
grace, and faith Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
grace, divine O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 190, 191
grace Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 175
greek vocables and phrases, αὐτός Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 14
greek vocables and phrases, ὅτι Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 14
haftarah Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 102
hagar, as encyclical education Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 123, 124
hagar, paul on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24, 25
hagar Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 23, 102, 123, 124, 129, 130, 164, 167, 168; Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 157
hahn, scott w. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 127
hapax legomenon Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 159
hays, richard b., echoes of scripture in the letters of paul Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
heaven, kingdom of Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 78
heavenly abode Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 66
hermeneutics, and making communities Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 130, 164, 171
hermeneutics, and the endtime Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 129, 130, 164, 167, 168
hermeneutics, and unveiling Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 168
hermeneutics, as riddle solving Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 129
hermeneutics, hellenistic and rabbinic Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 23, 123, 129
heteroglossia Tupamahu, Contesting Languages: Heteroglossia and the Politics of Language in the Early Church (2022) 87
holy spirit Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 78
hope Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 177, 181
house Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 94
identity, jewish, circumcision in Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19
identity, jewish, transformation of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24
image, imagery Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 175, 181
immigrants Tupamahu, Contesting Languages: Heteroglossia and the Politics of Language in the Early Church (2022) 87
implicit/explicit interpretation Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 23
inauguration (of the covenant, temple) Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 94
inconsistency, in paul Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 1
intercourse, sexual Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131
intertextuality and intertext, literal Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 129
intertextuality and intertext Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 164
intertextuality vii Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 172, 177, 181, 188
isaac, as sophos Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 123, 124
isaac Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 388, 573; Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 102; Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 157; Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 124
isaiah Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 181
ishmael, as sophistry Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 123, 124
ishmael Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 388, 573; Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 157
israel, and gentiles deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 137
israel, community of, as textual signifier Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24
israel, community of, boyarin on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19
israel, community of, paul on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24, 226
israel, community of, transformation of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24
israel, kingdom of Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 78
israel, land of Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 78
israel, the people of, redemption/restoration of, the kingdom of, israelite Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 66
israel deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 137
jerusalem, symbolism of O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 190, 191
jerusalem Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 172
jesus, as a prophetic anointed of the spirit Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 66
jesus, disciples, early followers, messianic movement Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 66
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 66
jesus, kingly/davidic messiahship/descent Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 66
jesus Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 78; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 66
jewish practices/torah observance, circumcision Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 1, 99
jewish practices/torah observance Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 1
jews, jewry, jewish, jewish matrix, jewish setting, anti-jewish, non-jewish Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 66
jews/judeans/ioudaioi, and ethnicity in philo Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 157
jews and gentiles, in the church deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 137
judah Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 78
judaism Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 573
judaizing Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 99
kinship Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 102, 167, 168, 171
law, biblical Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 249, 409
law, in early christian theology Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 121, 122, 123
law, paul Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 186
law/law Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 172, 181
law Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 388; Papaioannou et al., Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 177; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou, Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 177; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 203
law of nature/natural law, stoic politics Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 96
lawlessness Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 129
leah Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 388
letter and spirit, paul on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19
liberation Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 172, 175, 177, 181, 188
literal sense Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 23, 129
literature, rabbinic, and oral traditions Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 139
liturgy, liturgical Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 181
liturgy Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 94
logocentrism Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 171
love Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 172
lundbom, jack r. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 126
marius victorinus Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 126
marriage Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 124; Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 102, 124
mary Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 125
masoretic text, and the septuagint Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 129, 130, 131, 159
mcknight, scot Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 126, 127
meaning, promise as Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24, 25
mediterranean Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 78
messiah, gods anointed, messiahship, messianic, davidic, kingly Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 66
metaphor Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 123; Papaioannou et al., Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 177; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou, Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 177; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 172
metzger, bruce m. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 127
midrash, and allegory Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 129, 171
modesty Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 168
moses, veil of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 164, 168
moses Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 168; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 145
moses (mosaic) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 105
moth, as a symbol of destruction Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 159
mother, motherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 331, 332
murphy-oconnor, jerome Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 127
myth and mythmaking Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 130, 168
narrative Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 102, 123, 124, 129, 164, 167, 168
nation Tupamahu, Contesting Languages: Heteroglossia and the Politics of Language in the Early Church (2022) 87
new covenant, and old covenant Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 126
nomos/nomoi Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 129, 167
of the holy sepulcher, earthly Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 78
of the holy sepulcher, heavenly Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 78
orality Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 139
paideia/greek education Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 157
parents Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 331, 332
pastoral epistles Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 235
patriarchal, patriarchy Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 363
paul, and the gospels Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 126
paul, jewish law Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 186
paul, knowledge of hebrew Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 129, 130
paul, missionary activity Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 186
paul, on freedom (ἐλευθερία) from the mosaic law Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 105
paul, on slavery Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 105
paul, pauline Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 66
paul, pauline corpus Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 94, 202, 203
paul, the apostle, epistle to the romans Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24
paul, the apostle, interpretation of israel Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24, 226
paul, the apostle, jewish identity of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19
paul, the apostle, on letter and spirit Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19
paul, the apostle, supersessionism of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24, 25
paul, the covenant in Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 145
paul Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 78; Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 105; Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 248, 249, 250, 252, 409; O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 190, 191
paul (the apostle) Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 172, 175, 177, 181
pauline letter corpus Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 235
peace deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 137
pedagogue Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 123
perfection Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 573; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 94
performance Papaioannou et al., Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 177; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou, Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 177
pharisees Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 331
philo Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 157
pistis Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 123, 130, 164, 168
platonism Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 96
porter, stanley e. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 127
poststructuralism, boyarins Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19
power, roman imperial Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 122
promise, as meaning Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24, 25
promise Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 202, 203
promises, divine Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 388
prooftext Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 129
prophecy Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 181
prophetic Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 181
q-source Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 331
qumran Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 23, 129, 130, 168
quotation Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 164
r. joshua b. r. Ḥananiah Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 159
r. joshua b. r. ḥananiah Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 159
r. judah the prince Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 159
r. levi Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 132
r. meir Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 140
rabbi akiva, school of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 164
rachel Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 388
reconciliation, ethnic deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 137
redaction Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 164
resurrection Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 66; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 94
revelation Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 409
rhetoric Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 23
riddles Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 129
righteous(ness) Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 124
righteousness by pistis/deeds Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 164
roman empire, imperial power Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 122
romans, letter to, rome, city of Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 122
rome, myths of origins O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 191
rome Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 248
romulus and remus O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 191
sadducees Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 331
salvation Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 172; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 202, 203
samaria Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 78
sarah, as wisdom Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 123, 124
sarah, wife of abraham Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24
sarah Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131; Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 23, 102, 123, 124, 129, 130, 164, 167, 168; Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 157
scripture, commentary on vs. use of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 23
scripture, reworking of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 164
second temple, destruction Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 78
septuagint, rabbinic awareness of Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 159
septuagint Tupamahu, Contesting Languages: Heteroglossia and the Politics of Language in the Early Church (2022) 87
sermon on the mount' Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 331
signifiers, textual Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24
sinai Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 121; Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 249, 250