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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8250
New Testament, Galatians, 3.6-3.9


καθὼς Ἀβραὰμἐπίστευσεν τῷ θεῷ, καὶ ἐλογίσθη αὐτῷ εἰς δικαιοσύνην.Even as Abraham "believed God, and it wascounted to him for righteousness.


Γινώσκετε ἄρα ὅτι οἱ ἐκ πίστεως, οὗτοι υἱοί εἰσιν Ἀβραάμ.Know therefore that those whoare of faith, the same are sons of Abraham.


προϊδοῦσα δὲ ἡ γραφὴ ὅτι ἐκ πίστεως δικαιοῖ τὰ ἔθνη ὁ θεὸς προευηγγελίσατο τῷ Ἀβραὰμ ὅτιἘνευλογηθήσονται ἐν σοὶ πάντα τὰ ἔθνη.The Scripture,foreseeing that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, preached thegospel beforehand to Abraham, saying, "In you all the nations will beblessed.


ὥστε οἱ ἐκ πίστεως εὐλογοῦνται σὺν τῷ πιστῷ Ἀβραάμ.So then, those who are of faith are blessed with thefaithful Abraham.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

30 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 32.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

32.21. הֵם קִנְאוּנִי בְלֹא־אֵל כִּעֲסוּנִי בְּהַבְלֵיהֶם וַאֲנִי אַקְנִיאֵם בְּלֹא־עָם בְּגוֹי נָבָל אַכְעִיסֵם׃ 32.21. They have roused Me to jealousy with a no-god; They have provoked Me with their vanities; And I will rouse them to jealousy with a no-people; I will provoke them with a vile nation."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 7.11, 14.19, 22.20, 33.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.11. וַיִּקְרָא גַּם־פַּרְעֹה לַחֲכָמִים וְלַמְכַשְּׁפִים וַיַּעֲשׂוּ גַם־הֵם חַרְטֻמֵּי מִצְרַיִם בְּלַהֲטֵיהֶם כֵּן׃ 14.19. וַיִּסַּע מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים הַהֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵי מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֵּלֶךְ מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם וַיִּסַּע עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן מִפְּנֵיהֶם וַיַּעֲמֹד מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם׃ 33.11. וְדִבֶּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה פָּנִים אֶל־פָּנִים כַּאֲשֶׁר יְדַבֵּר אִישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵהוּ וְשָׁב אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה וּמְשָׁרְתוֹ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן־נוּן נַעַר לֹא יָמִישׁ מִתּוֹךְ הָאֹהֶל׃ 7.11. Then Pharaoh also called for the wise men and the sorcerers; and they also, the magicians of Egypt, did in like manner with their secret arts." 14.19. And the angel of God, who went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of cloud removed from before them, and stood behind them;" 22.20. And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt." 33.11. And the LORD spoke unto Moses face to face, as a man speaketh unto his friend. And he would return into the camp; but his minister Joshua, the son of Nun, a young man, departed not out of the Tent."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 9.9, 11.31, 12.1-12.4, 12.7, 13.3-13.4, 13.14-13.17, 14.18, 15.1-15.6, 15.8, 15.17, 17.1-17.2, 17.5, 17.10, 18.18, 19.12-19.26, 21.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.9. וַאֲנִי הִנְנִי מֵקִים אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אִתְּכֶם וְאֶת־זַרְעֲכֶם אַחֲרֵיכֶם׃ 11.31. וַיִּקַּח תֶּרַח אֶת־אַבְרָם בְּנוֹ וְאֶת־לוֹט בֶּן־הָרָן בֶּן־בְּנוֹ וְאֵת שָׂרַי כַּלָּתוֹ אֵשֶׁת אַבְרָם בְּנוֹ וַיֵּצְאוּ אִתָּם מֵאוּר כַּשְׂדִּים לָלֶכֶת אַרְצָה כְּנַעַן וַיָּבֹאוּ עַד־חָרָן וַיֵּשְׁבוּ שָׁם׃ 12.1. וַיְהִי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ וַיֵּרֶד אַבְרָם מִצְרַיְמָה לָגוּר שָׁם כִּי־כָבֵד הָרָעָב בָּאָרֶץ׃ 12.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם לֶךְ־לְךָ מֵאַרְצְךָ וּמִמּוֹלַדְתְּךָ וּמִבֵּית אָבִיךָ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַרְאֶךָּ׃ 12.2. וַיְצַו עָלָיו פַּרְעֹה אֲנָשִׁים וַיְשַׁלְּחוּ אֹתוֹ וְאֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ׃ 12.2. וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ וַאֲגַדְּלָה שְׁמֶךָ וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה׃ 12.3. וַאֲבָרֲכָה מְבָרְכֶיךָ וּמְקַלֶּלְךָ אָאֹר וְנִבְרְכוּ בְךָ כֹּל מִשְׁפְּחֹת הָאֲדָמָה׃ 12.4. וַיֵּלֶךְ אַבְרָם כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר אֵלָיו יְהוָה וַיֵּלֶךְ אִתּוֹ לוֹט וְאַבְרָם בֶּן־חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים וְשִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה בְּצֵאתוֹ מֵחָרָן׃ 12.7. וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר לְזַרְעֲךָ אֶתֵּן אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת וַיִּבֶן שָׁם מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה הַנִּרְאֶה אֵלָיו׃ 13.3. וַיֵּלֶךְ לְמַסָּעָיו מִנֶּגֶב וְעַד־בֵּית־אֵל עַד־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־הָיָה שָׁם אהלה [אָהֳלוֹ] בַּתְּחִלָּה בֵּין בֵּית־אֵל וּבֵין הָעָי׃ 13.4. אֶל־מְקוֹם הַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה שָׁם בָּרִאשֹׁנָה וַיִּקְרָא שָׁם אַבְרָם בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה׃ 13.14. וַיהוָה אָמַר אֶל־אַבְרָם אַחֲרֵי הִפָּרֶד־לוֹט מֵעִמּוֹ שָׂא נָא עֵינֶיךָ וּרְאֵה מִן־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה שָׁם צָפֹנָה וָנֶגְבָּה וָקֵדְמָה וָיָמָּה׃ 13.15. כִּי אֶת־כָּל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה רֹאֶה לְךָ אֶתְּנֶנָּה וּלְזַרְעֲךָ עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 13.16. וְשַׂמְתִּי אֶת־זַרְעֲךָ כַּעֲפַר הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אִם־יוּכַל אִישׁ לִמְנוֹת אֶת־עֲפַר הָאָרֶץ גַּם־זַרְעֲךָ יִמָּנֶה׃ 13.17. קוּם הִתְהַלֵּךְ בָּאָרֶץ לְאָרְכָּהּ וּלְרָחְבָּהּ כִּי לְךָ אֶתְּנֶנָּה׃ 14.18. וּמַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק מֶלֶךְ שָׁלֵם הוֹצִיא לֶחֶם וָיָיִן וְהוּא כֹהֵן לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן׃ 15.1. אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה הָיָה דְבַר־יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם בַּמַּחֲזֶה לֵאמֹר אַל־תִּירָא אַבְרָם אָנֹכִי מָגֵן לָךְ שְׂכָרְךָ הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד׃ 15.1. וַיִּקַּח־לוֹ אֶת־כָּל־אֵלֶּה וַיְבַתֵּר אֹתָם בַּתָּוֶךְ וַיִּתֵּן אִישׁ־בִּתְרוֹ לִקְרַאת רֵעֵהוּ וְאֶת־הַצִפֹּר לֹא בָתָר׃ 15.2. וְאֶת־הַחִתִּי וְאֶת־הַפְּרִזִּי וְאֶת־הָרְפָאִים׃ 15.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָם אֲדֹנָי יֱהוִה מַה־תִּתֶּן־לִי וְאָנֹכִי הוֹלֵךְ עֲרִירִי וּבֶן־מֶשֶׁק בֵּיתִי הוּא דַּמֶּשֶׂק אֱלִיעֶזֶר׃ 15.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָם הֵן לִי לֹא נָתַתָּה זָרַע וְהִנֵּה בֶן־בֵּיתִי יוֹרֵשׁ אֹתִי׃ 15.4. וְהִנֵּה דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלָיו לֵאמֹר לֹא יִירָשְׁךָ זֶה כִּי־אִם אֲשֶׁר יֵצֵא מִמֵּעֶיךָ הוּא יִירָשֶׁךָ׃ 15.5. וַיּוֹצֵא אֹתוֹ הַחוּצָה וַיֹּאמֶר הַבֶּט־נָא הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וּסְפֹר הַכּוֹכָבִים אִם־תּוּכַל לִסְפֹּר אֹתָם וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ כֹּה יִהְיֶה זַרְעֶךָ׃ 15.6. וְהֶאֱמִן בַּיהוָה וַיַּחְשְׁבֶהָ לּוֹ צְדָקָה׃ 15.8. וַיֹּאמַר אֲדֹנָי יֱהוִה בַּמָּה אֵדַע כִּי אִירָשֶׁנָּה׃ 15.17. וַיְהִי הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בָּאָה וַעֲלָטָה הָיָה וְהִנֵּה תַנּוּר עָשָׁן וְלַפִּיד אֵשׁ אֲשֶׁר עָבַר בֵּין הַגְּזָרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 17.1. זֹאת בְּרִיתִי אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁמְרוּ בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ הִמּוֹל לָכֶם כָּל־זָכָר׃ 17.1. וַיְהִי אַבְרָם בֶּן־תִּשְׁעִים שָׁנָה וְתֵשַׁע שָׁנִים וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אֲנִי־אֵל שַׁדַּי הִתְהַלֵּךְ לְפָנַי וֶהְיֵה תָמִים׃ 17.2. וּלְיִשְׁמָעֵאל שְׁמַעְתִּיךָ הִנֵּה בֵּרַכְתִּי אֹתוֹ וְהִפְרֵיתִי אֹתוֹ וְהִרְבֵּיתִי אֹתוֹ בִּמְאֹד מְאֹד שְׁנֵים־עָשָׂר נְשִׂיאִם יוֹלִיד וּנְתַתִּיו לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל׃ 17.2. וְאֶתְּנָה בְרִיתִי בֵּינִי וּבֵינֶךָ וְאַרְבֶּה אוֹתְךָ בִּמְאֹד מְאֹד׃ 17.5. וְלֹא־יִקָּרֵא עוֹד אֶת־שִׁמְךָ אַבְרָם וְהָיָה שִׁמְךָ אַבְרָהָם כִּי אַב־הֲמוֹן גּוֹיִם נְתַתִּיךָ׃ 18.18. וְאַבְרָהָם הָיוֹ יִהְיֶה לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל וְעָצוּם וְנִבְרְכוּ בוֹ כֹּל גּוֹיֵי הָאָרֶץ׃ 19.12. וַיֹּאמְרוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים אֶל־לוֹט עֹד מִי־לְךָ פֹה חָתָן וּבָנֶיךָ וּבְנֹתֶיךָ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־לְךָ בָּעִיר הוֹצֵא מִן־הַמָּקוֹם׃ 19.13. כִּי־מַשְׁחִתִים אֲנַחְנוּ אֶת־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה כִּי־גָדְלָה צַעֲקָתָם אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה וַיְשַׁלְּחֵנוּ יְהוָה לְשַׁחֲתָהּ׃ 19.14. וַיֵּצֵא לוֹט וַיְדַבֵּר אֶל־חֲתָנָיו לֹקְחֵי בְנֹתָיו וַיֹּאמֶר קוּמוּ צְּאוּ מִן־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה כִּי־מַשְׁחִית יְהוָה אֶת־הָעִיר וַיְהִי כִמְצַחֵק בְּעֵינֵי חֲתָנָיו׃ 19.15. וּכְמוֹ הַשַּׁחַר עָלָה וַיָּאִיצוּ הַמַּלְאָכִים בְּלוֹט לֵאמֹר קוּם קַח אֶת־אִשְׁתְּךָ וְאֶת־שְׁתֵּי בְנֹתֶיךָ הַנִּמְצָאֹת פֶּן־תִּסָּפֶה בַּעֲוֺן הָעִיר׃ 19.16. וַיִּתְמַהְמָהּ וַיַּחֲזִקוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים בְּיָדוֹ וּבְיַד־אִשְׁתּוֹ וּבְיַד שְׁתֵּי בְנֹתָיו בְּחֶמְלַת יְהוָה עָלָיו וַיֹּצִאֻהוּ וַיַּנִּחֻהוּ מִחוּץ לָעִיר׃ 19.17. וַיְהִי כְהוֹצִיאָם אֹתָם הַחוּצָה וַיֹּאמֶר הִמָּלֵט עַל־נַפְשֶׁךָ אַל־תַּבִּיט אַחֲרֶיךָ וְאַל־תַּעֲמֹד בְּכָל־הַכִּכָּר הָהָרָה הִמָּלֵט פֶּן־תִּסָּפֶה׃ 19.18. וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹט אֲלֵהֶם אַל־נָא אֲדֹנָי׃ 19.19. הִנֵּה־נָא מָצָא עַבְדְּךָ חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ וַתַּגְדֵּל חַסְדְּךָ אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתָ עִמָּדִי לְהַחֲיוֹת אֶת־נַפְשִׁי וְאָנֹכִי לֹא אוּכַל לְהִמָּלֵט הָהָרָה פֶּן־תִּדְבָּקַנִי הָרָעָה וָמַתִּי׃ 19.21. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו הִנֵּה נָשָׂאתִי פָנֶיךָ גַּם לַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לְבִלְתִּי הָפְכִּי אֶת־הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ׃ 19.22. מַהֵר הִמָּלֵט שָׁמָּה כִּי לֹא אוּכַל לַעֲשׂוֹת דָּבָר עַד־בֹּאֲךָ שָׁמָּה עַל־כֵּן קָרָא שֵׁם־הָעִיר צוֹעַר׃ 19.23. הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ יָצָא עַל־הָאָרֶץ וְלוֹט בָּא צֹעֲרָה׃ 19.24. וַיהוָה הִמְטִיר עַל־סְדֹם וְעַל־עֲמֹרָה גָּפְרִית וָאֵשׁ מֵאֵת יְהוָה מִן־הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 19.25. וַיַּהֲפֹךְ אֶת־הֶעָרִים הָאֵל וְאֵת כָּל־הַכִּכָּר וְאֵת כָּל־יֹשְׁבֵי הֶעָרִים וְצֶמַח הָאֲדָמָה׃ 19.26. וַתַּבֵּט אִשְׁתּוֹ מֵאַחֲרָיו וַתְּהִי נְצִיב מֶלַח׃ 21.2. וַיְהִי אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הַנַּעַר וַיִּגְדָּל וַיֵּשֶׁב בַּמִּדְבָּר וַיְהִי רֹבֶה קַשָּׁת׃ 21.2. וַתַּהַר וַתֵּלֶד שָׂרָה לְאַבְרָהָם בֵּן לִזְקֻנָיו לַמּוֹעֵד אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים׃ 9.9. ’As for Me, behold, I establish My covet with you, and with your seed after you;" 11.31. And Terah took Abram his son, and Lot the son of Haran, his son’s son, and Sarai his daughter-in-law, his son Abram’s wife; and they went forth with them from Ur of the Chaldees, to go into the land of Canaan; and they came unto Haran, and dwelt there." 12.1. Now the LORD said unto Abram: ‘Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father’s house, unto the land that I will show thee." 12.2. And I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and be thou a blessing." 12.3. And I will bless them that bless thee, and him that curseth thee will I curse; and in thee shall all the families of the earth be blessed.’" 12.4. So Abram went, as the LORD had spoken unto him; and Lot went with him; and Abram was seventy and five years old when he departed out of Haran." 12.7. And the LORD appeared unto Abram, and said: ‘Unto thy seed will I give this land’; and he builded there an altar unto the LORD, who appeared unto him." 13.3. And he went on his journeys from the South even to Beth-el, unto the place where his tent had been at the beginning, between Beth-el and Ai;" 13.4. unto the place of the altar, which he had made there at the first; and Abram called there on the name of the LORD." 13.14. And the LORD said unto Abram, after that Lot was separated from him: ‘Lift up now thine eyes, and look from the place where thou art, northward and southward and eastward and westward;" 13.15. for all the land which thou seest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed for ever." 13.16. And I will make thy seed as the dust of the earth; so that if a man can number the dust of the earth, then shall thy seed also be numbered." 13.17. Arise, walk through the land in the length of it and in the breadth of it; for unto thee will I give it.’" 14.18. And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine; and he was priest of God the Most High." 15.1. After these things the word of the LORD came unto Abram in a vision, saying: ‘Fear not, Abram, I am thy shield, thy reward shall be exceeding great.’" 15.2. And Abram said: ‘O Lord GOD, what wilt Thou give me, seeing I go hence childless, and he that shall be possessor of my house is Eliezer of Damascus?’" 15.3. And Abram said: ‘Behold, to me Thou hast given no seed, and, lo, one born in my house is to be mine heir.’" 15.4. And, behold, the word of the LORD came unto him, saying: ‘This man shall not be thine heir; but he that shall come forth out of thine own bowels shall be thine heir.’" 15.5. And He brought him forth abroad, and said: ‘Look now toward heaven, and count the stars, if thou be able to count them’; and He said unto him: ‘So shall thy seed be.’" 15.6. And he believed in the LORD; and He counted it to him for righteousness." 15.8. And he said: ‘O Lord GOD, whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it?’" 15.17. And it came to pass, that, when the sun went down, and there was thick darkness, behold a smoking furnace, and a flaming torch that passed between these pieces." 17.1. And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the LORD appeared to Abram, and said unto him: ‘I am God Almighty; walk before Me, and be thou wholehearted." 17.2. And I will make My covet between Me and thee, and will multiply thee exceedingly.’" 17.5. Neither shall thy name any more be called Abram, but thy name shall be Abraham; for the father of a multitude of nations have I made thee." 17.10. This is My covet, which ye shall keep, between Me and you and thy seed after thee: every male among you shall be circumcised." 18.18. seeing that Abraham shall surely become a great and mighty nation, and all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him?" 19.12. And the men said unto Lot: ‘Hast thou here any besides? son-in-law, and thy sons, and thy daughters, and whomsoever thou hast in the city; bring them out of the place;" 19.13. for we will destroy this place, because the cry of them is waxed great before the LORD; and the LORD hath sent us to destroy it.’" 19.14. And Lot went out, and spoke unto his sons-in-law, who married his daughters, and said: ‘Up, get you out of this place; for the LORD will destroy the city.’ But he seemed unto his sons-in-law as one that jested." 19.15. And when the morning arose, then the angels hastened Lot, saying: ‘Arise, take thy wife, and thy two daughters that are here; lest thou be swept away in the iniquity of the city.’" 19.16. But he lingered; and the men laid hold upon his hand, and upon the hand of his wife, and upon the hand of his two daughters; the LORD being merciful unto him. And they brought him forth, and set him without the city." 19.17. And it came to pass, when they had brought them forth abroad, that he said: ‘Escape for thy life; look not behind thee, neither stay thou in all the Plain; escape to the mountain, lest thou be swept away.’" 19.18. And Lot said unto them: ‘Oh, not so, my lord;" 19.19. behold now, thy servant hath found grace in thy sight, and thou hast magnified thy mercy, which thou hast shown unto me in saving my life; and I cannot escape to the mountain, lest the evil overtake me, and I die." 19.20. Behold now, this city is near to flee unto, and it is a little one; oh, let me escape thither—is it not a little one?—and my soul shall live.’" 19.21. And he said unto him: ‘See, I have accepted thee concerning this thing also, that I will not overthrow the city of which thou hast spoken." 19.22. Hasten thou, escape thither; for I cannot do any thing till thou be come thither.’—Therefore the name of the city was called Zoar.—" 19.23. The sun was risen upon the earth when Lot came unto Zoar." 19.24. Then the LORD caused to rain upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the LORD out of heaven;" 19.25. and He overthrow those cities, and all the Plain, and all the inhabitants of the cities, and that which grew upon the ground." 19.26. But his wife looked back from behind him, and she became a pillar of salt." 21.2. And Sarah conceived, and bore Abraham a son in his old age, at the set time of which God had spoken to him."
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 16.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.6. וְהִקְרִיב אַהֲרֹן אֶת־פַּר הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ וְכִפֶּר בַּעֲדוֹ וּבְעַד בֵּיתוֹ׃ 16.6. And Aaron shall present the bullock of the sin-offering, which is for himself, and make atonement for himself, and for his house."
5. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 41.8, 52.7, 57.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

41.8. וְאַתָּה יִשְׂרָאֵל עַבְדִּי יַעֲקֹב אֲשֶׁר בְּחַרְתִּיךָ זֶרַע אַבְרָהָם אֹהֲבִי׃ 52.7. מַה־נָּאווּ עַל־הֶהָרִים רַגְלֵי מְבַשֵּׂר מַשְׁמִיעַ שָׁלוֹם מְבַשֵּׂר טוֹב מַשְׁמִיעַ יְשׁוּעָה אֹמֵר לְצִיּוֹן מָלַךְ אֱלֹהָיִךְ׃ 57.19. בּוֹרֵא נוב [נִיב] שְׂפָתָיִם שָׁלוֹם שָׁלוֹם לָרָחוֹק וְלַקָּרוֹב אָמַר יְהוָה וּרְפָאתִיו׃ 41.8. But thou, Israel, My servant, Jacob whom I have chosen, The seed of Abraham My friend;" 52.7. How beautiful upon the mountains Are the feet of the messenger of good tidings, That announceth peace, the harbinger of good tidings, That announceth salvation; That saith unto Zion: ‘Thy God reigneth! ’" 57.19. Peace, peace, to him that is far off and to him that is near, Saith the LORD that createth the fruit of the lips; And I will heal him."
6. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 20.7 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.7. הֲלֹא אַתָּה אֱלֹהֵינוּ הוֹרַשְׁתָּ אֶת־יֹשְׁבֵי הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת מִלִּפְנֵי עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל וַתִּתְּנָהּ לְזֶרַע אַבְרָהָם אֹהַבְךָ לְעוֹלָם׃ 20.7. Didst not Thou, O our God, drive out the inhabitants of this land before Thy people Israel, and gavest it to the seed of Abraham Thy friend for ever?"
7. Anon., Jubilees, 11.4, 12.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

11.4. and to build strong cities, and walls, and towers, and individuals (began) to exalt themselves above the nation, and to found the beginnings of kingdoms 12.12. And in the sixtieth year of the life of Abram, that is, in the fourth week, in the fourth year thereof, Abram arose by night, and burned the house of the idols, and he burned all that was in the house, and no man knew it.
8. Dead Sea Scrolls, Pesher On The Periods 4Q180, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 2.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 4.15-4.21, 9.19-9.23, 10.17, 12.12-12.28, 15.1, 15.20-15.56 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.15. For though you have ten thousand tutors in Christ, yetnot many fathers. For in Christ Jesus, I became your father through thegospel. 4.16. I beg you therefore, be imitators of me. 4.17. Becauseof this I have sent Timothy to you, who is my beloved and faithfulchild in the Lord, who will remind you of my ways which are in Christ,even as I teach everywhere in every assembly. 4.18. Now some arepuffed up, as though I were not coming to you. 4.19. But I will cometo you shortly, if the Lord is willing. And I will know, not the wordof those who are puffed up, but the power. 4.20. For the Kingdom ofGod is not in word, but in power. 4.21. What do you want? Shall I cometo you with a rod, or in love and a spirit of gentleness? 9.19. For though I was free fromall, I brought myself under bondage to all, that I might gain the more. 9.20. To the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain Jews; to thosewho are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain those whoare under the law; 9.21. to those who are without law, as without law(not being without law toward God, but under law toward Christ), that Imight win those who are without law. 9.22. To the weak I became asweak, that I might gain the weak. I have become all things to all men,that I may by all means save some. 9.23. Now I do this for thegospel's sake, that I may be a joint partaker of it. 10.17. Because we, who are many, are one bread, one body; forwe all partake of the one bread. 12.12. For as the body is one, and has many members, and all themembers of the body, being many, are one body; so also is Christ. 12.13. For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whetherJews or Greeks, whether bond or free; and were all given to drink intoone Spirit. 12.14. For the body is not one member, but many. 12.15. If the foot would say, "Because I'm not the hand, I'm not part of thebody," it is not therefore not part of the body. 12.16. If the earwould say, "Because I'm not the eye, I'm not part of the body," it'snot therefore not part of the body. 12.17. If the whole body were aneye, where would the hearing be? If the whole were hearing, where wouldthe smelling be? 12.18. But now God has set the members, each one ofthem, in the body, just as he desired. 12.19. If they were all onemember, where would the body be? 12.20. But now they are many members,but one body. 12.21. The eye can't tell the hand, "I have no need foryou," or again the head to the feet, "I have no need for you. 12.22. No, much rather, those members of the body which seem to be weaker arenecessary. 12.23. Those parts of the body which we think to be lesshonorable, on those we bestow more abundant honor; and ourunpresentable parts have more abundant propriety; 12.24. whereas ourpresentable parts have no such need. But God composed the bodytogether, giving more abundant honor to the inferior part 12.25. thatthere should be no division in the body, but that the members shouldhave the same care for one another. 12.26. When one member suffers,all the members suffer with it. Or when one member is honored, all themembers rejoice with it. 12.27. Now you are the body of Christ, and members individually. 12.28. God has set some in the assembly: first apostles, secondprophets, third teachers, then miracle workers, then gifts of healings,helps, governments, and various kinds of languages. 15.1. Now I declare to you, brothers, the gospel which I preachedto you, which also you received, in which you also stand 15.20. But now Christ has been raised from the dead. He became thefirst fruits of those who are asleep. 15.21. For since death came byman, the resurrection of the dead also came by man. 15.22. For as inAdam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive. 15.23. Buteach in his own order: Christ the first fruits, then those who areChrist's, at his coming. 15.24. Then the end comes, when he willdeliver up the Kingdom to God, even the Father; when he will haveabolished all rule and all authority and power. 15.25. For he mustreign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. 15.26. The lastenemy that will be abolished is death. 15.27. For, "He put all thingsin subjection under his feet." But when he says, "All things are put insubjection," it is evident that he is excepted who subjected all thingsto him. 15.28. When all things have been subjected to him, then theSon will also himself be subjected to him who subjected all things tohim, that God may be all in all. 15.29. Or else what will they do whoare baptized for the dead? If the dead aren't raised at all, why thenare they baptized for the dead? 15.30. Why do we also stand injeopardy every hour? 15.31. I affirm, by the boasting in you which Ihave in Christ Jesus our Lord, I die daily. 15.32. If I fought withanimals at Ephesus for human purposes, what does it profit me? If thedead are not raised, then "let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die. 15.33. Don't be deceived! "Evil companionships corrupt good morals. 15.34. Wake up righteously, and don't sin, for some have no knowledgeof God. I say this to your shame. 15.35. But someone will say, "Howare the dead raised?" and, "With what kind of body do they come? 15.36. You foolish one, that which you yourself sow is not made aliveunless it dies. 15.37. That which you sow, you don't sow the body thatwill be, but a bare grain, maybe of wheat, or of some other kind. 15.38. But God gives it a body even as it pleased him, and to eachseed a body of its own. 15.39. All flesh is not the same flesh, butthere is one flesh of men, another flesh of animals, another of fish,and another of birds. 15.40. There are also celestial bodies, andterrestrial bodies; but the glory of the celestial differs from that ofthe terrestrial. 15.41. There is one glory of the sun, another gloryof the moon, and another glory of the stars; for one star differs fromanother star in glory. 15.42. So also is the resurrection of the dead.It is sown in corruption; it is raised in incorruption. 15.43. It issown in dishonor; it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness; it israised in power. 15.44. It is sown a natural body; it is raised aspiritual body. There is a natural body and there is also a spiritualbody. 15.45. So also it is written, "The first man, Adam, became a livingsoul." The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. 15.46. However thatwhich is spiritual isn't first, but that which is natural, then thatwhich is spiritual. 15.47. The first man is of the earth, made ofdust. The second man is the Lord from heaven. 15.48. As is the onemade of dust, such are those who are also made of dust; and as is theheavenly, such are they also that are heavenly. 15.49. As we haveborne the image of those made of dust, let's also bear the image of theheavenly. 15.50. Now I say this, brothers, that flesh and blood can'tinherit the Kingdom of God; neither does corruption inheritincorruption. 15.51. Behold, I tell you a mystery. We will not all sleep, but wewill all be changed 15.52. in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye,at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will beraised incorruptible, and we will be changed. 15.53. For thiscorruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put onimmortality. 15.54. But when this corruptible will have put onincorruption, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then whatis written will happen: "Death is swallowed up in victory. 15.55. Death, where is your sting?Hades, where is your victory? 15.56. The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law.
11. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.9, 3.3, 4.13-4.18, 5.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. For they themselves report concerning us what kind of a reception we had from you; and how you turned to God from idols, to serve a living and true God 3.3. that no one be moved by these afflictions. For you know that we are appointed to this task. 4.13. But we don't want you to be ignorant, brothers, concerning those who have fallen asleep, so that you don't grieve like the rest, who have no hope. 4.14. For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so those who have fallen asleep in Jesus will God bring with him. 4.15. For this we tell you by the word of the Lord, that we who are alive, who are left to the coming of the Lord, will in no way precede those who have fallen asleep. 4.16. For the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with God's trumpet. The dead in Christ will rise first 4.17. then we who are alive, who are left, will be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air. So we will be with the Lord forever. 4.18. Therefore comfort one another with these words. 5.10. who died for us, that, whether we wake or sleep, we should live together with him.
12. New Testament, 2 Peter, 3.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.16. as also in all of his letters, speaking in them of these things. In those are some things hard to be understood, which the ignorant and unsettled twist, as they also do to the other Scriptures, to their own destruction.
13. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14. New Testament, Acts, 1.6-1.11, 2.41, 2.46-2.47, 4.4, 15.1-15.21, 21.20 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.6. Therefore, when they had come together, they asked him, "Lord, are you now restoring the kingdom to Israel? 1.7. He said to them, "It isn't for you to know times or seasons which the Father has set within His own authority. 1.8. But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come on you. You will be witnesses to me in Jerusalem, in all Judea and Samaria, and to the uttermost parts of the earth. 1.9. When he had said these things, as they were looking, he was taken up, and a cloud received him out of their sight. 1.10. While they were looking steadfastly into the sky as he went, behold, two men stood by them in white clothing 1.11. who also said, "You men of Galilee, why do you stand looking into the sky? This Jesus, who was received up from you into the sky will come back in the same way as you saw him going into the sky. 2.41. Then those who gladly received his word were baptized. There were added that day about three thousand souls. 2.46. Day by day, continuing steadfastly with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread at home, they took their food with gladness and singleness of heart 2.47. praising God, and having favor with all the people. The Lord added to the assembly day by day those who were being saved. 4.4. But many of those who heard the word believed, and the number of the men came to be about five thousand. 15.1. Some men came down from Judea and taught the brothers, "Unless you are circumcised after the custom of Moses, you can't be saved. 15.2. Therefore when Paul and Barnabas had no small discord and discussion with them, they appointed Paul and Barnabas, and some others of them, to go up to Jerusalem to the apostles and elders about this question. 15.3. They, being sent on their way by the assembly, passed through both Phoenicia and Samaria, declaring the conversion of the Gentiles. They caused great joy to all the brothers. 15.4. When they had come to Jerusalem, they were received by the assembly and the apostles and the elders, and they reported all things that God had done with them. 15.5. But some of the sect of the Pharisees who believed rose up, saying, "It is necessary to circumcise them, and to charge them to keep the law of Moses. 15.6. The apostles and the elders were gathered together to see about this matter. 15.7. When there had been much discussion, Peter rose up and said to them, "Brothers, you know that a good while ago God made choice among you, that by my mouth the Gentiles should hear the word of the gospel, and believe. 15.8. God, who knows the heart, testified about them, giving them the Holy Spirit, just like he did to us. 15.9. He made no distinction between us and them, cleansing their hearts by faith. 15.10. Now therefore why do you tempt God, that you should put a yoke on the neck of the disciples which neither our fathers nor we were able to bear? 15.11. But we believe that we are saved through the grace of the Lord Jesus, just as they are. 15.12. All the multitude kept silence, and they listened to Barnabas and Paul reporting what signs and wonders God had done among the Gentiles through them. 15.13. After they were silent, James answered, "Brothers, listen to me. 15.14. Simeon has reported how God first visited the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name. 15.15. This agrees with the words of the prophets. As it is written 15.16. 'After these things I will return. I will again build the tent of David, which has fallen. I will again build its ruins. I will set it up 15.17. That the rest of men may seek after the Lord; All the Gentiles who are called by my name, Says the Lord, who does all these things. 15.18. All his works are known to God from eternity.' 15.19. Therefore my judgment is that we don't trouble those from among the Gentiles who turn to God 15.20. but that we write to them that they abstain from the pollution of idols, from sexual immorality, from what is strangled, and from blood. 15.21. For Moses from generations of old has in every city those who preach him, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath. 21.20. They, when they heard it, glorified God. They said to him, "You see, brother, how many thousands there are among the Jews of those who have believed, and they are all zealous for the law.
15. New Testament, Apocalypse, 10.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.7. but in the days of the voice of the seventh angel, when he is about to sound, then the mystery of God is finished, as he declared to his servants, the prophets.
16. New Testament, James, 2.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.23. and the Scripture was fulfilled which says, "Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him as righteousness;" and he was called the friend of God.
17. New Testament, Colossians, 1.16, 1.22, 3.3-3.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.16. For by him were all things created, in the heavens and on the earth, things visible and things invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers; all things have been created through him, and for him. 1.22. yet now he has reconciled in the body of his flesh through death, to present you holy and without blemish and blameless before him 3.3. For you died, and your life is hidden with Christ in God. 3.4. When Christ, our life, is revealed, then you will also be revealed with him in glory. 3.5. Put to death therefore your members which are on the earth: sexual immorality, uncleanness, depraved passion, evil desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry;
18. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.11-2.22, 3.9-3.11, 4.11-4.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. Therefore remember that once you, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called "uncircumcision" by that which is called "circumcision," (in the flesh, made by hands); 2.12. that you were at that time separate from Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covets of the promise, having no hope and without God in the world. 2.13. But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off are made near in the blood of Christ. 2.14. For he is our peace, who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of partition 2.15. having abolished in the flesh the hostility, the law of commandments contained in ordices, that he might create in himself one new man of the two, making peace; 2.16. and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, having killed the hostility thereby. 2.17. He came and preached peace to you who were far off and to those who were near. 2.18. For through him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father. 2.19. So then you are no longer strangers and sojourners, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God 2.20. being built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the chief cornerstone; 2.21. in whom the whole building, fitted together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord; 2.22. in whom you also are built together for a habitation of God in the Spirit. 3.9. and to make all men see what is the administration of the mystery which for ages has been hidden in God, who created all things through Jesus Christ; 3.10. to the intent that now through the assembly the manifold wisdom of God might be made known to the principalities and the powers in the heavenly places 3.11. according to the eternal purpose which he purposed in Christ Jesus our Lord; 4.11. He gave some to be apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, shepherds and teachers; 4.12. for the perfecting of the saints, to the work of serving, to the building up of the body of Christ; 4.13. until we all attain to the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to a full grown man, to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ; 4.14. that we may no longer be children, tossed back and forth and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the trickery of men, in craftiness, after the wiles of error; 4.15. but speaking truth in love, we may grow up in all things into him, who is the head, Christ; 4.16. from whom all the body, being fitted and knit together through that which every joint supplies, according to the working in measure of each individual part, makes the body increase to the building up of itself in love.
19. New Testament, Galatians, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 2.19, 2.20, 2.21, 3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 3.20, 3.21, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 3.25, 3.26, 3.27, 3.28, 3.29, 4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.9, 4.21, 4.21-5.1, 4.22, 4.23, 4.24, 4.25, 4.26, 4.27, 4.28, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.25, 6.15, 6.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. For am I now seeking thefavor of men, or of God? Or am I striving to please men? For if I werestill pleasing men, I wouldn't be a servant of Christ.
20. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.4-1.14, 2.2-2.3, 7.1-7.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. having become so much better than the angels, as he has inherited a more excellent name than they have. 1.5. For to which of the angels did he say at any time, "You are my Son, Today have I become your father?"and again, "I will be to him a Father, And he will be to me a Son? 1.6. Again, when he brings in the firstborn into the world he says, "Let all the angels of God worship him. 1.7. of the angels he says, "Who makes his angels winds, And his servants a flame of fire. 1.8. but of the Son he says, "Your throne, O God, is forever and ever; The scepter of uprightness is the scepter of your kingdom. 1.9. You have loved righteousness, and hated iniquity; Therefore God, your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness above your fellows. 1.10. And, "You, Lord, in the beginning, laid the foundation of the earth. The heavens are the works of your hands. 1.11. They will perish, but you continue. They all will grow old like a garment does. 1.12. As a mantle you will roll them up, And they will be changed; But you are the same. Your years will not fail. 1.13. But of which of the angels has he said at any time, "Sit at my right hand, Until I make your enemies the footstool of your feet? 1.14. Aren't they all ministering spirits, sent out to do service for the sake of those who will inherit salvation? 2.2. For if the word spoken through angels proved steadfast, and every transgression and disobedience received a just recompense; 2.3. how will we escape if we neglect so great a salvation -- which at the first having been spoken through the Lord, was confirmed to us by those who heard; 7.1. For this Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of God Most High, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings and blessed him 7.2. to whom also Abraham divided a tenth part of all (being first, by interpretation, king of righteousness, and then also king of Salem, which is king of peace; 7.3. without father, without mother, without genealogy, having neither beginning of days nor end of life, but made like the Son of God), remains a priest continually. 7.4. Now consider how great this man was, to whom even Abraham, the patriarch, gave a tenth out of the best spoils. 7.5. They indeed of the sons of Levi who receive the priest's office have a commandment to take tithes of the people according to the law, that is, of their brothers, though these have come out of the loins of Abraham
21. New Testament, Philippians, 1.1, 3.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul and Timothy, servants of Jesus Christ; To all the saints in Christ Jesus who are at Philippi, with the overseers and deacons: 3.6. concerning zeal, persecuting the assembly; concerning the righteousness which is in the law, found blameless.
22. New Testament, Romans, 1.1, 1.16, 1.16-2.29, 1.17, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.27, 2.29, 3, 3.20, 3.21, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 3.25, 3.26, 3.27, 3.28, 4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.21, 4.22, 4.23, 4.24, 4.25, 5.12, 5.13, 5.14, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 5.20, 5.21, 6.4, 6.6, 6.11, 7.4, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 9, 9.1, 9.3, 9.25, 9.26, 9.27, 9.28, 9.29, 9.30, 9.31, 9.32, 9.33, 10, 10.5, 10.19, 11, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 11.10, 11.11, 11.12, 11.13, 11.14, 11.15, 11.16, 11.17, 11.18, 11.19, 11.20, 11.21, 11.22, 11.23, 11.24, 11.25, 11.26, 11.27, 11.28, 11.29, 11.30, 11.31, 11.32, 12.5, 15.8, 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.28, 15.29, 15.30, 15.31, 15.32 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God
23. New Testament, Luke, 8.9-8.10, 24.25-24.27, 24.44-24.47 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.9. Then his disciples asked him, "What does this parable mean? 8.10. He said, "To you it is given to know the mysteries of the Kingdom of God, but to the rest in parables; that 'seeing they may not see, and hearing they may not understand.' 24.25. He said to them, "Foolish men, and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! 24.26. Didn't the Christ have to suffer these things and to enter into his glory? 24.27. Beginning from Moses and from all the prophets, he explained to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself. 24.44. He said to them, "This is what I told you, while I was still with you, that all things which are written in the law of Moses, the prophets, and the psalms, concerning me must be fulfilled. 24.45. Then he opened their minds, that they might understand the Scriptures. 24.46. He said to them, "Thus it is written, and thus it was necessary for the Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead the third day 24.47. and that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name to all the nations, beginning at Jerusalem.
24. New Testament, Mark, 4.10-4.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.10. When he was alone, those who were around him with the twelve asked him about the parables. 4.11. He said to them, "To you is given the mystery of the Kingdom of God, but to those who are outside, all things are done in parables 4.12. that 'seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest perhaps they should turn again, and their sins should be forgiven them.'
25. New Testament, Matthew, 8.23-8.24, 8.31-8.34, 13.10-13.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.23. When he got into a boat, his disciples followed him. 8.24. Behold, a great tempest arose in the sea, so much that the boat was covered with the waves, but he was asleep. 8.31. The demons begged him, saying, "If you cast us out, permit us to go away into the herd of pigs. 8.32. He said to them, "Go!"They came out, and went into the herd of pigs: and behold, the whole herd of pigs rushed down the cliff into the sea, and died in the water. 8.33. Those who fed them fled, and went away into the city, and told everything, including what happened to those who were possessed with demons. 8.34. Behold, all the city came out to meet Jesus. When they saw him, they begged that he would depart from their borders. 13.10. The disciples came, and said to him, "Why do you speak to them in parables? 13.11. He answered them, "To you it is given to know the mysteries of the Kingdom of Heaven, but it is not given to them. 13.12. For whoever has, to him will be given, and he will have abundance, but whoever doesn't have, from him will be taken away even that which he has. 13.13. Therefore I speak to them in parables, because seeing they don't see, and hearing, they don't hear, neither do they understand. 13.14. In them the prophecy of Isaiah is fulfilled, which says, 'By hearing you will hear, And will in no way understand; Seeing you will see, And will in no way perceive: 13.15. For this people's heart has grown callous, Their ears are dull of hearing, They have closed their eyes; Or else perhaps they might perceive with their eyes, Hear with their ears, Understand with their heart, And should turn again; And I would heal them.' 13.16. But blessed are your eyes, for they see; and your ears, for they hear. 13.17. For most assuredly I tell you that many prophets and righteous men desired to see the things which you see, and didn't see them; and to hear the things which you hear, and didn't hear them.
26. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 92.2-92.3, 119.4-119.5 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. Tertullian, Against Marcion, 5.4.8, 5.18.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

28. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Recognitiones (E Pseudocaesario), 1.27-1.71 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

29. Cyril of Alexandria, Commentarii In Joannem, 3.6, 4.2 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

30. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Recognitions, 1.27-1.71 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.27. In the beginning, when God had made the heaven and the earth, Genesis 1:1 as one house, the shadow which was cast by the mundane bodies involved in darkness those things which were enclosed in it. But when the will of God had introduced light, that darkness which had been caused by the shadows of bodies was straightway dispelled: then at length light is appointed for the day, darkness for the night. And now the water which was within the world, in the middle space of that first heaven and earth, congealed as if with frost, and solid as crystal, is distended, and the middle spaces of the heaven and earth are separated as by a firmament of this sort; and that firmament the Creator called heaven, so called by the name of that previously made: and so He divided into two portions that fabric of the universe, although it was but one house. The reason of the division was this, that the upper portion might afford a dwelling-place to angels, and the lower to men. After this, the place of the sea and the chaos which had been made received that portion of the water which remained below, by order of the eternal Will; and these flowing down to the sunk and hollow places, the dry land appeared; and the gatherings of the waters were made seas. And after this the earth, which had appeared, produced various species of herbs and shrubs. It gave forth fountains also, and rivers, not only in the plains, but on the mountains. And so all things were prepared, that men who were to dwell in it might have it in their power to use all these things according to their will, that is, either for good or evil. 1.28. After this He adorns that visible heaven with stars. He places in it also the sun and the moon, that the day might enjoy the light of the one, the night that of the other; and that at the same time they might be for an indication of things past, present, and future. For they were made for signs of seasons and of days, which, although they are seen indeed by all, are understood only by the learned and intelligent. And when, after this, He had ordered living creatures to be produced from the earth and the waters, He made Paradise, which also He named a place of delights. But after all these things He made man, on whose account He had prepared all things, whose internal species is older, and for whose sake all things that are were made, given up to his service, and assigned to the uses of his habitation. 1.29. All things therefore being completed which are in heaven, and in earth, and in the waters, and the human race also having multiplied, in the eighth generation, righteous men, who had lived the life of angels, being allured by the beauty of women, fell into promiscuous and illicit connections with these; and thenceforth acting in all things without discretion, and disorderly, they changed the state of human affairs and the divinely prescribed order of life, so that either by persuasion or force they compelled all men to sin against God their Creator. In the ninth generation are born the giants, so called from of old, not dragon-footed, as the fables of the Greeks relate, but men of immense bodies, whose bones, of enormous size, are still shown in some places for confirmation. But against these the righteous providence of God brought a flood upon the world, that the earth might be purified from their pollution, and every place might be turned into a sea by the destruction of the wicked. Yet there was then found one righteous man, by name Noah, who, being delivered in an ark with his three sons and their wives, became the colonizer of the world after the subsiding of the waters, with those animals and seeds which he had shut up with him. 1.30. In the twelfth generation, when God had blessed men, and they had begun to multiply, Genesis 9:1 they received a commandment that they should not taste blood, for on account of this also the deluge had been sent. In the thirteenth generation, when the second of Noah's three sons had done an injury to his father, and had been cursed by him, he brought the condition of slavery upon his posterity. His elder brother meantime obtained the lot of a dwelling-place in the middle region of the world, in which is the country of Jud a; the younger obtained the eastern quarter, and he the western. In the fourteenth generation one of the cursed progeny first erected an altar to demons, for the purpose of magical arts, and offered there bloody sacrifices. In the fifteenth generation, for the first time, men set up an idol and worshipped it. Until that time the Hebrew language, which had been given by God to men, bore sole sway. In the sixteenth generation the sons of men migrated from the east, and, coming to the lands that had been assigned to their fathers, each one marked the place of his own allotment by his own name. In the seventeenth generation Nimrod I. reigned in Babylonia, and built a city, and thence migrated to the Persians, and taught them to worship fire. 1.31. In the eighteenth generation walled cities were built, armies were organized and armed, judges and laws were sanctioned, temples were built, and the princes of nations were adored as gods. In the nineteenth generation the descendants of him who had been cursed after the flood, going beyond their proper bounds which they had obtained by lot in the western regions, drove into the eastern lands those who had obtained the middle portion of the world, and pursued them as far as Persia, while themselves violently took possession of the country from which they expelled them. In the twentieth generation a son for the first time died before his father, Genesis 11:28 on account of an incestuous crime. 1.32. In the twenty-first generation there was a certain wise man, of the race of those who were expelled, of the family of Noah's eldest son, by name Abraham, from whom our Hebrew nation is derived. When the whole world was again overspread with errors, and when for the hideousness of its crimes destruction was ready for it, this time not by water, but fire, and when already the scourge was hanging over the whole earth, beginning with Sodom, this man, by reason of his friendship with God, who was well pleased with him, obtained from God that the whole world should not equally perish. From the first this same man, being an astrologer, was able, from the account and order of the stars, to recognise the Creator, while all others were in error, and understood that all things are regulated by His providence. Whence also an angel, standing by him in a vision, instructed him more fully concerning those things which he was beginning to perceive. He showed him also what belonged to his race and posterity, and promised him that those districts should be restored rather than given to them. 1.33. Therefore Abraham, when he was desirous to learn the causes of things, and was intently pondering upon what had been told him, the true Prophet appeared to him, who alone knows the hearts and purpose of men, and disclosed to him all things which he desired. He taught him the knowledge of the Divinity; intimated the origin of the world, and likewise its end; showed him the immortality of the soul, and the manner of life which was pleasing to God; declared also the resurrection of the dead, the future judgment, the reward of the good, the punishment of the evil - all to be regulated by righteous judgment: and having given him all this information plainly and sufficiently, He departed again to the invisible abodes. But while Abraham was still in ignorance, as we said to you before, two sons were born to him, of whom the one was called Ismael, and the other Heliesdros. From the one are descended the barbarous nations, from the other the people of the Persians, some of whom have adopted the manner of living and the institutions of their neighbours, the Brachmans. Others settled in Arabia, of whose posterity some also have spread into Egypt. From them some of the Indians and of the Egyptians have learned to be circumcised, and to be of purer observance than others, although in process of time most of them have turned to impiety what was the proof and sign of purity. 1.34. Nevertheless, as he had got these two sons during the time while he still lived in ignorance of things, having received the knowledge of God, he asked of the Righteous One that he might merit to have offspring by Sarah, who was his lawful wife, though she was barren. She obtained a son. whom he named Isaac, from whom came Jacob, and from him the twelve patriarchs, and from these twelve seventy-two. These, when famine befell came into Egypt with all their family; and in the course of four hundred years, being multiplied by the blessing and promise of God, they were afflicted by the Egyptians. And when they were afflicted the true Prophet appeared to Moses, Exodus iii and struck the Egyptians with ten plagues, when they refused to let the Hebrew people depart from them, and return to their native land; and he brought the people of God out of Egypt. But those of the Egyptians who survived the plagues, being infected with the animosity of their king, pursued after the Hebrews. And when they had overtaken them at the sea-shore, and thought to destroy and exterminate them all, Moses, pouring out prayer to God, divided the sea into two parts, so that the water was held on the right hand and on the left as if it had been frozen, and the people of God passed as over a dry road; but the Egyptians who were pursuing them, rashly entering, were drowned. For when the last of the Hebrews came out, the last of the Egyptians went down into the sea; and straightway the waters of the sea, which by his command were held bound as with frost, were loosed by his command who had bound them, and recovering their natural freedom, inflicted punishment on the wicked nation. 1.35. After this, Moses, by the command of God, whose providence is over all, led out the people of the Hebrews into the wilderness; and, leaving the shortest road which leads from Egypt to Jud a, he led the people through long windings of the wilderness, that, by the discipline of forty years, the novelty of a changed manner of life might root out the evils which had clung to them by a long-continued familiarity with the customs of the Egyptians. Meantime they came to Mount Sinai, and thence the law was given to them with voices and sights from heaven, written in ten precepts, of which the first and greatest was that they should worship God Himself alone, and not make to themselves any appearance or form to worship. But when Moses had gone up to the mount, and was staying there forty days, the people, although they had seen Egypt struck with the ten plagues, and the sea parted and passed over by them on foot, manna also given to them from heaven for bread, and drink supplied to them out of the rock that followed 1 Corinthians 10:4 them, which kind of food was turned into whatever taste any one desired; and although, being placed under the torrid region of heaven, they were shaded by a cloud in the day-time, that they might not be scorched by the heat, and by night were enlightened by a pillar of fire, lest the horror of darkness should be added to the wasteness of the wilderness;- those very people, I say, when Moses stayed in the mount, made and worshipped a golden calf's head, after the fashion of Apis, whom they had seen worshipped in Egypt; and after so many and so great marvels which they had seen, were unable to cleanse and wash out from themselves the defilements of old habit. On this account, leaving the short road which leads from Egypt to Jud a, Moses conducted them by an immense circuit of the desert, if haply he might be able, as we mentioned before, to shake off the evils of old habit by the change of a new education. 1.36. When meantime Moses, that faithful and wise steward, perceived that the vice of sacrificing to idols had been deeply ingrained into the people from their association with the Egyptians, and that the root of this evil could not be extracted from them, he allowed them indeed to sacrifice, but permitted it to be done only to God, that by any means he might cut off one half of the deeply ingrained evil, leaving the other half to be corrected by another, and at a future time; by Him, namely, concerning whom he said himself, 'A prophet shall the Lord your God raise unto you, whom you shall hear even as myself, according to all things which He shall say to you. Whosoever shall not hear that prophet, his soul shall be cut off from his people. 1.37. In addition to these things, he also appointed a place in which alone it should be lawful to them to sacrifice to God. And all this was arranged with this view, that when the fitting time should come, and they should learn by means of the Prophet that God desires mercy and not sacrifice, they might see Him who should teach them that the place chosen of God, in which it was suitable that victims should be offered to God, is his Wisdom; and that on the other hand they might hear that this place, which seemed chosen for a time, often harassed as it had been by hostile invasions and plunderings, was at last to be wholly destroyed. And in order to impress this upon them, even before the coming of the true Prophet, who was to reject at once the sacrifices and the place, it was often plundered by enemies and burnt with fire, and the people carried into captivity among foreign nations, and then brought back when they betook themselves to the mercy of God; that by these things they might be taught that a people who offer sacrifices are driven away and delivered up into the hands of the enemy, but they who do mercy and righteousness are without sacrifices freed from captivity, and restored to their native land. But it fell out that very few understood this; for the greater number, though they could perceive and observe these things, yet were held by the irrational opinion of the vulgar: for right opinion with liberty is the prerogative of a few. 1.38. Moses, then, having arranged these things, and having set over the people one Auses to bring them to the land of their fathers, himself by the command of the living God went up to a certain mountain, and there died. Yet such was the manner of his death, that till this day no one has found his burial-place. When, therefore, the people reached their fathers' land, by the providence of God, at their first onset the inhabitants of wicked races are routed, and they enter upon their paternal inheritance, which was distributed among them by lot. For some time thereafter they were ruled not by kings, but judges, and remained in a somewhat peaceful condition. But when they sought for themselves tyrants rather than kings, then also with regal ambition they erected a temple in the place which had been appointed to them for prayer; and thus, through a succession of wicked kings, the people fell away to greater and still greater impiety. 1.39. But when the time began to draw near that what was wanting in the Mosaic institutions should be supplied, as we have said, and that the Prophet should appear, of whom he had foretold that He should warn them by the mercy of God to cease from sacrificing; lest haply they might suppose that on the cessation of sacrifice there was no remission of sins for them, He instituted baptism by water among them, in which they might be absolved from all their sins on the invocation of His name, and for the future, following a perfect life, might abide in immortality, being purified not by the blood of beasts, but by the purification of the Wisdom of God. Subsequently also an evident proof of this great mystery is supplied in the fact, that every one who, believing in this Prophet who had been foretold by Moses, is baptized in His name, shall be kept unhurt from the destruction of war which impends over the unbelieving nation, and the place itself; but that those who do not believe shall be made exiles from their place and kingdom, that even against their will they may understand and obey the will of God. 1.40. These things therefore having been fore-arranged, He who was expected comes, bringing signs and miracles as His credentials by which He should be made manifest. But not even so did the people believe, though they had been trained during so many ages to the belief of these things. And not only did they not believe, but they added blasphemy to unbelief, saying that He was a gluttonous man and a belly-slave, and that He was actuated by a demon, even He who had come for their salvation. To such an extent does wickedness prevail by the agency of evil ones; so that, but for the Wisdom of God assisting those who love the truth, almost all would have been involved in impious delusion. Therefore He chose us twelve, Matthew x the first who believed in Him, whom He named apostles; and afterwards other seventy-two most approved disciples, Luke x that, at least in this way recognising the pattern of Moses, Numbers 11:16 the multitude might believe that this is He of whom Moses foretold, the Prophet that was to come. Deuteronomy 18:15 1.41. But some one perhaps may say that it is possible for any one to imitate a number; but what shall we say of the signs and miracles which He wrought? For Moses had wrought miracles and cures in Egypt. He also of whom he foretold that He should rise up a prophet like himself, though He cured every sickness and infirmity among the people, wrought innumerable miracles, and preached eternal life, was hurried by wicked men to the cross; which deed was, however, by His power turned to good. In short, while He was suffering, all the world suffered with Him; for the sun was darkened, the mountains were torn asunder, the graves were opened, the veil of the temple was rent, as in lamentation for the destruction impending over the place. And yet, though all the world was moved, they themselves are not even now moved to the consideration of these so great things. 1.42. But inasmuch as it was necessary that the Gentiles should be called into the room of those who remained unbelieving, so that the number might be filled up which had been shown to Abraham, the preaching of the blessed kingdom of God is sent into all the world. On this account worldly spirits are disturbed, who always oppose those who are in quest of liberty, and who make use of the engines of error to destroy God's building; while those who press on to the glory of safety and liberty, being rendered braver by their resistance to these spirits, and by the toil of great struggles against them, attain the crown of safety not without the palm of victory. Meantime, when He had suffered, and darkness had overwhelmed the world from the sixth even to the ninth hour, Matthew 27:45 as soon as the sun shone out again, and things were returned to their usual course, even wicked men returned to themselves and their former practices, their fear having abated. For some of them, watching the place with all care, when they could not prevent His rising again, said that He was a magician; others pretended that he was stolen away. Matthew 28:13 1.43. Nevertheless, the truth everywhere prevailed; for, in proof that these things were done by divine power, we who had been very few became in the course of a few days, by the help of God, far more than they. So that the priests at one time were afraid, lest haply, by the providence of God, to their confusion, the whole of the people should come over to our faith. Therefore they often sent to us, and asked us to discourse to them concerning Jesus, whether He were the Prophet whom Moses foretold, who is the eternal Christ. John 12:34 For on this point only does there seem to be any difference between us who believe in Jesus, and the unbelieving Jews. But while they often made such requests to us, and we sought for a fitting opportunity, a week of years was completed from the passion of the Lord, the Church of the Lord which was constituted in Jerusalem was most plentifully multiplied and grew, being governed with most righteous ordices by James, who was ordained bishop in it by the Lord. 1.44. But when we twelve apostles, on the day of the passover, had come together with an immense multitude, and entered into the church of the brethren, each one of us, at the request of James, stated briefly, in the hearing of the people, what we had done in every place. While this was going on, Caiaphas, the high priest, sent priests to us, and asked us to come to him, that either we should prove to him that Jesus is the eternal Christ, or he to us that He is not, and that so all the people should agree upon the one faith or the other; and this he frequently entreated us to do. But we often put it off, always seeking for a more convenient time. Then I, Clement, answered to this: I think that this very question, whether He is the Christ, is of great importance for the establishment of the faith; otherwise the high priest would not so frequently ask that he might either learn or teach concerning the Christ. Then Peter: You have answered rightly, O Clement; for as no one can see without eyes, nor hear without ears, nor smell without nostrils, nor taste without a tongue, nor handle anything without hands, so it is impossible, without the true Prophet, to know what is pleasing to God. And I answered: I have already learned from your instruction that this true prophet is the Christ; but I should wish to learn what the Christ means, or why He is so called, that a matter of so great importance may not be vague and uncertain to me. 1.45. Then Peter began to instruct me in this manner: When God had made the world, as Lord of the universe, He appointed chiefs over the several creatures, over the trees even, and the mountains, and the fountains, and the rivers, and all things which He had made, as we have told you; for it were too long to mention them one by one. He set, therefore, an angel as chief over the angels, a spirit over the spirits, a star over the stars, a demon over the demons, a bird over the birds, a beast over the beasts, a serpent over the serpents, a fish over the fishes, a man over men, who is Christ Jesus. But He is called Christ by a certain excellent rite of religion; for as there are certain names common to kings, as Arsaces among the Persians, C sar among the Romans, Pharaoh among the Egyptians, so among the Jews a king is called Christ. And the reason of this appellation is this: Although indeed He was the Son of God, and the beginning of all things, He became man; Him first God anointed with oil which was taken from the wood of the tree of life: from that anointing therefore He is called Christ. Thence, moreover, He Himself also, according to the appointment of His Father, anoints with similar oil every one of the pious when they come to His kingdom, for their refreshment after their labours, as having got over the difficulties of the way; so that their light may shine, and being filled with the Holy Spirit, they may be endowed with immortality. But it occurs to me that I have sufficiently explained to you the whole nature of that branch from which that ointment is taken. 1.46. But now also I shall, by a very short representation, recall you to the recollection of all these things. In the present life, Aaron, the first high priest, was anointed with a composition of chrism, which was made after the pattern of that spiritual ointment of which we have spoken before. He was prince of the people, and as a king received first-fruits and tribute from the people, man by man; and having undertaken the office of judging the people, he judged of things clean and things unclean. But if any one else was anointed with the same ointment, as deriving virtue from it, he became either king, or prophet, or priest. If, then, this temporal grace, compounded by men, had such efficacy, consider now how potent was that ointment extracted by God from a branch of the tree of life, when that which was made by men could confer so excellent dignities among men. For what in the present age is more glorious than a prophet, more illustrious than a priest, more exalted than a king? 1.47. To this, I replied: I remember, Peter, that you told me of the first man that he was a prophet; but you did not say that he was anointed. If then there be no prophet without anointing, how could the first man be a prophet, since he was not anointed? Then Peter, smiling, said: If the first man prophesied, it is certain that he was also anointed. For although he who has recorded the law in his pages is silent as to his anointing, yet he has evidently left us to understand these things. For as, if he had said that he was anointed, it would not be doubted that he was also a prophet, although it were not written in the law; so, since it is certain that he was a prophet, it is in like manner certain that he was also anointed, because without anointing he could not be a prophet. But you should rather have said, If the chrism was compounded by Aaron, by the perfumer's art, how could the first man be anointed before Aaron's time, the arts of composition not yet having been discovered? Then I answered, Do not misunderstand me, Peter; for I do not speak of that compounded ointment and temporal oil, but of that simple and eternal ointment, which you told me was made by God, after whose likeness you say that that other was compounded by men. 1.48. Then Peter answered, with an appearance of indignation: What! Do you suppose, Clement, that all of us can know all things before the time? But not to be drawn aside now from our proposed discourse, we shall at another time, when your progress is more manifest, explain these things more distinctly. Then, however, a priest or a prophet, being anointed with the compounded ointment, putting fire to the altar of God, was held illustrious in all the world. But after Aaron, who was a priest, another is taken out of the waters. I do not speak of Moses, but of Him who, in the waters of baptism, was called by God His Son. Matthew 3:17 For it is Jesus who has put out, by the grace of baptism, that fire which the priest kindled for sins; for, from the time when He appeared, the chrism has ceased, by which the priesthood or the prophetic or the kingly office was conferred. 1.49. His coming, therefore, was predicted by Moses, who delivered the law of God to men; but by another also before him, as I have already informed you. He therefore intimated that He should come, humble indeed in His first coming, but glorious in His second. And the first, indeed, has been already accomplished; since He has come and taught, and He, the Judge of all, has been judged and slain. But at His second coming He shall come to judge, and shall indeed condemn the wicked, but shall take the pious into a share and association with Himself in His kingdom. Now the faith of His second coming depends upon His first. For the prophets- especially Jacob and Moses- spoke of the first, but some also of the second. But the excellency of prophecy is chiefly shown in this, that the prophets spoke not of things to come, according to the sequence of things; otherwise they might seem merely as wise men to have conjectured what the sequence of things pointed out. 1.50. But what I say is this: It was to be expected that Christ should be received by the Jews, to whom He came, and that they should believe in Him who was expected for the salvation of the people, according to the traditions of the fathers; but that the Gentiles should be averse to Him, since neither promise nor announcement concerning Him had been made to them, and indeed he had never been made known to them even by name. Yet the prophets, contrary to the order and sequence of things, said that He should be the expectation of the Gentiles, and not of the Jews. Genesis 49:10 And so it happened. For when He came, he was not at all acknowledged by those who seemed to expect Him, in consequence of the tradition of their ancestors; whereas those who had heard nothing at all of Him, both believe that He has come, and hope that he is to come. And thus in all things prophecy appears faithful, which said that He was the expectation of the Gentiles. The Jews, therefore, have erred concerning the first coming of the Lord; and on this point only there is disagreement between us and them. For they themselves know and expect that Christ shall come; but that he has come already in humility - even he who is called Jesus - they do not know. And this is a great confirmation of His coming, that all do not believe in Him. 1.51. Him, therefore, has God appointed in the end of the world; because it was impossible that the evils of men could be removed by any other, provided that the nature of the human race were to remain entire, i.e., the liberty of the will being preserved. This condition, therefore, being preserved inviolate, He came to invite to His kingdom all righteous ones, and those who have been desirous to please Him. For these He has prepared unspeakable good things, and the heavenly city Jerusalem, which shall shine above the brightness of the sun, for the habitation of the saints. But the unrighteous, and the wicked and those who have despised God, and have devoted the life given them to diverse wickednesses, and have given to the practice of evil the time which was given them for the work of righteousness He shall hand over to fitting and condign vengeance. But the rest of the things which shall then be done, it is neither in the power of angels nor of men to tell or to describe. This only it is enough for us to know, that God shall confer upon the good an eternal possession of good things. 1.52. When he had thus spoken, I answered: If those shall enjoy the kingdom of Christ, whom His coming shall find righteous, shall then those be wholly deprived of the kingdom who have died before His coming? Then Peter says: You compel me, O Clement, to touch upon things that are unspeakable. But so far as it is allowed to declare them, I shall not shrink from doing so. Know then that Christ, who was from the beginning, and always, was ever present with the pious, though secretly, through all their generations: especially with those who waited for Him, to whom He frequently appeared. But the time was not yet that there should be a resurrection of the bodies that were dissolved; but this seemed rather to be their reward from God, that whoever should be found righteous, should remain longer in the body; or, at least, as is clearly related in the writings of the law concerning a certain righteous man, that God translated him. Genesis 5:24 In like manner others were dealt with, who pleased His will, that, being translated to Paradise, they should be kept for the kingdom. But as to those who have not been able completely to fulfil the rule of righteousness, but have had some remts of evil in their flesh, their bodies are indeed dissolved, but their souls are kept in good and blessed abodes, that at the resurrection of the dead, when they shall recover their own bodies, purified even by the dissolution, they may obtain an eternal inheritance in proportion to their good deeds. And therefore blessed are all those who shall attain to the kingdom of Christ; for not only shall they escape the pains of hell, but shall also remain incorruptible, and shall be the first to see God the Father, and shall obtain the rank of honour among the first in the presence of God. 1.53. Wherefore there is not the least doubt concerning Christ; and all the unbelieving Jews are stirred up with boundless rage against us, fearing lest haply He against whom they have sinned should be He. And their fear grows all the greater, because they know that, as soon as they fixed Him on the cross, the whole world showed sympathy with Him; and that His body, although they guarded it with strict care, could nowhere be found; and that innumerable multitudes are attaching themselves to His faith. Whence they, together with the high priest Caiaphas, were compelled to send to us again and again, that an inquiry might be instituted concerning the truth of His name. And when they were constantly entreating that they might either learn or teach concerning Jesus, whether He were the Christ, it seemed good to us to go up into the temple, and in the presence of all the people to bear witness concerning Him, and at the same time to charge the Jews with many foolish things which they were doing. For the people was now divided into many parties, ever since the days of John the Baptist. 1.54. For when the rising of Christ was at hand for the abolition of sacrifices, and for the bestowal of the grace of baptism, the enemy, understanding from the predictions that the time was at hand, wrought various schisms among the people, that, if haply it might be possible to abolish the former sin, the latter fault might be incorrigible. The first schism, therefore, was that of those who were called Sadducees, which took their rise almost in the time of John. These, as more righteous than others, began to separate themselves from the assembly of the people, and to deny the resurrection of the dead, Matthew 22:23 and to assert that by an argument of infidelity, saying that it was unworthy that God should be worshipped, as it were, under the promise of a reward. The first author of this opinion was Dositheus; the second was Simon. Another schism is that of the Samaritans; for they deny the resurrection of the dead, and assert that God is not to be worshipped in Jerusalem, but on Mount Gerizim. They indeed rightly, from the predictions of Moses, expect the one true Prophet; but by the wickedness of Dositheus they were hindered from believing that Jesus is He whom they were expecting. The scribes also, and Pharisees, are led away into another schism; but these, being baptized by John, and holding the word of truth received from the tradition of Moses as the key of the kingdom of heaven, have hid it from the hearing of the people. Luke 11:52 Yea, some even of the disciples of John, who seemed to be great ones, have separated themselves from the people, and proclaimed their own master as the Christ. But all these schisms have been prepared, that by means of them the faith of Christ and baptism might be hindered. 1.55. However, as we were proceeding to say, when the high priest had often sent priests to ask us that we might discourse with one another concerning Jesus; when it seemed a fit opportunity, and it pleased all the Church, we went up to the temple, and, standing on the steps together with our faithful brethren, the people kept perfect silence; and first the high priest began to exhort the people that they should hear patiently and quietly, and at the same time witness and judge of those things that were to be spoken. Then, in the next place, exalting with many praises the rite or sacrifice which had been bestowed by God upon the human race for the remission of sins, he found fault with the baptism of our Jesus, as having been recently brought in in opposition to the sacrifices. But Matthew, meeting his propositions, showed clearly, that whosoever shall not obtain the baptism of Jesus shall not only be deprived of the kingdom of heaven, but shall not be without peril at the resurrection of the dead, even though he be fortified by the prerogative of a good life and an upright disposition. Having made these and such like statements, Matthew stopped. 1.56. But the party of the Sadducees, who deny the resurrection of the dead, were in a rage, so that one of them cried out from among the people, saying that those greatly err who think that the dead ever arise. In opposition to him, Andrew, my brother, answering, declared that it is not an error, but the surest matter of faith, that the dead rise, in accordance with the teaching of Him of whom Moses foretold that He should come the true Prophet. 'Or if,' says he, 'you do not think that this is He whom Moses foretold, let this first be inquired into, so that when this is clearly proved to be He, there may be no further doubt concerning the things which He taught.' These, and many such like things, Andrew proclaimed, and then stopped. 1.57. But a certain Samaritan, speaking against the people and against God, and asserting that neither are the dead to rise, nor is that worship of God to be maintained which is in Jerusalem, but that Mount Gerizim is to be reverenced, added also this in opposition to us, that our Jesus was not He whom Moses foretold as a Prophet to come into the world. Against him, and another who supported him in what he said, James and John, the sons of Zebedee, strove vigorously; and although they had a command not to enter into their cities, Matthew 10:5 nor to bring the word of preaching to them, yet, lest their discourse, unless it were confined, should hurt the faith of others, they replied so prudently and so powerfully, that they put them to perpetual silence. For James made an oration concerning the resurrection of the dead, with the approbation of all the people; while John showed that if they would abandon the error of Mount Gerizim, they should consequently acknowledge that Jesus was indeed He who, according to the prophecy of Moses, was expected to come; since, indeed, as Moses wrought signs and miracles, so also did Jesus. And there is no doubt but that the likeness of the signs proves Him to be that prophet of whom he said that He should come, 'like himself.' Having declared these things, and more to the same effect, they ceased. 1.58. And, behold, one of the scribes, shouting out from the midst of the people, says: 'The signs and miracles which your Jesus wrought, he wrought not as a prophet, but as a magician.' Him Philip eagerly encounters, showing that by this argument he accused Moses also. For when Moses wrought signs and miracles in Egypt, in like manner as Jesus also did in Jud a, it cannot be doubted that what was said of Jesus might as well be said of Moses. Having made these and such like protestations, Philip was silent. 1.59. Then a certain Pharisee, hearing this, chid Philip because he put Jesus on a level with Moses. To whom Bartholomew, answering, boldly declared that we do not only say that Jesus was equal to Moses, but that He was greater than he, because Moses was indeed a prophet, as Jesus was also, but that Moses was not the Christ, as Jesus was, and therefore He is doubtless greater who is both a prophet and the Christ, than he who is only a prophet. After following out this train of argument, he stopped. After him James the son of Alph us gave an address to the people, with the view of showing that we are not to believe in Jesus on the ground that the prophets foretold concerning Him, but rather that we are to believe the prophets, that they were really prophets, because the Christ bears testimony to them; for it is the presence and coming of Christ that show that they are truly prophets: for testimony must be borne by the superior to his inferiors, not by the inferiors to their superior. After these and many similar statements, James also was silent. After him Lebb us began vehemently to charge it upon the people that they did not believe in Jesus, who had done them so much good by teaching them the things that are of God, by comforting the afflicted, healing the sick, relieving the poor; yet for all these benefits their return had been hatred and death. When he had declared these and many more such things to the people, he ceased. 1.60. And, behold, one of the disciples of John asserted that John was the Christ, and not Jesus, inasmuch as Jesus Himself declared that John was greater than all men and all prophets. Matthew 11:9, 11 'If, then,' said he, 'he be greater than all, he must be held to be greater than Moses, and than Jesus himself. But if he be the greatest of all, then must he be the Christ.' To this Simon the Canaanite, answering, asserted that John was indeed greater than all the prophets, and all who are born of women, yet that he is not greater than the Son of man. Accordingly Jesus is also the Christ, whereas John is only a prophet: and there is as much difference between him and Jesus, as between the forerunner and Him whose forerunner he is; or as between Him who gives the law, and him who keeps the law. Having made these and similar statements, the Canaanite also was silent. After him Barnabas, who also is called Matthias, who was substituted as an apostle in the place of Judas, began to exhort the people that they should not regard Jesus with hatred, nor speak evil of Him. For it were far more proper, even for one who might be in ignorance or in doubt concerning Jesus, to love than to hate Him. For God has affixed a reward to love, a penalty to hatred. 'For the very fact,' said he, 'that He assumed a Jewish body, and was born among the Jews, how has not this incited us all to love Him?' When he had spoken this, and more to the same effect, he stopped. 1.61. Then Caiaphas attempted to impugn the doctrine of Jesus, saying that He spoke vain things, for He said that the poor are blessed; and promised earthly rewards; and placed the chief gift in an earthly inheritance; and promised that those who maintain righteousness shall be satisfied with meat and drink; and many things of this sort He is charged with teaching. Thomas, in reply, proves that his accusation is frivolous; showing that the prophets, in whom Caiaphas believes, taught these things much more, and did not show in what manner these things are to be, or how they are to be understood; whereas Jesus pointed out how they are to be taken. And when he had spoken these things, and others of like kind, Thomas also held his peace. 1.62. Therefore Caiaphas, again looking at me, and sometimes in the way of warning and sometimes in that of accusation, said that I ought for the future to refrain from preaching Christ Jesus, lest I should do it to my own destruction, and lest, being deceived myself, I should also deceive others. Then, moreover, he charged me with presumption, because, though I was unlearned, a fisherman, and a rustic, I dared to assume the office of a teacher. As he spoke these things, and many more of like kind, I said in reply, that I incurred less danger, if, as he said, this Jesus were not the Christ, because I received Him as a teacher of the law; but that he was in terrible danger if this be the very Christ, as assuredly He is: for I believe in Him who has appeared; but for whom else, who has never appeared, does he reserve his faith? But if I, an unlearned and uneducated man, as you say, a fisherman and a rustic, have more understanding than wise elders, this, said I, ought the more to strike terror into you. For if I disputed with any learning, and won over you wise and learned men, it would appear that I had acquired this power by long learning, and not by the grace of divine power; but now, when, as I have said, we unskilled men convince and overcome you wise men, who that has any sense does not perceive that this is not a work of human subtlety, but of divine will and gift? 1.63. Thus we argued and bore witness; and we who were unlearned men and fishermen, taught the priests concerning the one only God of heaven; the Sadducees, concerning the resurrection of the dead; the Samaritans, concerning the sacredness of Jerusalem (not that we entered into their cities, but disputed with them in public); the scribes and Pharisees, concerning the kingdom of heaven; the disciples of John, that they should not suffer John to be a stumbling-block to them; and all the people, that Jesus is the eternal Christ. At last, however, I warned them, that before we should go forth to the Gentiles, to preach to them the knowledge of God the Father, they should themselves be reconciled to God, receiving His Son; for I showed them that in no way else could they be saved, unless through the grace of the Holy Spirit they hasted to be washed with the baptism of threefold invocation, and received the Eucharist of Christ the Lord, whom alone they ought to believe concerning those things which He taught, that so they might merit to attain eternal salvation; but that otherwise it was utterly impossible for them to be reconciled to God, even if they should kindle a thousand altars and a thousand high altars to Him. 1.64. 'For we,' said I, 'have ascertained beyond doubt that God is much rather displeased with the sacrifices which you offer, the time of sacrifices having now passed away; and because ye will not acknowledge that the time for offering victims is now past, therefore the temple shall be destroyed, and the abomination of desolation shall stand in the holy place; and then the Gospel shall be preached to the Gentiles for a testimony against you, that your unbelief may be judged by their faith. For the whole world at different times suffers under various maladies, either spreading generally over all, or affecting specially. Therefore it needs a physician to visit it for its salvation. We therefore bear witness to you, and declare to you what has been hidden from every one of you. It is for you to consider what is for your advantage.' 1.65. When I had thus spoken, the whole multitude of the priests were in a rage, because I had foretold to them the overthrow of the temple. Which when Gamaliel, a chief of the people, saw - who was secretly our brother in the faith, but by our advice remained among them - because they were greatly enraged and moved with intense fury against us, he stood up, and said, Acts 5:35-39 'Be quiet for a little, O men of Israel, for you do not perceive the trial which hangs over you. Wherefore refrain from these men; and if what they are engaged in be of human counsel, it will soon come to an end; but if it be from God, why will you sin without cause, and prevail nothing? For who can overpower the will of God? Now therefore, since the day is declining towards evening, I shall myself dispute with these men tomorrow, in this same place, in your hearing, so that I may openly oppose and clearly confute every error.' By this speech of his their fury was to some extent checked, especially in the hope that next day we should be publicly convicted of error; and so he dismissed the people peacefully. 1.66. Now when we had come to our James, while we detailed to him all that had been said and done, we supped, and remained with him, spending the whole night in supplication to Almighty God, that the discourse of the approaching disputation might show the unquestionable truth of our faith. Therefore, on the following day, James the bishop went up to the temple with us, and with the whole church. There we found a great multitude, who had been waiting for us from the middle of the night. Therefore we took our stand in the same place as before, in order that, standing on an elevation, we might be seen by all the people. Then, when profound silence was obtained, Gamaliel, who, as we have said, was of our faith, but who by a dispensation remained among them, that if at any time they should attempt anything unjust or wicked against us, he might either check them by skillfully adopted counsel, or might warn us, that we might either be on our guard or might turn it aside;- he therefore, as if acting against us, first of all looking to James the bishop, addressed him in this manner:- 1.67. 'If I, Gamaliel, deem it no reproach either to my learning or to my old age to learn something from babes and unlearned ones, if haply there be anything which it is for profit or for safety to acquire (for he who lives reasonably knows that nothing is more precious than the soul), ought not this to be the object of love and desire to all, to learn what they do not know, and to teach what they have learned? For it is most certain that neither friendship, nor kindred, nor lofty power, ought to be more precious to men than truth. Therefore you, O brethren, if you know anything more, shrink not from laying it before the people of God who are present, and also before your brethren; while the whole people shall willingly and in perfect quietness hear what you say. For why should not the people do this, when they see even me equally with themselves willing to learn from you, if haply God has revealed something further to you? But if you in anything are deficient, be not ye ashamed in like manner to be taught by us, that God may fill up whatever is wanting on either side. But if any fear now agitates you on account of some of our people whose minds are prejudiced against you, and if through fear of their violence you dare not openly speak your sentiments, in order that I may deliver you from this fear, I openly swear to you by Almighty God, who lives for ever, that I will suffer no one to lay hands upon you. Since, then, you have all this people witnesses of this my oath, and you hold the covet of our sacrament as a fitting pledge, let each one of you, without any hesitation, declare what he has learned; and let us, brethren, listen eagerly and in silence.' 1.68. These sayings of Gamaliel did not much please Caiaphas; and holding him in suspicion, as it seemed, he began to insinuate himself cunningly into the discussions: for, smiling at what Gamaliel had said, the chief of the priests asked of James, the chief of the bishops, that the discourse concerning Christ should not be drawn but from the Scriptures; 'that we may know,' said he, 'whether Jesus be the very Christ or no.' Then said James, 'We must first inquire from what Scriptures we are especially to derive our discussion.' Then he, with difficulty, at length overcome by reason, answered, that it must be derived from the law; and afterwards he made mention also of the prophets. 1.69. To him our James began to show, that whatsoever things the prophets say they have taken from the law, and what they have spoken is in accordance with the law. He also made some statements respecting the books of the Kings, in what way, and when, and by whom they were written, and how they ought to be used. And when he had discussed most fully concerning the law, and had, by a most clear exposition, brought into light whatever things are in it concerning Christ, he showed by most abundant proofs that Jesus is the Christ, and that in Him are fulfilled all the prophecies which related to His humble advent. For he showed that two advents of Him are foretold: one in humiliation, which He has accomplished; the other in glory, which is hoped for to be accomplished, when He shall come to give the kingdom to those who believe in Him, and who observe all things which He has commanded. And when he had plainly taught the people concerning these things, he added this also: That unless a man be baptized in water, in the name of the threefold blessedness, as the true Prophet taught, he can neither receive remission of sins nor enter into the kingdom of heaven; and he declared that this is the prescription of the unbegotten God. To which he added this also: 'Do not think that we speak of two unbegotten Gods, or that one is divided into two, or that the same is made male and female. But we speak of the only-begotten Son of God, not sprung from another source, but ineffably self-originated; and in like manner we speak of the Paraclete.' But when he had spoken some things also concerning baptism, through seven successive days he persuaded all the people and the high priest that they should hasten straightway to receive baptism. 1.70. And when matters were at that point that they should come and be baptized, some one of our enemies, entering the temple with a few men, began to cry out, and to say, 'What mean ye, O men of Israel? Why are you so easily hurried on? Why are you led headlong by most miserable men, who are deceived by Simon, a magician.' While he was thus speaking, and adding more to the same effect, and while James the bishop was refuting him, he began to excite the people and to raise a tumult, so that the people might not be able to hear what was said. Therefore he began to drive all into confusion with shouting, and to undo what had been arranged with much labour, and at the same time to reproach the priests, and to enrage them with revilings and abuse, and, like a madman, to excite every one to murder, saying, 'What are you doing? Why do you hesitate? Oh sluggish and inert, why do we not lay hands upon them, and pull all these fellows to pieces?' When he had said this, he first, seizing a strong brand from the altar, set the example of smiting. Then others also, seeing him, were carried away with like readiness. Then ensued a tumult on either side, of the beating and the beaten. Much blood is shed; there is a confused flight, in the midst of which that enemy attacked James, and threw him headlong from the top of the steps; and supposing him to be dead, he cared not to inflict further violence upon him. 1.71. But our friends lifted him up, for they were both more numerous and more powerful than the others; but, from their fear of God, they rather suffered themselves to be killed by an inferior force, than they would kill others. But when the evening came the priests shut up the temple, and we returned to the house of James, and spent the night there in prayer. Then before daylight we went down to Jericho, to the number of 5000 men. Then after three days one of the brethren came to us from Gamaliel, whom we mentioned before, bringing to us secret tidings that that enemy had received a commission from Caiaphas, the chief priest, that he should arrest all who believed in Jesus, and should go to Damascus with his letters, and that there also, employing the help of the unbelievers, he should make havoc among the faithful; and that he was hastening to Damascus chiefly on this account, because he believed that Peter had fled there. And about thirty days thereafter he stopped on his way while passing through Jericho going to Damascus. At that time we were absent, having gone out to the sepulchres of two brethren which were whitened of themselves every year, by which miracle the fury of many against us was restrained, because they saw that our brethren were had in remembrance before God.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abel Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 150
abraham, as model of trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 77
abraham, descent from Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 181
abraham, gods promise to Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 55, 56
abraham, sons of abraham Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 218
abraham, trust of Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 54, 55, 56, 77
abraham DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 43; Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 13; Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 133; Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 150; Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 79; Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 235; Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 87, 90; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 363
abram Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 133
adam, in history of salvation Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 13
ancient near east v Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 8
angel DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 43
angels Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130
antioch Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 90
antitheses (marcion) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
apocalyptic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 218
apostolikon, marcions Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 235
architecture Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 11
authority, interpretive strategies Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130
authority Papaioannou et al., Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 172; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou, Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 172
avengement/vengeance/vindication/wrath (gods) Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 218
baptism Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 400
basser, herbert w., beneath vs. above Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 181
believer Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 400
biblical Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223
body, views of Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 56
body Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 11
borders v Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 8, 11
boundary Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 8, 11, 363
boundary marker Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 8, 11
bread of life discourse Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 181
cause Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 140
cephas (peter) Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 90
chaldean DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 43
children, of abraham Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 181
children Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 400
church, as one body in christ deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 147
church Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 240
circumcise/circumcision Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 150
circumcision Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 11, 363
city Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 11, 21
clothing Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 400
colossians Papaioannou et al., Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 178; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou, Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 178
compassion, conversion, significance of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 147
conceptual Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 140
construal, cause construal Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 140
construal Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 140
construction, ἐκ-construction with πίστις Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 140
control Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 140
corinth Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 87
cosmos Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 363
covenant Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 150
covenant and creation, as socio-legal instrument Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 54
covenant and creation, relation to pistis Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 54, 55, 56
creation Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 8
crucifixion, jesus death Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 218
culture v Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 8
cyril of alexandria, on jewish practice Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 181
cyril of alexandria, organization of commentary by Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 181
cyril of alexandria, pauline influence of Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 181
cyril of alexandria Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 181
dead sea scrolls vii Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 218
death Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 21
delimitation v Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 8
demon / daimon DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 43
dia διά Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 140
diateichismata Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 11
dunn, james d. g. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 126, 127
egypt / egyptian / aegyptium DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 43
ek ἐκ, cause Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 140
ek ἐκ, with pistis Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 140
ek ἐκ Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 140
elchasaites Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
en ἐν Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 140
eschatological community/ies Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 218
eschatology, eschatological, belonging to the end-of-days, messianic age Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 218
eschatology Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 56
evil DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 43
exemplars of trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 77
experience/experiential Jeong, Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation (2023) 229
eyes Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 400
faith, faithfulness Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223
faith, pistis Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 87
faith/belief Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 150
faith Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 400; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 363
faithfulness, of god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 55, 56
father, fatherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 240
feeling Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 400
fence Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 11
flesh, jesus offering Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 181
force, evil Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 8
fortification Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 11
furnish, victor paul Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 126
galatians, letter to the Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 87, 90
gate, magnesian Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 21
gentiles, covenant with god Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 90
gentiles, gentile, nations Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 218, 223
gentiles, judaism, interest in Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 90
gentiles Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 400; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 8
glory, hope of Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 54, 55
gnostics and gnosticism, hermeneutics of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
gnostics and gnosticism, secret or oral tradition, belief in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
gnostics and gnosticism Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
god, purposes of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 147
gospel of john, and nicene theology, harmonizing Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 181
grace Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 55
hahn, scott w. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 127
haran Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 133
heavenly visions Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 218
hermeneutics. see interpretation, hidden Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 181
history, as christian history Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 79
history, of israel Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 79
history, rewritten by christians Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 79
identity Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 400
image Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 400
image vi Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 11
imagery Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 400
interpretation Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130
ishmael Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 79
israel, used of christians Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 79
israel Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 400; deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 147
japheth Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 150
jerusalem Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 8, 11
jerusalem community, church Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223
jesus, disciples, early followers, messianic movement Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223
jesus, failure of his messianic enterprise vii Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 218, 223
jesus Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 218
jesus return Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 218
jew Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 8, 363
jewish other, ritual Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223
jews, jewry, jewish, jewish matrix, jewish setting, anti-jewish, non-jewish Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223
jews (jewish people), as cyrils audience Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 181
jews and gentiles, reconciliation of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 147
judaism, gentile interest in Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 90
kingdom of god/heaven, sons of the kingdom Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 218
land of israel Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223
landmark, cause landmark Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 140
landmark Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 140
law, israels Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 400
law, paul on Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 181
law Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 150; Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130; Papaioannou et al., Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 178; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou, Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 178
limit Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 8
literalism, judaism and Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 181
love Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 54
luke, gospel of, as pauline gospel Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
lundbom, jack r. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 126
magic / magia DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 43
mani and manichaeans Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
marcion and marcionites, antitheses (marcion) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
marcion and marcionites, canon of new testament and Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
marcion and marcionites, hermeneutics of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
mcknight, scot Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 126, 127
mediator, of the covenant Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 56
mediator DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 43
melchizedek Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 150
mesopotamia Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 8
mesotoichon Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 11
messianic redemption/salvation, triumph Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 218
metzger, bruce m. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 127
midrash, midrashic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223
mimesis, negative Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 181
mimesis Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 400
miracles DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 43
monolatry DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 43
moses, as paradigm of trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 54
moses DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 43; Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 150; Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130
moses and mosaic law Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 13
movement Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 8
murphy-oconnor, jerome Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 127
mystery, mysterious, heavenly secrets vii Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 218
nan, action Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 400
nan, aesthetic Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 400
nan, argumentation Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 400
nan, audience Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 400
new covenant, and old covenant Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 126
new creation Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 56
new testament Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 150
nicene theology, and scripture Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 181
nicene theology, cyril defending Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 181
noah Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 150
non-jew Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 363
origin , with ἐκ and ἀπό Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 140
orthodoxy, in scripture Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 181
orthodoxy Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 181
parable Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 11
particularism' Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 163
partitive, partitive construal Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 140
pastoral epistles Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 235
paul, apostle, gospel Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 87
paul, apostle, travels Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 87
paul, attitude of to the law Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 163
paul, biography of Pierce et al., Gospel Reading and Reception in Early Christian Literature (2022) 31
paul, in cyril Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 181
paul, law in Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 181
paul, pauline Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 218, 223
pauline epistles, luke as pauline gospel Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
pauline epistles, marcion's collection" Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
pauline letter corpus Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 235
peace Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 11; deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 147
perfectionism Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130
peter (cephas) Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 90
philosophy, christianity treated by gnostics as Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
pictures Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 400
pistis, faith Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 87
pistis iēsou Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 55
pneuma (spirit) in paul, and baptism Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 68
pneuma (spirit) in paul, and faith Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 68
pneuma (spirit) in paul, and sonship Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 68
pneuma (spirit) in paul, as a material phenomenon in paul Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 68
pneuma (spirit) in paul, when received? Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 68
porter, stanley e. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 127
priest/priesthood Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 150
promise Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 400
promises of god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 54, 55, 56, 77
prophet, prophecy, prophetic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223
proselyte/proselytism Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 150
purity, putting on Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 400
qumran covenanters Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 218
reconciliation, ethnic deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 147
redemption, salvation Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223
reliance, on god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 54
revelation, angelic Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130
rhetography Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 400
righteous/ness Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 150
risk, relation to divine-human trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 77
roads, travel Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 90
roman, rome Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223
ross, william a. Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 140
sack / invasion of rome DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 43
sacrifice DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 43
salvation, and life Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 13
salvation, and moses, abraham, and adam Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 13
salvation, as descent from abraham Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 181
salvation, history of Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 13
sanctuary Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 11
sanders, e. p. Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 163
scriptures, jewish, as source of new testament ideas about pistis Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 77
second temple period, jewry, tradition Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223
sectarian, non-sectarian Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 218
semantic role Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 140
sensory-aesthetic te Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 400
sensory Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 400
septuagint/lxx Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 150
shem Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 150
sinai, tradition Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130
sociorhetorical interpretation Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 400
sons of darkness, sons of the evil one Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 218
sons of light Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 218
space v Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 8, 11
supersessionism, surpassed, of covenant and law Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 54, 55, 56
synoptic gospels, tradition, pre-synoptic v-vi Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 218
temple Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 133
temple v Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 11
time Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 400
torah Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 150; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223
touch Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 400
traditions or schools of exegesis, valentinus and valentinian school Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
trajector Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 140
transgression Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 8
travel, roman empire Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 90
valentinus and valentinian school Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
visual Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 400
wall, dividing Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 11
wall, middle Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 11
wall Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 11
walls, of the city Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 11
wisdom DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 43