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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8250
New Testament, Galatians, 2.6-2.10


μόνον τῶν πτωχῶν ἵνα μνημονεύωμεν, ὃ καὶ ἐσπούδασα αὐτὸ τοῦτο ποιῆσαι.They only askedus to remember the poor -- which very thing I was also zealous to do.


ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν δοκούντων εἶναί τι — ὁποῖοί ποτε ἦσαν οὐδέν μοι διαφέρει — πρόσωπον [ὁ] θεὸς ἀνθρώπου οὐ λαμβάνει — ἐμοὶ γὰρ οἱ δοκοῦντες οὐδὲν προσανέθεντοBut from those who were reputed to beimportant (whatever they were, it makes no difference to me; Goddoesn't show partiality to man) -- they, I say, who were respectedimparted nothing to me


ἀλλὰ τοὐναντίον ἰδόντες ὅτι πεπίστευμαι τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς ἀκροβυστίας καθὼς Πέτρος τῆς περιτομῆςbut to the contrary, when they saw that Ihad been entrusted with the gospel for the uncircumcision, even asPeter with the gospel for the circumcision


ὁ γὰρ ἐνεργήσας Πέτρῳ εἰς ἀποστολὴν τῆς περιτομῆς ἐνήργησεν καὶ ἐμοὶ εἰς τὰ ἔθνη(for he who appointedPeter to the apostleship of the circumcision appointed me also to theGentiles);


καὶ γνόντες τὴν χάριν τὴν δοθεῖσάν μοι, Ἰάκωβος καὶ Κηφᾶς καὶ Ἰωάνης, οἱ δοκοῦντες στύλοι εἶναι, δεξιὰς ἔδωκαν ἐμοὶ καὶ Βαρνάβᾳ κοινωνίας, ἵνα ἡμεῖς εἰς τὰ ἔθνη, αὐτοὶ δὲ εἰς τὴν περιτομήν·and when they perceived the grace that was given tome, James and Cephas and John, they who were reputed to be pillars,gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, that we should goto the Gentiles, and they to the circumcision.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

57 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 24.19, 30.14, 32.42 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.19. כִּי תִקְצֹר קְצִירְךָ בְשָׂדֶךָ וְשָׁכַחְתָּ עֹמֶר בַּשָּׂדֶה לֹא תָשׁוּב לְקַחְתּוֹ לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה יִהְיֶה לְמַעַן יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכֹל מַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיךָ׃ 30.14. כִּי־קָרוֹב אֵלֶיךָ הַדָּבָר מְאֹד בְּפִיךָ וּבִלְבָבְךָ לַעֲשֹׂתוֹ׃ 32.42. אַשְׁכִּיר חִצַּי מִדָּם וְחַרְבִּי תֹּאכַל בָּשָׂר מִדַּם חָלָל וְשִׁבְיָה מֵרֹאשׁ פַּרְעוֹת אוֹיֵב׃ 24.19. When thou reapest thy harvest in thy field, and hast forgot a sheaf in the field, thou shalt not go back to fetch it; it shall be for the stranger, for the fatherless, and for the widow; that the LORD thy God may bless thee in all the work of thy hands." 30.14. But the word is very nigh unto thee, in thy mouth, and in thy heart, that thou mayest do it." 32.42. I will make Mine arrows drunk with blood, And My sword shall devour flesh; With the blood of the slain and the captives, From the long-haired heads of the enemy.’"
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 33.19, 39.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

33.19. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲנִי אַעֲבִיר כָּל־טוּבִי עַל־פָּנֶיךָ וְקָרָאתִי בְשֵׁם יְהוָה לְפָנֶיךָ וְחַנֹּתִי אֶת־אֲשֶׁר אָחֹן וְרִחַמְתִּי אֶת־אֲשֶׁר אֲרַחֵם׃ 39.27. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ אֶת־הַכָּתְנֹת שֵׁשׁ מַעֲשֵׂה אֹרֵג לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו׃ 33.19. And He said: ‘I will make all My goodness pass before thee, and will proclaim the name of the LORD before thee; and I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will show mercy on whom I will show mercy.’" 39.27. And they made the tunics of fine linen of woven work for Aaron, and for his sons,"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 9.1-9.7, 11.5-11.6, 17.7, 17.9-17.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.1. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־נֹחַ וְאֶת־בָּנָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.1. וְאֵת כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר אִתְּכֶם בָּעוֹף בַּבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ אִתְּכֶם מִכֹּל יֹצְאֵי הַתֵּבָה לְכֹל חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.2. וַיָּחֶל נֹחַ אִישׁ הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּטַּע כָּרֶם׃ 9.2. וּמוֹרַאֲכֶם וְחִתְּכֶם יִהְיֶה עַל כָּל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וְעַל כָּל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמָיִם בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר תִּרְמֹשׂ הָאֲדָמָה וּבְכָל־דְּגֵי הַיָּם בְּיֶדְכֶם נִתָּנוּ׃ 9.3. כָּל־רֶמֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר הוּא־חַי לָכֶם יִהְיֶה לְאָכְלָה כְּיֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב נָתַתִּי לָכֶם אֶת־כֹּל׃ 9.4. אַךְ־בָּשָׂר בְּנַפְשׁוֹ דָמוֹ לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ׃ 9.5. וְאַךְ אֶת־דִּמְכֶם לְנַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם אֶדְרֹשׁ מִיַּד כָּל־חַיָּה אֶדְרְשֶׁנּוּ וּמִיַּד הָאָדָם מִיַּד אִישׁ אָחִיו אֶדְרֹשׁ אֶת־נֶפֶשׁ הָאָדָם׃ 9.6. שֹׁפֵךְ דַּם הָאָדָם בָּאָדָם דָּמוֹ יִשָּׁפֵךְ כִּי בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם׃ 9.7. וְאַתֶּם פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ שִׁרְצוּ בָאָרֶץ וּרְבוּ־בָהּ׃ 11.5. וַיֵּרֶד יְהוָה לִרְאֹת אֶת־הָעִיר וְאֶת־הַמִּגְדָּל אֲשֶׁר בָּנוּ בְּנֵי הָאָדָם׃ 11.6. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה הֵן עַם אֶחָד וְשָׂפָה אַחַת לְכֻלָּם וְזֶה הַחִלָּם לַעֲשׂוֹת וְעַתָּה לֹא־יִבָּצֵר מֵהֶם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר יָזְמוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת׃ 17.7. וַהֲקִמֹתִי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי בֵּינִי וּבֵינֶךָ וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ לְדֹרֹתָם לִבְרִית עוֹלָם לִהְיוֹת לְךָ לֵאלֹהִים וּלְזַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ׃ 17.9. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־אַבְרָהָם וְאַתָּה אֶת־בְּרִיתִי תִשְׁמֹר אַתָּה וְזַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ לְדֹרֹתָם׃ 17.11. וּנְמַלְתֶּם אֵת בְּשַׂר עָרְלַתְכֶם וְהָיָה לְאוֹת בְּרִית בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם׃ 17.12. וּבֶן־שְׁמֹנַת יָמִים יִמּוֹל לָכֶם כָּל־זָכָר לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם יְלִיד בָּיִת וּמִקְנַת־כֶּסֶף מִכֹּל בֶּן־נֵכָר אֲשֶׁר לֹא מִזַּרְעֲךָ הוּא׃ 17.13. הִמּוֹל יִמּוֹל יְלִיד בֵּיתְךָ וּמִקְנַת כַּסְפֶּךָ וְהָיְתָה בְרִיתִי בִּבְשַׂרְכֶם לִבְרִית עוֹלָם׃ 17.14. וְעָרֵל זָכָר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִמּוֹל אֶת־בְּשַׂר עָרְלָתוֹ וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי הֵפַר׃ 9.1. And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them: ‘Be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth." 9.2. And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, and upon all wherewith the ground teemeth, and upon all the fishes of the sea: into your hand are they delivered." 9.3. Every moving thing that liveth shall be for food for you; as the green herb have I given you all." 9.4. Only flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall ye not eat." 9.5. And surely your blood of your lives will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it; and at the hand of man, even at the hand of every man’s brother, will I require the life of man." 9.6. Whoso sheddeth man’s blood, by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God made He man." 9.7. And you, be ye fruitful, and multiply; swarm in the earth, and multiply therein.’ ." 11.5. And the LORD came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of men builded." 11.6. And the LORD said: ‘Behold, they are one people, and they have all one language; and this is what they begin to do; and now nothing will be withholden from them, which they purpose to do." 17.7. And I will establish My covet between Me and thee and thy seed after thee throughout their generations for an everlasting covet, to be a God unto thee and to thy seed after thee." 17.9. And God said unto Abraham: ‘And as for thee, thou shalt keep My covet, thou, and thy seed after thee throughout their generations." 17.10. This is My covet, which ye shall keep, between Me and you and thy seed after thee: every male among you shall be circumcised." 17.11. And ye shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token of a covet betwixt Me and you." 17.12. And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every male throughout your generations, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any foreigner, that is not of thy seed." 17.13. He that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised; and My covet shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covet." 17.14. And the uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his people; he hath broken My covet.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 16.4, 21.1-21.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.4. כְּתֹנֶת־בַּד קֹדֶשׁ יִלְבָּשׁ וּמִכְנְסֵי־בַד יִהְיוּ עַל־בְּשָׂרוֹ וּבְאַבְנֵט בַּד יַחְגֹּר וּבְמִצְנֶפֶת בַּד יִצְנֹף בִּגְדֵי־קֹדֶשׁ הֵם וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם אֶת־בְּשָׂרוֹ וּלְבֵשָׁם׃ 21.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֱמֹר אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם לְנֶפֶשׁ לֹא־יִטַּמָּא בְּעַמָּיו׃ 21.1. וְהַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל מֵאֶחָיו אֲ‍שֶׁר־יוּצַק עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ שֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה וּמִלֵּא אֶת־יָדוֹ לִלְבֹּשׁ אֶת־הַבְּגָדִים אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ לֹא יִפְרָע וּבְגָדָיו לֹא יִפְרֹם׃ 21.2. כִּי אִם־לִשְׁאֵרוֹ הַקָּרֹב אֵלָיו לְאִמּוֹ וּלְאָבִיו וְלִבְנוֹ וּלְבִתּוֹ וּלְאָחִיו׃ 21.2. אוֹ־גִבֵּן אוֹ־דַק אוֹ תְּבַלֻּל בְּעֵינוֹ אוֹ גָרָב אוֹ יַלֶּפֶת אוֹ מְרוֹחַ אָשֶׁךְ׃ 21.3. וְלַאֲחֹתוֹ הַבְּתוּלָה הַקְּרוֹבָה אֵלָיו אֲשֶׁר לֹא־הָיְתָה לְאִישׁ לָהּ יִטַּמָּא׃ 21.4. לֹא יִטַּמָּא בַּעַל בְּעַמָּיו לְהֵחַלּוֹ׃ 16.4. He shall put on the holy linen tunic, and he shall have the linen breeches upon his flesh, and shall be girded with the linen girdle, and with the linen mitre shall he be attired; they are the holy garments; and he shall bathe his flesh in water, and put them on." 21.1. And the LORD said unto Moses: Speak unto the priests the sons of Aaron, and say unto them: There shall none defile himself for the dead among his people;" 21.2. except for his kin, that is near unto him, for his mother, and for his father, and for his son, and for his daughter, and for his brother;" 21.3. and for his sister a virgin, that is near unto him, that hath had no husband, for her may he defile himself." 21.4. He shall not defile himself, being a chief man among his people, to profane himself."
5. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.3, 60.5, 61.6, 66.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.3. וְקָרָא זֶה אֶל־זֶה וְאָמַר קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת מְלֹא כָל־הָאָרֶץ כְּבוֹדוֹ׃ 60.5. אָז תִּרְאִי וְנָהַרְתְּ וּפָחַד וְרָחַב לְבָבֵךְ כִּי־יֵהָפֵךְ עָלַיִךְ הֲמוֹן יָם חֵיל גּוֹיִם יָבֹאוּ לָךְ׃ 61.6. וְאַתֶּם כֹּהֲנֵי יְהוָה תִּקָּרֵאוּ מְשָׁרְתֵי אֱלֹהֵינוּ יֵאָמֵר לָכֶם חֵיל גּוֹיִם תֹּאכֵלוּ וּבִכְבוֹדָם תִּתְיַמָּרוּ׃ 66.12. כִּי־כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה הִנְנִי נֹטֶה־אֵלֶיהָ כְּנָהָר שָׁלוֹם וּכְנַחַל שׁוֹטֵף כְּבוֹד גּוֹיִם וִינַקְתֶּם עַל־צַד תִּנָּשֵׂאוּ וְעַל־בִּרְכַּיִם תְּשָׁעֳשָׁעוּ׃ 6.3. And one called unto another, and said: Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts; The whole earth is full of His glory." 60.5. Then thou shalt see and be radiant, And thy heart shall throb and be enlarged; Because the abundance of the sea shall be turned unto thee, The wealth of the nations shall come unto thee." 61.6. But ye shall be named the priests of the LORD, Men shall call you the ministers of our God; Ye shall eat the wealth of the nations, And in their splendour shall ye revel." 66.12. For thus saith the LORD: Behold, I will extend peace to her like a river. And the wealth of the nations like an overflowing stream, and ye shall suck thereof: Ye shall be borne upon the side, and shall be dandled upon the knees."
6. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 3.12, 44.17-44.18 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.12. וַתִּשָּׂאֵנִי רוּחַ וָאֶשְׁמַע אַחֲרַי קוֹל רַעַשׁ גָּדוֹל בָּרוּךְ כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה מִמְּקוֹמוֹ׃ 44.17. וְהָיָה בְּבוֹאָם אֶל־שַׁעֲרֵי הֶחָצֵר הַפְּנִימִית בִּגְדֵי פִשְׁתִּים יִלְבָּשׁוּ וְלֹא־יַעֲלֶה עֲלֵיהֶם צֶמֶר בְּשָׁרְתָם בְּשַׁעֲרֵי הֶחָצֵר הַפְּנִימִית וָבָיְתָה׃ 44.18. פַּאֲרֵי פִשְׁתִּים יִהְיוּ עַל־רֹאשָׁם וּמִכְנְסֵי פִשְׁתִּים יִהְיוּ עַל־מָתְנֵיהֶם לֹא יַחְגְּרוּ בַּיָּזַע׃ 3.12. Then a spirit lifted me up, and I heard behind me the voice of a great rushing: ‘Blessed be the glory of the LORD from His place’;" 44.17. And it shall be that when they enter in at the gates of the inner court, they shall be clothed with linen garments; and no wool shall come upon them, while they minister in the gates of the inner court, and within." 44.18. They shall have linen tires upon their heads, and shall have linen breeches upon their loins; they shall not gird themselves with any thing that causeth sweat."
7. Plato, Apology of Socrates, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

21b. But see why I say these things; for I am going to tell you whence the prejudice against me has arisen. For when I heard this, I thought to myself: What in the world does the god mean, and what riddle is he propounding? For I am conscious that I am not wise either much or little. What then does he mean by declaring that I am the wisest? He certainly cannot be lying, for that is not possible for him. And for a long time I was at a loss as to what he meant; then with great reluctance I proceeded to investigate him somewhat as follows.I went to one of those who had a reputation for wisdom
8. Xenophon, Memoirs, 4.4.3 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

4.4.3. And when the Thirty laid a command on him that was illegal, he refused to obey. Thus he disregarded their repeated injunction not to talk with young men; and when they commanded him and certain other citizens to arrest a man on a capital charge, he alone refused, because the command laid on him was illegal. Alluding to the famous case of Leon.
9. Anon., 1 Enoch, 91.14 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10. Anon., Psalms of Solomon, 17.21, 17.24, 17.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

11. Dead Sea Scrolls, Pesher On Habakkuk, 12.3-12.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 11.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 8.1-8.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.15, 1.48, 1.60, 2.46 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.15. and removed the marks of circumcision, and abandoned the holy covet. They joined with the Gentiles and sold themselves to do evil. 1.48. and to leave their sons uncircumcised. They were to make themselves abominable by everything unclean and profane 1.60. According to the decree, they put to death the women who had their children circumcised 2.46. they forcibly circumcised all the uncircumcised boys that they found within the borders of Israel.
15. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 6.9-6.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.9. and should slay those who did not choose to change over to Greek customs. One could see, therefore, the misery that had come upon them.' 6.10. For example, two women were brought in for having circumcised their children. These women they publicly paraded about the city, with their babies hung at their breasts, then hurled them down headlong from the wall.'
16. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 17.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

17. Dionysius of Halycarnassus, On Thucydides, 29 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

18. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 86-87, 85 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

85. In the first place, then, there is no one who has a house so absolutely his own private property, that it does not in some sense also belong to every one: for besides that they all dwell together in companies, the house is open to all those of the same notions, who come to them from other quarters;
19. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 1.8, 4.9, 16.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.9. But though I would fain write many things, not as a teacher, but as becometh one who loveth you not to fall short of that which we possess, I was anxious to write to you, being your devoted slave. Wherefore let us take heed in these last days. For the whole time of our faith shall profit us nothing, unless we now, in the season of lawlessness and in the offenses that shall be, as becometh sons of God, offer resistance, that the Black One may not effect an entrance. 16.7. I find then that there is a temple, How then shall it be built in the name of the Lord? Understand ye. Before we believed on God, the abode of our heart was corrupt and weak, a temple truly built by hands; for it was full of idolatry and was a house of demons, because we did whatsoever was contrary to God.
20. Anon., Didache, 11.4, 12.1-12.2, 13.1-13.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. Whosoever, therefore, comes and teaches you all these things that have been said before, receive him. But if the teacher himself turn and teach another doctrine to the destruction of this, hear him not; but if he teach so as to increase righteousness and the knowledge of the Lord, receive him as the Lord. But concerning the apostles and prophets, according to the decree of the Gospel, thus do. Let every apostle that comes to you be received as the Lord. But he shall not remain except one day; but if there be need, also the next; but if he remain three days, he is a false prophet. And when the apostle goes away, let him take nothing but bread until he lodges; but if he ask money, he is a false prophet. And every prophet that speaks in the Spirit you shall neither try nor judge; for every sin shall be forgiven, but this sin shall not be forgiven. But not every one that speaks in the Spirit is a prophet; but only if he hold the ways of the Lord. Therefore from their ways shall the false prophet and the prophet be known. And every prophet who orders a meal in the Spirit eats not from it, except indeed he be a false prophet; and every prophet who teaches the truth, if he do not what he teaches, is a false prophet. And every prophet, proved true, working unto the mystery of the Church in the world, yet not teaching others to do what he himself does, shall not be judged among you, for with God he has his judgment; for so did also the ancient prophets. But whoever says in the Spirit, Give me money, or something else, you shall not listen to him; but if he says to you to give for others' sake who are in need, let no one judge him.
21. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 12.15 (1st cent. CE

12.15.  But notwithstanding, I declare to that, great as is your number, you have been eager to hear a man who is neither handsome in appearance nor strong, and in age is already past his prime, one who has no disciple, who professes, I may almost say, no art or special knowledge either of the nobler or of the meaner sort, no ability either as a prophet or a sophist, nay, not even as an orator or a flatterer, one who is not even a clever writer, who does not even have a craft deserving of praise or of interest, but who simply — wears his hair long! But if you think it a better and wiser course
22. Epictetus, Discourses, 4.1.1, 4.1.110, 4.7.17 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

23. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.192, 12.241, 13.63, 13.73, 13.257-13.258, 13.318, 16.171, 20.101, 20.216-20.218 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.192. But he charged him, in order to keep his posterity unmixed with others, that they should be circumcised in the flesh of their foreskin, and that this should be done on the eighth day after they were born: the reason of which circumcision I will explain in another place. 12.241. Wherefore they desired his permission to build them a Gymnasium at Jerusalem. And when he had given them leave, they also hid the circumcision of their genitals, that even when they were naked they might appear to be Greeks. Accordingly, they left off all the customs that belonged to their own country, and imitated the practices of the other nations. 13.63. out of a desire to purchase to himself a memorial and eternal fame he resolved to send to king Ptolemy and queen Cleopatra, to ask leave of them that he might build a temple in Egypt like to that at Jerusalem, and might ordain Levites and priests out of their own stock. 13.73. However, Onias found other Jews like to himself, together with priests and Levites, that there performed divine service. But we have said enough about this temple. 13.257. Hyrcanus took also Dora and Marissa, cities of Idumea, and subdued all the Idumeans; and permitted them to stay in that country, if they would circumcise their genitals, and make use of the laws of the Jews; 13.258. and they were so desirous of living in the country of their forefathers, that they submitted to the use of circumcision, and of the rest of the Jewish ways of living; at which time therefore this befell them, that they were hereafter no other than Jews. 13.318. He was called a lover of the Grecians; and had conferred many benefits on his own country, and made war against Iturea, and added a great part of it to Judea, and compelled the inhabitants, if they would continue in that country, to be circumcised, and to live according to the Jewish laws. 16.171. 6. “Caius Norbanus Flaccus, proconsul, to the magistrates of the Sardians, sendeth greeting. Caesar hath written to me, and commanded me not to forbid the Jews, how many soever they be, from assembling together according to the custom of their forefathers, nor from sending their money to Jerusalem. I have therefore written to you, that you may know that both Caesar and I would have you act accordingly.” 20.101. Under these procurators that great famine happened in Judea, in which queen Helena bought corn in Egypt at a great expense, and distributed it to those that were in want, as I have related already. 20.216. 6. Now as many of the Levites, which is a tribe of ours, as were singers of hymns, persuaded the king to assemble a sanhedrim, and to give them leave to wear linen garments, as well as the priests for they said that this would be a work worthy the times of his government, that he might have a memorial of such a novelty, as being his doing. 20.217. Nor did they fail of obtaining their desire; for the king, with the suffrages of those that came into the sanhedrim, granted the singers of hymns this privilege, that they might lay aside their former garments, and wear such a linen one as they desired; 20.218. and as a part of this tribe ministered in the temple, he also permitted them to learn those hymns as they had besought him for. Now all this was contrary to the laws of our country, which, whenever they have been transgressed, we have never been able to avoid the punishment of such transgressions.
24. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.122, 2.124-2.127, 7.218 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.122. 3. These men are despisers of riches, and so very communicative as raises our admiration. Nor is there anyone to be found among them who hath more than another; for it is a law among them, that those who come to them must let what they have be common to the whole order,—insomuch that among them all there is no appearance of poverty, or excess of riches, but every one’s possessions are intermingled with every other’s possessions; and so there is, as it were, one patrimony among all the brethren. 2.124. 4. They have no one certain city, but many of them dwell in every city; and if any of their sect come from other places, what they have lies open for them, just as if it were their own; and they go in to such as they never knew before, as if they had been ever so long acquainted with them. 2.125. For which reason they carry nothing at all with them when they travel into remote parts, though still they take their weapons with them, for fear of thieves. Accordingly, there is, in every city where they live, one appointed particularly to take care of strangers, and to provide garments and other necessaries for them. 2.126. But the habit and management of their bodies is such as children use who are in fear of their masters. Nor do they allow of the change of garments, or of shoes, till they be first entirely torn to pieces or worn out by time. 2.127. Nor do they either buy or sell anything to one another; but every one of them gives what he hath to him that wanteth it, and receives from him again in lieu of it what may be convenient for himself; and although there be no requital made, they are fully allowed to take what they want of whomsoever they please. 7.218. He also laid a tribute upon the Jews wheresoever they were, and enjoined every one of them to bring two drachmae every year into the Capitol, as they used to pay the same to the temple at Jerusalem. And this was the state of the Jewish affairs at this time.
25. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.50-1.52 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.51. for to them I presented those books first of all, and after them to many of the Romans who had been in the war. I also sold them to many of our own men who understood the Greek philosophy; among whom were Julius Archelaus, Herod [king of Chalcis], a person of great gravity, and king Agrippa himself, a person that deserved the greatest admiration. 1.52. Now all these men bore their testimony to me, that I had the strictest regard to truth; who yet would not have dissembled the matter, nor been silent, if I, out of ignorance or out of favor to any side, either had given false colors to actions, or omitted any of them. /p
26. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.5. How did they admonish witnesses in capital cases? They brought them in and admonished them, [saying], “Perhaps you will say something that is only a supposition or hearsay or secondhand, or even from a trustworthy man. Or perhaps you do not know that we shall check you with examination and inquiry? Know, moreover, that capital cases are not like non-capital cases: in non-capital cases a man may pay money and so make atonement, but in capital cases the witness is answerable for the blood of him [that is wrongfully condemned] and the blood of his descendants [that should have been born to him] to the end of the world.” For so have we found it with Cain that murdered his brother, for it says, “The bloods of your brother cry out” (Gen. 4:10). It doesn’t say, “The blood of your brother”, but rather “The bloods of your brother” meaning his blood and the blood of his descendants. Another saying is, “The bloods of your brother” that his blood was cast over trees and stones. Therefore but a single person was created in the world, to teach that if any man has caused a single life to perish from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had caused a whole world to perish; and anyone who saves a single soul from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had saved a whole world. Again [but a single person was created] for the sake of peace among humankind, that one should not say to another, “My father was greater than your father”. Again, [but a single person was created] against the heretics so they should not say, “There are many ruling powers in heaven”. Again [but a single person was created] to proclaim the greatness of the Holy Blessed One; for humans stamp many coins with one seal and they are all like one another; but the King of kings, the Holy Blessed One, has stamped every human with the seal of the first man, yet not one of them are like another. Therefore everyone must say, “For my sake was the world created.” And if perhaps you [witnesses] would say, “Why should we be involved with this trouble”, was it not said, “He, being a witness, whether he has seen or known, [if he does not speak it, then he shall bear his iniquity] (Lev. 5:1). And if perhaps you [witnesses] would say, “Why should we be guilty of the blood of this man?, was it not said, “When the wicked perish there is rejoicing” (Proverbs 11:10).]"
27. Mishnah, Yoma, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.4. They spread out a linen sheet between him and the people. He stripped off [his clothes], went down and immersed himself, came up and dried himself. They brought him the golden garments, he put them on and sanctified his hands and feet. They brought him the tamid. He made the required cut and some one else finished it for him. He received the blood and sprinkled it. He went inside to smoke the morning incense and to trim the lamps; And to offer up the head and the limbs and the griddle cakes and the wine."
28. New Testament, 1 John, 3.23, 5.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.23. This is his commandment, that we should believe in the name of his Son, Jesus Christ, and love one another, even as he commanded. 5.13. These things I have written to you who believe in the name of the Son of God, that you may know that you have eternal life, and that you may continue to believe in the name of the Son of God.
29. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 2.1-2.5, 5.1-5.13, 6.12-6.20, 7.1-7.40, 8.1, 8.7, 9.2-9.7, 9.11, 9.14, 9.19-9.27, 11.2-11.25, 12.3, 12.13, 15.3-15.8, 15.50, 16.1-16.5, 16.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. When I came to you, brothers, I didn't come with excellence ofspeech or of wisdom, proclaiming to you the testimony of God. 2.2. ForI determined not to know anything among you, except Jesus Christ, andhim crucified. 2.3. I was with you in weakness, in fear, and in muchtrembling. 2.4. My speech and my preaching were not in persuasivewords of human wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power 2.5. that your faith wouldn't stand in the wisdom of men, but in thepower of God. 5.1. It is actually reported that there is sexual immorality amongyou, and such sexual immorality as is not even named among theGentiles, that one has his father's wife. 5.2. You are puffed up, anddidn't rather mourn, that he who had done this deed might be removedfrom among you. 5.3. For I most assuredly, as being absent in body butpresent in spirit, have already, as though I were present, judged himwho has done this thing. 5.4. In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ,you being gathered together, and my spirit, with the power of our LordJesus Christ 5.5. are to deliver such a one to Satan for thedestruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day ofthe Lord Jesus. 5.6. Your boasting is not good. Don't you know that a little yeastleavens the whole lump? 5.7. Purge out the old yeast, that you may bea new lump, even as you are unleavened. For indeed Christ, ourPassover, has been sacrificed in our place. 5.8. Therefore let us keepthe feast, not with old yeast, neither with the yeast of malice andwickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth. 5.9. I wrote to you in my letter to have no company with sexual sinners; 5.10. yet not at all meaning with the sexual sinners of this world, orwith the covetous and extortioners, or with idolaters; for then youwould have to leave the world. 5.11. But as it is, I wrote to you notto associate with anyone who is called a brother who is a sexualsinner, or covetous, or an idolater, or a slanderer, or a drunkard, oran extortioner. Don't even eat with such a person. 5.12. For what haveI to do with also judging those who are outside? Don't you judge thosewho are within? 5.13. But those who are outside, God judges. "Put awaythe wicked man from among yourselves. 6.12. All things are lawful for me," but not all thingsare expedient. "All things are lawful for me," but I will not bebrought under the power of anything. 6.13. Foods for the belly, andthe belly for foods," but God will bring to nothing both it and them.But the body is not for sexual immorality, but for the Lord; and theLord for the body. 6.14. Now God raised up the Lord, and will alsoraise us up by his power. 6.15. Don't you know that your bodies aremembers of Christ? Shall I then take the members of Christ, and makethem members of a prostitute? May it never be! 6.16. Or don't you knowthat he who is joined to a prostitute is one body? For, "The two," sayshe, "will become one flesh. 6.17. But he who is joined to the Lord isone spirit. 6.18. Flee sexual immorality! "Every sin that a man doesis outside the body," but he who commits sexual immorality sins againsthis own body. 6.19. Or don't you know that your body is a temple ofthe Holy Spirit which is in you, which you have from God? You are notyour own 6.20. for you were bought with a price. Therefore glorifyGod in your body and in your spirit, which are God's. 7.1. Now concerning the things about which you wrote to me: it isgood for a man not to touch a woman. 7.2. But, because of sexualimmoralities, let each man have his own wife, and let each woman haveher own husband. 7.3. Let the husband render to his wife the affectionowed her, and likewise also the wife to her husband. 7.4. The wifedoesn't have authority over her own body, but the husband. Likewisealso the husband doesn't have authority over his own body, but thewife. 7.5. Don't deprive one another, unless it is by consent for aseason, that you may give yourselves to fasting and prayer, and may betogether again, that Satan doesn't tempt you because of your lack ofself-control. 7.6. But this I say by way of concession, not of commandment. 7.7. Yet I wish that all men were like me. However each man has his own giftfrom God, one of this kind, and another of that kind. 7.8. But I sayto the unmarried and to widows, it is good for them if they remain evenas I am. 7.9. But if they don't have self-control, let them marry. Forit's better to marry than to burn. 7.10. But to the married I command-- not I, but the Lord -- that the wife not leave her husband 7.11. (but if she departs, let her remain unmarried, or else be reconciled toher husband), and that the husband not leave his wife. 7.12. But to the rest I -- not the Lord -- say, if any brother hasan unbelieving wife, and she is content to live with him, let him notleave her. 7.13. The woman who has an unbelieving husband, and he iscontent to live with her, let her not leave her husband. 7.14. For theunbelieving husband is sanctified in the wife, and the unbelieving wifeis sanctified in the husband. Otherwise your children would be unclean,but now are they holy. 7.15. Yet if the unbeliever departs, let therebe separation. The brother or the sister is not under bondage in suchcases, but God has called us in peace. 7.16. For how do you know,wife, whether you will save your husband? Or how do you know, husband,whether you will save your wife? 7.17. Only, as the Lord hasdistributed to each man, as God has called each, so let him walk. So Icommand in all the assemblies. 7.18. Was anyone called having been circumcised? Let him not becomeuncircumcised. Has anyone been called in uncircumcision? Let him not becircumcised. 7.19. Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision isnothing, but the keeping of the commandments of God. 7.20. Let eachman stay in that calling in which he was called. 7.21. Were you calledbeing a bondservant? Don't let that bother you, but if you get anopportunity to become free, use it. 7.22. For he who was called in theLord being a bondservant is the Lord's free man. Likewise he who wascalled being free is Christ's bondservant. 7.23. You were bought witha price. Don't become bondservants of men. 7.24. Brothers, let eachman, in whatever condition he was called, stay in that condition withGod. 7.25. Now concerning virgins, I have no commandment from the Lord,but I give my judgment as one who has obtained mercy from the Lord tobe trustworthy. 7.26. I think that it is good therefore, because ofthe distress that is on us, that it is good for a man to be as he is. 7.27. Are you bound to a wife? Don't seek to be freed. Are you freefrom a wife? Don't seek a wife. 7.28. But if you marry, you have notsinned. If a virgin marries, she has not sinned. Yet such will haveoppression in the flesh, and I want to spare you. 7.29. But I saythis, brothers: the time is short, that from now on, both those whohave wives may be as though they had none; 7.30. and those who weep,as though they didn't weep; and those who rejoice, as though theydidn't rejoice; and those who buy, as though they didn't possess; 7.31. and those who use the world, as not using it to the fullest. Forthe mode of this world passes away. 7.32. But I desire to have you tobe free from cares. He who is unmarried is concerned for the things ofthe Lord, how he may please the Lord; 7.33. but he who is married isconcerned about the things of the world, how he may please his wife. 7.34. There is also a difference between a wife and a virgin. Theunmarried woman cares about the things of the Lord, that she may beholy both in body and in spirit. But she who is married cares about thethings of the world -- how she may please her husband. 7.35. This Isay for your own profit; not that I may ensnare you, but for that whichis appropriate, and that you may attend to the Lord withoutdistraction. 7.36. But if any man thinks that he is behavinginappropriately toward his virgin, if she is past the flower of herage, and if need so requires, let him do what he desires. He doesn'tsin. Let them marry. 7.37. But he who stands steadfast in his heart,having no necessity, but has power over his own heart, to keep his ownvirgin, does well. 7.38. So then both he who gives his own virgin inmarriage does well, and he who doesn't give her in marriage doesbetter. 7.39. A wife is bound by law for as long as her husband lives;but if the husband is dead, she is free to be married to whoever shedesires, only in the Lord. 7.40. But she is happier if she stays asshe is, in my judgment, and I think that I also have God's Spirit. 8.1. Now concerning things sacrificed to idols: We know that we allhave knowledge. Knowledge puffs up, but love builds up. 8.7. However, that knowledgeisn't in all men. But some, with consciousness of the idol until now,eat as of a thing sacrificed to an idol, and their conscience, beingweak, is defiled. 9.2. If to others Iam not an apostle, yet at least I am to you; for you are the seal of myapostleship in the Lord. 9.3. My defense to those who examine me isthis. 9.4. Have we no right to eat and to drink? 9.5. Have we noright to take along a wife who is a believer, even as the rest of theapostles, and the brothers of the Lord, and Cephas? 9.6. Or have onlyBarnabas and I no right to not work? 9.7. What soldier ever serves athis own expense? Who plants a vineyard, and doesn't eat of its fruit?Or who feeds a flock, and doesn't drink from the flock's milk? 9.11. If we sowed to you spiritual things, is it a great thing if wereap your fleshly things? 9.14. Even so the Lord ordained thatthose who proclaim the gospel should live from the gospel. 9.19. For though I was free fromall, I brought myself under bondage to all, that I might gain the more. 9.20. To the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain Jews; to thosewho are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain those whoare under the law; 9.21. to those who are without law, as without law(not being without law toward God, but under law toward Christ), that Imight win those who are without law. 9.22. To the weak I became asweak, that I might gain the weak. I have become all things to all men,that I may by all means save some. 9.23. Now I do this for thegospel's sake, that I may be a joint partaker of it. 9.24. Don't youknow that those who run in a race all run, but one receives the prize?Run like that, that you may win. 9.25. Every man who strives in thegames exercises self-control in all things. Now they do it to receive acorruptible crown, but we an incorruptible. 9.26. I therefore run likethat, as not uncertainly. I fight like that, as not beating the air 9.27. but I beat my body and bring it into submission, lest by anymeans, after I have preached to others, I myself should be rejected. 11.2. Now Ipraise you, brothers, that you remember me in all things, and hold firmthe traditions, even as I delivered them to you. 11.3. But I wouldhave you know that the head of every man is Christ, and the head of thewoman is the man, and the head of Christ is God. 11.4. Every manpraying or prophesying, having his head covered, dishonors his head. 11.5. But every woman praying or prophesying with her head unveileddishonors her head. For it is one and the same thing as if she wereshaved. 11.6. For if a woman is not covered, let her also be shorn.But if it is shameful for a woman to be shorn or shaved, let her becovered. 11.7. For a man indeed ought not to have his head covered,because he is the image and glory of God, but the woman is the glory ofthe man. 11.8. For man is not from woman, but woman from man; 11.9. for neither was man created for the woman, but woman for the man. 11.10. For this cause the woman ought to have authority on her head,because of the angels. 11.11. Nevertheless, neither is the woman independent of the man,nor the man independent of the woman, in the Lord. 11.12. For as womancame from man, so a man also comes through a woman; but all things arefrom God. 11.13. Judge for yourselves. Is it appropriate that a womanpray to God unveiled? 11.14. Doesn't even nature itself teach you thatif a man has long hair, it is a dishonor to him? 11.15. But if a womanhas long hair, it is a glory to her, for her hair is given to her for acovering. 11.16. But if any man seems to be contentious, we have nosuch custom, neither do God's assemblies. 11.17. But in giving you this command, I don't praise you, that youcome together not for the better but for the worse. 11.18. For firstof all, when you come together in the assembly, I hear that divisionsexist among you, and I partly believe it. 11.19. For there also mustbe factions among you, that those who are approved may be revealedamong you. 11.20. When therefore you assemble yourselves together, itis not possible to eat the Lord's supper. 11.21. For in your eatingeach one takes his own supper before others. One is hungry, and anotheris drunken. 11.22. What, don't you have houses to eat and to drink in?Or do you despise God's assembly, and put them to shame who don't have?What shall I tell you? Shall I praise you? In this I don't praise you. 11.23. For I received from the Lord that which also I delivered toyou, that the Lord Jesus on the night in which he was betrayed tookbread. 11.24. When he had given thanks, he broke it, and said, "Take,eat. This is my body, which is broken for you. Do this in memory ofme. 11.25. In the same way he also took the cup, after supper,saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood. Do this, as often asyou drink, in memory of me. 12.3. Therefore Imake known to you that no man speaking by God's Spirit says, "Jesus isaccursed." No one can say, "Jesus is Lord," but by the Holy Spirit. 12.13. For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whetherJews or Greeks, whether bond or free; and were all given to drink intoone Spirit. 15.3. For I delivered to youfirst of all that which I also received: that Christ died for our sinsaccording to the Scriptures 15.4. that he was buried, that he wasraised on the third day according to the Scriptures 15.5. and that heappeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. 15.6. Then he appeared to overfive hundred brothers at once, most of whom remain until now, but somehave also fallen asleep. 15.7. Then he appeared to James, then to allthe apostles 15.8. and last of all, as to the child born at the wrongtime, he appeared to me also. 15.50. Now I say this, brothers, that flesh and blood can'tinherit the Kingdom of God; neither does corruption inheritincorruption. 16.1. Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I commandedthe assemblies of Galatia, you do likewise. 16.2. On the first day ofthe week, let each one of you save, as he may prosper, that nocollections be made when I come. 16.3. When I arrive, I will sendwhoever you approve with letters to carry your gracious gift toJerusalem. 16.4. If it is appropriate for me to go also, they will gowith me. 16.5. But I will come to you when I have passed throughMacedonia, for I am passing through Macedonia. 16.15. Now I beg you, brothers (you know the house of Stephanas,that it is the first fruits of Achaia, and that they have setthemselves to minister to the saints)
30. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.1, 2.7, 2.9, 4.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, Silvanus, and Timothy, to the assembly of the Thessalonians in God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 2.7. But we were gentle in the midst of you, as when a nurse cherishes her own children. 2.9. For you remember, brothers, our labor and travail; for working night and day, that we might not burden any of you, we preached to you the gospel of God. 4.11. and that you make it your ambition to lead a quiet life, and to do your own business, and to work with your own hands, even as we charged you;
31. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 5.17-5.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.17. Let the elders who rule well be counted worthy of double honor, especially those who labor in the word and in teaching. 5.18. For the Scripture says, "You shall not muzzle the ox when it treads out the grain." And, "The laborer is worthy of his wages.
32. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 8.1-8.4, 8.7, 8.13-8.15, 8.19, 8.24, 9.1-9.6, 9.8-9.15, 11.16-11.33, 12.1-12.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

33. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 3.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.10. For even when we were with you, we commanded you this: "If anyone will not work, neither let him eat.
34. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 4.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.11. Only Luke is with me. Take Mark, and bring him with you, for he is useful to me for ministering.
35. New Testament, Acts, 1, 1.21, 1.22, 1.26, 2.14, 2.42, 2.43, 2.44, 2.45, 2.46, 3.19, 3.20, 3.21, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 3.25, 3.26, 4.32-5.11, 4.35, 4.36, 4.37, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 6.1, 6.2, 6.5, 6.14, 7.5, 9.1, 9.2, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.26, 9.27, 9.28, 10, 10.2, 10.3, 10.10, 10.11, 10.15, 10.19, 10.28, 10.34, 10.41, 11, 11.2, 11.3, 11.5, 11.8, 11.9, 11.12, 11.17, 11.18, 11.21, 11.22, 11.23, 11.24, 11.25, 11.26, 11.27, 11.28, 11.29, 11.30, 12.24, 12.25, 13, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.42, 13.43, 13.44, 13.45, 13.46, 13.47, 13.48, 13.49, 13.50, 14, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.11, 14.12, 14.13, 14.14, 14.15, 14.19, 14.20, 14.22, 14.23, 14.24, 15, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.12, 15.13, 15.14, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17, 15.18, 15.19, 15.20, 15.21, 15.22, 15.23, 15.24, 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.28, 15.29, 15.34, 15.35, 15.36, 15.37, 15.38, 15.39, 15.40, 16, 16.11, 17, 18, 18.12, 18.13, 18.14, 18.15, 18.16, 18.17, 19, 20, 20.4, 20.6, 20.7, 20.22, 21, 21.16, 21.17, 21.18, 21.19, 21.20, 21.21, 21.22, 21.23, 21.24, 21.25, 21.26, 21.28, 22, 22.17, 22.18, 22.19, 22.20, 22.21, 22.22, 23, 24, 24.5, 24.17, 25, 26, 27, 28 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

36. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.14, 2.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.14. But I have a few things against you, because you have there some who hold the teaching of Balaam, who taught Balak to throw a stumbling block before the children of Israel , to eat things sacrificed to idols, and to commit sexual immorality. 2.20. But I have this against you, that you tolerate your woman, Jezebel, who calls herself a prophetess. She teaches and seduces my servants to commit sexual immorality, and to eat things sacrificed to idols.
37. New Testament, Philemon, 11-20, 10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

38. New Testament, Colossians, 3.11, 4.7-4.9, 4.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.11. where there can't be Greek and Jew, circumcision and uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, bondservant, freeman; but Christ is all, and in all. 4.7. All my affairs will be made known to you by Tychicus, the beloved brother, faithful servant, and fellow bondservant in the Lord. 4.8. I am sending him to you for this very purpose, that he may know your circumstances and comfort your hearts 4.9. together with Onesimus, the faithful and beloved brother, who is one of you. They will make known to you everything that is going on here. 4.14. Luke, the beloved physician, and Demas greet you.
39. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.2, 5.15-5.33, 6.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.2. in which you once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the powers of the air, the spirit who now works in the sons of disobedience; 5.15. Therefore watch carefully how you walk, not as unwise, but as wise; 5.16. redeeming the time, because the days are evil. 5.17. Therefore don't be foolish, but understand what the will of the Lord is. 5.18. Don't be drunken with wine, in which is dissipation, but be filled with the Spirit 5.19. speaking to one another in psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs; singing, and singing praises in your heart to the Lord; 5.20. giving thanks always concerning all things in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, to God, even the Father; 5.21. subjecting yourselves one to another in the fear of Christ. 5.22. Wives, be subject to your own husbands, as to the Lord. 5.23. For the husband is the head of the wife, and Christ also is the head of the assembly, being himself the savior of the body. 5.24. But as the assembly is subject to Christ, so let the wives also be to their own husbands in everything. 5.25. Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the assembly, and gave himself up for it; 5.26. that he might sanctify it, having cleansed it by the washing of water with the word 5.27. that he might present the assembly to himself gloriously, not having spot or wrinkle or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish. 5.28. Even so ought husbands also to love their own wives as their own bodies. He who loves his own wife loves himself. 5.29. For no man ever hated his own flesh; but nourishes and cherishes it, even as the Lord also does the assembly; 5.30. because we are members of his body, of his flesh and bones. 5.31. For this cause a man will leave his father and mother, and will be joined to his wife. The two will become one flesh. 5.32. This mystery is great, but I speak concerning Christ and of the assembly. 5.33. Nevertheless each of you must also love his own wife even as himself; and let the wife see that she respects her husband. 6.22. whom I have sent to you for this very purpose, that you may know our state, and that he may comfort your hearts.
40. New Testament, Galatians, 1, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.14, 1.15, 1.16, 1.17, 1.18, 1.19, 1.20, 1.21, 1.22, 1.23, 1.24, 2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 2.19, 2.20, 2.21, 3, 3.2, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 3.20, 3.21, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 3.25, 3.26, 3.27, 3.28, 3.29, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.5, 4.7, 4.8, 4.21-5.1, 4.22, 4.25, 4.26, 4.30, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.11, 5.13, 6.6, 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

41. New Testament, Hebrews, 7.1-7.28, 10.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.1. For this Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of God Most High, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings and blessed him 7.2. to whom also Abraham divided a tenth part of all (being first, by interpretation, king of righteousness, and then also king of Salem, which is king of peace; 7.3. without father, without mother, without genealogy, having neither beginning of days nor end of life, but made like the Son of God), remains a priest continually. 7.4. Now consider how great this man was, to whom even Abraham, the patriarch, gave a tenth out of the best spoils. 7.5. They indeed of the sons of Levi who receive the priest's office have a commandment to take tithes of the people according to the law, that is, of their brothers, though these have come out of the loins of Abraham 7.6. but he whose genealogy is not counted from them has taken tithes of Abraham, and has blessed him who has the promises. 7.7. But without any dispute the less is blessed by the better. 7.8. Here people who die receive tithes, but there one receives tithes of whom it is testified that he lives. 7.9. So to say, through Abraham even Levi, who receives tithes, has paid tithes 7.10. for he was yet in the loins of his father when Melchizedek met him. 7.11. Now if there was perfection through the Levitical priesthood (for under it the people have received the law), what further need was there for another priest to arise after the order of Melchizedek, and not be called after the order of Aaron? 7.12. For the priesthood being changed, there is of necessity a change made also in the law. 7.13. For he of whom these things are said belongs to another tribe, from which no one has officiated at the altar. 7.14. For it is evident that our Lord has sprung out of Judah, about which tribe Moses spoke nothing concerning priesthood. 7.15. This is yet more abundantly evident, if after the likeness of Melchizedek there arises another priest 7.16. who has been made, not after the law of a fleshly commandment, but after the power of an endless life: 7.17. for it is testified, "You are a priest forever, According to the order of Melchizedek. 7.18. For there is an annulling of a foregoing commandment because of its weakness and uselessness 7.19. (for the law made nothing perfect), and a bringing in thereupon of a better hope, through which we draw near to God. 7.20. Inasmuch as he was not made priest without the taking of an oath 7.21. (for they indeed have been made priests without an oath), but he with an oath by him that says of him, "The Lord swore and will not change his mind, 'You are a priest forever, According to the order of Melchizedek'". 7.22. By so much has Jesus become the collateral of a better covet. 7.23. Many, indeed, have been made priests, because they are hindered from continuing by death. 7.24. But he, because he lives forever, has his priesthood unchangeable. 7.25. Therefore he is also able to save to the uttermost those who draw near to God through him, seeing he ever lives to make intercession for them. 7.26. For such a high priest was fitting for us: holy, guiltless, undefiled, separated from sinners, and made higher than the heavens; 7.27. who doesn't need, like those high priests, to daily offer up sacrifices, first for his own sins, and then for the sins of the people. For this he did once for all, when he offered up himself. 7.28. For the law appoints men as high priests who have weakness, but the word of the oath which came after the law appoints a Son forever who has been perfected. 10.11. Every priest indeed stands day by day ministering and often offering the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins
42. New Testament, Philippians, 1.10, 2.16-2.17, 2.25, 2.30, 3.5-3.6, 3.12-3.14, 4.3, 4.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. so that you may approve the things that are excellent; that you may be sincere and without offense to the day of Christ; 2.16. holding up the word of life; that I may have something to boast in the day of Christ, that I didn't run in vain nor labor in vain. 2.17. Yes, and if I am poured out on the sacrifice and service of your faith, I rejoice, and rejoice with you all. 2.25. But I counted it necessary to send to you Epaphroditus, my brother, fellow worker, fellow soldier, and your apostle and minister to my need; 2.30. because for the work of Christ he came near to death, risking his life to supply that which was lacking in your service toward me. 3.5. circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; concerning the law, a Pharisee; 3.6. concerning zeal, persecuting the assembly; concerning the righteousness which is in the law, found blameless. 3.12. Not that I have already obtained, or am already made perfect; but I press on, if it is so that I may take hold of that for which also I was taken hold of by Christ Jesus. 3.13. Brothers, I don't regard myself as yet having taken hold, but one thing I do. Forgetting the things which are behind, and stretching forward to the things which are before 3.14. I press on toward the goal for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus. 4.3. Yes, I beg you also, true yoke-fellow, help these women, for they labored with me in the gospel, with Clement also, and the rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the book of life. 4.15. You yourselves also know, you Philippians, that in the beginning of the gospel, when I departed from Macedonia, no assembly had fellowship with me in the matter of giving and receiving but you only.
43. New Testament, Romans, 1, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.13, 1.16, 1.16-2.29, 2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.9, 3.10, 3.20, 3.24, 4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.21, 4.22, 4.23, 4.24, 4.25, 5, 5.5, 5.20, 6, 7, 8, 9, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.11, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.22, 9.23, 9.30, 9.31, 9.32, 9.33, 10, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9, 10.10, 10.11, 10.17, 10.19, 11, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 11.10, 11.11, 11.12, 11.13, 11.14, 11.15, 11.16, 11.17, 11.18, 11.19, 11.20, 11.21, 11.22, 11.23, 11.24, 11.25, 11.26, 11.27, 11.28, 11.29, 11.30, 11.31, 11.32, 12.2, 14, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 15, 15.10, 15.16, 15.17, 15.18, 15.19, 15.21, 15.22, 15.24, 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.28, 15.29, 15.30, 15.31, 15.32, 16.4, 16.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

44. New Testament, Titus, 1.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. For the overseer must be blameless, as God's steward; not self-pleasing, not easily angered, not given to wine, not violent, not greedy for dishonest gain;
45. New Testament, John, 1.19, 13.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.19. This is John's testimony, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, "Who are you? 13.29. For some thought, because Judas had the money box, that Jesus said to him, "Buy what things we need for the feast," or that he should give something to the poor.
46. New Testament, Luke, 1.23, 1.54, 7.1-7.10, 10.32, 18.37, 24.9, 24.30, 24.33-24.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.23. It happened, when the days of his service were fulfilled, he departed to his house. 1.54. He has given help to Israel, his servant, that he might remember mercy 7.1. After he had finished speaking in the hearing of the people, he entered into Capernaum. 7.2. A certain centurion's servant, who was dear to him, was sick and at the point of death. 7.3. When he heard about Jesus, he sent to him elders of the Jews, asking him to come and save his servant. 7.4. When they came to Jesus, they begged him earnestly, saying, "He is worthy for you to do this for him 7.5. for he loves our nation, and he built our synagogue for us. 7.6. Jesus went with them. When he was now not far from the house, the centurion sent friends to him, saying to him, "Lord, don't trouble yourself, for I am not worthy for you to come under my roof. 7.7. Therefore I didn't even think myself worthy to come to you; but say the word, and my servant will be healed. 7.8. For I also am a man placed under authority, having under myself soldiers. I tell this one, 'Go!' and he goes; and to another, 'Come!' and he comes; and to my servant, 'Do this,' and he does it. 7.9. When Jesus heard these things, he marveled at him, and turned and said to the multitude who followed him, "I tell you, I have not found such great faith, no, not in Israel. 7.10. Those who were sent, returning to the house, found that the servant who had been sick was well. 10.32. In the same way a Levite also, when he came to the place, and saw him, passed by on the other side. 18.37. They told him that Jesus of Nazareth was passing by. 24.9. returned from the tomb, and told all these things to the eleven, and to all the rest. 24.30. It happened, that when he had sat down at the table with them, he took the bread and gave thanks. Breaking it, he gave to them. 24.33. Rising rose up that very hour, they returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and those who were with them 24.34. saying, "The Lord is risen indeed, and has appeared to Simon!
47. New Testament, Mark, 2.13-2.14, 3.31-3.35, 7.27, 8.31-8.38, 9.5, 10.25, 16.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.13. He went out again by the seaside. All the multitude came to him, and he taught them. 2.14. As he passed by, he saw Levi, the son of Alphaeus, sitting at the tax office, and he said to him, "Follow me." And he arose and followed him. 3.31. His mother and his brothers came, and standing outside, they sent to him, calling him. 3.32. A multitude was sitting around him, and they told him, "Behold, your mother, your brothers, and your sisters are outside looking for you. 3.33. He answered them, "Who are my mother and my brothers? 3.34. Looking around at those who sat around him, he said, "Behold, my mother and my brothers! 3.35. For whoever does the will of God, the same is my brother, and my sister, and mother. 7.27. But Jesus said to her, "Let the children be filled first, for it is not appropriate to take the children's bread and throw it to the dogs. 8.31. He began to teach them that the Son of Man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the elders, the chief priests, and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again. 8.32. He spoke to them openly. Peter took him, and began to rebuke him. 8.33. But he, turning around, and seeing his disciples, rebuked Peter, and said, "Get behind me, Satan! For you have in mind not the things of God, but the things of men. 8.34. He called the multitude to himself with his disciples, and said to them, "Whoever wants to come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me. 8.35. For whoever wants to save his life will lose it; and whoever will lose his life for my sake and the gospel's will save it. 8.36. For what does it profit a man, to gain the whole world, and forfeit his life? 8.37. For what will a man give in exchange for his life? 8.38. For whoever will be ashamed of me and of my words in this adulterous and sinful generation, the Son of Man also will be ashamed of him, when he comes in the glory of his Father with the holy angels. 9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah. 10.25. It is easier for a camel to go through a needle's eye than for a rich man to enter into the Kingdom of God. 16.7. But go, tell his disciples and Peter, 'He goes before you into Galilee. There you will see him, as he said to you.'
48. New Testament, Matthew, 2.23, 5.14, 5.17, 8.5-8.13, 16.17, 28.9-28.12, 28.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.23. and came and lived in a city called Nazareth; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through the prophets: "He will be called a Nazarene. 5.14. You are the light of the world. A city located on a hill can't be hidden. 5.17. Don't think that I came to destroy the law or the prophets. I didn't come to destroy, but to fulfill. 8.5. When he came into Capernaum, a centurion came to him, asking him 8.6. and saying, "Lord, my servant lies in the house paralyzed, grievously tormented. 8.7. Jesus said to him, "I will come and heal him. 8.8. The centurion answered, "Lord, I'm not worthy for you to come under my roof. Just say the word, and my servant will be healed. 8.9. For I am also a man under authority, having under myself soldiers. I tell this one, 'Go,' and he goes; and to another, 'Come,' and he comes; and to my servant, 'Do this,' and he does it. 8.10. When Jesus heard it, he marveled, and said to those who followed, "Most assuredly I tell you, I haven't found so great a faith, not even in Israel. 8.11. I tell you that many will come from the east and the west, and will sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the Kingdom of Heaven 8.12. but the sons of the kingdom will be thrown out into the outer darkness. There will be weeping and the gnashing of teeth. 8.13. Jesus said to the centurion, "Go your way. Let it be done for you as you as you have believed." His servant was healed in that hour. 16.17. Jesus answered him, "Blessed are you, Simon Bar Jonah, for flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my Father who is in heaven. 28.9. As they went to tell his disciples, behold, Jesus met them, saying, "Rejoice!"They came and took hold of his feet, and worshiped him. 28.10. Then Jesus said to them, "Don't be afraid. Go tell my brothers that they should go into Galilee, and there they will see me. 28.11. Now while they were going, behold, some of the guards came into the city, and told the chief priests all the things that had happened. 28.12. When they were assembled with the elders, and had taken counsel, they gave a large amount of silver to the soldiers 28.16. But the eleven disciples went into Galilee, to the mountain where Jesus had sent them.
49. Seneca The Younger, De Vita Beata (Dialogorum Liber Vii), 15.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

50. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 8.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

51. Suetonius, Domitianus, 12.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

52. Tacitus, Histories, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.5.  Whatever their origin, these rites are maintained by their antiquity: the other customs of the Jews are base and abominable, and owe their persistence to their depravity. For the worst rascals among other peoples, renouncing their ancestral religions, always kept sending tribute and contributions to Jerusalem, thereby increasing the wealth of the Jews; again, the Jews are extremely loyal toward one another, and always ready to show compassion, but toward every other people they feel only hate and enmity. They sit apart at meals, and they sleep apart, and although as a race, they are prone to lust, they abstain from intercourse with foreign women; yet among themselves nothing is unlawful. They adopted circumcision to distinguish themselves from other peoples by this difference. Those who are converted to their ways follow the same practice, and the earliest lesson they receive is to despise the gods, to disown their country, and to regard their parents, children, and brothers as of little account. However, they take thought to increase their numbers; for they regard it as a crime to kill any late-born child, and they believe that the souls of those who are killed in battle or by the executioner are immortal: hence comes their passion for begetting children, and their scorn of death. They bury the body rather than burn it, thus following the Egyptians' custom; they likewise bestow the same care on the dead, and hold the same belief about the world below; but their ideas of heavenly things are quite the opposite. The Egyptians worship many animals and monstrous images; the Jews conceive of one god only, and that with the mind alone: they regard as impious those who make from perishable materials representations of gods in man's image; that supreme and eternal being is to them incapable of representation and without end. Therefore they set up no statues in their cities, still less in their temples; this flattery is not paid their kings, nor this honour given to the Caesars. But since their priests used to chant to the accompaniment of pipes and cymbals and to wear garlands of ivy, and because a golden vine was found in their temple, some have thought that they were devotees of Father Liber, the conqueror of the East, in spite of the incongruity of their customs. For Liber established festive rites of a joyous nature, while the ways of the Jews are preposterous and mean.
53. Tosefta, Demai, 2.2-2.3, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

54. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 66.7.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

55. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 3.12 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

56. Origen, On First Principles, 4.3.8 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

57. Anon., Apostolic Constitutions, 7.33-7.38 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, gods promise to Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 48
abraham, offspring Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368
abraham Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 588
achaia Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 17; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 344, 473, 478, 481
acts (new testament) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
acts of the apostles Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 132
adiaphora/indistinguishable/neutral Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 102, 104
agape Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 191
allegory, allegorical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 473
anacletus Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
ancestors Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368
angels Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 132
antioch, incident at Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 130, 162
antioch Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253; Edelmann-Singer et al., Sceptic and Believer in Ancient Mediterranean Religions (2020) 171; Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 60, 61
antioch (syrian) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 466, 467, 477, 478, 480
antiochene Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 371, 477
apocalyptic(ism) (see also dualism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 409
apostle Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27, 344, 347, 370, 371, 396, 409, 465, 467, 477, 478, 481, 482, 588
apostles decree Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27
apostolate, (com)mission Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 344, 371, 465, 467, 480
apostolic council Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 143, 162
apostolic decree Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 143
apostolic tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 409
aristotle Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 347
asia minor Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 478
athletics/training Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 99, 101
augustine Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 347
authority Papaioannou et al., Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 172; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou, Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 172
authority of ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27
avtalyon Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 588
baptism Edelmann-Singer et al., Sceptic and Believer in Ancient Mediterranean Religions (2020) 171; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 588; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 370
barnabas Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 13; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 344, 371, 466, 467, 477, 480, 568; Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 143, 162
beatitude Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 473
birth Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
bishops Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
blood Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
borders v Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 372
boundary Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 370, 372, 373
boundary marker Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 373
bread Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
bultmann, rudolf Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 234
canon (scriptural), canonical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 588
catholic church Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 235
christianity, convert Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 17
christianity, early history Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 139
christology, christological Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 409
church Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 132
churches/tradition of paul pauline Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27, 370, 396
circumcision, faction Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 130
circumcision, of gentiles Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 162
circumcision Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 179; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 347, 396, 588; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 372, 373
city Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368
collection, pauls Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 138, 202
community rule Brooks, Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah (1983) 34
contribution, corinthian Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 13, 17
conversionist tendencies deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 268
corinth, ancient, division in Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 25
corinth Brooks, Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah (1983) 34; Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 60, 61; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 465, 481, 482
cornelius Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 132
covenant Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
covenant and creation, relation to pistis Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 48
covenantal nomism Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 172
creation Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 370
creator Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
cross Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
culture, cultural affiliations in galilee Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 139, 161, 163, 173, 179, 187
damascus Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368
damascus rule Brooks, Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah (1983) 34
daniel, book of Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 132
darkness deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 268
dead sea scrolls Brooks, Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah (1983) 34
diaspora Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 480
domitian passim, esp. Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 60, 61
encounter Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
entrustedness, of israel Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 48
epistle of barnabas, authorship Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 269
eschaton Brooks, Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah (1983) 34
essenes Brooks, Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah (1983) 34
essenes (see also qumran) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 480
eucharist Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27
example, of churches Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 17
faith Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 370
faithfulness, of god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 48
first day of the week Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
fiscus judaicus, jewish tax Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 477, 482
forgiveness Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
freedom (eleutheria) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 99, 100, 101, 104, 105
fulfillment Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 373
galatians Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
galilee Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 234
gentile, debt to jews Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 17
gentile Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 347
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27, 370, 371, 465, 466, 467, 473, 477, 478, 481, 482, 568
gentiles Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368, 372
god, identification of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 268
god-fearers Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 60
good (agathos) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 99, 100, 106
gospel of the circumcision Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27, 371, 396, 465, 466, 568, 588
gospels, new testament Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 132
gospels Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
greek, language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27, 467
greek-jewish (graeco-jewish), literature and culture Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27
greek language Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
greek vocables and phrases, εἰς αὐτὸ τοῦτο Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 313
greek vocables and phrases, ἵνα Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 313
halakha, formulated in greek Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27
halakha, in the new testament Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27
halakhah Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 162
hebrews and hellenists Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 139
helena, queen of adiabene Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 478
hellenism, hellenistic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 396, 409
hellenists Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 173
historical criticism Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 396
historical tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 409
history of halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27
hypocrisy Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
idolatry Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 60, 61; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27
idols, food offered to Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27
intermediates Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 101, 105
israel, land of Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
israel Edelmann-Singer et al., Sceptic and Believer in Ancient Mediterranean Religions (2020) 171
james Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 130, 143, 162
james (brother of jesus) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 371, 465, 466, 482, 568
jeremias j. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 191
jerome, de viris illustribus Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 269
jerusalem, agreement at Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 130, 143
jerusalem Edelmann-Singer et al., Sceptic and Believer in Ancient Mediterranean Religions (2020) 171; Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 60, 61; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368, 372, 373
jerusalem church Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27, 344, 371, 409, 465, 466, 467, 473, 477, 478, 480, 481; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 235
jerusalem council Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 234, 235
jesus, choosing of the twelve Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 234
jesus-believing gentiles, status within the jesus movement Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 162
jesus Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 162
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 344, 371, 409, 466, 473, 482
jew Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368, 370, 372, 373
jewish-christian group, commmunity Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 371, 473, 481, 482
jewish-christian tradition, custom Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27
jewish christianity, early forms Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 139
jewish practices/torah observance, circumcision Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 99, 100, 101, 103, 104, 105, 106
jewish practices/torah observance Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 100, 103
john (disciple) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 466
john the baptist Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 235
judaea (roman province; see also yehud) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 396, 465, 466, 477, 478, 481, 482, 568
judaize, judaizing (ioudaïzein) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 371, 396, 466, 482, 568
judaizing Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 105, 106
judas iscariot Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 344
jupiter temple (jerusalem) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 477, 482
just Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
kedushah Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 191
law Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
law in paul Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 347, 370, 371, 568
levi (new testament) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
levites, in josephus Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 183
levites, in the new testament Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 183
levites Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253; Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 183
light deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 268
linus Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
luke, gospel of Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 132
luke Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 477, 478, 480
luther Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 373
macedonia Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 17; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 344, 473, 478, 481
marital relations Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27
mark (gospel writer and gospel) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
marriage (see also divorce) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27
mary Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
messiah Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27, 466
metaphor(ical) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 466
midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 588
mission, to the gentiles Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 130, 143
missionary Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 13
moses, law of Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 234
moses Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 60
muhammad Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
mystery, mysteries deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 268
mysticism, mystical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 409
myth Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
narratives Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
necessity/require (anagkē, anagkazō) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 100, 104, 105, 106
neither/nothing (oudeteros/ouden) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 102
new perspective Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 373
non-jew Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368, 370, 372, 373
observance of law Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 370, 478
old person deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 268
origen Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 473
palestinian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 396
paraenesis Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 568
paul, apostle, travels Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 86
paul, as persecutor Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 179
paul, attitudes to women Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 187
paul, corinthians Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 13
paul, missionary activity Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 187
paul, relations with jerusalem church Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 139
paul Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253; Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 60, 61; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 17; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 132; Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 143, 162
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27, 344, 347, 370, 371, 396, 409, 465, 466, 467, 473, 477, 478, 480, 481, 482, 568, 588
paul pharisee Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 467
pauline epistles, letter-carriers Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 313
peter Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253; Edelmann-Singer et al., Sceptic and Believer in Ancient Mediterranean Religions (2020) 171; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 132; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
peter (cephas, simon –) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 371, 396, 409, 466, 467, 482, 568
philippi (macedonia) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 478, 480
philosophy Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 136
polytheism Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 60, 61
poor, the Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 465, 466, 467, 473, 477, 478, 568
poverty Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 17
power Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
pre-election Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 48
promises of god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 48
prophets Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
proselyte, proselytism Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 466
protestant Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 370
purity/impurity Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
purity Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 183
purity laws Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27
qumran Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 183
qumran community Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27, 344
qumran documents Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 473, 588
rabbis Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 588; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
reciprocity Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 17
reformation (see also protestant) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 347
resurrection Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 409
rhetoric, and comparison or competition Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 25, 124, 227
rhetoric, pauls use of Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 227
rhetoric, rhetorical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 396, 473, 481, 568
rhetorical devices Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 25
rhodon Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
roads Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 86
roll, israel Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 86
roman catholic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 347, 465
rome, churches/christians in Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 473
rome Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
sacrifice, imagery Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 13
sacrifice Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 132
salvation Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89; Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 105
service to god or christ Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 48
shemaya Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 588
slave Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 370
slavery Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 99, 100, 101, 104, 105, 106
socrates Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 101, 102
suffering Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
sunday, christian Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 191
synagogue Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 370, 482
synedrion Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 183
table-fellowship, in antioch Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 162
telos Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 101
telos of law, christ as Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 48
temple (jerusalem) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 480
temple mount, jerusalem temple Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 183
tephillah Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 191
tertullian, on modesty Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 269
thessalonika Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 344
tithes' Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 183
titus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 13
titus (emperor) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 466
titus (pauls companion) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 568
torah Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 183
transformation deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 268
twelve Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
valentinians Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
value (axia) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 99, 103
vermes, geza Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 234
vespasian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 477
vision Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 132
wisdom deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 268
women Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
worship, daily and weekly Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 191
yoshua, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27
zeal (for the law) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 568
zealot, zealots Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 478, 481, 482