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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8250
New Testament, Galatians, 2.1-2.16


Ἔπειτα διὰ δεκατεσσάρων ἐτῶν πάλιν ἀνέβην εἰς Ἰεροσόλυμα μετὰ Βαρνάβα, συνπαραλαβὼν καὶ Τίτον· ἀνέβην δὲ κατὰ ἀποκάλυψιν·Then after a period of fourteen years I went up again toJerusalem with Barnabas, taking Titus also with me.


μόνον τῶν πτωχῶν ἵνα μνημονεύωμεν, ὃ καὶ ἐσπούδασα αὐτὸ τοῦτο ποιῆσαι.They only askedus to remember the poor -- which very thing I was also zealous to do.


Ὅτε δὲ ἦλθεν Κηφᾶς εἰς Ἀντιόχειαν, κατὰ πρόσωπον αὐτῷ ἀντέστην, ὅτι κατεγνωσμένος ἦν·But when Peter came to Antioch, I resisted him to the face,because he stood condemned.


πρὸ τοῦ γὰρ ἐλθεῖν τινὰς ἀπὸ Ἰακώβου μετὰ τῶν ἐθνῶν συνήσθιεν· ὅτε δὲ ἦλθον, ὑπέστελλεν καὶ ἀφώριζεν ἑαυτόν, φοβούμενος τοὺς ἐκ περιτομῆς.For before some people came fromJames, he ate with the Gentiles. But when they came, he drew back andseparated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision.


καὶ συνυπεκρίθησαν αὐτῷ [καὶ] οἱ λοιποὶ Ἰουδαῖοι, ὥστε καὶ Βαρνάβας συναπήχθη αὐτῶν τῇ ὑποκρίσει.And the rest of the Jews joined him in his hypocrisy; so that evenBarnabas was carried away with their hypocrisy.


ἀλλʼ ὅτε εἶδον ὅτι οὐκ ὀρθοποδοῦσιν πρὸς τὴν ἀλήθειαν τοῦ εὐαγγελίου, εἶπον τῷ Κηφᾷ ἔμπροσθεν πάντων Εἰ σὺ Ἰουδαῖος ὑπάρχων ἐθνικῶς καὶ οὐκ Ἰουδαϊκῶς ζῇς, πῶς τὰ ἔθνη ἀναγκάζεις Ἰουδαΐζειν;But when I sawthat they didn't walk uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, Isaid to Peter before them all, "If you, being a Jew, live as theGentiles do, and not as the Jews do, why do you compel the Gentiles tolive as the Jews do?


Ἡμεῖς φύσει Ἰουδαῖοι καὶ οὐκ ἐξ ἐθνῶν ἁμαρτωλοίWe, being Jews by nature, and not Gentile sinners


εἰδότες δὲ ὅτι οὐ δικαιοῦται ἄνθρωπος ἐξ ἔργων νόμου ἐὰν μὴ διὰ πίστεως Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ, καὶ ἡμεῖς εἰς Χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν ἐπιστεύσαμεν, ἵνα δικαιωθῶμεν ἐκ πίστεως Χριστοῦ καὶ οὐκ ἐξ ἔργων νόμου, ὅτι ἐξ ἔργων νόμουοὐ δικαιωθήσεται πᾶσα σάρξ.yet knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law butthrough the faith of Jesus Christ, even we believed in Christ Jesus,that we might be justified by faith in Christ, and not by the works ofthe law, because no flesh will be justified by the works of the law.


καὶ ἀνεθέμην αὐτοῖς τὸ εὐαγγέλιον ὃ κηρύσσω ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν, κατʼ ἰδίαν δὲ τοῖς δοκοῦσιν, μή πως εἰς κενὸν τρέχω ἢ ἔδραμον.I went up byrevelation, and I laid before them the gospel which I preach among theGentiles, but privately before those who were respected, for fear thatI might be running, or had run, in vain.


ἀλλʼ οὐδὲ Τίτος ὁ σὺν ἐμοί, Ἕλλην ὤν, ἠναγκάσθη περιτμηθῆναι·But not even Titus, whowas with me, being a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised.


διὰ δὲ τοὺς παρεισάκτους ψευδαδέλφους, οἵτινες παρεισῆλθον κατασκοπῆσαι τὴν ἐλευθερίαν ἡμῶν ἣν ἔχομεν ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ, ἵνα ἡμᾶς καταδουλώσουσινThiswas because of the false brothers secretly brought in, who stole in tospy out our liberty which we have in Christ Jesus, that they mightbring us into bondage;


— οἷς οὐδὲ πρὸς ὥραν εἴξαμεν τῇ ὑποταγῇ, ἵνα ἡ ἀλήθεια τοῦ εὐαγγελίου διαμείνῃ πρὸς ὑμᾶς.to whom we gave no place in the way ofsubjection, not for an hour, that the truth of the gospel mightcontinue with you.


ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν δοκούντων εἶναί τι — ὁποῖοί ποτε ἦσαν οὐδέν μοι διαφέρει — πρόσωπον [ὁ] θεὸς ἀνθρώπου οὐ λαμβάνει — ἐμοὶ γὰρ οἱ δοκοῦντες οὐδὲν προσανέθεντοBut from those who were reputed to beimportant (whatever they were, it makes no difference to me; Goddoesn't show partiality to man) -- they, I say, who were respectedimparted nothing to me


ἀλλὰ τοὐναντίον ἰδόντες ὅτι πεπίστευμαι τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς ἀκροβυστίας καθὼς Πέτρος τῆς περιτομῆςbut to the contrary, when they saw that Ihad been entrusted with the gospel for the uncircumcision, even asPeter with the gospel for the circumcision


ὁ γὰρ ἐνεργήσας Πέτρῳ εἰς ἀποστολὴν τῆς περιτομῆς ἐνήργησεν καὶ ἐμοὶ εἰς τὰ ἔθνη(for he who appointedPeter to the apostleship of the circumcision appointed me also to theGentiles);


καὶ γνόντες τὴν χάριν τὴν δοθεῖσάν μοι, Ἰάκωβος καὶ Κηφᾶς καὶ Ἰωάνης, οἱ δοκοῦντες στύλοι εἶναι, δεξιὰς ἔδωκαν ἐμοὶ καὶ Βαρνάβᾳ κοινωνίας, ἵνα ἡμεῖς εἰς τὰ ἔθνη, αὐτοὶ δὲ εἰς τὴν περιτομήν·and when they perceived the grace that was given tome, James and Cephas and John, they who were reputed to be pillars,gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, that we should goto the Gentiles, and they to the circumcision.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

47 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 32.42 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

32.42. אַשְׁכִּיר חִצַּי מִדָּם וְחַרְבִּי תֹּאכַל בָּשָׂר מִדַּם חָלָל וְשִׁבְיָה מֵרֹאשׁ פַּרְעוֹת אוֹיֵב׃ 32.42. I will make Mine arrows drunk with blood, And My sword shall devour flesh; With the blood of the slain and the captives, From the long-haired heads of the enemy.’"
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 39.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

39.27. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ אֶת־הַכָּתְנֹת שֵׁשׁ מַעֲשֵׂה אֹרֵג לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו׃ 39.27. And they made the tunics of fine linen of woven work for Aaron, and for his sons,"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 17.7, 17.9-17.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.7. וַהֲקִמֹתִי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי בֵּינִי וּבֵינֶךָ וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ לְדֹרֹתָם לִבְרִית עוֹלָם לִהְיוֹת לְךָ לֵאלֹהִים וּלְזַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ׃ 17.9. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־אַבְרָהָם וְאַתָּה אֶת־בְּרִיתִי תִשְׁמֹר אַתָּה וְזַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ לְדֹרֹתָם׃ 17.11. וּנְמַלְתֶּם אֵת בְּשַׂר עָרְלַתְכֶם וְהָיָה לְאוֹת בְּרִית בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם׃ 17.12. וּבֶן־שְׁמֹנַת יָמִים יִמּוֹל לָכֶם כָּל־זָכָר לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם יְלִיד בָּיִת וּמִקְנַת־כֶּסֶף מִכֹּל בֶּן־נֵכָר אֲשֶׁר לֹא מִזַּרְעֲךָ הוּא׃ 17.13. הִמּוֹל יִמּוֹל יְלִיד בֵּיתְךָ וּמִקְנַת כַּסְפֶּךָ וְהָיְתָה בְרִיתִי בִּבְשַׂרְכֶם לִבְרִית עוֹלָם׃ 17.14. וְעָרֵל זָכָר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִמּוֹל אֶת־בְּשַׂר עָרְלָתוֹ וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי הֵפַר׃ 17.7. And I will establish My covet between Me and thee and thy seed after thee throughout their generations for an everlasting covet, to be a God unto thee and to thy seed after thee." 17.9. And God said unto Abraham: ‘And as for thee, thou shalt keep My covet, thou, and thy seed after thee throughout their generations." 17.10. This is My covet, which ye shall keep, between Me and you and thy seed after thee: every male among you shall be circumcised." 17.11. And ye shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token of a covet betwixt Me and you." 17.12. And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every male throughout your generations, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any foreigner, that is not of thy seed." 17.13. He that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised; and My covet shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covet." 17.14. And the uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his people; he hath broken My covet.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 16.4, 21.1-21.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.4. כְּתֹנֶת־בַּד קֹדֶשׁ יִלְבָּשׁ וּמִכְנְסֵי־בַד יִהְיוּ עַל־בְּשָׂרוֹ וּבְאַבְנֵט בַּד יַחְגֹּר וּבְמִצְנֶפֶת בַּד יִצְנֹף בִּגְדֵי־קֹדֶשׁ הֵם וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם אֶת־בְּשָׂרוֹ וּלְבֵשָׁם׃ 21.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֱמֹר אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם לְנֶפֶשׁ לֹא־יִטַּמָּא בְּעַמָּיו׃ 21.1. וְהַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל מֵאֶחָיו אֲ‍שֶׁר־יוּצַק עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ שֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה וּמִלֵּא אֶת־יָדוֹ לִלְבֹּשׁ אֶת־הַבְּגָדִים אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ לֹא יִפְרָע וּבְגָדָיו לֹא יִפְרֹם׃ 21.2. כִּי אִם־לִשְׁאֵרוֹ הַקָּרֹב אֵלָיו לְאִמּוֹ וּלְאָבִיו וְלִבְנוֹ וּלְבִתּוֹ וּלְאָחִיו׃ 21.2. אוֹ־גִבֵּן אוֹ־דַק אוֹ תְּבַלֻּל בְּעֵינוֹ אוֹ גָרָב אוֹ יַלֶּפֶת אוֹ מְרוֹחַ אָשֶׁךְ׃ 21.3. וְלַאֲחֹתוֹ הַבְּתוּלָה הַקְּרוֹבָה אֵלָיו אֲשֶׁר לֹא־הָיְתָה לְאִישׁ לָהּ יִטַּמָּא׃ 21.4. לֹא יִטַּמָּא בַּעַל בְּעַמָּיו לְהֵחַלּוֹ׃ 16.4. He shall put on the holy linen tunic, and he shall have the linen breeches upon his flesh, and shall be girded with the linen girdle, and with the linen mitre shall he be attired; they are the holy garments; and he shall bathe his flesh in water, and put them on." 21.1. And the LORD said unto Moses: Speak unto the priests the sons of Aaron, and say unto them: There shall none defile himself for the dead among his people;" 21.2. except for his kin, that is near unto him, for his mother, and for his father, and for his son, and for his daughter, and for his brother;" 21.3. and for his sister a virgin, that is near unto him, that hath had no husband, for her may he defile himself." 21.4. He shall not defile himself, being a chief man among his people, to profane himself."
5. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 2.1-2.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.1. יְהוָה יֵחַתּוּ מריבו [מְרִיבָיו] עלו [עָלָיו] בַּשָּׁמַיִם יַרְעֵם יְהוָה יָדִין אַפְסֵי־אָרֶץ וְיִתֶּן־עֹז לְמַלְכּוֹ וְיָרֵם קֶרֶן מְשִׁיחוֹ׃ 2.1. וַתִּתְפַּלֵּל חַנָּה וַתֹּאמַר עָלַץ לִבִּי בַּיהוָה רָמָה קַרְנִי בַּיהוָה רָחַב פִּי עַל־אוֹיְבַי כִּי שָׂמַחְתִּי בִּישׁוּעָתֶךָ׃ 2.2. אֵין־קָדוֹשׁ כַּיהוָה כִּי אֵין בִּלְתֶּךָ וְאֵין צוּר כֵּאלֹהֵינוּ׃ 2.2. וּבֵרַךְ עֵלִי אֶת־אֶלְקָנָה וְאֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאָמַר יָשֵׂם יְהוָה לְךָ זֶרַע מִן־הָאִשָּׁה הַזֹּאת תַּחַת הַשְּׁאֵלָה אֲשֶׁר שָׁאַל לַיהוָה וְהָלְכוּ לִמְקֹמוֹ׃ 2.3. לָכֵן נְאֻם־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אָמוֹר אָמַרְתִּי בֵּיתְךָ וּבֵית אָבִיךָ יִתְהַלְּכוּ לְפָנַי עַד־עוֹלָם וְעַתָּה נְאֻם־יְהוָה חָלִילָה לִּי כִּי־מְכַבְּדַי אֲכַבֵּד וּבֹזַי יֵקָלּוּ׃ 2.3. אַל־תַּרְבּוּ תְדַבְּרוּ גְּבֹהָה גְבֹהָה יֵצֵא עָתָק מִפִּיכֶם כִּי אֵל דֵּעוֹת יְהוָה ולא [וְלוֹ] נִתְכְּנוּ עֲלִלוֹת׃ 2.4. קֶשֶׁת גִּבֹּרִים חַתִּים וְנִכְשָׁלִים אָזְרוּ חָיִל׃ 2.5. שְׂבֵעִים בַּלֶּחֶם נִשְׂכָּרוּ וּרְעֵבִים חָדֵלּוּ עַד־עֲקָרָה יָלְדָה שִׁבְעָה וְרַבַּת בָּנִים אֻמְלָלָה׃ 2.6. יְהוָה מֵמִית וּמְחַיֶּה מוֹרִיד שְׁאוֹל וַיָּעַל׃ 2.1. And Ĥanna prayed, and said, My heart rejoices in the Lord, my horn is exalted in the Lord: my mouth is enlarged over my enemies; because I rejoice in Thy salvation." 2.2. There is none holy as the Lord: for there is none beside Thee: neither is there any rock like our God." 2.3. Talk no more so very proudly; let not arrogancy come out of your mouth: for the Lord is a God of knowledge, and by him actions are weighed." 2.4. The bows of the mighty men are broken, and they that stumbled are girded with strength." 2.5. They that were full have hired out themselves for bread; and they that were hungry have ceased: while the barren has born seven; and she that has many children has become wretched." 2.6. The Lord kills, and gives life: he brings down to the grave, and brings up."
6. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.8, 6.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.8. וָאֶשְׁמַע אֶת־קוֹל אֲדֹנָי אֹמֵר אֶת־מִי אֶשְׁלַח וּמִי יֵלֶךְ־לָנוּ וָאֹמַר הִנְנִי שְׁלָחֵנִי׃ 6.12. וְרִחַק יְהוָה אֶת־הָאָדָם וְרַבָּה הָעֲזוּבָה בְּקֶרֶב הָאָרֶץ׃ 6.8. And I heard the voice of the Lord, saying: Whom shall I send, And who will go for us? Then I said: ‘Here am I; send me.’" 6.12. And the LORD have removed men far away, and the forsaken places be many in the midst of the land."
7. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 44.17-44.18 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

44.17. וְהָיָה בְּבוֹאָם אֶל־שַׁעֲרֵי הֶחָצֵר הַפְּנִימִית בִּגְדֵי פִשְׁתִּים יִלְבָּשׁוּ וְלֹא־יַעֲלֶה עֲלֵיהֶם צֶמֶר בְּשָׁרְתָם בְּשַׁעֲרֵי הֶחָצֵר הַפְּנִימִית וָבָיְתָה׃ 44.18. פַּאֲרֵי פִשְׁתִּים יִהְיוּ עַל־רֹאשָׁם וּמִכְנְסֵי פִשְׁתִּים יִהְיוּ עַל־מָתְנֵיהֶם לֹא יַחְגְּרוּ בַּיָּזַע׃ 44.17. And it shall be that when they enter in at the gates of the inner court, they shall be clothed with linen garments; and no wool shall come upon them, while they minister in the gates of the inner court, and within." 44.18. They shall have linen tires upon their heads, and shall have linen breeches upon their loins; they shall not gird themselves with any thing that causeth sweat."
8. Plato, Apology of Socrates, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

21b. But see why I say these things; for I am going to tell you whence the prejudice against me has arisen. For when I heard this, I thought to myself: What in the world does the god mean, and what riddle is he propounding? For I am conscious that I am not wise either much or little. What then does he mean by declaring that I am the wisest? He certainly cannot be lying, for that is not possible for him. And for a long time I was at a loss as to what he meant; then with great reluctance I proceeded to investigate him somewhat as follows.I went to one of those who had a reputation for wisdom
9. Anon., 1 Enoch, 91.14 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10. Anon., Jubilees, 4.20-4.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.20. and she bare him a son in the fifth week, in the fourth year of the jubilee, and he called his name Enoch. 4.21. And he was the first among men that are born on earth who learnt writing and knowledge and wisdom
11. Anon., Psalms of Solomon, 17.21, 17.24, 17.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

12. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.15, 1.48, 1.60, 2.46 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.15. and removed the marks of circumcision, and abandoned the holy covet. They joined with the Gentiles and sold themselves to do evil. 1.48. and to leave their sons uncircumcised. They were to make themselves abominable by everything unclean and profane 1.60. According to the decree, they put to death the women who had their children circumcised 2.46. they forcibly circumcised all the uncircumcised boys that they found within the borders of Israel.
13. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 6.9-6.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.9. and should slay those who did not choose to change over to Greek customs. One could see, therefore, the misery that had come upon them.' 6.10. For example, two women were brought in for having circumcised their children. These women they publicly paraded about the city, with their babies hung at their breasts, then hurled them down headlong from the wall.'
14. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 4.10, 17.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4.10. There was one who pleased God and was loved by him,and while living among sinners he was taken up.
15. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 1.8, 4.9, 16.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.9. But though I would fain write many things, not as a teacher, but as becometh one who loveth you not to fall short of that which we possess, I was anxious to write to you, being your devoted slave. Wherefore let us take heed in these last days. For the whole time of our faith shall profit us nothing, unless we now, in the season of lawlessness and in the offenses that shall be, as becometh sons of God, offer resistance, that the Black One may not effect an entrance. 16.7. I find then that there is a temple, How then shall it be built in the name of the Lord? Understand ye. Before we believed on God, the abode of our heart was corrupt and weak, a temple truly built by hands; for it was full of idolatry and was a house of demons, because we did whatsoever was contrary to God.
16. Anon., Didache, 9.1-10.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. Epictetus, Discourses, 4.1.1, 4.1.110, 4.7.17 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.192, 12.241, 13.63, 13.73, 13.257-13.258, 13.318, 20.101, 20.216-20.218 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.192. But he charged him, in order to keep his posterity unmixed with others, that they should be circumcised in the flesh of their foreskin, and that this should be done on the eighth day after they were born: the reason of which circumcision I will explain in another place. 12.241. Wherefore they desired his permission to build them a Gymnasium at Jerusalem. And when he had given them leave, they also hid the circumcision of their genitals, that even when they were naked they might appear to be Greeks. Accordingly, they left off all the customs that belonged to their own country, and imitated the practices of the other nations. 13.63. out of a desire to purchase to himself a memorial and eternal fame he resolved to send to king Ptolemy and queen Cleopatra, to ask leave of them that he might build a temple in Egypt like to that at Jerusalem, and might ordain Levites and priests out of their own stock. 13.73. However, Onias found other Jews like to himself, together with priests and Levites, that there performed divine service. But we have said enough about this temple. 13.257. Hyrcanus took also Dora and Marissa, cities of Idumea, and subdued all the Idumeans; and permitted them to stay in that country, if they would circumcise their genitals, and make use of the laws of the Jews; 13.258. and they were so desirous of living in the country of their forefathers, that they submitted to the use of circumcision, and of the rest of the Jewish ways of living; at which time therefore this befell them, that they were hereafter no other than Jews. 13.318. He was called a lover of the Grecians; and had conferred many benefits on his own country, and made war against Iturea, and added a great part of it to Judea, and compelled the inhabitants, if they would continue in that country, to be circumcised, and to live according to the Jewish laws. 20.101. Under these procurators that great famine happened in Judea, in which queen Helena bought corn in Egypt at a great expense, and distributed it to those that were in want, as I have related already. 20.216. 6. Now as many of the Levites, which is a tribe of ours, as were singers of hymns, persuaded the king to assemble a sanhedrim, and to give them leave to wear linen garments, as well as the priests for they said that this would be a work worthy the times of his government, that he might have a memorial of such a novelty, as being his doing. 20.217. Nor did they fail of obtaining their desire; for the king, with the suffrages of those that came into the sanhedrim, granted the singers of hymns this privilege, that they might lay aside their former garments, and wear such a linen one as they desired; 20.218. and as a part of this tribe ministered in the temple, he also permitted them to learn those hymns as they had besought him for. Now all this was contrary to the laws of our country, which, whenever they have been transgressed, we have never been able to avoid the punishment of such transgressions.
19. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 7.218 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.218. He also laid a tribute upon the Jews wheresoever they were, and enjoined every one of them to bring two drachmae every year into the Capitol, as they used to pay the same to the temple at Jerusalem. And this was the state of the Jewish affairs at this time.
20. Josephus Flavius, Life, 12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.5. How did they admonish witnesses in capital cases? They brought them in and admonished them, [saying], “Perhaps you will say something that is only a supposition or hearsay or secondhand, or even from a trustworthy man. Or perhaps you do not know that we shall check you with examination and inquiry? Know, moreover, that capital cases are not like non-capital cases: in non-capital cases a man may pay money and so make atonement, but in capital cases the witness is answerable for the blood of him [that is wrongfully condemned] and the blood of his descendants [that should have been born to him] to the end of the world.” For so have we found it with Cain that murdered his brother, for it says, “The bloods of your brother cry out” (Gen. 4:10). It doesn’t say, “The blood of your brother”, but rather “The bloods of your brother” meaning his blood and the blood of his descendants. Another saying is, “The bloods of your brother” that his blood was cast over trees and stones. Therefore but a single person was created in the world, to teach that if any man has caused a single life to perish from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had caused a whole world to perish; and anyone who saves a single soul from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had saved a whole world. Again [but a single person was created] for the sake of peace among humankind, that one should not say to another, “My father was greater than your father”. Again, [but a single person was created] against the heretics so they should not say, “There are many ruling powers in heaven”. Again [but a single person was created] to proclaim the greatness of the Holy Blessed One; for humans stamp many coins with one seal and they are all like one another; but the King of kings, the Holy Blessed One, has stamped every human with the seal of the first man, yet not one of them are like another. Therefore everyone must say, “For my sake was the world created.” And if perhaps you [witnesses] would say, “Why should we be involved with this trouble”, was it not said, “He, being a witness, whether he has seen or known, [if he does not speak it, then he shall bear his iniquity] (Lev. 5:1). And if perhaps you [witnesses] would say, “Why should we be guilty of the blood of this man?, was it not said, “When the wicked perish there is rejoicing” (Proverbs 11:10).]"
22. Mishnah, Yoma, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.4. They spread out a linen sheet between him and the people. He stripped off [his clothes], went down and immersed himself, came up and dried himself. They brought him the golden garments, he put them on and sanctified his hands and feet. They brought him the tamid. He made the required cut and some one else finished it for him. He received the blood and sprinkled it. He went inside to smoke the morning incense and to trim the lamps; And to offer up the head and the limbs and the griddle cakes and the wine."
23. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the chosen ones who are living as strangers in the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia
24. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 4.1, 4.21, 5.11, 7.10, 7.12, 7.17, 7.19, 7.25, 7.39, 8.7, 9.5-9.7, 9.11, 9.24-9.27, 15.3-15.8, 15.50, 16.1-16.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.1. So let a man think of us as Christ's servants, and stewards ofGod's mysteries. 4.21. What do you want? Shall I cometo you with a rod, or in love and a spirit of gentleness? 5.11. But as it is, I wrote to you notto associate with anyone who is called a brother who is a sexualsinner, or covetous, or an idolater, or a slanderer, or a drunkard, oran extortioner. Don't even eat with such a person. 7.10. But to the married I command-- not I, but the Lord -- that the wife not leave her husband 7.12. But to the rest I -- not the Lord -- say, if any brother hasan unbelieving wife, and she is content to live with him, let him notleave her. 7.17. Only, as the Lord hasdistributed to each man, as God has called each, so let him walk. So Icommand in all the assemblies. 7.19. Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision isnothing, but the keeping of the commandments of God. 7.25. Now concerning virgins, I have no commandment from the Lord,but I give my judgment as one who has obtained mercy from the Lord tobe trustworthy. 7.39. A wife is bound by law for as long as her husband lives;but if the husband is dead, she is free to be married to whoever shedesires, only in the Lord. 8.7. However, that knowledgeisn't in all men. But some, with consciousness of the idol until now,eat as of a thing sacrificed to an idol, and their conscience, beingweak, is defiled. 9.5. Have we noright to take along a wife who is a believer, even as the rest of theapostles, and the brothers of the Lord, and Cephas? 9.6. Or have onlyBarnabas and I no right to not work? 9.7. What soldier ever serves athis own expense? Who plants a vineyard, and doesn't eat of its fruit?Or who feeds a flock, and doesn't drink from the flock's milk? 9.11. If we sowed to you spiritual things, is it a great thing if wereap your fleshly things? 9.24. Don't youknow that those who run in a race all run, but one receives the prize?Run like that, that you may win. 9.25. Every man who strives in thegames exercises self-control in all things. Now they do it to receive acorruptible crown, but we an incorruptible. 9.26. I therefore run likethat, as not uncertainly. I fight like that, as not beating the air 9.27. but I beat my body and bring it into submission, lest by anymeans, after I have preached to others, I myself should be rejected. 15.3. For I delivered to youfirst of all that which I also received: that Christ died for our sinsaccording to the Scriptures 15.4. that he was buried, that he wasraised on the third day according to the Scriptures 15.5. and that heappeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. 15.6. Then he appeared to overfive hundred brothers at once, most of whom remain until now, but somehave also fallen asleep. 15.7. Then he appeared to James, then to allthe apostles 15.8. and last of all, as to the child born at the wrongtime, he appeared to me also. 15.50. Now I say this, brothers, that flesh and blood can'tinherit the Kingdom of God; neither does corruption inheritincorruption. 16.1. Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I commandedthe assemblies of Galatia, you do likewise. 16.2. On the first day ofthe week, let each one of you save, as he may prosper, that nocollections be made when I come. 16.3. When I arrive, I will sendwhoever you approve with letters to carry your gracious gift toJerusalem. 16.4. If it is appropriate for me to go also, they will gowith me. 16.5. But I will come to you when I have passed throughMacedonia, for I am passing through Macedonia.
25. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 2.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.14. For you, brothers, became imitators of the assemblies of God which are in Judea in Christ Jesus; for you also suffered the same things from your own countrymen, even as they did from the Jews;
26. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 5.17-5.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.17. Let the elders who rule well be counted worthy of double honor, especially those who labor in the word and in teaching. 5.18. For the Scripture says, "You shall not muzzle the ox when it treads out the grain." And, "The laborer is worthy of his wages.
27. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.16, 5.3, 5.9, 8.1-8.4, 8.7, 8.13-8.15, 8.19, 8.24, 9.2-9.6, 9.8-9.15, 12.1-12.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

28. New Testament, Acts, 1.3, 2.46-2.47, 3.19-3.26, 4.35-4.37, 6.1-6.5, 7.5, 8.5-8.13, 8.26-8.40, 9.1-9.2, 9.8-9.22, 9.26-9.28, 10.2-10.3, 10.10-10.11, 10.15, 10.19, 10.28, 10.34, 10.41, 11.2-11.3, 11.5, 11.8-11.9, 11.12, 11.17-11.18, 11.21-11.30, 12.24-12.25, 13.1-13.3, 13.6-13.8, 13.42-13.50, 14.1-14.4, 14.11-14.15, 14.19-14.20, 14.22-14.24, 15.1-15.29, 15.34-15.40, 16.11, 18.12-18.17, 20.4, 20.6, 20.22, 21.16-21.26, 21.28, 22.17-22.22, 24.17 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.3. To these he also showed himself alive after his suffering by many proofs, appearing to them over a period of forty days, and spoke about God's Kingdom. 2.46. Day by day, continuing steadfastly with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread at home, they took their food with gladness and singleness of heart 2.47. praising God, and having favor with all the people. The Lord added to the assembly day by day those who were being saved. 3.19. Repent therefore, and turn again, that your sins may be blotted out, that so there may come times of refreshing from the presence of the Lord 3.20. and that he may send Christ Jesus, who was ordained for you before 3.21. whom the heaven must receive until the times of restoration of all things, whereof God spoke by the mouth of his holy prophets that have been from ancient times. 3.22. For Moses indeed said to the fathers, 'The Lord God will raise up a prophet to you from among your brothers, like me. You shall listen to him in all things whatever he says to you. 3.23. It will be, that every soul that will not listen to that prophet will be utterly destroyed from among the people.' 3.24. Yes, and all the prophets from Samuel and those who followed after, as many as have spoken, they also told of these days. 3.25. You are the sons of the prophets, and of the covet which God made with our fathers, saying to Abraham, 'In your seed will all the families of the earth be blessed.' 3.26. God, having raised up his servant, Jesus, sent him to you first, to bless you, in turning away everyone of you from your wickedness. 4.35. and laid them at the apostles' feet, and distribution was made to each, according as anyone had need. 4.36. Joses, who by the apostles was surnamed Barnabas (which is, being interpreted, Son of Exhortation), a Levite, a man of Cyprus by race 4.37. having a field, sold it, and brought the money and laid it at the apostles' feet. 6.1. Now in those days, when the number of the disciples was multiplying, there arose a grumbling of the Grecian Jews against the Hebrews because their widows were neglected in the daily service. 6.2. The twelve summoned the multitude of the disciples and said, "It is not appropriate for us to forsake the word of God and serve tables. 6.3. Therefore select from among you, brothers, seven men of good report, full of the Holy Spirit and of wisdom, whom we may appoint over this business. 6.4. But we will continue steadfastly in prayer and in the ministry of the word. 6.5. These words pleased the whole multitude. They chose Stephen, a man full of faith and of the Holy Spirit, Philip, Prochorus, Nicanor, Timon, Parmenas, and Nicolaus, a proselyte of Antioch; 7.5. He gave him no inheritance in it, no, not so much as to set his foot on. He promised that he would give it to him in possession, and to his seed after him, when he still had no child. 8.5. Philip went down to the city of Samaria, and proclaimed to them the Christ. 8.6. The multitudes listened with one accord to the things that were spoken by Philip, when they heard and saw the signs which he did. 8.7. For unclean spirits came out of many of those who had them. They came out, crying with a loud voice. Many who had been paralyzed and lame were healed. 8.8. There was great joy in that city. 8.9. But there was a certain man, Simon by name, who had used sorcery in the city before, and amazed the people of Samaria, making himself out to be some great one 8.10. to whom they all listened, from the least to the greatest, saying, "This man is that great power of God. 8.11. They listened to him, because for a long time he had amazed them with his sorceries. 8.12. But when they believed Philip preaching good news concerning the Kingdom of God and the name of Jesus Christ, they were baptized, both men and women. 8.13. Simon himself also believed. Being baptized, he continued with Philip. Seeing signs and great miracles done, he was amazed. 8.26. But an angel of the Lord spoke to Philip, saying, "Arise, and go toward the south to the way that goes down from Jerusalem to Gaza. This is a desert. 8.27. He arose and went. Behold, there was a man of Ethiopia, a eunuch of great authority under Candace, queen of the Ethiopians, who was over all her treasure, who had come to Jerusalem to worship. 8.28. He was returning and sitting in his chariot, and was reading the prophet Isaiah. 8.29. The Spirit said to Philip, "Go near, and join yourself to this chariot. 8.30. Philip ran to him, and heard him reading Isaiah the prophet, and said, "Do you understand what you are reading? 8.31. He said, "How can I, unless someone explains it to me?" He begged Philip to come up and sit with him. 8.32. Now the passage of the Scripture which he was reading was this, "He was led as a sheep to the slaughter. As a lamb before his shearer is silent, So he doesn't open his mouth. 8.33. In his humiliation, his judgment was taken away. Who will declare His generations? For his life is taken from the earth. 8.34. The eunuch answered Philip, "Please tell who the prophet is talking about: about himself, or about some other? 8.35. Philip opened his mouth, and beginning from this Scripture, preached to him Jesus. 8.36. As they went on the way, they came to some water, and the eunuch said, "Behold, here is water. What is keeping me from being baptized? 8.38. He commanded the chariot to stand still, and they both went down into the water, both Philip and the eunuch, and he baptized him. 8.39. When they came up out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord caught Philip away, and the eunuch didn't see him any more, for he went on his way rejoicing. 8.40. But Philip was found at Azotus. Passing through, he preached the gospel to all the cities, until he came to Caesarea. 9.1. But Saul, still breathing threats and slaughter against the disciples of the Lord, went to the high priest 9.2. and asked for letters from him to the synagogues of Damascus, that if he found any who were of the Way, whether men or women, he might bring them bound to Jerusalem. 9.8. Saul arose from the ground, and when his eyes were opened, he saw no one. They led him by the hand, and brought him into Damascus. 9.9. He was without sight for three days, and neither ate nor drank. 9.10. Now there was a certain disciple at Damascus named Aias. The Lord said to him in a vision, "Aias!"He said, "Behold, it's me, Lord. 9.11. The Lord said to him, "Arise, and go to the street which is called Straight, and inquire in the house of Judas for one named Saul, a man of Tarsus. For behold, he is praying 9.12. and in a vision he has seen a man named Aias coming in, and laying his hands on him, that he might receive his sight. 9.13. But Aias answered, "Lord, I have heard from many about this man, how much evil he did to your saints at Jerusalem. 9.14. Here he has authority from the chief priests to bind all who call on your name. 9.15. But the Lord said to him, "Go your way, for he is my chosen vessel to bear my name before the nations and kings, and the children of Israel. 9.16. For I will show him how many things he must suffer for my name's sake. 9.17. Aias departed, and entered into the house. Laying his hands on him, he said, "Brother Saul, the Lord, who appeared to you in the way which you came, has sent me, that you may receive your sight, and be filled with the Holy Spirit. 9.18. Immediately something like scales fell from his eyes, and he received his sight. He arose and was baptized. 9.19. He took food and was strengthened. Saul stayed several days with the disciples who were at Damascus. 9.20. Immediately in the synagogues he proclaimed the Christ, that he is the Son of God. 9.21. All who heard him were amazed, and said, "Isn't this he who in Jerusalem made havoc of those who called on this name? And he had come here intending to bring them bound before the chief priests! 9.22. But Saul increased more in strength, and confounded the Jews who lived at Damascus, proving that this is the Christ. 9.26. When Saul had come to Jerusalem, he tried to join himself to the disciples. They were all afraid of him, not believing that he was a disciple. 9.27. But Barnabas took him, and brought him to the apostles, and declared to them how he had seen the Lord in the way, and that he had spoken to him, and how at Damascus he had preached boldly in the name of Jesus. 9.28. He was with them going in and going out at Jerusalem 10.2. a devout man, and one who feared God with all his house, who gave gifts for the needy generously to the people, and always prayed to God. 10.3. At about the ninth hour of the day, he clearly saw in a vision an angel of God coming to him, and saying to him, "Cornelius! 10.10. He became hungry and desired to eat, but while they were preparing, he fell into a trance. 10.11. He saw heaven opened and a certain container descending to him, like a great sheet let down by four corners on the earth 10.15. A voice came to him again the second time, "What God has cleansed, you must not make unholy. 10.19. While Peter thought about the vision, the Spirit said to him, "Behold, three men seek you. 10.28. He said to them, "You yourselves know how it is an unlawful thing for a man who is a Jew to join himself or come to one of another nation, but God has shown me that I shouldn't call any man unholy or unclean. 10.34. Peter opened his mouth and said, "Truly I perceive that God doesn't show favoritism; 10.41. not to all the people, but to witnesses who were chosen before by God, to us, who ate and drank with him after he rose from the dead. 11.2. When Peter had come up to Jerusalem, those who were of the circumcision contended with him 11.3. saying, "You went in to uncircumcised men, and ate with them! 11.5. I was in the city of Joppa praying, and in a trance I saw a vision: a certain container descending, like it was a great sheet let down from heaven by four corners. It came as far as me 11.8. But I said, 'Not so, Lord, for nothing unholy or unclean has ever entered into my mouth.' 11.9. But a voice answered me the second time out of heaven, 'What God has cleansed, don't you make unholy.' 11.12. The Spirit told me to go with them, without discriminating. These six brothers also accompanied me, and we entered into the man's house. 11.17. If then God gave to them the same gift as us, when we believed in the Lord Jesus Christ, who was I, that I could withstand God? 11.18. When they heard these things, they held their peace, and glorified God, saying, "Then God has also granted to the Gentiles repentance to life! 11.21. The hand of the Lord was with them, and a great number believed and turned to the Lord. 11.22. The report concerning them came to the ears of the assembly which was in Jerusalem. They sent out Barnabas to go as far as Antioch 11.23. who, when he had come, and had seen the grace of God, was glad. He exhorted them all, that with purpose of heart they would remain near to the Lord. 11.24. For he was a good man, and full of the Holy Spirit and of faith, and many people were added to the Lord. 11.25. Barnabas went out to Tarsus to look for Saul. 11.26. When he had found him, he brought him to Antioch. It happened, that even for a whole year they were gathered together with the assembly, and taught many people. The disciples were first called Christians in Antioch. 11.27. Now in these days, prophets came down from Jerusalem to Antioch. 11.28. One of them named Agabus stood up, and indicated by the Spirit that there should be a great famine over all the world, which also happened in the days of Claudius. 11.29. The disciples, as anyone had plenty, each determined to send relief to the brothers who lived in Judea; 11.30. which they also did, sending it to the elders by the hands of Barnabas and Saul. 12.24. But the word of God grew and multiplied. 12.25. Barnabas and Saul returned to Jerusalem, when they had fulfilled their service, also taking with them John whose surname was Mark. 13.1. Now in the assembly that was at Antioch there were some prophets and teachers: Barnabas, Simeon who was called Niger, Lucius of Cyrene, Manaen the foster-brother of Herod the tetrarch, and Saul. 13.2. As they served the Lord and fasted, the Holy Spirit said, "Separate Barnabas and Saul for me, for the work to which I have called them. 13.3. Then, when they had fasted and prayed and laid their hands on them, they sent them away. 13.6. When they had gone through the island to Paphos, they found a certain sorcerer, a false prophet, a Jew, whose name was Bar Jesus 13.7. who was with the proconsul, Sergius Paulus, a man of understanding. The same summoned Barnabas and Saul, and sought to hear the word of God. 13.8. But Elymas the sorcerer (for so is his name by interpretation) withstood them, seeking to turn aside the proconsul from the faith. 13.42. So when the Jews went out of the synagogue, the Gentiles begged that these words might be preached to them the next Sabbath. 13.43. Now when the synagogue broke up, many of the Jews and of the devout proselytes followed Paul and Barnabas; who, speaking to them, urged them to continue in the grace of God. 13.44. The next Sabbath almost the whole city was gathered together to hear the word of God. 13.45. But when the Jews saw the multitudes, they were filled with jealousy, and contradicted the things which were spoken by Paul, and blasphemed. 13.46. Paul and Barnabas spoke out boldly, and said, "It was necessary that God's word should be spoken to you first. Since indeed you thrust it from you, and judge yourselves unworthy of eternal life, behold, we turn to the Gentiles. 13.47. For so has the Lord commanded us, saying, 'I have set you as a light of the Gentiles, That you should be for salvation to the uttermost parts of the earth.' 13.48. As the Gentiles heard this, they were glad, and glorified the word of God. As many as were appointed to eternal life believed. 13.49. The Lord's word was spread abroad throughout all the region. 13.50. But the Jews urged on the devout women of honorable estate, and the chief men of the city, and stirred up a persecution against Paul and Barnabas, and threw them out of their borders. 14.1. It happened in Iconium that they entered together into the synagogue of the Jews, and so spoke that a great multitude both of Jews and of Greeks believed. 14.2. But the disobedient Jews stirred up and embittered the souls of the Gentiles against the brothers. 14.3. Therefore they stayed there a long time, speaking boldly in the Lord, who testified to the word of his grace, granting signs and wonders to be done by their hands. 14.4. But the multitude of the city was divided. Part sided with the Jews, and part with the apostles. 14.11. When the multitude saw what Paul had done, they lifted up their voice, saying in the language of Lycaonia, "The gods have come down to us in the likeness of men! 14.12. They called Barnabas "Jupiter," and Paul "Mercury," because he was the chief speaker. 14.13. The priest of Jupiter, whose temple was in front of their city, brought oxen and garlands to the gates, and would have made a sacrifice with the multitudes. 14.14. But when the apostles, Barnabas and Paul, heard of it, they tore their clothes, and sprang into the multitude, crying out 14.15. Men, why are you doing these things? We also are men of like passions with you, and bring you good news, that you should turn from these vain things to the living God, who made the sky and the earth and the sea, and all that is in them; 14.19. But some Jews from Antioch and Iconium came there, and having persuaded the multitudes, they stoned Paul, and dragged him out of the city, supposing that he was dead. 14.20. But as the disciples stood around him, he rose up, and entered into the city. On the next day he went out with Barnabas to Derbe. 14.22. confirming the souls of the disciples, exhorting them to continue in the faith, and that through many afflictions we must enter into the Kingdom of God. 14.23. When they had appointed elders for them in every assembly, and had prayed with fasting, they commended them to the Lord, on whom they had believed. 14.24. They passed through Pisidia, and came to Pamphylia. 15.1. Some men came down from Judea and taught the brothers, "Unless you are circumcised after the custom of Moses, you can't be saved. 15.2. Therefore when Paul and Barnabas had no small discord and discussion with them, they appointed Paul and Barnabas, and some others of them, to go up to Jerusalem to the apostles and elders about this question. 15.3. They, being sent on their way by the assembly, passed through both Phoenicia and Samaria, declaring the conversion of the Gentiles. They caused great joy to all the brothers. 15.4. When they had come to Jerusalem, they were received by the assembly and the apostles and the elders, and they reported all things that God had done with them. 15.5. But some of the sect of the Pharisees who believed rose up, saying, "It is necessary to circumcise them, and to charge them to keep the law of Moses. 15.6. The apostles and the elders were gathered together to see about this matter. 15.7. When there had been much discussion, Peter rose up and said to them, "Brothers, you know that a good while ago God made choice among you, that by my mouth the Gentiles should hear the word of the gospel, and believe. 15.8. God, who knows the heart, testified about them, giving them the Holy Spirit, just like he did to us. 15.9. He made no distinction between us and them, cleansing their hearts by faith. 15.10. Now therefore why do you tempt God, that you should put a yoke on the neck of the disciples which neither our fathers nor we were able to bear? 15.11. But we believe that we are saved through the grace of the Lord Jesus, just as they are. 15.12. All the multitude kept silence, and they listened to Barnabas and Paul reporting what signs and wonders God had done among the Gentiles through them. 15.13. After they were silent, James answered, "Brothers, listen to me. 15.14. Simeon has reported how God first visited the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name. 15.15. This agrees with the words of the prophets. As it is written 15.16. 'After these things I will return. I will again build the tent of David, which has fallen. I will again build its ruins. I will set it up 15.17. That the rest of men may seek after the Lord; All the Gentiles who are called by my name, Says the Lord, who does all these things. 15.18. All his works are known to God from eternity.' 15.19. Therefore my judgment is that we don't trouble those from among the Gentiles who turn to God 15.20. but that we write to them that they abstain from the pollution of idols, from sexual immorality, from what is strangled, and from blood. 15.21. For Moses from generations of old has in every city those who preach him, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath. 15.22. Then it seemed good to the apostles and the elders, with the whole assembly, to choose men out of their company, and send them to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas: Judas called Barsabbas, and Silas, chief men among the brothers. 15.23. They wrote these things by their hand: "The apostles, the elders, and the brothers, to the brothers who are of the Gentiles in Antioch, Syria, and Cilicia: greetings. 15.24. Because we have heard that some who went out from us have troubled you with words, unsettling your souls, saying, 'You must be circumcised and keep the law,' to whom we gave no commandment; 15.25. it seemed good to us, having come to one accord, to choose out men and send them to you with our beloved Barnabas and Paul 15.26. men who have risked their lives for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. 15.27. We have sent therefore Judas and Silas, who themselves will also tell you the same things by word of mouth. 15.28. For it seemed good to the Holy Spirit, and to us, to lay no greater burden on you than these necessary things: 15.29. that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality, from which if you keep yourselves, it will be well with you. Farewell. 15.35. But Paul and Barnabas stayed in Antioch, teaching and preaching the word of the Lord, with many others also. 15.36. After some days Paul said to Barnabas, "Let's return now and visit our brothers in every city in which we proclaimed the word of the Lord, to see how they are doing. 15.37. Barnabas planned to take John with them also, who was called Mark. 15.38. But Paul didn't think that it was a good idea to take with them someone who withdrew from them from Pamphylia, and didn't go with them to do the work. 15.39. Then there arose a sharp contention, so that they separated from each other. Barnabas took Mark with him, and sailed away to Cyprus 15.40. but Paul chose Silas, and went out, being commended by the brothers to the grace of God. 16.11. Setting sail therefore from Troas, we made a straight course to Samothrace, and the day following to Neapolis; 18.12. But when Gallio was proconsul of Achaia, the Jews with one accord rose up against Paul and brought him before the judgment seat 18.13. saying, "This man persuades men to worship God contrary to the law. 18.14. But when Paul was about to open his mouth, Gallio said to the Jews, "If indeed it were a matter of wrong or of wicked crime, Jews, it would be reasonable that I should bear with you; 18.15. but if they are questions about words and names and your own law, look to it yourselves. For I don't want to be a judge of these matters. 18.16. He drove them from the judgment seat. 18.17. Then all the Greeks laid hold on Sosthenes, the ruler of the synagogue, and beat him before the judgment seat. Gallio didn't care about any of these things. 20.4. These accompanied him as far as Asia: Sopater of Beroea; Aristarchus and Secundus of the Thessalonians; Gaius of Derbe; Timothy; and Tychicus and Trophimus of Asia. 20.6. We sailed away from Philippi after the days of Unleavened Bread, and came to them at Troas in five days, where we stayed seven days. 20.22. Now, behold, I go bound by the Spirit to Jerusalem, not knowing what will happen to me there; 21.16. Some of the disciples from Caesarea also went with us, bringing one Mnason of Cyprus, an early disciple, with whom we would stay. 21.17. When we had come to Jerusalem, the brothers received us gladly. 21.18. The day following, Paul went in with us to James; and all the elders were present. 21.19. When he had greeted them, he reported one by one the things which God had worked among the Gentiles through his ministry. 21.20. They, when they heard it, glorified God. They said to him, "You see, brother, how many thousands there are among the Jews of those who have believed, and they are all zealous for the law. 21.21. They have been informed about you, that you teach all the Jews who are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, telling them not to circumcise their children neither to walk after the customs. 21.22. What then? The assembly must certainly meet, for they will hear that you have come. 21.23. Therefore do what we tell you. We have four men who have a vow on them. 21.24. Take them, and purify yourself with them, and pay their expenses for them, that they may shave their heads. Then all will know that there is no truth in the things that they have been informed about you, but that you yourself also walk keeping the law. 21.25. But concerning the Gentiles who believe, we have written our decision that they should observe no such thing, except that they should keep themselves from food offered to idols, from blood, from strangled things, and from sexual immorality. 21.26. Then Paul took the men, and the next day, purified himself and went with them into the temple, declaring the fulfillment of the days of purification, until the offering was offered for every one of them. 21.28. crying out, "Men of Israel, help! This is the man who teaches all men everywhere against the people, and the law, and this place. Moreover, he also brought Greeks into the temple, and has defiled this holy place! 22.17. It happened that, when I had returned to Jerusalem, and while I prayed in the temple, I fell into a trance 22.18. and saw him saying to me, 'Hurry and get out of Jerusalem quickly, because they will not receive testimony concerning me from you.' 22.19. I said, 'Lord, they themselves know that I imprisoned and beat in every synagogue those who believed in you. 22.20. When the blood of Stephen, your witness, was shed, I also was standing by, and consenting to his death, and guarding the cloaks of those who killed him.' 22.21. He said to me, 'Depart, for I will send you out far from here to the Gentiles.' 22.22. They listened to him until he said that, then they lifted up their voice, and said, "Rid the earth of this fellow, for he isn't fit to live! 24.17. Now after some years, I came to bring gifts to the needy to my nation, and offerings;
29. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.14, 2.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.14. But I have a few things against you, because you have there some who hold the teaching of Balaam, who taught Balak to throw a stumbling block before the children of Israel , to eat things sacrificed to idols, and to commit sexual immorality. 2.20. But I have this against you, that you tolerate your woman, Jezebel, who calls herself a prophetess. She teaches and seduces my servants to commit sexual immorality, and to eat things sacrificed to idols.
30. New Testament, James, 1.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.11. For the sun arises with the scorching wind, and withers the grass, and the flower in it falls, and the beauty of its appearance perishes. So also will the rich man fade away in his pursuits.
31. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.2, 5.15-5.33 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.2. in which you once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the powers of the air, the spirit who now works in the sons of disobedience; 5.15. Therefore watch carefully how you walk, not as unwise, but as wise; 5.16. redeeming the time, because the days are evil. 5.17. Therefore don't be foolish, but understand what the will of the Lord is. 5.18. Don't be drunken with wine, in which is dissipation, but be filled with the Spirit 5.19. speaking to one another in psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs; singing, and singing praises in your heart to the Lord; 5.20. giving thanks always concerning all things in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, to God, even the Father; 5.21. subjecting yourselves one to another in the fear of Christ. 5.22. Wives, be subject to your own husbands, as to the Lord. 5.23. For the husband is the head of the wife, and Christ also is the head of the assembly, being himself the savior of the body. 5.24. But as the assembly is subject to Christ, so let the wives also be to their own husbands in everything. 5.25. Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the assembly, and gave himself up for it; 5.26. that he might sanctify it, having cleansed it by the washing of water with the word 5.27. that he might present the assembly to himself gloriously, not having spot or wrinkle or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish. 5.28. Even so ought husbands also to love their own wives as their own bodies. He who loves his own wife loves himself. 5.29. For no man ever hated his own flesh; but nourishes and cherishes it, even as the Lord also does the assembly; 5.30. because we are members of his body, of his flesh and bones. 5.31. For this cause a man will leave his father and mother, and will be joined to his wife. The two will become one flesh. 5.32. This mystery is great, but I speak concerning Christ and of the assembly. 5.33. Nevertheless each of you must also love his own wife even as himself; and let the wife see that she respects her husband.
32. New Testament, Galatians, 1, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.14, 1.15, 1.16, 1.17, 1.18, 1.19, 1.20, 1.21, 1.22, 1.23, 1.24, 1.25, 2, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 2.19, 2.20, 2.21, 3, 3.2, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 3.20, 3.21, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 3.25, 3.26, 3.27, 3.28, 3.29, 4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.5, 4.7, 4.8, 4.21-5.1, 4.22, 4.25, 4.26, 4.30, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5.13, 6.6, 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

33. New Testament, Hebrews, 7.1-7.28, 11.32, 13.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.1. For this Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of God Most High, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings and blessed him 7.2. to whom also Abraham divided a tenth part of all (being first, by interpretation, king of righteousness, and then also king of Salem, which is king of peace; 7.3. without father, without mother, without genealogy, having neither beginning of days nor end of life, but made like the Son of God), remains a priest continually. 7.4. Now consider how great this man was, to whom even Abraham, the patriarch, gave a tenth out of the best spoils. 7.5. They indeed of the sons of Levi who receive the priest's office have a commandment to take tithes of the people according to the law, that is, of their brothers, though these have come out of the loins of Abraham 7.6. but he whose genealogy is not counted from them has taken tithes of Abraham, and has blessed him who has the promises. 7.7. But without any dispute the less is blessed by the better. 7.8. Here people who die receive tithes, but there one receives tithes of whom it is testified that he lives. 7.9. So to say, through Abraham even Levi, who receives tithes, has paid tithes 7.10. for he was yet in the loins of his father when Melchizedek met him. 7.11. Now if there was perfection through the Levitical priesthood (for under it the people have received the law), what further need was there for another priest to arise after the order of Melchizedek, and not be called after the order of Aaron? 7.12. For the priesthood being changed, there is of necessity a change made also in the law. 7.13. For he of whom these things are said belongs to another tribe, from which no one has officiated at the altar. 7.14. For it is evident that our Lord has sprung out of Judah, about which tribe Moses spoke nothing concerning priesthood. 7.15. This is yet more abundantly evident, if after the likeness of Melchizedek there arises another priest 7.16. who has been made, not after the law of a fleshly commandment, but after the power of an endless life: 7.17. for it is testified, "You are a priest forever, According to the order of Melchizedek. 7.18. For there is an annulling of a foregoing commandment because of its weakness and uselessness 7.19. (for the law made nothing perfect), and a bringing in thereupon of a better hope, through which we draw near to God. 7.20. Inasmuch as he was not made priest without the taking of an oath 7.21. (for they indeed have been made priests without an oath), but he with an oath by him that says of him, "The Lord swore and will not change his mind, 'You are a priest forever, According to the order of Melchizedek'". 7.22. By so much has Jesus become the collateral of a better covet. 7.23. Many, indeed, have been made priests, because they are hindered from continuing by death. 7.24. But he, because he lives forever, has his priesthood unchangeable. 7.25. Therefore he is also able to save to the uttermost those who draw near to God through him, seeing he ever lives to make intercession for them. 7.26. For such a high priest was fitting for us: holy, guiltless, undefiled, separated from sinners, and made higher than the heavens; 7.27. who doesn't need, like those high priests, to daily offer up sacrifices, first for his own sins, and then for the sins of the people. For this he did once for all, when he offered up himself. 7.28. For the law appoints men as high priests who have weakness, but the word of the oath which came after the law appoints a Son forever who has been perfected. 11.32. What more shall I say? For the time would fail me if I told of Gideon, Barak, Samson, Jephthah, David, Samuel, and the prophets; 13.7. Remember your leaders, men who spoke to you the word of God, and considering the results of their conduct, imitate their faith.
34. New Testament, Philippians, 1.10, 2.16, 3.5, 3.12-3.14, 3.20, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. so that you may approve the things that are excellent; that you may be sincere and without offense to the day of Christ; 2.16. holding up the word of life; that I may have something to boast in the day of Christ, that I didn't run in vain nor labor in vain. 3.5. circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; concerning the law, a Pharisee; 3.12. Not that I have already obtained, or am already made perfect; but I press on, if it is so that I may take hold of that for which also I was taken hold of by Christ Jesus. 3.13. Brothers, I don't regard myself as yet having taken hold, but one thing I do. Forgetting the things which are behind, and stretching forward to the things which are before 3.14. I press on toward the goal for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus. 3.20. For our citizenship is in heaven, from where we also wait for a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ; 4.3. Yes, I beg you also, true yoke-fellow, help these women, for they labored with me in the gospel, with Clement also, and the rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the book of life.
35. New Testament, Romans, 1, 1.5, 1.6, 1.13, 1.14, 1.16, 1.16-2.29, 2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 2.25, 2.26, 2.27, 2.28, 2.29, 3, 3.1, 4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.21, 4.22, 4.23, 4.24, 4.25, 5, 6, 7, 8, 8.34, 9, 9.4, 9.5, 9.16, 10, 11, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 11.10, 11.11, 11.12, 11.13, 11.14, 11.15, 11.16, 11.17, 11.18, 11.19, 11.20, 11.21, 11.22, 11.23, 11.24, 11.25, 11.26, 11.27, 11.28, 11.29, 11.30, 11.31, 11.32, 12.2, 14, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 15, 15.10, 15.16, 15.17, 15.18, 15.19, 15.20, 15.21, 15.22, 15.24, 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.28, 15.29, 15.30, 15.31, 15.32, 16.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

36. New Testament, Titus, 1.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. For the overseer must be blameless, as God's steward; not self-pleasing, not easily angered, not given to wine, not violent, not greedy for dishonest gain;
37. New Testament, John, 1.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.19. This is John's testimony, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, "Who are you?
38. New Testament, Luke, 1.54, 5.14, 7.1-7.10, 10.32, 16.16-16.18, 22.7-22.14, 24.30 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.54. He has given help to Israel, his servant, that he might remember mercy 5.14. He charged him to "Tell no one, but go your way, and show yourself to the priest, and offer for your cleansing according to what Moses commanded, for a testimony to them. 7.1. After he had finished speaking in the hearing of the people, he entered into Capernaum. 7.2. A certain centurion's servant, who was dear to him, was sick and at the point of death. 7.3. When he heard about Jesus, he sent to him elders of the Jews, asking him to come and save his servant. 7.4. When they came to Jesus, they begged him earnestly, saying, "He is worthy for you to do this for him 7.5. for he loves our nation, and he built our synagogue for us. 7.6. Jesus went with them. When he was now not far from the house, the centurion sent friends to him, saying to him, "Lord, don't trouble yourself, for I am not worthy for you to come under my roof. 7.7. Therefore I didn't even think myself worthy to come to you; but say the word, and my servant will be healed. 7.8. For I also am a man placed under authority, having under myself soldiers. I tell this one, 'Go!' and he goes; and to another, 'Come!' and he comes; and to my servant, 'Do this,' and he does it. 7.9. When Jesus heard these things, he marveled at him, and turned and said to the multitude who followed him, "I tell you, I have not found such great faith, no, not in Israel. 7.10. Those who were sent, returning to the house, found that the servant who had been sick was well. 10.32. In the same way a Levite also, when he came to the place, and saw him, passed by on the other side. 16.16. The law and the prophets were until John. From that time the gospel of the Kingdom of God is preached, and everyone is forcing his way into it. 16.17. But it is easier for heaven and earth to pass away, than for one tiny stroke of a pen in the law to fall. 16.18. Everyone who divorces his wife, and marries another, commits adultery. He who marries one who is divorced from a husband commits adultery. 22.7. The day of unleavened bread came, on which the Passover must be sacrificed. 22.8. He sent Peter and John, saying, "Go and prepare the Passover for us, that we may eat. 22.9. They said to him, "Where do you want us to prepare? 22.10. He said to them, "Behold, when you have entered into the city, a man carrying a pitcher of water will meet you. Follow him into the house which he enters. 22.11. Tell the master of the house, 'The Teacher says to you, "Where is the guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?"' 22.12. He will show you a large, furnished upper room. Make preparations there. 22.13. They went, found things as he had told them, and they prepared the Passover. 22.14. When the hour had come, he sat down with the twelve apostles. 24.30. It happened, that when he had sat down at the table with them, he took the bread and gave thanks. Breaking it, he gave to them.
39. New Testament, Mark, 1.44, 2.13-2.14, 2.23-2.28, 3.1-3.6, 3.31-3.35, 7.27, 9.5, 14.12-14.17, 14.58 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.44. and said to him, "See you say nothing to anybody, but go show yourself to the priest, and offer for your cleansing the things which Moses commanded, for a testimony to them. 2.13. He went out again by the seaside. All the multitude came to him, and he taught them. 2.14. As he passed by, he saw Levi, the son of Alphaeus, sitting at the tax office, and he said to him, "Follow me." And he arose and followed him. 2.23. It happened that he was going on the Sabbath day through the grain fields, and his disciples began, as they went, to pluck the ears of grain. 2.24. The Pharisees said to him, "Behold, why do they do that which is not lawful on the Sabbath day? 2.25. He said to them, "Did you never read what David did, when he had need, and was hungry -- he, and they who were with him? 2.26. How he entered into the house of God when Abiathar was high priest, and ate the show bread, which it is not lawful to eat except for the priests, and gave also to those who were with him? 2.27. He said to them, "The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath. 2.28. Therefore the Son of Man is lord even of the Sabbath. 3.1. He entered again into the synagogue, and there was a man there who had his hand withered. 3.2. They watched him, whether he would heal him on the Sabbath day, that they might accuse him. 3.3. He said to the man who had his hand withered, "Stand up. 3.4. He said to them, "Is it lawful on the Sabbath day to do good, or to do harm? To save a life, or to kill?" But they were silent. 3.5. When he had looked around at them with anger, being grieved at the hardening of their hearts, he said to the man, "Stretch out your hand." He stretched it out, and his hand was restored as healthy as the other. 3.6. The Pharisees went out, and immediately conspired with the Herodians against him, how they might destroy him. 3.31. His mother and his brothers came, and standing outside, they sent to him, calling him. 3.32. A multitude was sitting around him, and they told him, "Behold, your mother, your brothers, and your sisters are outside looking for you. 3.33. He answered them, "Who are my mother and my brothers? 3.34. Looking around at those who sat around him, he said, "Behold, my mother and my brothers! 3.35. For whoever does the will of God, the same is my brother, and my sister, and mother. 7.27. But Jesus said to her, "Let the children be filled first, for it is not appropriate to take the children's bread and throw it to the dogs. 9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah. 14.12. On the first day of unleavened bread, when they sacrificed the Passover, his disciples asked him, "Where do you want us to go and make ready that you may eat the Passover? 14.13. He sent two of his disciples, and said to them, "Go into the city, and there you will meet a man carrying a pitcher of water. Follow him 14.14. and wherever he enters in, tell the master of the house, 'The Teacher says, "Where is the guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?"' 14.15. He will himself show you a large upper room furnished and ready. Make ready for us there. 14.16. His disciples went out, and came into the city, and found things as he had said to them, and they prepared the Passover. 14.17. When it was evening he came with the twelve. 14.58. We heard him say, 'I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and in three days I will build another made without hands.'
40. New Testament, Matthew, 5.14, 5.23-5.24, 5.34-5.35, 8.4-8.13, 16.17, 23.21, 26.17-26.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.14. You are the light of the world. A city located on a hill can't be hidden. 5.23. If therefore you are offering your gift at the altar, and there remember that your brother has anything against you 5.24. leave your gift there before the altar, and go your way. First be reconciled to your brother, and then come and offer your gift. 5.34. but I tell you, don't swear at all: neither by heaven, for it is the throne of God; 5.35. nor by the earth, for it is the footstool of his feet; nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King. 8.4. Jesus said to him, "See that you tell nobody, but go, show yourself to the priest, and offer the gift that Moses commanded, as a testimony to them. 8.5. When he came into Capernaum, a centurion came to him, asking him 8.6. and saying, "Lord, my servant lies in the house paralyzed, grievously tormented. 8.7. Jesus said to him, "I will come and heal him. 8.8. The centurion answered, "Lord, I'm not worthy for you to come under my roof. Just say the word, and my servant will be healed. 8.9. For I am also a man under authority, having under myself soldiers. I tell this one, 'Go,' and he goes; and to another, 'Come,' and he comes; and to my servant, 'Do this,' and he does it. 8.10. When Jesus heard it, he marveled, and said to those who followed, "Most assuredly I tell you, I haven't found so great a faith, not even in Israel. 8.11. I tell you that many will come from the east and the west, and will sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the Kingdom of Heaven 8.12. but the sons of the kingdom will be thrown out into the outer darkness. There will be weeping and the gnashing of teeth. 8.13. Jesus said to the centurion, "Go your way. Let it be done for you as you as you have believed." His servant was healed in that hour. 16.17. Jesus answered him, "Blessed are you, Simon Bar Jonah, for flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my Father who is in heaven. 23.21. He who swears by the temple, swears by it, and by him who is living in it. 26.17. Now on the first day of unleavened bread, the disciples came to Jesus, saying to him, "Where do you want us to prepare for you to eat the Passover? 26.18. He said, "Go into the city to a certain person, and tell him, 'The Teacher says, "My time is at hand. I will keep the Passover at your house with my disciples."' 26.19. The disciples did as Jesus commanded them, and they prepared the Passover. 26.20. Now when evening had come, he was reclining at the table with the twelve disciples.
41. Seneca The Younger, De Vita Beata (Dialogorum Liber Vii), 15.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

42. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 8.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

43. Suetonius, Domitianus, 12.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

44. Tosefta, Demai, 2.2-2.3, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

45. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 66.7.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

46. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 3.12 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

47. Tertullian, Against Marcion, 3.5.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, offspring Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368
abraham Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 588
achaia Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 17; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 478
acts (new testament) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
acts of the apostles Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 85; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 132, 411, 418
adiaphora/indistinguishable/neutral Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 102, 104
allegory, allegorical interpretation Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 179
anacletus Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
ancestors Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368
angels Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 60, 132
antioch, incident at Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 130, 162
antioch Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253; Edelmann-Singer et al., Sceptic and Believer in Ancient Mediterranean Religions (2020) 171; Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 60, 61; Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 88
antioch (syrian) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 466, 477, 478
antiochene Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 371, 477
apocalyptic(ism) (see also dualism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 409
apostle Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27, 347, 370, 371, 409, 477, 478, 482, 588
apostles decree Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27
apostleship Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 60
apostolate, (com)mission Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 371
apostolic council Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 143, 162
apostolic council (= acts Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 247
apostolic decree Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 143
apostolic tradition Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 247; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 409
apostolikon, marcions Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 247
apuleius Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 355
aristobulus, allegorical exegesis of ot Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 179
aristobulus, paul comparison Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 179
aristobulus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 179
aristotle Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 347
ascent to heaven Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 418
asia minor Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 478
athletics/training Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 99, 101
augustine Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 347
authority Papaioannou et al., Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 172; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou, Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 172
authority of ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27
avtalyon Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 588
azotus Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 193
baptism Edelmann-Singer et al., Sceptic and Believer in Ancient Mediterranean Religions (2020) 171; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 588
barnabas Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 13; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 371, 466, 477, 568; Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 143, 162
besa, commemoration of shenoute Dilley, Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline (2019) 251
betz, hans dieter Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 88
birth Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
bishops Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
blessing Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 60
blood Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
boasting Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 418
boer, marinus de Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 85
borders v Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 372
boundary Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 372, 373
boundary marker Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 373
bread Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
bultmann, rudolf Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 234
caesarea (by the sea) Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 193
canon (scriptural), canonical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 588
cephas (peter) Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 88
christianity, convert Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 17
christianity, early history Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 139
christology, christological Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 409
church Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 60, 132
churches/tradition of paul pauline Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27, 370
circumcision, faction Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 130
circumcision, of gentiles Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 162
circumcision Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 179; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 347, 588; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 372, 373
city Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368
commemoration of community founders Dilley, Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline (2019) 251
contradiction Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 5
contribution, corinthian Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 13, 17
conversionist tendencies deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 268
corinth Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 60, 61; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 482
cornelius Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 132
covenant Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
covenantal nomism Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 172
creation Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
creator Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
cross Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
culture, cultural affiliations in galilee Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 139, 173, 179
daly, robert j. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 218
damascus Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368
daniel, book of Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 132
darkness deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 268
davies, w. d. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 218
demetrius, chronographer, hellenistic historiography Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 179
demetrius, chronographer Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 179
diaspora Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 179
divine presence Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 218
domitian passim, esp. Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 60, 61
elder), paul comparison Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 179
elder) Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 179
encounter Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
enoch xviii, xix Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 60
epistle of barnabas, authorship Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 269
eucharist Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 218; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27
example, of churches Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 17
ezekiel, tragedian, paul comparison Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 179
ezekiel, tragedian Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 179
faith, pistis Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 88
first day of the week Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
fiscus judaicus, jewish tax Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 477, 482
forgiveness Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
fredriksen, paula Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 218
freedom (eleutheria) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 99, 100, 101, 104, 105
from cave Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 60
fulfillment Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 373
galatians, letter to the Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 85, 88; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 411, 418
galatians Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
galilee Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 234
garden of eden Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 60
gaza Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 193
ga¨rtner, bertil Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 218
gentile, debt to jews Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 17
gentile Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 347
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27, 370, 371, 466, 477, 478, 482, 568
gentiles, covenant with god Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 88
gentiles, jews and Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 88
gentiles Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368, 372
god, identification of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 268
god-fearers Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 60
good (agathos) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 99, 100, 106
gospel of the circumcision Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27, 371, 466, 568, 588
gospels, new testament Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 132
gospels Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
greek, language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27
greek-jewish (graeco-jewish), literature and culture Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27
greek language Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
greek paideia, jewish use Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 179
hagiography, commemoration Dilley, Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline (2019) 251
halakha, formulated in greek Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27
halakha, in the new testament Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27
halakhah Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 162
hebrews and hellenists Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 139
helena, queen of adiabene Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 478
hellenism, hellenistic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 409
hellenists Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 173
historical tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 409
history of halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27
holy of holies Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 411
homer, model for hellenistic jews Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 179
homer Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 179
hypocrisy Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
idolatry Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 60, 61; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27
idols, food offered to Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27
intermediates Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 101, 105
isaiah, book of Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 411
isaiah Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 193
israel, land of Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
israel Edelmann-Singer et al., Sceptic and Believer in Ancient Mediterranean Religions (2020) 171
james, brother of jesus Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 88
james Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 130, 143, 162
james (brother of jesus) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 371, 466, 482, 568
jerome, de viris illustribus Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 269
jerusalem, agreement at Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 130, 143
jerusalem Edelmann-Singer et al., Sceptic and Believer in Ancient Mediterranean Religions (2020) 171; Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 5; Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 60, 61; Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 193; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368, 372, 373
jerusalem church Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27, 371, 409, 466, 477, 478
jerusalem council Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 234
jesus, choosing of the twelve Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 234
jesus, claim to kingship Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 350
jesus, last supper of Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 218
jesus-believing gentiles, status within the jesus movement Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 162
jesus Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 162
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 371, 409, 466, 482
jew Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368, 372, 373
jewish-christian group, commmunity Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 371, 482
jewish-christian tradition, custom Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27
jewish christianity, early forms Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 139
jewish practices/torah observance, circumcision Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 99, 100, 101, 103, 104, 105, 106
jewish practices/torah observance Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 100, 103
jewish war Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 193
jews, judaism, gentiles and Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 88
jews Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 193
john (disciple) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 466
josephus Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 5
judaea (roman province; see also yehud) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 466, 477, 478, 482, 568
judaism, acceptance of hellenism Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 179
judaism and hellenism Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 179
judaize, judaizing (ioudaïzein) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 371, 466, 482, 568
judaizing Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 105, 106
jupiter temple (jerusalem) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 477, 482
just Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
law, biblical Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 247, 405
law Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
law in paul Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 347, 370, 371, 568
levi (new testament) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
levites, in josephus Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 183
levites, in the new testament Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 183
levites Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253; Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 183
light deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 268
linus Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
lives of pachomius, on commemorating pachomius Dilley, Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline (2019) 251
luke, gospel of Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 132
luke Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 477, 478
luther Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 373
lã¼hrmann, dieter Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 85
m. antonius felix Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 193
macedonia Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 17; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 478
magic Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 193
marital relations Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27
mark (gospel writer and gospel) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
marriage (see also divorce) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27
mary Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
merkava xiii–xvi, xix Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 411
messiah Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27, 466
metamorphoses Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 355
metaphor(ical) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 466
midrash, genealogies of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 5
midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 588
mission, to the gentiles Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 130, 143
missionary Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 13
moses, law of Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 234
moses Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 60; Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 247, 405
muhammad Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
mystery, mysteries deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 268
mystery Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 60
mysticism, mystical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 409
myth Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
narratives Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
necessity/require (anagkē, anagkazō) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 100, 104, 105, 106
neither/nothing (oudeteros/ouden) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 102
new perspective Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 373
newton, michael Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 218
non-jew Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368, 372, 373
observance of law Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 370, 478
old person deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 268
palestine Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 193
papias Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 193
paradise, pardes, entered pardes Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 411, 418
paraenesis Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 568
paul, allegory use Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 179
paul, apostle, gospel Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 88
paul, apostle, travels Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 85, 88
paul, argument for apostolic authority Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 352
paul, aristobulus comparison Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 179
paul, as persecutor Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 179
paul, corinthians Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 13
paul, epistles, dating of Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 354
paul, relations with jerusalem church Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 139
paul Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253; Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 60, 61; Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 193; Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 218; Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 247, 405; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 17; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 60, 132, 411, 418; Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 143, 162
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27, 347, 370, 371, 409, 466, 477, 478, 482, 568, 588
pecosh Dilley, Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline (2019) 251
peter Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253; Edelmann-Singer et al., Sceptic and Believer in Ancient Mediterranean Religions (2020) 171; Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 247, 405; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 132; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
peter (cephas) Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 88
peter (cephas, simon –) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 371, 409, 466, 482, 568
pharisees/pharisaism Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 5
philip (apostle) Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 193
philip (evangelist) Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 193
philippi (macedonia) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 478
philo of alexandria Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 179
pistis, faith Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 88
plato, aristobulus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 179
plato Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 179
polytheism Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 60, 61
poor, the Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 466, 477, 478, 568
poverty Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 17
power, power of god, powers Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 60
power Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
prayer Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 411
priest, priesthood Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 418
priests Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 346
prophets Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
proselyte, proselytism Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 466
protestant Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 370
purity/impurity Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
purity Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 183
purity laws Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27
pythagoras, pythagorean, neopythagoean Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 179
qumran Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 183
qumran community Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 27
qumran documents Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 588
rabban gamliel Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 5
rabbis Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 588; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
reciprocity Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 17
reformation (see also protestant) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 347
resurrection Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 409
revelation, the apocalypse of jesus christ Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 60
rhetoric, rhetorical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 568
rhodon Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
roman catholic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 347
rome Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
sabbath, plucking grain on Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 346, 350
sacrifice, imagery Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 13
sacrifice Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 132
salvation Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89; Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 105
samaria Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 193
sending, divine emissary Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 411
shammai, shammai, house of Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 350
shemaya Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 588
shenoute, commemoration Dilley, Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline (2019) 251
simon, the magician Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 193
slavery Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 99, 100, 101, 104, 105, 106
socrates Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 101, 102
spirit Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 193
stephen Huttner, Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley (2013) 193; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 411
suffering Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 89
synagogue Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 370, 482
synedrion Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 183
table-fellowship, in antioch Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 162
telos Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 101
temple Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 411, 418
temple mount, jerusalem temple Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 183
tertullian, on modesty Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 269
theodore, commemoration of pachomius Dilley, Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline (2019) 251