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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8250
New Testament, Galatians, 1.10


Ἄρτι γὰρ ἀνθρώπους πείθω ἢ τὸν θεόν; ἢ ζητῶ ἀνθρώποις ἀρέσκειν; εἰ ἔτι ἀνθρώποις ἤρεσκον, Χριστοῦ δοῦλος οὐκ ἂν ἤμην.For am I now seeking thefavor of men, or of God? Or am I striving to please men? For if I werestill pleasing men, I wouldn't be a servant of Christ.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

27 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 34 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 16.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

16.2. לֹא־תִקַּח לְךָ אִשָּׁה וְלֹא־יִהְיוּ לְךָ בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 16.2. הֲיַעֲשֶׂה־לּוֹ אָדָם אֱלֹהִים וְהֵמָּה לֹא אֱלֹהִים׃ 16.2. Thou shalt not take thee a wife, neither shalt thou have sons or daughters in this place."
3. Aristotle, Politics, 1.5.6 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 3.1-3.30 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.1. אנתה [אַנְתְּ] מַלְכָּא שָׂמְתָּ טְּעֵם דִּי כָל־אֱנָשׁ דִּי־יִשְׁמַע קָל קַרְנָא מַשְׁרֹקִיתָא קיתרס [קַתְרוֹס] שַׂבְּכָא פְסַנְתֵּרִין וסיפניה [וְסוּפֹּנְיָה] וְכֹל זְנֵי זְמָרָא יִפֵּל וְיִסְגֻּד לְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא׃ 3.1. נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא עֲבַד צְלֵם דִּי־דְהַב רוּמֵהּ אַמִּין שִׁתִּין פְּתָיֵהּ אַמִּין שִׁת אֲקִימֵהּ בְּבִקְעַת דּוּרָא בִּמְדִינַת בָּבֶל׃ 3.2. וּנְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא שְׁלַח לְמִכְנַשׁ לַאֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנַיָּא סִגְנַיָּא וּפַחֲוָתָא אֲדַרְגָּזְרַיָּא גְדָבְרַיָּא דְּתָבְרַיָּא תִּפְתָּיֵא וְכֹל שִׁלְטֹנֵי מְדִינָתָא לְמֵתֵא לַחֲנֻכַּת צַלְמָא דִּי הֲקֵים נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא׃ 3.2. וּלְגֻבְרִין גִּבָּרֵי־חַיִל דִּי בְחַיְלֵהּ אֲמַר לְכַפָּתָה לְשַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ לְמִרְמֵא לְאַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא׃ 3.3. בֵּאדַיִן מַלְכָּא הַצְלַח לְשַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ בִּמְדִינַת בָּבֶל׃ 3.3. בֵּאדַיִן מִתְכַּנְּשִׁין אֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנַיָּא סִגְנַיָּא וּפַחֲוָתָא אֲדַרְגָּזְרַיָּא גְדָבְרַיָּא דְּתָבְרַיָּא תִּפְתָּיֵא וְכֹל שִׁלְטֹנֵי מְדִינָתָא לַחֲנֻכַּת צַלְמָא דִּי הֲקֵים נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא וקאמין [וְקָיְמִין] לָקֳבֵל צַלְמָא דִּי הֲקֵים נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר׃ 3.4. וְכָרוֹזָא קָרֵא בְחָיִל לְכוֹן אָמְרִין עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַּיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא׃ 3.5. בְּעִדָּנָא דִּי־תִשְׁמְעוּן קָל קַרְנָא מַשְׁרוֹקִיתָא קיתרוס [קַתְרוֹס] סַבְּכָא פְּסַנְתֵּרִין סוּמְפֹּנְיָה וְכֹל זְנֵי זְמָרָא תִּפְּלוּן וְתִסְגְּדוּן לְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא דִּי הֲקֵים נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא׃ 3.6. וּמַן־דִּי־לָא יִפֵּל וְיִסְגֻּד בַּהּ־שַׁעֲתָא יִתְרְמֵא לְגוֹא־אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא׃ 3.7. כָּל־קֳבֵל דְּנָה בֵּהּ־זִמְנָא כְּדִי שָׁמְעִין כָּל־עַמְמַיָּא קָל קַרְנָא מַשְׁרוֹקִיתָא קיתרס [קַתְרוֹס] שַׂבְּכָא פְּסַנְטֵרִין וְכֹל זְנֵי זְמָרָא נָפְלִין כָּל־עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא סָגְדִין לְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא דִּי הֲקֵים נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא׃ 3.8. כָּל־קֳבֵל דְּנָה בֵּהּ־זִמְנָא קְרִבוּ גֻּבְרִין כַּשְׂדָּאִין וַאֲכַלוּ קַרְצֵיהוֹן דִּי יְהוּדָיֵא׃ 3.9. עֲנוֹ וְאָמְרִין לִנְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא מַלְכָּא לְעָלְמִין חֱיִי׃ 3.11. וּמַן־דִּי־לָא יִפֵּל וְיִסְגֻּד יִתְרְמֵא לְגוֹא־אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא׃ 3.12. אִיתַי גֻּבְרִין יְהוּדָאיִן דִּי־מַנִּיתָ יָתְהוֹן עַל־עֲבִידַת מְדִינַת בָּבֶל שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ גֻּבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ לָא־שָׂמוּ עליך [עֲלָךְ] מַלְכָּא טְעֵם לאלהיך [לֵאלָהָךְ] לָא פָלְחִין וּלְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא דִּי הֲקֵימְתָּ לָא סָגְדִין׃ 3.13. בֵּאדַיִן נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר בִּרְגַז וַחֲמָה אֲמַר לְהַיְתָיָה לְשַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ בֵּאדַיִן גֻּבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ הֵיתָיוּ קֳדָם מַלְכָּא׃ 3.14. עָנֵה נְבֻכַדְנֶצַּר וְאָמַר לְהוֹן הַצְדָּא שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ לֵאלָהַי לָא אִיתֵיכוֹן פָּלְחִין וּלְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא דִּי הֲקֵימֶת לָא סָגְדִין׃ 3.15. כְּעַן הֵן אִיתֵיכוֹן עֲתִידִין דִּי בְעִדָּנָא דִּי־תִשְׁמְעוּן קָל קַרְנָא מַשְׁרוֹקִיתָא קיתרס [קַתְרוֹס] שַׂבְּכָא פְּסַנְתֵּרִין וְסוּמְפֹּנְיָה וְכֹל זְנֵי זְמָרָא תִּפְּלוּן וְתִסְגְּדוּן לְצַלְמָא דִי־עַבְדֵת וְהֵן לָא תִסְגְּדוּן בַּהּ־שַׁעֲתָה תִתְרְמוֹן לְגוֹא־אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא וּמַן־הוּא אֱלָהּ דֵּי יְשֵׁיזְבִנְכוֹן מִן־יְדָי׃ 3.16. עֲנוֹ שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ וְאָמְרִין לְמַלְכָּא נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר לָא־חַשְׁחִין אֲנַחְנָה עַל־דְּנָה פִּתְגָם לַהֲתָבוּתָךְ׃ 3.17. הֵן אִיתַי אֱלָהַנָא דִּי־אֲנַחְנָא פָלְחִין יָכִל לְשֵׁיזָבוּתַנָא מִן־אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא וּמִן־יְדָךְ מַלְכָּא יְשֵׁיזִב׃ 3.18. וְהֵן לָא יְדִיעַ לֶהֱוֵא־לָךְ מַלְכָּא דִּי לאלהיך [לֵאלָהָךְ] לָא־איתינא [אִיתַנָא] פָלְחִין וּלְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא דִּי הֲקֵימְתָּ לָא נִסְגֻּד׃ 3.19. בֵּאדַיִן נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר הִתְמְלִי חֱמָא וּצְלֵם אַנְפּוֹהִי אשתנו [אֶשְׁתַּנִּי] עַל־שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ עָנֵה וְאָמַר לְמֵזֵא לְאַתּוּנָא חַד־שִׁבְעָה עַל דִּי חֲזֵה לְמֵזְיֵהּ׃ 3.21. בֵּאדַיִן גֻּבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ כְּפִתוּ בְּסַרְבָּלֵיהוֹן פטישיהון [פַּטְּשֵׁיהוֹן] וְכַרְבְּלָתְהוֹן וּלְבֻשֵׁיהוֹן וּרְמִיו לְגוֹא־אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא׃ 3.22. כָּל־קֳבֵל דְּנָה מִן־דִּי מִלַּת מַלְכָּא מַחְצְפָה וְאַתּוּנָא אֵזֵה יַתִּירָא גֻּבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ דִּי הַסִּקוּ לְשַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ קַטִּל הִמּוֹן שְׁבִיבָא דִּי נוּרָא׃ 3.23. וְגֻבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ תְּלָתֵּהוֹן שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ נְפַלוּ לְגוֹא־אַתּוּן־נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא מְכַפְּתִין׃ 3.24. אֱדַיִן נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא תְּוַהּ וְקָם בְּהִתְבְּהָלָה עָנֵה וְאָמַר לְהַדָּבְרוֹהִי הֲלָא גֻבְרִין תְּלָתָא רְמֵינָא לְגוֹא־נוּרָא מְכַפְּתִין עָנַיִן וְאָמְרִין לְמַלְכָּא יַצִּיבָא מַלְכָּא׃ 3.25. עָנֵה וְאָמַר הָא־אֲנָה חָזֵה גֻּבְרִין אַרְבְּעָה שְׁרַיִן מַהְלְכִין בְּגוֹא־נוּרָא וַחֲבָל לָא־אִיתַי בְּהוֹן וְרֵוֵהּ דִּי רביעיא [רְבִיעָאָה] דָּמֵה לְבַר־אֱלָהִין׃ 3.26. בֵּאדַיִן קְרֵב נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר לִתְרַע אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא עָנֵה וְאָמַר שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד־נְגוֹ עַבְדוֹהִי דִּי־אֱלָהָא עליא [עִלָּאָה] פֻּקוּ וֶאֱתוֹ בֵּאדַיִן נָפְקִין שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ מִן־גּוֹא נוּרָא׃ 3.27. וּמִתְכַּנְּשִׁין אֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנַיָּא סִגְנַיָּא וּפַחֲוָתָא וְהַדָּבְרֵי מַלְכָּא חָזַיִן לְגֻבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ דִּי לָא־שְׁלֵט נוּרָא בְּגֶשְׁמְהוֹן וּשְׂעַר רֵאשְׁהוֹן לָא הִתְחָרַךְ וְסָרְבָּלֵיהוֹן לָא שְׁנוֹ וְרֵיחַ נוּר לָא עֲדָת בְּהוֹן׃ 3.28. עָנֵה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר וְאָמַר בְּרִיךְ אֱלָהֲהוֹן דִּי־שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ דִּי־שְׁלַח מַלְאֲכֵהּ וְשֵׁיזִב לְעַבְדוֹהִי דִּי הִתְרְחִצוּ עֲלוֹהִי וּמִלַּת מַלְכָּא שַׁנִּיו וִיהַבוּ גשמיהון [גֶשְׁמְהוֹן] דִּי לָא־יִפְלְחוּן וְלָא־יִסְגְּדוּן לְכָל־אֱלָהּ לָהֵן לֵאלָהֲהוֹן׃ 3.29. וּמִנִּי שִׂים טְעֵם דִּי כָל־עַם אֻמָּה וְלִשָּׁן דִּי־יֵאמַר שלה [שָׁלוּ] עַל אֱלָהֲהוֹן דִּי־שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹא הַדָּמִין יִתְעֲבֵד וּבַיְתֵהּ נְוָלִי יִשְׁתַּוֵּה כָּל־קֳבֵל דִּי לָא אִיתַי אֱלָה אָחֳרָן דִּי־יִכֻּל לְהַצָּלָה כִּדְנָה׃ 3.1. Nebuchadnezzar the king made an image of gold, whose height was threescore cubits, and the breadth thereof six cubits; he set it up in the plain of Dura, in the province of Babylon." 3.2. Then Nebuchadnezzar the king sent to gather together the satraps, the prefects, and the governors, the judges, the treasurers, the counsellors, the sheriffs, and all the rulers of the provinces, to come to the dedication of the image which Nebuchadnezzar the king had set up." 3.3. Then the satraps, the prefects, and the governors, the judges, the treasurers, the counsellors, the sheriffs, and all the rulers of the provinces, were gathered together unto the dedication of the image that Nebuchadnezzar the king had set up; and they stood before the image that Nebuchadnezzar had set up." 3.4. And the herald cried aloud: ‘To you it is commanded, O peoples, nations, and languages," 3.5. that at what time ye hear the sound of the horn, pipe, harp, trigon, psaltery, bagpipe, and all kinds of music, ye fall down and worship the golden image that Nebuchadnezzar the king hath set up;" 3.6. and whoso falleth not down and worshippeth shall the same hour be cast into the midst of a burning fiery furnace.’" 3.7. Therefore at that time, when all the peoples heard the sound of the horn, pipe, harp, trigon, psaltery, and all kinds of music, all the peoples, the nations, and the languages, fell down and worshipped the golden image that Nebuchadnezzar the king had set up." 3.8. Wherefore at that time certain Chaldeans came near, and brought accusation against the Jews." 3.9. They spoke and said to Nebuchadnezzar the king: ‘O king, live for ever!" 3.10. Thou, O king, hast made a decree, that every man that shall hear the sound of the horn, pipe, harp, trigon, psaltery, and bagpipe, and all kinds of music, shall fall down and worship the golden image;" 3.11. and whoso falleth not down and worshippeth shall be cast into the midst of a burning fiery furnace." 3.12. There are certain Jews whom thou hast appointed over the affairs of the province of Babylon, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego; these men, O king, have not regarded thee: they serve not thy gods, nor worship the golden image which thou hast set up.’" 3.13. Then Nebuchadnezzar in his rage and fury commanded to bring Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego. Then were these men brought before the king." 3.14. Nebuchadnezzar spoke and said unto them: ‘Is it true, O Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, that ye serve not my gods, nor worship the golden image which I have set up?" 3.15. Now if ye be ready that at what time ye hear the sound of the horn, pipe, harp, trigon, psaltery, and bagpipe, and all kinds of music, ye fall down and worship the image which I have made, well; but if ye worship not, ye shall be cast the same hour into the midst of a burning fiery furnace; and who is the god that shall deliver you out of my hands?’" 3.16. Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, answered and said to the king: ‘O Nebuchadnezzar, we have no need to answer thee in this matter." 3.17. If our God whom we serve is able to deliver us, He will deliver us from the burning fiery furnace, and out of thy hand, O king." 3.18. But if not, be it known unto thee, O king, that we will not serve thy gods, nor worship the golden image which thou hast set up.’" 3.19. Then was Nebuchadnezzar filled with fury, and the form of his visage was changed, against Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego; he spoke, and commanded that they should heat the furnace seven times more than it was wont to be heated." 3.20. And he commanded certain mighty men that were in his army to bind Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, and to cast them into the burning fiery furnace." 3.21. Then these men were bound in their cloaks, their tunics, and their robes, and their other garments, and were cast into the midst of the burning fiery furnace." 3.22. Therefore because the king’s commandment was peremptory, and the furnace exceeding hot, the flame of the fire slew those men that took up Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego." 3.23. And these three men, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, fell down bound into the midst of the burning fiery furnace." 3.24. Then Nebuchadnezzar the king was alarmed, and rose up in haste; he spoke and said unto his ministers: ‘Did not we cast three men bound into the midst of the fire?’ They answered and said unto the king: ‘True, O king.’" 3.25. He answered and said: ‘Lo, I see four men loose, walking in the midst of the fire, and they have no hurt; and the appearance of the fourth is like a son of the gods.’" 3.26. Then Nebuchadnezzar came near to the mouth of the burning fiery furnace; he spoke and said: ‘Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, ye servants of God Most High, come forth, and come hither.’ Then Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, came forth out of the midst of the fire." 3.27. And the satraps, the prefects, and the governors, and the king’s ministers, being gathered together, saw these men, that the fire had no power upon their bodies, nor was the hair of their head singed, neither were their cloaks changed, nor had the smell of fire passed on them." 3.28. Nebuchadnezzar spoke and said: ‘Blessed be the God of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, who hath sent His angel, and delivered His servants that trusted in Him, and have changed the king’s word, and have yielded their bodies, that they might not serve nor worship any god, except their own God." 3.29. Therefore I make a decree, that every people, nation, and language, which speak any thing amiss against the God of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, shall be cut in pieces, and their houses shall be made a dunghill; because there is no other god that is able to deliver after this sort.’" 3.30. Then the king promoted Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, in the province of Babylon."
5. Epictetus, Discourses, 4.1.1, 4.7.17 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.76, 3.83, 3.212, 3.222, 3.317-3.318, 4.14, 4.327-4.331 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.76. When he had said this, he ascended up to Mount Sinai, which is the highest of all the mountains that are in that country and is not only very difficult to be ascended by men, on account of its vast altitude, but because of the sharpness of its precipices also; nay, indeed, it cannot be looked at without pain of the eyes: and besides this, it was terrible and inaccessible, on account of the rumor that passed about, that God dwelt there. 3.83. 3. When they were under these apprehensions, Moses appeared as joyful and greatly exalted. When they saw him, they were freed from their fear, and admitted of more comfortable hopes as to what was to come. The air also was become clear and pure of its former disorders, upon the appearance of Moses; 3.212. 8. But Moses refused all that honor which he saw the multitude ready to bestow upon him, and attended to nothing else but the service of God. He went no more up to Mount Sinai; but he went into the tabernacle, and brought back answers from God for what he prayed for. His habit was also that of a private man, and in all other circumstances he behaved himself like one of the common people, and was desirous to appear without distinguishing himself from the multitude, but would have it known that he did nothing else but take care of them. 3.222. Every one of the heads of the tribes brought also other sacrifices, called peace-offerings, for every day two bulls, and five rams, with lambs of a year old, and kids of the goats. These heads of tribes were twelve days in sacrificing, one sacrificing every day. Now Moses went no longer up to Mount Sinai, but went into the tabernacle, and learned of God what they were to do, and what laws should be made; 3.317. 3. But this man was admirable for his virtue, and powerful in making men give credit to what he delivered, not only during the time of his natural life, but even there is still no one of the Hebrews who does not act even now as if Moses were present, and ready to punish him if he should do any thing that is indecent; nay, there is no one but is obedient to what laws he ordained, although they might be concealed in their transgressions. 3.318. There are also many other demonstrations that his power was more than human, for still some there have been, who have come from the parts beyond Euphrates, a journey of four months, through many dangers, and at great expenses, in honor of our temple; and yet, when they had offered their oblations, could not partake of their own sacrifices, because Moses had forbidden it, by somewhat in the law that did not permit them, or somewhat that had befallen them, which our ancient customs made inconsistent therewith; 4.14. o far indeed that this transgression was already gone through the whole army of the young men, and they fell into a sedition that was much worse than the former, and into danger of the entire abolition of their own institutions; for when once the youth had tasted of these strange customs, they went with insatiable inclinations into them; and even where some of the principal men were illustrious on account of the virtues of their fathers, they also were corrupted together with the rest. 4.14. 2. Corah, a Hebrew of principal account both by his family and by his wealth, one that was also able to speak well, and one that could easily persuade the people by his speeches, saw that Moses was in an exceeding great dignity, and was uneasy at it, and envied him on that account (he was of the same tribe with Moses, and of kin to him), was particularly grieved, because he thought he better deserved that honorable post on account of his great riches, and not inferior to him in his birth. 4.327. 49. Now Moses lived in all one hundred and twenty years; a third part of which time, abating one month, he was the people’s ruler; and he died on the last month of the year, which is called by the Macedonians Dystrus, but by us Adar, on the first day of the month. 4.328. He was one that exceeded all men that ever were in understanding, and made the best use of what that understanding suggested to him. He had a very graceful way of speaking and addressing himself to the multitude; and as to his other qualifications, he had such a full command of his passions 4.329. as if he hardly had any such in his soul, and only knew them by their names, as rather perceiving them in other men than in himself. He was also such a general of an army as is seldom seen, as well as such a prophet as was never known, and this to such a degree, that whatsoever he pronounced, you would think you heard the voice of God himself. 4.331. nor were those that had experienced his conduct the only persons that desired him, but those also that perused the laws he left behind him had a strong desire after him, and by them gathered the extraordinary virtue he was master of. And this shall suffice for the declaration of the manner of the death of Moses.
7. New Testament, 1 Peter, 2.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.16. as free, and not using your freedom for a cloak of wickedness, but as bondservants of God.
8. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.9, 2.4, 4.1, 7.15-7.24, 9.13-9.18, 9.24-9.27, 10.17, 12.12-12.28, 15.42-15.44 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. God is faithful, through whom you were calledinto the fellowship of his Son, Jesus Christ, our Lord. 2.4. My speech and my preaching were not in persuasivewords of human wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power 4.1. So let a man think of us as Christ's servants, and stewards ofGod's mysteries. 7.15. Yet if the unbeliever departs, let therebe separation. The brother or the sister is not under bondage in suchcases, but God has called us in peace. 7.16. For how do you know,wife, whether you will save your husband? Or how do you know, husband,whether you will save your wife? 7.17. Only, as the Lord hasdistributed to each man, as God has called each, so let him walk. So Icommand in all the assemblies. 7.18. Was anyone called having been circumcised? Let him not becomeuncircumcised. Has anyone been called in uncircumcision? Let him not becircumcised. 7.19. Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision isnothing, but the keeping of the commandments of God. 7.20. Let eachman stay in that calling in which he was called. 7.21. Were you calledbeing a bondservant? Don't let that bother you, but if you get anopportunity to become free, use it. 7.22. For he who was called in theLord being a bondservant is the Lord's free man. Likewise he who wascalled being free is Christ's bondservant. 7.23. You were bought witha price. Don't become bondservants of men. 7.24. Brothers, let eachman, in whatever condition he was called, stay in that condition withGod. 9.13. Don't you know that those who serve around sacred thingseat from the things of the temple, and those who wait on the altar havetheir portion with the altar? 9.14. Even so the Lord ordained thatthose who proclaim the gospel should live from the gospel. 9.15. But Ihave used none of these things, and I don't write these things that itmay be done so in my case; for I would rather die, than that anyoneshould make my boasting void. 9.16. For if I preach the gospel, I havenothing to boast about; for necessity is laid on me; but woe is to me,if I don't preach the gospel. 9.17. For if I do this of my own will, Ihave a reward. But if not of my own will, I have a stewardshipentrusted to me. 9.18. What then is my reward? That, when I preach thegospel, I may present the gospel of Christ without charge, so as not toabuse my authority in the gospel. 9.24. Don't youknow that those who run in a race all run, but one receives the prize?Run like that, that you may win. 9.25. Every man who strives in thegames exercises self-control in all things. Now they do it to receive acorruptible crown, but we an incorruptible. 9.26. I therefore run likethat, as not uncertainly. I fight like that, as not beating the air 9.27. but I beat my body and bring it into submission, lest by anymeans, after I have preached to others, I myself should be rejected. 10.17. Because we, who are many, are one bread, one body; forwe all partake of the one bread. 12.12. For as the body is one, and has many members, and all themembers of the body, being many, are one body; so also is Christ. 12.13. For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whetherJews or Greeks, whether bond or free; and were all given to drink intoone Spirit. 12.14. For the body is not one member, but many. 12.15. If the foot would say, "Because I'm not the hand, I'm not part of thebody," it is not therefore not part of the body. 12.16. If the earwould say, "Because I'm not the eye, I'm not part of the body," it'snot therefore not part of the body. 12.17. If the whole body were aneye, where would the hearing be? If the whole were hearing, where wouldthe smelling be? 12.18. But now God has set the members, each one ofthem, in the body, just as he desired. 12.19. If they were all onemember, where would the body be? 12.20. But now they are many members,but one body. 12.21. The eye can't tell the hand, "I have no need foryou," or again the head to the feet, "I have no need for you. 12.22. No, much rather, those members of the body which seem to be weaker arenecessary. 12.23. Those parts of the body which we think to be lesshonorable, on those we bestow more abundant honor; and ourunpresentable parts have more abundant propriety; 12.24. whereas ourpresentable parts have no such need. But God composed the bodytogether, giving more abundant honor to the inferior part 12.25. thatthere should be no division in the body, but that the members shouldhave the same care for one another. 12.26. When one member suffers,all the members suffer with it. Or when one member is honored, all themembers rejoice with it. 12.27. Now you are the body of Christ, and members individually. 12.28. God has set some in the assembly: first apostles, secondprophets, third teachers, then miracle workers, then gifts of healings,helps, governments, and various kinds of languages. 15.42. So also is the resurrection of the dead.It is sown in corruption; it is raised in incorruption. 15.43. It issown in dishonor; it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness; it israised in power. 15.44. It is sown a natural body; it is raised aspiritual body. There is a natural body and there is also a spiritualbody.
9. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.6-1.8, 2.12, 4.7, 5.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.6. You became imitators of us, and of the Lord, having received the word in much affliction, with joy of the Holy Spirit 1.7. so that you became an example to all who believe in Macedonia and in Achaia. 1.8. For from you has sounded forth the word of the Lord, not only in Macedonia and Achaia, but also in every place your faith toward God has gone forth; so that we need not to say anything. 2.12. to the end that you should walk worthily of God, who calls you into his own kingdom and glory. 4.7. For God called us not for uncleanness, but in sanctification. 5.24. Faithful is he who calls you, who will also do it.
10. New Testament, 2 Peter, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Simon Peter, a servant and apostle of Jesus Christ, to those who have obtained a like precious faith with us in the righteousness of our God and Savior, Jesus Christ:
11. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 1.11, 2.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.11. To this end we also pray always for you, that our God may count you worthy of your calling, and fulfill every desire of goodness and work of faith, with power; 2.14. to which he called you through our gospel, for the obtaining of the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ.
13. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 2.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.24. The Lord's servant must not quarrel, but be gentle towards all, able to teach, patient
14. New Testament, Acts, 4.29, 10.28, 11.26, 15.1, 16.17, 20.19, 26.16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.29. Now, Lord, look at their threats, and grant to your servants to speak your word with all boldness 10.28. He said to them, "You yourselves know how it is an unlawful thing for a man who is a Jew to join himself or come to one of another nation, but God has shown me that I shouldn't call any man unholy or unclean. 11.26. When he had found him, he brought him to Antioch. It happened, that even for a whole year they were gathered together with the assembly, and taught many people. The disciples were first called Christians in Antioch. 15.1. Some men came down from Judea and taught the brothers, "Unless you are circumcised after the custom of Moses, you can't be saved. 16.17. The same, following after Paul and us, cried out, "These men are servants of the Most High God, who proclaim to us the way of salvation! 20.19. serving the Lord with all humility, with many tears, and with trials which happened to me by the plots of the Jews; 26.16. But arise, and stand on your feet, for to this end have I appeared to you, to appoint you a servant and a witness both of the things which you have seen, and of the things which I will reveal to you;
15. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.1, 1.4, 10.7, 11.18, 15.3, 18.24, 19.2, 19.5, 22.6, 22.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. This is the Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show to his servants the things which must happen soon, which he sent and made known by his angel to his servant, John 1.4. John, to the seven assemblies that are in Asia: Grace to you and peace, from God, who is and who was and who is to come; and from the seven Spirits who are before his throne; 10.7. but in the days of the voice of the seventh angel, when he is about to sound, then the mystery of God is finished, as he declared to his servants, the prophets. 11.18. The nations were angry, and your wrath came, as did the time for the dead to be judged, and to give your servants the prophets, their reward, as well as the saints, and those who fear your name, the small and the great; and to destroy those who destroy the earth. 15.3. They sang the song of Moses, the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb, saying, "Great and marvelous are your works, Lord God, the Almighty; Righteous and true are your ways, you King of the nations. 18.24. In her was found the blood of prophets and of saints, and of all who have been slain on the earth. 19.2. for true and righteous are his judgments. For he has judged the great prostitute, her who corrupted the earth with her sexual immorality, and he has avenged the blood of his servants at her hand. 19.5. A voice came forth from the throne, saying, "Give praise to our God, all you his servants, you who fear him, the small and the great! 22.6. He said to me, "These words are faithful and true. The Lord God of the spirits of the prophets sent his angel to show to his bondservants the things which must happen soon. 22.21. The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ be with all the saints. Amen.
16. New Testament, James, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, to the twelve tribes which are in the Dispersion: Greetings.
17. New Testament, Colossians, 1.7, 1.25, 3.15, 4.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. even as you learned of Epaphras our beloved fellow servant, who is a faithful minister of Christ on our behalf 1.25. of which I was made a servant, according to the stewardship of God which was given me toward you, to fulfill the word of God 3.15. And let the peace of God rule in your hearts, to which also you were called in one body; and be thankful. 4.12. Epaphras, who is one of you, a servant of Christ, salutes you, always striving for you in his prayers, that you may stand perfect and complete in all the will of God.
18. New Testament, Ephesians, 4.4, 4.11-4.16, 6.1, 6.5-6.6, 6.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.4. There is one body, and one Spirit, even as you also were called in one hope of your calling; 4.11. He gave some to be apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, shepherds and teachers; 4.12. for the perfecting of the saints, to the work of serving, to the building up of the body of Christ; 4.13. until we all attain to the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to a full grown man, to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ; 4.14. that we may no longer be children, tossed back and forth and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the trickery of men, in craftiness, after the wiles of error; 4.15. but speaking truth in love, we may grow up in all things into him, who is the head, Christ; 4.16. from whom all the body, being fitted and knit together through that which every joint supplies, according to the working in measure of each individual part, makes the body increase to the building up of itself in love. 6.1. Children, obey your parents in the Lord, for this is right. 6.5. Servants, be obedient to those who according to the flesh are your masters, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, as to Christ; 6.6. not in the way of service only when eyes are on you, as men-pleasers; but as servants of Christ, doing the will of God from the heart; 6.9. You masters, do the same things to them, and give up threatening, knowing that he who is both their Master and yours is in heaven, and there is no partiality with him.
19. New Testament, Galatians, 1.1-1.9, 1.11-1.24, 2.1-2.21, 3.6-3.14, 3.24-3.25, 4.1-4.3, 4.5, 4.7-4.8, 4.22, 4.25-4.26, 4.30, 5.1-5.3, 5.6-5.8, 5.13, 6.11-6.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, an apostle (not from men, neither through man, but through Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead) 1.2. and all the brothers who are with me, to the assemblies of Galatia: 1.3. Grace to you and peace from God the Father, and our Lord Jesus Christ 1.4. who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us out of this present evil age, according to the will of our God and Father -- 1.5. to whom be the glory forever and ever. Amen. 1.6. I marvel that you are so quickly deserting him who called you in the grace of Christ to a different gospel; 1.7. and there isn'tanother gospel. Only there are some who trouble you, and want topervert the gospel of Christ. 1.8. But even though we, or an angelfrom heaven, should preach to you any gospel other than that which wepreached to you, let him be cursed. 1.9. As we have said before, so Inow say again: if any man preaches to you any gospel other than thatwhich you received, let him be cursed. 1.11. But Imake known to you, brothers, concerning the gospel which was preachedby me, that it is not according to man. 1.12. For neither did Ireceive it from man, nor was I taught it, but it came to me throughrevelation of Jesus Christ. 1.13. For you have heard of my way ofliving in time past in the Jews' religion, how that beyond measure Ipersecuted the assembly of God, and ravaged it. 1.14. I advanced inthe Jews' religion beyond many of my own age among my countrymen, beingmore exceedingly zealous for the traditions of my fathers. 1.15. Butwhen it was the good pleasure of God, who separated me from my mother'swomb, and called me through his grace 1.16. to reveal his Son in me,that I might preach him among the Gentiles, I didn't immediately conferwith flesh and blood 1.17. nor did I go up to Jerusalem to those whowere apostles before me, but I went away into Arabia. Then I returnedto Damascus. 1.18. Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem tovisit Peter, and stayed with him fifteen days. 1.19. But of the otherapostles I saw no one, except James, the Lord's brother. 1.20. Nowabout the things which I write to you, behold, before God, I'm notlying. 1.21. Then I came to the regions of Syria and Cilicia. 1.22. Iwas still unknown by face to the assemblies of Judea which were inChrist 1.23. but they only heard: "He who once persecuted us nowpreaches the faith that he once tried to destroy. 1.24. And theyglorified God in me. 2.1. Then after a period of fourteen years I went up again toJerusalem with Barnabas, taking Titus also with me. 2.2. I went up byrevelation, and I laid before them the gospel which I preach among theGentiles, but privately before those who were respected, for fear thatI might be running, or had run, in vain. 2.3. But not even Titus, whowas with me, being a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised. 2.4. Thiswas because of the false brothers secretly brought in, who stole in tospy out our liberty which we have in Christ Jesus, that they mightbring us into bondage; 2.5. to whom we gave no place in the way ofsubjection, not for an hour, that the truth of the gospel mightcontinue with you. 2.6. But from those who were reputed to beimportant (whatever they were, it makes no difference to me; Goddoesn't show partiality to man) -- they, I say, who were respectedimparted nothing to me 2.7. but to the contrary, when they saw that Ihad been entrusted with the gospel for the uncircumcision, even asPeter with the gospel for the circumcision 2.8. (for he who appointedPeter to the apostleship of the circumcision appointed me also to theGentiles); 2.9. and when they perceived the grace that was given tome, James and Cephas and John, they who were reputed to be pillars,gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, that we should goto the Gentiles, and they to the circumcision. 2.10. They only askedus to remember the poor -- which very thing I was also zealous to do. 2.11. But when Peter came to Antioch, I resisted him to the face,because he stood condemned. 2.12. For before some people came fromJames, he ate with the Gentiles. But when they came, he drew back andseparated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision. 2.13. And the rest of the Jews joined him in his hypocrisy; so that evenBarnabas was carried away with their hypocrisy. 2.14. But when I sawthat they didn't walk uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, Isaid to Peter before them all, "If you, being a Jew, live as theGentiles do, and not as the Jews do, why do you compel the Gentiles tolive as the Jews do? 2.15. We, being Jews by nature, and not Gentile sinners 2.16. yet knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law butthrough the faith of Jesus Christ, even we believed in Christ Jesus,that we might be justified by faith in Christ, and not by the works ofthe law, because no flesh will be justified by the works of the law. 2.17. But if, while we sought to be justified in Christ, we ourselvesalso were found sinners, is Christ a servant of sin? Certainly not! 2.18. For if I build up again those things which I destroyed, I provemyself a law-breaker. 2.19. For I, through the law, died to the law,that I might live to God. 2.20. I have been crucified with Christ, andit is no longer I that live, but Christ living in me. That life which Inow live in the flesh, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me,and gave himself up for me. 2.21. I don't make void the grace of God.For if righteousness is through the law, then Christ died for nothing! 3.6. Even as Abraham "believed God, and it wascounted to him for righteousness. 3.7. Know therefore that those whoare of faith, the same are sons of Abraham. 3.8. The Scripture,foreseeing that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, preached thegospel beforehand to Abraham, saying, "In you all the nations will beblessed. 3.9. So then, those who are of faith are blessed with thefaithful Abraham. 3.10. For as many as are of the works of the law areunder a curse. For it is written, "Cursed is everyone who doesn'tcontinue in all things that are written in the book of the law, to dothem. 3.11. Now that no man is justified by the law before God isevident, for, "The righteous will live by faith. 3.12. The law is notof faith, but, "The man who does them will live by them. 3.13. Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become acurse for us. For it is written, "Cursed is everyone who hangs on atree 3.14. that the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentilesthrough Christ Jesus; that we might receive the promise of the Spiritthrough faith. 3.24. So that the law has become our tutor to bring us toChrist, that we might be justified by faith. 3.25. But now that faithis come, we are no longer under a tutor. 4.1. But I say that so long as the heir is a child, he is nodifferent from a bondservant, though he is lord of all; 4.2. but isunder guardians and stewards until the day appointed by the father. 4.3. So we also, when we were children, were held in bondage under theelements of the world. 4.5. thathe might redeem those who were under the law, that we might receive theadoption of sons. 4.7. Soyou are no longer a bondservant, but a son; and if a son, then an heirof God through Christ. 4.8. However at that time, not knowing God, youwere in bondage to those who by nature are not gods. 4.22. For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by thehandmaid, and one by the free woman. 4.25. For this Hagar is Mount Sinai inArabia, and answers to the Jerusalem that exists now, for she is inbondage with her children. 4.26. But the Jerusalem that is above isfree, which is the mother of us all. 4.30. However what does the Scripture say? "Throw out the handmaid and herson, for the son of the handmaid will not inherit with the son of thefree woman. 5.1. Stand firm therefore in the liberty by which Christ has madeus free, and don't be entangled again with a yoke of bondage. 5.2. Behold, I, Paul, tell you that if you receive circumcision, Christ willprofit you nothing. 5.3. Yes, I testify again to every man whoreceives circumcision, that he is a debtor to do the whole law. 5.6. For in Christ Jesusneither circumcision amounts to anything, nor uncircumcision, but faithworking through love. 5.7. You were running well! Who interfered withyou that you should not obey the truth? 5.8. This persuasion is notfrom him who calls you. 5.13. For you, brothers, were called for freedom. Only don't useyour freedom for gain to the flesh, but through love be servants to oneanother. 6.11. See with what large letters I write to you with my own hand. 6.12. As many as desire to look good in the flesh, they compel you tobe circumcised; only that they may not be persecuted for the cross ofChrist. 6.13. For even they who receive circumcision don't keep thelaw themselves, but they desire to have you circumcised, that they mayboast in your flesh. 6.14. But far be it from me to boast, except inthe cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through which the world has beencrucified to me, and I to the world. 6.15. For in Christ Jesus neitheris circumcision anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation. 6.16. As many as walk by this rule, peace and mercy be on them, and onGod's Israel. 6.17. From now on, let no one cause me any trouble, forI bear the marks of the Lord Jesus branded on my body. 6.18. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit,brothers. Amen.
20. New Testament, Philippians, 1.1, 2.16, 3.6, 3.12-3.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul and Timothy, servants of Jesus Christ; To all the saints in Christ Jesus who are at Philippi, with the overseers and deacons: 2.16. holding up the word of life; that I may have something to boast in the day of Christ, that I didn't run in vain nor labor in vain. 3.6. concerning zeal, persecuting the assembly; concerning the righteousness which is in the law, found blameless. 3.12. Not that I have already obtained, or am already made perfect; but I press on, if it is so that I may take hold of that for which also I was taken hold of by Christ Jesus. 3.13. Brothers, I don't regard myself as yet having taken hold, but one thing I do. Forgetting the things which are behind, and stretching forward to the things which are before 3.14. I press on toward the goal for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus.
21. New Testament, Romans, 1.1, 3.21-3.28, 6.6, 7.4, 8.10-8.13, 8.30, 9.16, 9.24-9.26, 12.5, 13.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God 3.21. But now apart from the law, a righteousness of God has been revealed, being testified by the law and the prophets; 3.22. even the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ to all and on all those who believe. For there is no distinction 3.23. for all have sinned, and fall short of the glory of God; 3.24. being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus; 3.25. whom God set forth to be an atoning sacrifice, through faith in his blood, for a demonstration of his righteousness through the passing over of prior sins, in God's forbearance; 3.26. to demonstrate his righteousness at this present time; that he might himself be just, and the justifier of him who has faith in Jesus. 3.27. Where then is the boasting? It is excluded. By what manner of law? of works? No, but by a law of faith. 3.28. We maintain therefore that a man is justified by faith apart from the works of the law. 6.6. knowing this, that our old man was crucified with him, that the body of sin might be done away with, so that we would no longer be in bondage to sin. 7.4. Therefore, my brothers, you also were made dead to the law through the body of Christ, that you would be joined to another, to him who was raised from the dead, that we might bring forth fruit to God. 8.10. If Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the spirit is alive because of righteousness. 8.11. But if the Spirit of him who raised up Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised up Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit who dwells in you. 8.12. So then, brothers, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live after the flesh. 8.13. For if you live after the flesh, you must die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live. 8.30. Whom he predestined, those he also called. Whom he called, those he also justified. Whom he justified, those he also glorified. 9.16. So then it is not of him who wills, nor of him who runs, but of God who has mercy. 9.24. us, whom he also called, not from the Jews only, but also from the Gentiles? 9.25. As he says also in Hosea, "I will call them 'my people,' which were not my people; And her 'beloved,' who was not beloved. 9.26. It will be that in the place where it was said to them, 'You are not my people,' There they will be called 'sons of the living God.' 12.5. so we, who are many, are one body in Christ, and individually members one of another. 13.4. for he is a servant of God to you for good. But if you do that which is evil, be afraid, for he doesn't bear the sword in vain; for he is a minister of God, an avenger for wrath to him who does evil.
22. New Testament, Titus, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, a servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus Christ, according to the faith of God's elect, and the knowledge of the truth which is according to godliness
23. New Testament, John, 18.36 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18.36. Jesus answered, "My kingdom is not of this world. If my kingdom were of this world, then my servants would fight, that I wouldn't be delivered to the Jews. But now my kingdom is not from here.
24. New Testament, Luke, 1.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. even as those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word delivered them to us
25. New Testament, Mark, 7.27, 9.5, 13.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.27. But Jesus said to her, "Let the children be filled first, for it is not appropriate to take the children's bread and throw it to the dogs. 9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah. 13.17. But woe to those who are with child and to those who nurse babies in those days!
26. Seneca The Younger, De Vita Beata (Dialogorum Liber Vii), 15.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

27. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29b. כל היכא דליכא אלא חמש סלעים הוא קודם לבנו מאי טעמא מצוה דגופיה עדיפא כי פליגי היכא דאיכא חמש משועבדים וחמש בני חורין,ר' יהודה סבר מלוה דכתיב בתורה ככתובה בשטר דמיא בהני חמש פריק לבריה ואזיל כהן וטריף ליה לחמש משועבדים לדידיה,ורבנן סברי מלוה דכתיב באורייתא לאו ככתובה בשטר דמיא והילכך מצוה דגופיה עדיף,ת"ר לפדות את בנו ולעלות לרגל פודה את בנו ואחר כך עולה לרגל ר' יהודה אומר עולה לרגל ואח"כ פודה את בנו שזו מצוה עוברת וזו מצוה שאינה עוברת,בשלמא לר' יהודה כדקאמר טעמא אלא רבנן מאי טעמייהו דאמר קרא (שמות לד, כ) כל בכור בניך תפדה והדר לא יראו פני ריקם,ת"ר מנין שאם היו לו חמשה בנים מחמש נשים שחייב לפדות כולן ת"ל כל בכור בניך תפדה פשיטא בפטר רחם תלא רחמנא,מהו דתימא נילף בכור בכור מנחלה מה להלן ראשית אונו אף כאן ראשית אונו קמ"ל:,ללמדו תורה: מנלן דכתיב (דברים יא, יט) ולמדתם אותם את בניכם והיכא דלא אגמריה אבוה מיחייב איהו למיגמר נפשיה דכתיב ולמדתם,איהי מנלן דלא מיחייבא דכתיב ולימדתם ולמדתם כל שמצווה ללמוד מצווה ללמד וכל שאינו מצווה ללמוד אינו מצווה ללמד,ואיהי מנלן דלא מיחייבה למילף נפשה דכתיב ולימדתם ולמדתם כל שאחרים מצווין ללמדו מצווה ללמד את עצמו וכל שאין אחרים מצווין ללמדו אין מצווה ללמד את עצמו ומנין שאין אחרים מצווין ללמדה דאמר קרא ולמדתם אותם את בניכם ולא בנותיכם,ת"ר הוא ללמוד ובנו ללמוד הוא קודם לבנו ר' יהודה אומר אם בנו זריז וממולח ותלמודו מתקיים בידו בנו קודמו כי הא דרב יעקב בריה דרב אחא בר יעקב שדריה אבוה לקמיה דאביי כי אתא חזייה דלא הוה מיחדדין שמעתיה א"ל אנא עדיפא מינך תוב את דאיזיל אנא,שמע אביי דקא הוה אתי הוה ההוא מזיק בי רבנן דאביי דכי הוו עיילי בתרין אפי' ביממא הוו מיתזקי אמר להו לא ליתיב ליה אינש אושפיזא אפשר דמתרחיש ניסא,על בת בההוא בי רבנן אידמי ליה כתנינא דשבעה רישוותיה כל כריעה דכרע נתר חד רישיה אמר להו למחר אי לא איתרחיש ניסא סכינתין,ת"ר ללמוד תורה ולישא אשה ילמוד תורה ואח"כ ישא אשה ואם א"א לו בלא אשה ישא אשה ואח"כ ילמוד תורה אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל הלכה נושא אשה ואח"כ ילמוד תורה,ר' יוחנן אמר ריחיים בצוארו ויעסוק בתורה ולא פליגי הא לן והא להו:,משתבח ליה רב חסדא לרב הונא בדרב המנונא דאדם גדול הוא א"ל כשיבא לידך הביאהו לידי כי אתא חזייה דלא פריס סודרא א"ל מאי טעמא לא פריסת סודרא א"ל דלא נסיבנא אהדרינהו לאפיה מיניה א"ל חזי דלא חזית להו לאפי עד דנסבת,רב הונא לטעמיה דאמר בן עשרים שנה ולא נשא אשה כל ימיו בעבירה בעבירה סלקא דעתך אלא אימא כל ימיו בהרהור עבירה,אמר רבא וכן תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל עד כ' שנה יושב הקב"ה ומצפה לאדם מתי ישא אשה כיון שהגיע כ' ולא נשא אומר תיפח עצמותיו,אמר רב חסדא האי דעדיפנא מחבראי דנסיבנא בשיתסר ואי הוה נסיבנא בארביסר 29b. that banywhere that there are only five isela /iavailable, i.e., enough to redeem only one man, and one is obligated to redeem both himself and his son, bhe,the father, btakes precedence over his son. What is the reason?It is that bhis own mitzva is preferableto one that he performs on behalf of others. bWhen they disagreeis in a case bwhere there island worth bfive iselathat is blienedproperty that has been sold, i.e., he sold this land to other people but it can be reclaimed by his prior creditor, band five iselawhich is entirely bunsoldproperty.,And the reasoning behind the dispute is as follows: bRabbi Yehuda maintainsthat ba loan that is written in the Torah,i.e., any ficial obligation that applies by Torah law, is bconsidered as though it is written in a document,and therefore it can be collected from liened property, like any loan recorded in a document. This means that the liened property worth five iselais available for one’s own redemption, but not for that of his son, as the sale of the property occurred before the birth of his firstborn. Consequently, bwith these five iselaupon which there is no lien bhe redeems his son, andthe bpriest goes and repossessesthe land worth bfive iselathat is blienedproperty bfor hisown redemption. In this manner one can fulfill both mitzvot., bAnd the Rabbis maintain: A loan that is written in the Torah is not considered as though it is written in a document,since buyers will not be aware of this obligation, so that they should be aware that the land may be repossessed. bAnd thereforethere is no advantage for this man to redeem his son with the five iselaupon which there is no lien, and bhis own mitzva is preferable,which means he redeems himself with the free land. With the liened property that is left he cannot redeem his son, as the land was sold before the birth of his firstborn., bThe Sages taught:If one has money bto redeem his son and to ascend toJerusalem on bthe pilgrimage Festival, he redeems his son and then ascendsto Jerusalem bon the pilgrimage Festival. Rabbi Yehuda says: He ascendsto Jerusalem bon the pilgrimage Festival and then redeems his son.His reasoning is bthat thistrip to Jerusalem for the pilgrimage Festival is ba mitzvawhose time soon bpasses, and this,the redemption of the firstborn son, is ba mitzvawhose time does bnotsoon bpass,as it can be fulfilled later.,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according tothe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,it is bas he statedin bhis reasoning,i.e., Rabbi Yehuda provided the rationale for his opinion. bBut what is the reasoning of the Rabbis,who say that he should first redeem his son? The Gemara answers that the reason is bthat the verse states: “All the firstborn of your sons you shall redeem”(Exodus 34:20), bandit bthenstates, in the same verse: b“And none shall appear before me empty,”referring to the pilgrimage Festival in Jerusalem. The order of the verse indicates that one should redeem his firstborn son before traveling to Jerusalem on the pilgrimage Festival., bThe Sages taught: From whereis it derived bthat if one had fivefirstborn bsons, from fivedifferent bwomen, he is obligated to redeem them all? The verse states: “All the firstborn of your sons you shall redeem”(Exodus 34:20), and the emphasis of “all” includes any of one’s firstborn sons. The Gemara asks: bIsn’tit bobviousthis is the case? After all, bthe Merciful One madethis mitzva bdependent upon the opening of the womb,as it states: “Sanctify to Me all the firstborn, whoever opens the womb” (Exodus 13:2). Since each of these sons is the firstborn of his mother, it is clear that the father is required to redeem each of them.,The Gemara answers that this ruling is necessary blest you saythat bwe should derivea verbal analogy between b“firstborn”stated here and b“firstborn” fromthe verses dealing with binheritance: Just as there,the verse describes a firstborn who receives a double portion of the inheritance as: b“The first fruit of his strength”(Deuteronomy 21:17), i.e., he is the firstborn son to his father, and not the first child born to his mother; bso too here,with regard to the redemption of the firstborn son, it is referring to the bfirst fruit of his strength,which would mean that the father need redeem only his oldest child. Therefore, this ibaraita bteaches usthat this is not the case. Rather, every firstborn son to his mother must be redeemed.,§ The ibaraitateaches that a father is obligated bto teachhis son bTorah.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this requirement? bAs it is written: “And you shall teach them [ ivelimadtem /i] to your sons”(Deuteronomy 11:19). bAndin a case bwhere his father did not teach him he is obligated to teach himself, as it is written,i.e., the verse can be read with a different vocalization: bAnd you shall study [ iulmadtem /i]. /b, bFrom where do wederive bthata woman bis not obligatedto teach her son Torah? bAs it is written: “And you shall teach [ ivelimadtem /i],”which can be read as: bAnd you shall study [ iulmadtem /i].This indicates that bwhoever is commanded to studyTorah bis commanded to teach, and whoever is not commanded to study is not commanded to teach.Since a woman is not obligated to learn Torah, she is likewise not obligated to teach it.,The Gemara asks: bAnd from where do wederive bthat she is not obligated to teach herself?The Gemara answers: bAs it is written: “And you shall teach [ ivelimadtem /i],”which can be read as: bAnd you shall study [ iulmadtem /i],which indicates that bwhoever others are commanded to teach is commanded to teach himself, and whoever others are not commanded to teach is not commanded to teach himself. And from whereis it derived bthat others are not commanded to teacha woman? bAs the verse states: “And you shall teach them to your sons”(Deuteronomy 11:19), which emphasizes: bYour sons and not your daughters. /b, bThe Sages taught:If bonewishes bto studyTorah himself band his sonalso wants bto study, he takes precedence over his son. Rabbi Yehuda says: If his son is diligent and sharp, and his study will endure, his son takes precedence over him.This is blike thatanecdote bwhichis told about bRav Ya’akov, son of Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov, whose father sent him to Abayeto study Torah. bWhenthe son bcamehome, his father bsaw that his studies were not sharp,as he was insufficiently bright. Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov bsaid tohis son: bI am preferable to you,and it is better that I go and study. Therefore, byou sitand handle the affairs of the house bso that I can goand study., bAbaye heardthat Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov bwas coming. There was a certain demon in the study hall of Abaye,which was so powerful bthat when twopeople would benter they would be harmed, even during the day.Abaye bsaid tothe people of the town: bDo not giveRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov blodging [ iushpiza /i]so that he will be forced to spend the night in the study hall. Since Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov is a righteous man, bperhaps a miracle will occuron his behalf and he will kill the demon.,Rav Aḥa found no place to spend the night, and bhe entered and spent the night in that study hallof bthe Sages.The demon bappeared to him like a serpentwith bseven heads.Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov began to pray, and with bevery bowthat bhe bowed oneof the demon’s bheads fell off,until it eventually died. The bnext dayRav Aḥa bsaid tothe townspeople: bIf a miracle had not occurred, you would have placed me in danger. /b, bThe Sages taught:If one has to decide whether bto study Torah or to marry a woman,which should he do first? bHe should study Torah and afterward marry a woman. And if it is impossible for himto be bwithout a wife, he should marry a woman and then study Torah. Rav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says:The ihalakha /iis that one should bmarry a woman and afterward study Torah. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa says:How can one do this? With ba millstonehanging bfrom his neck,i.e., with the responsibility of providing for his family weighing upon him, can bhe engage in Torahstudy? The Gemara comments: bAndthe iamora’im bdo not disagree; this is for us and that is for them.In other words, one statement applies to the residents of Babylonia, whereas the other is referring to those living in Eretz Yisrael.,§ With regard to marriage, the Gemara relates: bRav Ḥisda would praise Rav Hamnuna to Rav Hunaby saying bthat he is a great man.Rav Huna bsaid to him: When he comes to you, send him to me. WhenRav Hamnuna bcamebefore him, Rav Huna bsaw that he did not coverhis head with ba cloth,as Torah scholars did. Rav Huna bsaid to him: What is the reasonthat byou do not coveryour head bwith a cloth?Rav Hamnuna bsaid to him:The reason is bthat I am not married,and it was not customary for unmarried men to cover their heads with a cloth. Rav Huna bturned his face away from himin rebuke, and bhe said to him: Seeto it bthat you do not see my face until you marry. /b,The Gemara notes: bRav Hunaconforms bto hisstandard line of breasoning, as he says:If one is btwenty years old and has notyet bmarried a woman, all of his dayswill be bina state of bsinconcerning sexual matters. The Gemara asks: Can it benter your mindthat he will be bina state of bsinall of his days? bRather, saythat this means the following: bAll of his dayswill be bina state of bthoughts of sin,i.e., sexual thoughts. One who does not marry in his youth will become accustomed to thoughts of sexual matters, and the habit will remain with him the rest of his life., bRava said, and similarly, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Untilone reaches the age of btwenty years the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and waits for a man,saying: bWhen will he marry a woman? Once he reachesthe age of btwenty and has not married, He says: Let his bones swell,i.e., he is cursed and God is no longer concerned about him., bRav Ḥisda said:The fact bthat I am superior to my colleaguesis bbecause I marriedat the age of bsixteen, and if I would have married atthe age of bfourteen, /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
anthropology Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 208
antioch (syrian) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 466
apocalypse of peter Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 19
apostle Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 482, 566, 567
apostles [ disciples Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 208
apostolate,(com)mission Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 567
argument Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 300
ascension of isaiah Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 19
athletics/training Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 99, 101
aulus gellius Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 73
authority Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 170
baptism Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 208
barnabas Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 466, 567
celibacy Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 69
christianity,pauline Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 300
church Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 208
circumcision Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 566
colossians Papaioannou et al. (2021), Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome, 178; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou (2021), Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome, 178
constitution Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 170
corinth Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 482
delphi Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 73
diaspora Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 567
disease and defects,of slaves Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 73
education Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 208
ephesos,tetragonos agora,slavery Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 73
eroticism,and the self Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 229
exegesis Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 170
exemplars of trust,jesus as Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 179
fiscus judaicus,jewish tax Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 482
fourth philosophy (josephus) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 566
free will Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 300
freedom,stoicism Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 300
freedom (eleutheria) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 99, 101, 105
galatia Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 73
galatians,letter to the Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 73
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 466, 482
glory,of moses Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 170
glory Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 170
good (agathos) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 99
gospel of the circumcision Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 466, 567
grace Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 179
household relations,slaves and slaveowners deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 304
imitation,of christ Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 179
imitation,outlies modern typologies of imitation Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 179
intermediates Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 101, 105
interpretation,hellenistic jewish Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 170
james (brother of jesus) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 466, 482
jerusalem church Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 466, 567
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 466, 482
jewish-christian group,commmunity Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 482
jewish practices/torah observance,circumcision Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 99, 101, 105
john (disciple) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 466
josephus Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 170
judaea (roman province; see also yehud) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 466, 482, 566, 567
judaism and christianity Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 69
judaize,judaizing (ioudaïzein) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 466, 482
judaizing Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 99, 101, 105
jupiter temple (jerusalem) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 482
justinian Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 73
law,2 corinthians Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 170
law,christianity Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 170
law Papaioannou et al. (2021), Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome, 178; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou (2021), Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome, 178
malherbe,abraham,paramonä clause Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 73
mckaughan,daniel Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 179
messiah,royal attendants Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 806
messiah Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 466
metaphor(ical) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 466
monastic self,and other monks Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 229
monastic self,and pride Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 229
monasticism,familial opposition to Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 229
moses,appearance Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 170
moses,art Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 170
moses,pagan literature Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 170
moses Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 170
necessity/require (anagkē,anagkazō) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 105
origen Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 208
paul,apostle,slavery Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 73
paul,apostle Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 208
paul,determinism Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 300
paul,free will Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 300
paul,seer of revelation compared Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 19
paul Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 806; Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 170
paul (saul) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 466, 482, 566, 567
paul pharisee Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 567
persuasion,means of Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 300
peter (cephas,simon –) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 466, 482, 567
philo of alexandria Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 170
philosophy Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 69
pleasure Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 300
pneumatic humans/powers Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 208
pomponius Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 73
poor,the Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 466
prophetic,call Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 300
proselyte,proselytism Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 466
psychic humans/powers Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 208
resurrection Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 208
revelation Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 19; Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 170
revolt/war,under nero (great ~) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 566
rhetoric,rhetorical Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 566, 567
roads,slavery Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 73
salvation Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 105
savior [ jesus,christ,and son Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 208
school Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 208
seer of revelation,,communities and churches of asia,relationship to Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 19
seer of revelation,,john the zebedee,association with Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 19
seer of revelation,,paul compared Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 19
seer of revelation,,prophet detached from world,self-description as Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 19
seer of revelation Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 19
self-understanding,pauline Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 300
service to god or christ Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 179
sinai,ascent and decent Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 170
sinai Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 170
slavery Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 99, 101, 105
slaves,slavery,dealers Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 73
slaves,slavery,disease and defects Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 73
slaves,slavery,price of Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 73
slaves,slavery,tetragonos agora Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 73
slaves Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 806
socrates Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 101
sophistry Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 170
stoicism,determinism Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 300
synagogue Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 482
teacher Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 208
telos Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 101
titus (emperor) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 466
torah,constitution Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 170
value (axia) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 99
weapon' Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 300
zeal (for the law) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 567
zealot,zealots Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 482, 566