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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8248
New Testament, Colossians, 1.15


ὅς ἐστιν εἰκὼν τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ ἀοράτου, πρωτότοκος πάσης κτίσεωςwho is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

98 results
1. Septuagint, Psalms, 77, 20 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.35, 26.19, 28.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.35. אַתָּה הָרְאֵתָ לָדַעַת כִּי יְהוָה הוּא הָאֱלֹהִים אֵין עוֹד מִלְבַדּוֹ׃ 26.19. וּלְתִתְּךָ עֶלְיוֹן עַל כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לִתְהִלָּה וּלְשֵׁם וּלְתִפְאָרֶת וְלִהְיֹתְךָ עַם־קָדֹשׁ לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֵּר׃ 28.1. וְהָיָה אִם־שָׁמוֹעַ תִּשְׁמַע בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺתָיו אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם וּנְתָנְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ עֶלְיוֹן עַל כָּל־גּוֹיֵי הָאָרֶץ׃ 28.1. וְרָאוּ כָּל־עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ כִּי שֵׁם יְהוָה נִקְרָא עָלֶיךָ וְיָרְאוּ מִמֶּךָּ׃ 4.35. Unto thee it was shown, that thou mightiest know that the LORD, He is God; there is none else beside Him." 26.19. and to make thee high above all nations that He hath made, in praise, and in name, and in glory; and that thou mayest be a holy people unto the LORD thy God, as He hath spoken." 28.1. And it shall come to pass, if thou shalt hearken diligently unto the voice of the LORD thy God, to observe to do all His commandments which I command thee this day, that the LORD thy God will set thee on high above all the nations of the earth."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 1.7, 12.2, 33.20, 34.29 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.7. וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל פָּרוּ וַיִּשְׁרְצוּ וַיִּרְבּוּ וַיַּעַצְמוּ בִּמְאֹד מְאֹד וַתִּמָּלֵא הָאָרֶץ אֹתָם׃ 12.2. כָּל־מַחְמֶצֶת לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ בְּכֹל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם תֹּאכְלוּ מַצּוֹת׃ 12.2. הַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה לָכֶם רֹאשׁ חֳדָשִׁים רִאשׁוֹן הוּא לָכֶם לְחָדְשֵׁי הַשָּׁנָה׃ 34.29. וַיְהִי בְּרֶדֶת מֹשֶׁה מֵהַר סִינַי וּשְׁנֵי לֻחֹת הָעֵדֻת בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה בְּרִדְתּוֹ מִן־הָהָר וּמֹשֶׁה לֹא־יָדַע כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פָּנָיו בְּדַבְּרוֹ אִתּוֹ׃ 1.7. And the children of Israel were fruitful, and increased abundantly, and multiplied, and waxed exceeding mighty; and the land was filled with them." 12.2. ’This month shall be unto you the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you." 33.20. And He said: ‘Thou canst not see My face, for man shall not see Me and live.’" 34.29. And it came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Sinai with the two tables of the testimony in Moses’hand, when he came down from the mount, that Moses knew not that the skin of his face sent forth abeams while He talked with him."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1, 1.1, 1.1-2.3, 1.2, 1.3, 1.26, 1.27, 1.28, 2.1, 2.7, 8.17, 9.1, 9.7, 17.6, 17.7, 17.8, 17.20, 18, 47.27, 48.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 26.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

26.9. וּפָנִיתִי אֲלֵיכֶם וְהִפְרֵיתִי אֶתְכֶם וְהִרְבֵּיתִי אֶתְכֶם וַהֲקִימֹתִי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אִתְּכֶם׃ 26.9. And I will have respect unto you, and make you fruitful, and multiply you; and will establish My covet with you."
6. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 3.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.2. וּמִי מְכַלְכֵּל אֶת־יוֹם בּוֹאוֹ וּמִי הָעֹמֵד בְּהֵרָאוֹתוֹ כִּי־הוּא כְּאֵשׁ מְצָרֵף וּכְבֹרִית מְכַבְּסִים׃ 3.2. וְזָרְחָה לָכֶם יִרְאֵי שְׁמִי שֶׁמֶשׁ צְדָקָה וּמַרְפֵּא בִּכְנָפֶיהָ וִיצָאתֶם וּפִשְׁתֶּם כְּעֶגְלֵי מַרְבֵּק׃ 3.2. But who may abide the day of his coming? And who shall stand when he appeareth? For he is like a refiner’s fire, and like fullers’soap;"
7. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 6.25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.25. יָאֵר יְהוָה פָּנָיו אֵלֶיךָ וִיחֻנֶּךָּ׃ 6.25. The LORD make His face to shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee;"
8. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 2.4, 3.19-3.20, 8.3, 8.22-8.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.4. אִם־תְּבַקְשֶׁנָּה כַכָּסֶף וְכַמַּטְמוֹנִים תַּחְפְּשֶׂנָּה׃ 3.19. יְהוָה בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד־אָרֶץ כּוֹנֵן שָׁמַיִם בִּתְבוּנָה׃ 8.3. לְיַד־שְׁעָרִים לְפִי־קָרֶת מְבוֹא פְתָחִים תָּרֹנָּה׃ 8.3. וָאֶהְיֶה אֶצְלוֹ אָמוֹן וָאֶהְיֶה שַׁעֲשֻׁעִים יוֹם יוֹם מְשַׂחֶקֶת לְפָנָיו בְּכָל־עֵת׃ 8.22. יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃ 8.23. מֵעוֹלָם נִסַּכְתִּי מֵרֹאשׁ מִקַּדְמֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 8.24. בְּאֵין־תְּהֹמוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי בְּאֵין מַעְיָנוֹת נִכְבַּדֵּי־מָיִם׃ 8.25. בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים הָטְבָּעוּ לִפְנֵי גְבָעוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי׃ 8.26. עַד־לֹא עָשָׂה אֶרֶץ וְחוּצוֹת וְרֹאשׁ עָפְרוֹת תֵּבֵל׃ 8.27. בַּהֲכִינוֹ שָׁמַיִם שָׁם אָנִי בְּחוּקוֹ חוּג עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם׃ 8.28. בְּאַמְּצוֹ שְׁחָקִים מִמָּעַל בַּעֲזוֹז עִינוֹת תְּהוֹם׃ 8.29. בְּשׂוּמוֹ לַיָּם חֻקּוֹ וּמַיִם לֹא יַעַבְרוּ־פִיו בְּחוּקוֹ מוֹסְדֵי אָרֶץ׃ 8.31. מְשַׂחֶקֶת בְּתֵבֵל אַרְצוֹ וְשַׁעֲשֻׁעַי אֶת־בְּנֵי אָדָם׃ 2.4. If thou seek her as silver, And search for her as for hid treasures;" 3.19. The LORD by wisdom founded the earth; By understanding He established the heavens." 3.20. By His knowledge the depths were broken up, And the skies drop down the dew." 8.3. Beside the gates, at the entry of the city, At the coming in at the doors, she crieth aloud:" 8.22. The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old." 8.23. I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, Or ever the earth was." 8.24. When there were no depths, I was brought forth; When there were no fountains abounding with water." 8.25. Before the mountains were settled, Before the hills was I brought forth;" 8.26. While as yet He had not made the earth, nor the fields, Nor the beginning of the dust of the world." 8.27. When He established the heavens, I was there; When He set a circle upon the face of the deep," 8.28. When He made firm the skies above, When the fountains of the deep showed their might," 8.29. When He gave to the sea His decree, That the waters should not transgress His commandment, When He appointed the foundations of the earth;" 8.30. Then I was by Him, as a nursling; And I was daily all delight, Playing always before Him," 8.31. Playing in His habitable earth, And my delights are with the sons of men."
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 8.7, 15.10, 19.1, 31.12, 38.7, 68.18-68.19, 104.24, 110.1, 139.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.7. תַּמְשִׁילֵהוּ בְּמַעֲשֵׂי יָדֶיךָ כֹּל שַׁתָּה תַחַת־רַגְלָיו׃ 19.1. לַמְנַצֵּחַ מִזְמוֹר לְדָוִד׃ 19.1. יִרְאַת יְהוָה טְהוֹרָה עוֹמֶדֶת לָעַד מִשְׁפְּטֵי־יְהוָה אֱמֶת צָדְקוּ יַחְדָּו׃ 31.12. מִכָּל־צֹרְרַי הָיִיתִי חֶרְפָּה וְלִשֲׁכֵנַי מְאֹד וּפַחַד לִמְיֻדָּעָי רֹאַי בַּחוּץ נָדְדוּ מִמֶּנִּי׃ 68.18. רֶכֶב אֱלֹהִים רִבֹּתַיִם אַלְפֵי שִׁנְאָן אֲדֹנָי בָם סִינַי בַּקֹּדֶשׁ׃ 68.19. עָלִיתָ לַמָּרוֹם שָׁבִיתָ שֶּׁבִי לָקַחְתָּ מַתָּנוֹת בָּאָדָם וְאַף סוֹרְרִים לִשְׁכֹּן יָהּ אֱלֹהִים׃ 104.24. מָה־רַבּוּ מַעֲשֶׂיךָ יְהוָה כֻּלָּם בְּחָכְמָה עָשִׂיתָ מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ קִנְיָנֶךָ׃ 110.1. לְדָוִד מִזְמוֹר נְאֻם יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי שֵׁב לִימִינִי עַד־אָשִׁית אֹיְבֶיךָ הֲדֹם לְרַגְלֶיךָ׃ 139.5. אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה׃ 8.7. Thou hast made him to have dominion over the works of Thy hands; Thou hast put all things under His feet:" 19.1. For the Leader. A Psalm of David." 31.12. Because of all mine adversaries I am become a reproach, Yea, unto my neighbours exceedingly, and a dread to mine acquaintance; They that see me without flee from me." 68.18. The chariots of God are myriads, even thousands upon thousands; The Lord is among them, as in Sinai, in holiness." 68.19. Thou hast ascended on high, Thou hast led captivity captive; Thou hast received gifts among men, Yea, among the rebellious also, that the LORD God might dwell there." 104.24. How manifold are Thy works, O LORD! In wisdom hast Thou made them all; The earth is full of Thy creatures." 110.1. A Psalm of David. The LORD saith unto my lord: ‘Sit thou at My right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.'" 139.5. Thou hast hemmed me in behind and before, And laid Thy hand upon me."
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 1.14, 2.27, 8.10-8.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.14. הִנֵּה עוֹדָךְ מְדַבֶּרֶת שָׁם עִם־הַמֶּלֶךְ וַאֲנִי אָבוֹא אַחֲרַיִךְ וּמִלֵּאתִי אֶת־דְּבָרָיִךְ׃ 2.27. וַיְגָרֶשׁ שְׁלֹמֹה אֶת־אֶבְיָתָר מִהְיוֹת כֹּהֵן לַיהוָה לְמַלֵּא אֶת־דְּבַר יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר עַל־בֵּית עֵלִי בְּשִׁלֹה׃ 8.11. וְלֹא־יָכְלוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים לַעֲמֹד לְשָׁרֵת מִפְּנֵי הֶעָנָן כִּי־מָלֵא כְבוֹד־יְהוָה אֶת־בֵּית יְהוָה׃ 1.14. Behold, while thou yet talkest there with the king, I also will come in after thee, and confirm thy words.’" 2.27. So Solomon thrust out Abiathar from being priest unto the LORD; that the word of the LORD might be fulfilled, which He spoke concerning the house of Eli in Shiloh." 8.10. And it came to pass, when the priests were come out of the holy place, that the cloud filled the house of the LORD," 8.11. so that the priests could not stand to minister by reason of the cloud; for the glory of the LORD filled the house of the LORD."
11. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.3, 9.1-9.2, 29.16, 43.18, 45.1-45.3, 45.9, 53.4, 53.11, 65.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.3. וְקָרָא זֶה אֶל־זֶה וְאָמַר קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת מְלֹא כָל־הָאָרֶץ כְּבוֹדוֹ׃ 9.1. הָעָם הַהֹלְכִים בַּחֹשֶׁךְ רָאוּ אוֹר גָּדוֹל יֹשְׁבֵי בְּאֶרֶץ צַלְמָוֶת אוֹר נָגַהּ עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 9.1. וַיְשַׂגֵּב יְהוָה אֶת־צָרֵי רְצִין עָלָיו וְאֶת־אֹיְבָיו יְסַכְסֵךְ׃ 9.2. הִרְבִּיתָ הַגּוֹי לא [לוֹ] הִגְדַּלְתָּ הַשִּׂמְחָה שָׂמְחוּ לְפָנֶיךָ כְּשִׂמְחַת בַּקָּצִיר כַּאֲשֶׁר יָגִילוּ בְּחַלְּקָם שָׁלָל׃ 9.2. מְנַשֶּׁה אֶת־אֶפְרַיִם וְאֶפְרַיִם אֶת־מְנַשֶּׁה יַחְדָּו הֵמָּה עַל־יְהוּדָה בְּכָל־זֹאת לֹא־שָׁב אַפּוֹ וְעוֹד יָדוֹ נְטוּיָה׃ 29.16. הַפְכְּכֶם אִם־כְּחֹמֶר הַיֹּצֵר יֵחָשֵׁב כִּי־יֹאמַר מַעֲשֶׂה לְעֹשֵׂהוּ לֹא עָשָׂנִי וְיֵצֶר אָמַר לְיוֹצְרוֹ לֹא הֵבִין׃ 43.18. אַל־תִּזְכְּרוּ רִאשֹׁנוֹת וְקַדְמֹנִיּוֹת אַל־תִּתְבֹּנָנוּ׃ 45.1. הוֹי אֹמֵר לְאָב מַה־תּוֹלִיד וּלְאִשָּׁה מַה־תְּחִילִין׃ 45.1. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה לִמְשִׁיחוֹ לְכוֹרֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־הֶחֱזַקְתִּי בִימִינוֹ לְרַד־לְפָנָיו גּוֹיִם וּמָתְנֵי מְלָכִים אֲפַתֵּחַ לִפְתֹּחַ לְפָנָיו דְּלָתַיִם וּשְׁעָרִים לֹא יִסָּגֵרוּ׃ 45.2. אֲנִי לְפָנֶיךָ אֵלֵךְ וַהֲדוּרִים אושר [אֲיַשֵּׁר] דַּלְתוֹת נְחוּשָׁה אֲשַׁבֵּר וּבְרִיחֵי בַרְזֶל אֲגַדֵּעַ׃ 45.2. הִקָּבְצוּ וָבֹאוּ הִתְנַגְּשׁוּ יַחְדָּו פְּלִיטֵי הַגּוֹיִם לֹא יָדְעוּ הַנֹּשְׂאִים אֶת־עֵץ פִּסְלָם וּמִתְפַּלְלִים אֶל־אֵל לֹא יוֹשִׁיעַ׃ 45.3. וְנָתַתִּי לְךָ אוֹצְרוֹת חֹשֶׁךְ וּמַטְמֻנֵי מִסְתָּרִים לְמַעַן תֵּדַע כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה הַקּוֹרֵא בְשִׁמְךָ אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 45.9. הוֹי רָב אֶת־יֹצְרוֹ חֶרֶשׂ אֶת־חַרְשֵׂי אֲדָמָה הֲיֹאמַר חֹמֶר לְיֹצְרוֹ מַה־תַּעֲשֶׂה וּפָעָלְךָ אֵין־יָדַיִם לוֹ׃ 53.4. אָכֵן חֳלָיֵנוּ הוּא נָשָׂא וּמַכְאֹבֵינוּ סְבָלָם וַאֲנַחְנוּ חֲשַׁבְנֻהוּ נָגוּעַ מֻכֵּה אֱלֹהִים וּמְעֻנֶּה׃ 53.11. מֵעֲמַל נַפְשׁוֹ יִרְאֶה יִשְׂבָּע בְּדַעְתּוֹ יַצְדִּיק צַדִּיק עַבְדִּי לָרַבִּים וַעֲוֺנֹתָם הוּא יִסְבֹּל׃ 65.7. עֲוֺנֹתֵיכֶם וַעֲוֺנֹת אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם יַחְדָּו אָמַר יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר קִטְּרוּ עַל־הֶהָרִים וְעַל־הַגְּבָעוֹת חֵרְפוּנִי וּמַדֹּתִי פְעֻלָּתָם רִאשֹׁנָה על־[אֶל־] חֵיקָם׃ 6.3. And one called unto another, and said: Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts; The whole earth is full of His glory." 9.1. The people that walked in darkness have seen a great light; they that dwelt in the land of the shadow of death, upon them hath the light shined." 9.2. Thou hast multiplied the nation, Thou hast increased their joy; they joy before Thee according to the joy in harvest, as men rejoice when they divide the spoil." 29.16. O your perversity! Shall the potter be esteemed as clay; that the thing made should say of him that made it: ‘He made me not’; Or the thing framed say of him that framed it: ‘He hath no understanding?’" 43.18. Remember ye not the former things, Neither consider the things of old." 45.1. Thus saith the LORD to His anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have holden, to subdue nations before him, and to loose the loins of kings; to open the doors before him, and that the gates may not be shut:" 45.2. I will go before thee, and make the crooked places straight; I will break in pieces the doors of brass, and cut in sunder the bars of iron;" 45.3. And I will give thee the treasures of darkness, and hidden riches of secret places, that thou mayest know that I am the LORD, who call thee by thy name, even the God of Israel." 45.9. Woe unto him that striveth with his Maker, as a potsherd with the potsherds of the earth! Shall the clay say to him that fashioned it: ‘What makest thou?’ Or: ‘Thy work, it hath no hands’?" 53.4. Surely our diseases he did bear, and our pains he carried; Whereas we did esteem him stricken, Smitten of God, and afflicted." 53.11. of the travail of his soul he shall see to the full, even My servant, Who by his knowledge did justify the Righteous One to the many, And their iniquities he did bear." 65.7. Your own iniquities, and the iniquities of your fathers together, saith the LORD, that have offered upon the mountains, and blasphemed Me upon the hills; therefore will I first measure their wage into their bosom."
12. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 10.1-10.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.1. וַיהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֱמֶת הוּא־אֱלֹהִים חַיִּים וּמֶלֶךְ עוֹלָם מִקִּצְפּוֹ תִּרְעַשׁ הָאָרֶץ וְלֹא־יָכִלוּ גוֹיִם זַעְמוֹ׃ 10.1. שִׁמְעוּ אֶת־הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה עֲלֵיכֶם בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 10.2. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה אֶל־דֶּרֶךְ הַגּוֹיִם אַל־תִּלְמָדוּ וּמֵאֹתוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם אַל־תֵּחָתּוּ כִּי־יֵחַתּוּ הַגּוֹיִם מֵהֵמָּה׃ 10.2. אָהֳלִי שֻׁדָּד וְכָל־מֵיתָרַי נִתָּקוּ בָּנַי יְצָאֻנִי וְאֵינָם אֵין־נֹטֶה עוֹד אָהֳלִי וּמֵקִים יְרִיעוֹתָי׃ 10.3. כִּי־חֻקּוֹת הָעַמִּים הֶבֶל הוּא כִּי־עֵץ מִיַּעַר כְּרָתוֹ מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי־חָרָשׁ בַּמַּעֲצָד׃ 10.4. בְּכֶסֶף וּבְזָהָב יְיַפֵּהוּ בְּמַסְמְרוֹת וּבְמַקָּבוֹת יְחַזְּקוּם וְלוֹא יָפִיק׃ 10.5. כְּתֹמֶר מִקְשָׁה הֵמָּה וְלֹא יְדַבֵּרוּ נָשׂוֹא יִנָּשׂוּא כִּי לֹא יִצְעָדוּ אַל־תִּירְאוּ מֵהֶם כִּי־לֹא יָרֵעוּ וְגַם־הֵיטֵיב אֵין אוֹתָם׃ 10.6. מֵאֵין כָּמוֹךָ יְהוָה גָּדוֹל אַתָּה וְגָדוֹל שִׁמְךָ בִּגְבוּרָה׃ 10.7. מִי לֹא יִרָאֲךָ מֶלֶךְ הַגּוֹיִם כִּי לְךָ יָאָתָה כִּי בְכָל־חַכְמֵי הַגּוֹיִם וּבְכָל־מַלְכוּתָם מֵאֵין כָּמוֹךָ׃ 10.8. וּבְאַחַת יִבְעֲרוּ וְיִכְסָלוּ מוּסַר הֲבָלִים עֵץ הוּא׃ 10.9. כֶּסֶף מְרֻקָּע מִתַּרְשִׁישׁ יוּבָא וְזָהָב מֵאוּפָז מַעֲשֵׂה חָרָשׁ וִידֵי צוֹרֵף תְּכֵלֶת וְאַרְגָּמָן לְבוּשָׁם מַעֲשֵׂה חֲכָמִים כֻּלָּם׃ 10.1. Hear ye the word which the LORD speaketh unto you, O house of Israel;" 10.2. thus saith the LORD: Learn not the way of the nations, And be not dismayed at the signs of heaven; For the nations are dismayed at them." 10.3. For the customs of the peoples are vanity; For it is but a tree which one cutteth out of the forest, The work of the hands of the workman with the axe." 10.4. They deck it with silver and with gold, They fasten it with nails and with hammers, that it move not." 10.5. They are like a pillar in a garden of cucumbers, and speak not; They must needs be borne, because they cannot go. Be not afraid of them, for they cannot do evil, Neither is it in them to do good." 10.6. There is none like unto Thee, O LORD; Thou art great, and Thy name is great in might." 10.7. Who would not fear Thee, O king of the nations? For it befitteth Thee; Forasmuch as among all the wise men of the nations, and in all their royalty, There is none like unto Thee." 10.8. But they are altogether brutish and foolish: The vanities by which they are instructed are but a stock;" 10.9. Silver beaten into plates which is brought from Tarshish, And gold from Uphaz, The work of the craftsman and of the hands of the goldsmith; Blue and purple is their clothing; They are all the work of skilful men." 10.10. But the LORD God is the true God, He is the living God, and the everlasting King; At His wrath the earth trembleth, And the nations are not able to abide His indignation."
13. Septuagint, Isaiah, 44.24 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

14. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 1.26, 1.28 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.26. וּמִמַּעַל לָרָקִיעַ אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשָׁם כְּמַרְאֵה אֶבֶן־סַפִּיר דְּמוּת כִּסֵּא וְעַל דְּמוּת הַכִּסֵּא דְּמוּת כְּמַרְאֵה אָדָם עָלָיו מִלְמָעְלָה׃ 1.28. כְּמַרְאֵה הַקֶּשֶׁת אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בֶעָנָן בְּיוֹם הַגֶּשֶׁם כֵּן מַרְאֵה הַנֹּגַהּ סָבִיב הוּא מַרְאֵה דְּמוּת כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה וָאֶרְאֶה וָאֶפֹּל עַל־פָּנַי וָאֶשְׁמַע קוֹל מְדַבֵּר׃ 1.26. And above the firmament that was over their heads was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone; and upon the likeness of the throne was a likeness as the appearance of a man upon it above." 1.28. As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud in the day of rain, so was the appearance of the brightness round about. This was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the LORD. And when I saw it, I fell upon my face, and I heard a voice of one that spoke."
15. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

509b. the similitude of it still further in this way. How? The sun, I presume you will say, not only furnishes to visibles the power of visibility but it also provides for their generation and growth and nurture though it is not itself generation. of course not. In like manner, then, you are to say that the objects of knowledge not only receive from the presence of the good their being known, but their very existence and essence is derived to them from it, though the good itself is not essence but still transcends essence in dignity and surpassing power.
16. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

38b. that what is become is become, and what is becoming is becoming, and what is about to become is about to become, and what is non-existent is non-existent; but none of these expressions is accurate. But the present is not, perhaps, a fitting occasion for an exact discussion of these matters.
17. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 1.19, 11.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 20.11-20.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 20.11-20.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 12.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.2. וְרַבִּים מִיְּשֵׁנֵי אַדְמַת־עָפָר יָקִיצוּ אֵלֶּה לְחַיֵּי עוֹלָם וְאֵלֶּה לַחֲרָפוֹת לְדִרְאוֹן עוֹלָם׃ 12.2. And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to reproaches and everlasting abhorrence."
21. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 7.28 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.28. I beseech you, my child, to look at the heaven and the earth and see everything that is in them, and recognize that God did not make them out of things that existed. Thus also mankind comes into being.'
22. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 1.4, 1.9, 17.1-17.4, 33.10-33.13, 36.19, 42.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.4. Wisdom was created before all things,and prudent understanding from eternity. 1.9. The fear of the Lord is glory and exultation,and gladness and a crown of rejoicing. 17.1. The Lord created man out of earth,and turned him back to it again. 17.1. And they will praise his holy name,to proclaim the grandeur of his works. 17.2. He gave to men few days, a limited time,but granted them authority over the things upon the earth. 17.2. Their iniquities are not hidden from him,and all their sins are before the Lord. 17.3. He endowed them with strength like his own,and made them in his own image. 17.4. He placed the fear of them in all living beings,and granted them dominion over beasts and birds. 33.11. In the fulness of his knowledge the Lord distinguished them and appointed their different ways; 33.12. some of them he blessed and exalted,and some of them he made holy and brought near to himself;but some of them he cursed and brought low,and he turned them out of their place. 33.13. As clay in the hand of the potter -- for all his ways are as he pleases -- so men are in the hand of him who made them,to give them as he decides. 36.19. As the palate tastes the kinds of game,so an intelligent mind detects false words. 42.21. He has ordained the splendors of his wisdom,and he is from everlasting and to everlasting. Nothing can be added or taken away,and he needs no one to be his counselor. 42.21. He consumes the mountains and burns up the wilderness,and withers the tender grass like fire.
23. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 1.7, 1.14, 2.23, 7.14, 7.22, 7.24, 7.26-7.27, 8.4-8.6, 9.9, 9.15, 17.1-17.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.7. Because the Spirit of the Lord has filled the world,and that which holds all things together knows what is said; 1.14. For he created all things that they might exist,and the generative forces of the world are wholesome,and there is no destructive poison in them;and the dominion of Hades is not on earth. 2.23. for God created man for incorruption,and made him in the image of his own eternity 7.14. for it is an unfailing treasure for men;those who get it obtain friendship with God,commended for the gifts that come from instruction. 7.22. for wisdom, the fashioner of all things, taught me. For in her there is a spirit that is intelligent, holy,unique, manifold, subtle,mobile, clear, unpolluted,distinct, invulnerable, loving the good, keen,irresistible 7.24. For wisdom is more mobile than any motion;because of her pureness she pervades and penetrates all things. 7.26. For she is a reflection of eternal light,a spotless mirror of the working of God,and an image of his goodness. 7.27. Though she is but one, she can do all things,and while remaining in herself, she renews all things;in every generation she passes into holy souls and makes them friends of God, and prophets; 8.4. For she is an initiate in the knowledge of God,and an associate in his works. 8.5. If riches are a desirable possession in life,what is richer than wisdom who effects all things? 8.6. And if understanding is effective,who more than she is fashioner of what exists? 9.9. With thee is wisdom, who knows thy works and was present when thou didst make the world,and who understand what is pleasing in thy sight and what is right according to thy commandments. 9.15. for a perishable body weighs down the soul,and this earthy tent burdens the thoughtful mind. 17.1. Great are thy judgments and hard to describe;therefore unintructed souls have gone astray. 17.2. For when lawless men supposed that they held the holy nation in their power,they themselves lay as captives of darkness and prisoners of long night,shut in under their roofs, exiles from eternal providence. 17.3. For thinking that in their secret sins they were unobserved behind a dark curtain of forgetfulness,they were scattered, terribly alarmed,and appalled by specters.
24. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 51 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

51. and let every one in his turn say the same thing, for it is very becoming to every man who loves God to study such a song as this, but above all this world should sing it. For God, like a shepherd and a king, governs (as if they were a flock of sheep) the earth, and the water, and the air, and the fire, and all the plants, and living creatures that are in them, whether mortal or divine; and he regulates the nature of the heaven, and the periodical revolutions of the sun and moon, and the variations and harmonious movements of the other stars, ruling them according to law and justice; appointing, as their immediate superintendent, his own right reason, his first-born son, who is to receive the charge of this sacred company, as the lieutet of the great king; for it is said somewhere, "Behold, I am he! I will send my messenger before thy face, who shall keep thee in the Road.
25. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 48, 127 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

127. And for what reason is it built, except to serve as a shelter and protection? This is the object. Now passing on from these particular buildings, consider the greatest house or city, namely, this world, for you will find that God is the cause of it, by whom it was made. That the materials are the four elements, of which it is composed; that the instrument is the word of God, by means of which it was made; and the object of the building you will find to be the display of the goodness of the Creator. This is the discriminating opinion of men fond of truth, who desire to attain to true and sound knowledge; but they who say that they have gotten anything by means of God, conceive that the cause is the instrument, the Creator namely, and the instrument the cause, namely, the human mind. 127. And if their connections and families are very numerous, then by reason of their intermarriages and the mutual connections formed with different houses the iniquity and injury will proceed and infect the whole city all around.
26. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 147, 62-63, 146 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

146. And even if there be not as yet any one who is worthy to be called a son of God, nevertheless let him labour earnestly to be adorned according to his first-born word, the eldest of his angels, as the great archangel of many names; for he is called, the authority, and the name of God, and the Word, and man according to God's image, and he who sees Israel.
27. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 31, 30 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

30. but of the father and mother the appellations are common, but their powers are different. At all events we shall speak with justice, if we say that the Creator of the universe is also the father of his creation; and that the mother was the knowledge of the Creator with whom God uniting, not as a man unites, became the father of creation. And this knowledge having received the seed of God, when the day of her travail arrived, brought forth her only and well-beloved son, perceptible by the external senses, namely this world.
28. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 101, 94-95, 100 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

100. These, then, are the six cities which Moses calls cities of refuge, five of which have had their figures set forth in the sacred scriptures, and their images are there likewise. The images of the cities of command and prohibition are the laws in the ark; that of the merciful power of God is the covering of the ark, and he calls it the mercy-seat. The images of the creative power and of the kingly power are the winged cherubim which are placed upon it.
29. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 23-25, 72-75, 77-88, 20 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. As therefore the city, when previously shadowed out in the mind of the man of architectural skill had no external place, but was stamped solely in the mind of the workman, so in the same manner neither can the world which existed in ideas have had any other local position except the divine reason which made them; for what other place could there be for his powers which should be able to receive and contain, I do not say all, but even any single one of them whatever, in its simple form?
30. Philo of Alexandria, On Planting, 20, 19 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

31. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 8 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

8. There is also another proof that the mind is immortal, which is of this nature:--There are some persons whom God, advancing to higher degrees of improvement, has enabled to soar above all species and genera, having placed them near himself; as he says to Moses, "But stand thou here with Me." When, therefore, Moses is about to die, he is not added to one class, nor does he forsake another, as the men before him had done; nor is he connected with "addition" or "subtraction," but "by means of the word of the Cause of all things, by whom the whole world was Made." He departs to another abode, that you may understand from this that God accounts a wise man as entitled to equal honour with the world itself, having both created the universe, and raised the perfect man from the things of earth up to himself by the same word.
32. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.81, 1.171, 3.83 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.81. For if it was necessary to examine the mortal body of the priest that it ought not be imperfect through any misfortune, much more was it necessary to look into his immortal soul, which they say is fashioned in the form of the living God. Now the image of God is the Word, by which all the world was made. 1.171. Moreover, the most fragrant of all incenses are offered up twice every day in the fire, being burnt within the veil, both when the sun rises and sets, before the morning and after the evening sacrifice, so that the sacrifices of blood display our gratitude for ourselves as being composed of blood, but the offerings of incense show our thankfulness for the domit part within us, our rational spirit, which was fashioned after the archetypal model of the divine image. 3.83. The name of homicide is that affixed to him who has slain a man; but in real truth it is a sacrilege, and the very greatest of all sacrileges, because, of all the possessions and sacred treasures in the whole world, there is nothing more holy in appearance, nor more godlike than man, the all-beautiful copy of an all-beautiful model, a representation admirably made after an archetypal rational idea.
33. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.43, 3.96 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.43. And God planted a paradise in Eden, in the east: and there he placed the man whom he had Formed:" for he called that divine and heavenly wisdom by many names; and he made it manifest that it had many appellations; for he called it the beginning, and the image, and the sight of God. And now he exhibits the wisdom which is conversant about the things of the earth (as being an imitation of this archetypal wisdom), in the plantation of this Paradise. For let not such impiety ever occupy our thoughts as for us to suppose that God cultivates the land and plants paradises, since if we were to do so, we should be presently raising the question of why he does so: for it could not be that he might provide himself with pleasant places of recreation and pastime, or with amusement.
34. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 57 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

57. For what are we to say? Shall we say, if he is possessed of the different organic parts, that he has feet for the sake of walking? But where is he to walk who fills all places at once with his presence? And to whom is he to go, when there is no one of equal honour with himself? And why is he to walk? It cannot be out of any regard for his health as we do. Again, are we to say that he has hands for the purpose of giving and taking? he never receivers anything from any one. For in addition to the fact of his wanting nothing he actually has everything; and when he gives, he employs reason as the minister of his gifts, by whose agency also he created the world.
35. Philo of Alexandria, Plant., 20, 19 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. For, says Moses, "God breathed into man's face the breath of Life," so that it follows of necessity, that he that received the breath must be fashioned after the model of him who sent it forth. On which account it is said too, that "Man was made after the image of God," and not after the image of any created being.
36. Anon., 2 Baruch, 14.17-14.19 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

37. Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 2.7.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.7.7. διεξιὼν δὲ Ἡρακλῆς τὴν Δρυόπων χώραν, ἀπορῶν τροφῆς, 6 -- ἀπαντήσαντος 7 -- Θειοδάμαντος βοηλατοῦντος τὸν ἕτερον τῶν ταύρων λύσας καὶ σφάξας 1 -- εὐωχήσατο. 2 -- ὡς δὲ ἦλθεν 3 -- εἰς Τραχῖνα πρὸς Κήυκα, ὑποδεχθεὶς ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ Δρύοπας κατεπολέμησεν. αὖθις δὲ ἐκεῖθεν ὁρμηθεὶς Αἰγιμίῳ βασιλεῖ Δωριέων συνεμάχησε· Λαπίθαι γὰρ περὶ γῆς ὅρων ἐπολέμουν αὐτῷ Κορώνου στρατηγοῦντος, ὁ δὲ πολιορκούμενος ἐπεκαλέσατο τὸν Ἡρακλέα βοηθὸν ἐπὶ μέρει τῆς γῆς. βοηθήσας δὲ Ἡρακλῆς ἀπέκτεινε Κόρωνον μετὰ καὶ ἄλλων, καὶ τὴν γῆν ἅπασαν παρέδωκεν ἐλευθέραν αὐτῷ. ἀπέκτεινε δὲ καὶ Λαογόραν 4 -- μετὰ τῶν τέκνων, βασιλέα Δρυόπων, ἐν Ἀπόλλωνος τεμένει δαινύμενον, ὑβριστὴν ὄντα καὶ Λαπιθῶν σύμμαχον. παριόντα δὲ Ἴτωνον 5 -- εἰς μονομαχίαν προεκαλέσατο αὐτὸν Κύκνος Ἄρεος καὶ Πελοπίας· συστὰς δὲ καὶ τοῦτον ἀπέκτεινεν. ὡς δὲ εἰς Ὀρμένιον 1 -- ἧκεν, Ἀμύντωρ αὐτὸν ὁ βασιλεὺς μεθʼ ὅπλων 2 -- οὐκ εἴα διέρχεσθαι· κωλυόμενος δὲ παριέναι καὶ τοῦτον ἀπέκτεινεν. ἀφικόμενος δὲ εἰς Τραχῖνα στρατιὰν ἐπʼ Οἰχαλίαν συνήθροισεν, 3 -- Εὔρυτον τιμωρήσασθαι θέλων. συμμαχούντων δὲ αὐτῷ Ἀρκάδων καὶ Μηλιέων 4 -- τῶν ἐκ Τραχῖνος καὶ Λοκρῶν τῶν Ἐπικνημιδίων, κτείνας μετὰ τῶν παίδων Εὔρυτον αἱρεῖ τὴν πόλιν. καὶ θάψας τῶν σὺν αὐτῷ στρατευσαμένων 1 -- τοὺς ἀποθανόντας, Ἵππασόν τε τὸν Κήυκος καὶ Ἀργεῖον καὶ Μέλανα τοὺς Λικυμνίου παῖδας, καὶ λαφυραγωγήσας τὴν πόλιν, ἦγεν Ἰόλην αἰχμάλωτον. καὶ προσορμισθεὶς 2 -- Κηναίῳ τῆς Εὐβοίας ἀκρωτηρίῳ 3 -- Διὸς Κηναίου βωμὸν ἱδρύσατο. μέλλων δὲ ἱερουργεῖν εἰς Τραχῖνα Λίχαν τὸν κήρυκα 4 -- ἔπεμψε λαμπρὰν ἐσθῆτα οἴσοντα. παρὰ δὲ τούτου τὰ περὶ τὴν Ἰόλην Δηιάνειρα πυθομένη, 1 -- καὶ δείσασα μὴ ἐκείνην μᾶλλον ἀγαπήσῃ, 2 -- νομίσασα ταῖς ἀληθείαις 3 -- φίλτρον εἶναι τὸ ῥυὲν αἷμα Νέσσου, τούτῳ τὸν χιτῶνα ἔχρισεν. ἐνδὺς δὲ Ἡρακλῆς ἔθυεν. ὡς δὲ θερμανθέντος τοῦ χιτῶνος ὁ τῆς ὕδρας ἰὸς τὸν χρῶτα ἔσηπε, τὸν μὲν Λίχαν τῶν ποδῶν ἀράμενος κατηκόντισεν ἀπὸ τῆς †Βοιωτίας, 4 -- τὸν δὲ χιτῶνα ἀπέσπα προσπεφυκότα τῷ σώματι· συναπεσπῶντο δὲ καὶ αἱ σάρκες αὐτοῦ. τοιαύτῃ συμφορᾷ κατασχεθεὶς εἰς Τραχῖνα ἐπὶ νεὼς κομίζεται. Δηιάνειρα δὲ αἰσθομένη τὸ γεγονὸς ἑαυτὴν ἀνήρτησεν. Ἡρακλῆς δὲ ἐντειλάμενος Ὕλλῳ, ὃς ἐκ Δηιανείρας ἦν αὐτῷ παῖς πρεσβύτερος, Ἰόλην ἀνδρωθέντα γῆμαι, παραγενόμενος εἰς Οἴτην ὄρος (ἔστι δὲ τοῦτο Τραχινίων), ἐκεῖ πυρὰν ποιήσας ἐκέλευσεν 1 -- ἐπιβὰς 2 -- ὑφάπτειν. μηδενὸς δὲ τοῦτο πράττειν ἐθέλοντος, Ποίας παριὼν κατὰ ζήτησιν ποιμνίων ὑφῆψε. τούτῳ καὶ τὰ τόξα ἐδωρήσατο Ἡρακλῆς. καιομένης δὲ τῆς πυρᾶς λέγεται νέφος ὑποστὰν μετὰ βροντῆς αὐτὸν εἰς οὐρανὸν ἀναπέμψαι. ἐκεῖθεν 3 -- δὲ τυχὼν ἀθανασίας καὶ διαλλαγεὶς Ἥρᾳ τὴν ἐκείνης θυγατέρα Ἥβην ἔγημεν, ἐξ ἧς αὐτῷ παῖδες Ἀλεξιάρης καὶ Ἀνίκητος ἐγένοντο.
38. Ignatius, To The Ephesians, 1.1, 10.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.1. While I welcomed in God [your] well-beloved name which ye bear by natural right, [in an upright and virtuous mind], by faith and love in Christ Jesus our Saviour -- being imitators of God, and having your hearts kindled in the blood of God, ye have perfectly fulfilled your congenial work -- 10.3. Let us show ourselves their brothers by our forbearance; but let us be zealous to be imitators of the Lord, vying with each other who shall suffer the greater wrong, who shall be defrauded, who shall be set at nought; that no herb of the devil be found in you: but in all purity and temperance abide ye in Christ Jesus, with your flesh and with your spirit.
39. Ignatius, To The Romans, 5.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.3. Bear with me. I know what is expedient for me. Now am I beginning to be a disciple. May nought of things visible and things invisible envy me; that I may attain unto Jesus Christ. Come fire and cross and grapplings with wild beasts, [cuttings and manglings,] wrenching of bones, hacking of limbs, crushings of my whole body, come cruel tortures of the devil to assail me. Only be it mine to attain unto Jesus Christ.
40. Ignatius, To The Smyrnaeans, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

41. Ignatius, To The Trallians, 5.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.2. For I myself also, albeit I am in bonds and can comprehend heavenly things and the arrays of the angels and the musterings of the principalities, things visible and things invisible -- I myself am not yet by reason of this a disciple. For we lack many things, that God may not be lacking to us.
42. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.190 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

43. Mishnah, Avot, 1.1, 3.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. Moses received the torah at Sinai and transmitted it to Joshua, Joshua to the elders, and the elders to the prophets, and the prophets to the Men of the Great Assembly. They said three things: Be patient in [the administration of] justice, raise many disciples and make a fence round the Torah." 3.15. Everything is foreseen yet freedom of choice is granted, And the world is judged with goodness; And everything is in accordance with the preponderance of works.
44. New Testament, 1 John, 1.1-1.2, 3.9, 4.9, 5.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. That which was from the beginning, that which we have heard, that which we have seen with our eyes, that which we saw, and our hands touched, concerning the Word of life 1.2. (and the life was revealed, and we have seen, and testify, and declare to you the life, the eternal life, which was with the Father, and was revealed to us); 3.9. Whoever is born of God doesn't commit sin, because his seed remains in him; and he can't sin, because he is born of God. 4.9. By this was God's love revealed in us, that God has sent his one and only Son into the world that we might live through him. 5.7. It is the Spirit who bears witness, because the Spirit is the truth.
45. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.24, 2.6, 2.8, 3.1-3.3, 3.16, 4.1, 4.9-4.13, 6.12, 6.19, 8.5-8.6, 11.1, 11.7, 11.12, 12.3, 12.12-12.27, 14.15, 14.26, 15.8, 15.20-15.28, 15.45-15.49 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.24. but to thosewho are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ is the power of God andthe wisdom of God. 2.6. We speak wisdom, however, among those who are fullgrown; yet a wisdom not of this world, nor of the rulers of this world,who are coming to nothing. 2.8. which none of the rulers of this worldhas known. For had they known it, they wouldn't have crucified the Lordof glory. 3.1. Brothers, I couldn't speak to you as to spiritual, but as tofleshly, as to babies in Christ. 3.2. I fed you with milk, not withmeat; for you weren't yet ready. Indeed, not even now are you ready 3.3. for you are still fleshly. For insofar as there is jealousy,strife, and factions among you, aren't you fleshly, and don't you walkin the ways of men? 3.16. Don't you know that you are a temple of God, and that God'sSpirit lives in you? 4.1. So let a man think of us as Christ's servants, and stewards ofGod's mysteries. 4.9. For,I think that God has displayed us, the apostles, last of all, like mensentenced to death. For we are made a spectacle to the world, both toangels and men. 4.10. We are fools for Christ's sake, but you are wisein Christ. We are weak, but you are strong. You have honor, but we havedishonor. 4.11. Even to this present hour we hunger, thirst, arenaked, are beaten, and have no certain dwelling place. 4.12. We toil,working with our own hands. Being reviled, we bless. Being persecuted,we endure. 4.13. Being defamed, we entreat. We are made as the filthof the world, the dirt wiped off by all, even until now. 6.12. All things are lawful for me," but not all thingsare expedient. "All things are lawful for me," but I will not bebrought under the power of anything. 6.19. Or don't you know that your body is a temple ofthe Holy Spirit which is in you, which you have from God? You are notyour own 8.5. For though there are things that are called "gods,"whether in the heavens or on earth; as there are many "gods" and many"lords; 8.6. yet to us there is one God, the Father, of whom are allthings, and we for him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom areall things, and we live through him. 11.1. Be imitators of me, even as I also am of Christ. 11.7. For a man indeed ought not to have his head covered,because he is the image and glory of God, but the woman is the glory ofthe man. 11.12. For as womancame from man, so a man also comes through a woman; but all things arefrom God. 12.3. Therefore Imake known to you that no man speaking by God's Spirit says, "Jesus isaccursed." No one can say, "Jesus is Lord," but by the Holy Spirit. 12.12. For as the body is one, and has many members, and all themembers of the body, being many, are one body; so also is Christ. 12.13. For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whetherJews or Greeks, whether bond or free; and were all given to drink intoone Spirit. 12.14. For the body is not one member, but many. 12.15. If the foot would say, "Because I'm not the hand, I'm not part of thebody," it is not therefore not part of the body. 12.16. If the earwould say, "Because I'm not the eye, I'm not part of the body," it'snot therefore not part of the body. 12.17. If the whole body were aneye, where would the hearing be? If the whole were hearing, where wouldthe smelling be? 12.18. But now God has set the members, each one ofthem, in the body, just as he desired. 12.19. If they were all onemember, where would the body be? 12.20. But now they are many members,but one body. 12.21. The eye can't tell the hand, "I have no need foryou," or again the head to the feet, "I have no need for you. 12.22. No, much rather, those members of the body which seem to be weaker arenecessary. 12.23. Those parts of the body which we think to be lesshonorable, on those we bestow more abundant honor; and ourunpresentable parts have more abundant propriety; 12.24. whereas ourpresentable parts have no such need. But God composed the bodytogether, giving more abundant honor to the inferior part 12.25. thatthere should be no division in the body, but that the members shouldhave the same care for one another. 12.26. When one member suffers,all the members suffer with it. Or when one member is honored, all themembers rejoice with it. 12.27. Now you are the body of Christ, and members individually. 14.15. What is it then? I will pray with the spirit, and I willpray with the understanding also. I will sing with the spirit, and Iwill sing with the understanding also. 14.26. What is it then, brothers? When you come together, each oneof you has a psalm, has a teaching, has a revelation, has anotherlanguage, has an interpretation. Let all things be done to build eachother up. 15.8. and last of all, as to the child born at the wrongtime, he appeared to me also. 15.20. But now Christ has been raised from the dead. He became thefirst fruits of those who are asleep. 15.21. For since death came byman, the resurrection of the dead also came by man. 15.22. For as inAdam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive. 15.23. Buteach in his own order: Christ the first fruits, then those who areChrist's, at his coming. 15.24. Then the end comes, when he willdeliver up the Kingdom to God, even the Father; when he will haveabolished all rule and all authority and power. 15.25. For he mustreign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. 15.26. The lastenemy that will be abolished is death. 15.27. For, "He put all thingsin subjection under his feet." But when he says, "All things are put insubjection," it is evident that he is excepted who subjected all thingsto him. 15.28. When all things have been subjected to him, then theSon will also himself be subjected to him who subjected all things tohim, that God may be all in all. 15.45. So also it is written, "The first man, Adam, became a livingsoul." The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. 15.46. However thatwhich is spiritual isn't first, but that which is natural, then thatwhich is spiritual. 15.47. The first man is of the earth, made ofdust. The second man is the Lord from heaven. 15.48. As is the onemade of dust, such are those who are also made of dust; and as is theheavenly, such are they also that are heavenly. 15.49. As we haveborne the image of those made of dust, let's also bear the image of theheavenly.
46. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.3, 1.6-1.10, 3.12, 4.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. remembering without ceasing your work of faith and labor of love and patience of hope in our Lord Jesus Christ, before our God and Father. 1.6. You became imitators of us, and of the Lord, having received the word in much affliction, with joy of the Holy Spirit 1.7. so that you became an example to all who believe in Macedonia and in Achaia. 1.8. For from you has sounded forth the word of the Lord, not only in Macedonia and Achaia, but also in every place your faith toward God has gone forth; so that we need not to say anything. 1.9. For they themselves report concerning us what kind of a reception we had from you; and how you turned to God from idols, to serve a living and true God 1.10. and to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead -- Jesus, who delivers us from the wrath to come. 3.12. and the Lord make you to increase and abound in love one toward another, and toward all men, even as we also do toward you 4.4. that each one of you know how to possess himself of his own vessel in sanctification and honor
47. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 3.15-3.16, 6.16, 6.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.15. but if I wait long, that you may know how men ought to behave themselves in the house of God, which is the assembly of the living God, the pillar and ground of the truth. 3.16. Without controversy, the mystery of godliness is great: God was revealed in the flesh, Justified in the spirit, Seen by angels, Preached among the nations, Believed on in the world, And received up in glory. 6.16. who alone has immortality, dwelling in unapproachable light; whom no man has seen, nor can see: to whom be honor and eternal power. Amen. 6.20. Timothy, guard that which is committed to you, turning away from the empty chatter and oppositions of the knowledge which is falsely so called;
48. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 3.15-3.18, 4.1-4.2, 4.4-4.7, 4.10, 4.16, 5.19, 11.13-11.14, 12.1-12.4, 13.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

49. New Testament, Acts, 1.9, 1.15, 7.55, 9.8, 14.13, 19.35, 21.17-21.26, 26.23, 27.37 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.9. When he had said these things, as they were looking, he was taken up, and a cloud received him out of their sight. 1.15. In these days, Peter stood up in the midst of the disciples (and the number of names was about one hundred twenty), and said 7.55. But he, being full of the Holy Spirit, looked up steadfastly into heaven, and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right hand of God 9.8. Saul arose from the ground, and when his eyes were opened, he saw no one. They led him by the hand, and brought him into Damascus. 14.13. The priest of Jupiter, whose temple was in front of their city, brought oxen and garlands to the gates, and would have made a sacrifice with the multitudes. 19.35. When the town clerk had quieted the multitude, he said, "You men of Ephesus, what man is there who doesn't know that the city of the Ephesians is temple-keeper of the great goddess Artemis, and of the image which fell down from Zeus? 21.17. When we had come to Jerusalem, the brothers received us gladly. 21.18. The day following, Paul went in with us to James; and all the elders were present. 21.19. When he had greeted them, he reported one by one the things which God had worked among the Gentiles through his ministry. 21.20. They, when they heard it, glorified God. They said to him, "You see, brother, how many thousands there are among the Jews of those who have believed, and they are all zealous for the law. 21.21. They have been informed about you, that you teach all the Jews who are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, telling them not to circumcise their children neither to walk after the customs. 21.22. What then? The assembly must certainly meet, for they will hear that you have come. 21.23. Therefore do what we tell you. We have four men who have a vow on them. 21.24. Take them, and purify yourself with them, and pay their expenses for them, that they may shave their heads. Then all will know that there is no truth in the things that they have been informed about you, but that you yourself also walk keeping the law. 21.25. But concerning the Gentiles who believe, we have written our decision that they should observe no such thing, except that they should keep themselves from food offered to idols, from blood, from strangled things, and from sexual immorality. 21.26. Then Paul took the men, and the next day, purified himself and went with them into the temple, declaring the fulfillment of the days of purification, until the offering was offered for every one of them. 26.23. how the Christ must suffer, and how he first by the resurrection of the dead should proclaim light both to these people and to the Gentiles. 27.37. We were in all in the ship two hundred seventy-six souls.
50. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.4-1.5, 3.14, 3.21, 4.8, 4.11, 21.6, 22.3-22.5, 22.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. John, to the seven assemblies that are in Asia: Grace to you and peace, from God, who is and who was and who is to come; and from the seven Spirits who are before his throne; 1.5. and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To him who loves us, and washed us from our sins by his blood; 3.14. To the angel of the assembly in Laodicea write: "The Amen, the Faithful and True Witness, the Head of God's creation, says these things: 3.21. He who overcomes, I will give to him to sit down with me on my throne, as I also overcame, and sat down with my Father on his throne. 4.8. The four living creatures, having each one of them six wings, are full of eyes around about and within. They have no rest day and night, saying, "Holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy is the Lord God, the Almighty, who was and who is and who is to come! 4.11. Worthy are you, our Lord and our God, the Holy One, to receive the glory, the honor, and the power, for you created all things, and because of your desire they existed, and were created! 21.6. He said to me, "It is done! I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End. I will give freely to him who is thirsty from the spring of the water of life. 22.3. There will be no curse any more. The throne of God and of the Lamb will be in it, and his servants serve him. 22.4. They will see his face, and his name will be on their foreheads. 22.5. There will be no night, and they need no lamp light; for the Lord God will illuminate them. They will reign forever and ever. 22.13. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End.
51. New Testament, James, 2.1, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. My brothers, don't hold the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ of glory with partiality. 4.6. But he gives more grace. Therefore it says, "God resists the proud, but gives grace to the humble.
52. New Testament, Colossians, 1.1-1.14, 1.16-1.28, 2.1-2.23, 3.1-3.5, 3.10-3.11, 3.14-3.16, 3.22-3.24, 4.7-4.8, 4.11, 4.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus through the will of God, and Timothy our brother 1.2. to the saints and faithful brothers in Christ at Colossae: Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ. 1.3. We give thanks to God the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, praying always for you 1.4. having heard of your faith in Christ Jesus, and of the love which you have toward all the saints 1.5. because of the hope which is laid up for you in the heavens, whereof you heard before in the word of the truth of the gospel 1.6. which has come to you; even as it is in all the world and is bearing fruit and increasing, as it does in you also, since the day you heard and knew the grace of God in truth; 1.7. even as you learned of Epaphras our beloved fellow servant, who is a faithful minister of Christ on our behalf 1.8. who also declared to us your love in the Spirit. 1.9. For this cause, we also, since the day we heard this, don't cease praying and making requests for you, that you may be filled with the knowledge of his will in all spiritual wisdom and understanding 1.10. that you may walk worthily of the Lord, to please him in all respects, bearing fruit in every good work, and increasing in the knowledge of God; 1.11. strengthened with all power, according to the might of his glory, for all endurance and perseverance with joy; 1.12. giving thanks to the Father, who made us fit to be partakers of the inheritance of the saints in light; 1.13. who delivered us out of the power of darkness, and translated us into the Kingdom of the Son of his love; 1.14. in whom we have our redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our sins; 1.16. For by him were all things created, in the heavens and on the earth, things visible and things invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers; all things have been created through him, and for him. 1.17. He is before all things, and in him all things are held together. 1.18. He is the head of the body, the assembly, who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence. 1.19. For all the fullness was pleased to dwell in him; 1.20. and through him to reconcile all things to himself, having made peace through the blood of his cross. Through him, I say, whether things on the earth, or things in the heavens. 1.21. You, being in past times alienated and enemies in your mind in your evil works 1.22. yet now he has reconciled in the body of his flesh through death, to present you holy and without blemish and blameless before him 1.23. if it is so that you continue in the faith, grounded and steadfast, and not moved away from the hope of the gospel which you heard, which is being proclaimed in all creation under heaven; of which I, Paul, was made a servant. 1.24. Now I rejoice in my sufferings for your sake, and fill up on my part that which is lacking of the afflictions of Christ in my flesh for his body's sake, which is the assembly; 1.25. of which I was made a servant, according to the stewardship of God which was given me toward you, to fulfill the word of God 1.26. the mystery which has been hidden for ages and generations. But now it has been revealed to his saints 1.27. to whom God was pleased to make known what are the riches of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles, which is Christ in you, the hope of glory; 1.28. whom we proclaim, admonishing every man and teaching every man in all wisdom, that we may present every man perfect in Christ Jesus; 2.1. For I desire to have you know how greatly I struggle for you, and for those at Laodicea, and for as many as have not seen my face in the flesh; 2.2. that their hearts may be comforted, they being knit together in love, and gaining all riches of the full assurance of understanding, that they may know the mystery of God, both of the Father and of Christ 2.3. in whom are all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge hidden. 2.4. Now this I say that no one may delude you with persuasiveness of speech. 2.5. For though I am absent in the flesh, yet am I with you in the spirit, rejoicing and seeing your order, and the steadfastness of your faith in Christ. 2.6. As therefore you received Christ Jesus, the Lord, walk in him 2.7. rooted and built up in him, and established in the faith, even as you were taught, abounding in it in thanksgiving. 2.8. Be careful that you don't let anyone rob you through his philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the elements of the world, and not after Christ. 2.9. For in him all the fullness of the Godhead dwells bodily 2.10. and in him you are made full, who is the head of all principality and power; 2.11. in whom you were also circumcised with a circumcision not made with hands, in the putting off of the body of the sins of the flesh, in the circumcision of Christ; 2.12. having been buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the working of God, who raised him from the dead. 2.13. You were dead through your trespasses and the uncircumcision of your flesh. He made you alive together with him, having forgiven us all our trespasses; 2.14. having wiped out the handwriting in ordices that was against us, which was contrary to us: and he has taken it out of the way, nailing it to the cross; 2.15. having stripped the principalities and the powers, he made a show of them openly, triumphing over them in it. 2.16. Let no man therefore judge you in eating, or in drinking, or with respect to a feast day or a new moon or a Sabbath day 2.17. which are a shadow of the things to come; but the body is Christ's. 2.18. Let no one rob you of your prize by a voluntary humility and worshipping of the angels, dwelling in the things which he has not seen, vainly puffed up by his fleshly mind 2.19. and not holding firmly to the Head, from whom all the body, being supplied and knit together through the joints and ligaments, grows with God's growth. 2.20. If you died with Christ from the elements of the world, why, as though living in the world, do you subject yourselves to ordices 2.21. Don't handle, nor taste, nor touch 2.22. (all of which perish with use), according to the precepts and doctrines of men? 2.23. Which things indeed appear like wisdom in self-imposed worship, and humility, and severity to the body; but aren't of any value against the indulgence of the flesh. 3.1. If then you were raised together with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated on the right hand of God. 3.2. Set your mind on the things that are above, not on the things that are on the earth. 3.3. For you died, and your life is hidden with Christ in God. 3.4. When Christ, our life, is revealed, then you will also be revealed with him in glory. 3.5. Put to death therefore your members which are on the earth: sexual immorality, uncleanness, depraved passion, evil desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry; 3.10. and have put on the new man, that is being renewed in knowledge after the image of his Creator 3.11. where there can't be Greek and Jew, circumcision and uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, bondservant, freeman; but Christ is all, and in all. 3.14. Above all these things, walk in love, which is the bond of perfection. 3.15. And let the peace of God rule in your hearts, to which also you were called in one body; and be thankful. 3.16. Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly; in all wisdom teaching and admonishing one another with psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your heart to the Lord. 3.22. Servants, obey in all things those who are your masters according to the flesh, not just when they are looking, as men-pleasers, but in singleness of heart, fearing God. 3.23. And whatever you do, work heartily, as for the Lord, and not for men 3.24. knowing that from the Lord you will receive the reward of the inheritance; for you serve the Lord Christ. 4.7. All my affairs will be made known to you by Tychicus, the beloved brother, faithful servant, and fellow bondservant in the Lord. 4.8. I am sending him to you for this very purpose, that he may know your circumstances and comfort your hearts 4.11. and Jesus who is called Justus, who are of the circumcision. These are my only fellow workers for the Kingdom of God, men who have been a comfort to me. 4.16. When this letter has been read among you, cause it to be read also in the assembly of the Laodiceans; and that you also read the letter from Laodicea.
53. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.2-1.23, 2.5-2.6, 2.10-2.11, 2.14-2.16, 2.18, 2.20-2.22, 3.1-3.15, 3.18-3.19, 4.3-4.6, 4.8, 4.10, 4.14-4.16, 5.14, 5.17-5.33 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 1.3. Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ; 1.4. even as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we would be holy and without blemish before him in love; 1.5. having predestined us for adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his desire 1.6. to the praise of the glory of his grace, by which he freely bestowed favor on us in the Beloved 1.7. in whom we have our redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of his grace 1.8. which he made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence 1.9. making known to us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he purposed in him 1.10. to an administration of the fullness of the times, to sum up all things in Christ, the things in the heavens, and the things on the earth, in him; 1.11. in whom also we were assigned an inheritance, having been foreordained according to the purpose of him who works all things after the counsel of his will; 1.12. to the end that we should be to the praise of his glory, we who had before hoped in Christ: 1.13. in whom you also, having heard the word of the truth, the gospel of your salvation, -- in whom, having also believed, you were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise 1.14. who is a pledge of our inheritance, to the redemption of God's own possession, to the praise of his glory. 1.15. For this cause I also, having heard of the faith in the Lord Jesus which is among you, and the love which you have toward all the saints 1.16. don't cease to give thanks for you, making mention of you in my prayers 1.17. that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give to you a spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of him; 1.18. having the eyes of your hearts enlightened, that you may know what is the hope of his calling, and what are the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints 1.19. and what is the exceeding greatness of his power toward us who believe, according to that working of the strength of his might 1.20. which he worked in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and made him to sit at his right hand in the heavenly places 1.21. far above all rule, and authority, and power, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come. 1.22. He put all things in subjection under his feet, and gave him to be head over all things for the assembly 1.23. which is his body, the fullness of him who fills all in all. 2.5. even when we were dead through our trespasses, made us alive together with Christ (by grace you have been saved) 2.6. and raised us up with him, and made us to sit with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus 2.10. For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared before that we would walk in them. 2.11. Therefore remember that once you, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called "uncircumcision" by that which is called "circumcision," (in the flesh, made by hands); 2.14. For he is our peace, who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of partition 2.15. having abolished in the flesh the hostility, the law of commandments contained in ordices, that he might create in himself one new man of the two, making peace; 2.16. and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, having killed the hostility thereby. 2.18. For through him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father. 2.20. being built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the chief cornerstone; 2.21. in whom the whole building, fitted together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord; 2.22. in whom you also are built together for a habitation of God in the Spirit. 3.1. For this cause I, Paul, am the prisoner of Christ Jesus on behalf of you Gentiles 3.2. if it is so that you have heard of the administration of that grace of God which was given me toward you; 3.3. how that by revelation the mystery was made known to me, as I wrote before in few words 3.4. by which, when you read, you can perceive my understanding in the mystery of Christ; 3.5. which in other generations was not made known to the sons of men, as it has now been revealed to his holy apostles and prophets in the Spirit; 3.6. that the Gentiles are fellow heirs, and fellow members of the body, and fellow partakers of his promise in Christ Jesus through the gospel 3.7. whereof I was made a servant, according to the gift of that grace of God which was given me according to the working of his power. 3.8. To me, the very least of all saints, was this grace given, to preach to the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ 3.9. and to make all men see what is the administration of the mystery which for ages has been hidden in God, who created all things through Jesus Christ; 3.10. to the intent that now through the assembly the manifold wisdom of God might be made known to the principalities and the powers in the heavenly places 3.11. according to the eternal purpose which he purposed in Christ Jesus our Lord; 3.12. in whom we have boldness and access in confidence through our faith in him. 3.13. Therefore I ask that you may not lose heart at my troubles for you, which are your glory. 3.14. For this cause, I bow my knees to the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ 3.15. from whom every family in heaven and on earth is named 3.18. may be strengthened to comprehend with all the saints what is the breadth and length and height and depth 3.19. and to know Christ's love which surpasses knowledge, that you may be filled with all the fullness of God. 4.3. being eager to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace. 4.4. There is one body, and one Spirit, even as you also were called in one hope of your calling; 4.5. one Lord, one faith, one baptism 4.6. one God and Father of all, who is over all, and through all, and in us all. 4.8. Therefore he says, "When he ascended on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts to men. 4.10. He who descended is the one who also ascended far above all the heavens, that he might fill all things. 4.14. that we may no longer be children, tossed back and forth and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the trickery of men, in craftiness, after the wiles of error; 4.15. but speaking truth in love, we may grow up in all things into him, who is the head, Christ; 4.16. from whom all the body, being fitted and knit together through that which every joint supplies, according to the working in measure of each individual part, makes the body increase to the building up of itself in love. 5.14. Therefore he says, "Awake, you who sleep, and arise from the dead, and Christ will shine on you. 5.17. Therefore don't be foolish, but understand what the will of the Lord is. 5.18. Don't be drunken with wine, in which is dissipation, but be filled with the Spirit 5.19. speaking to one another in psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs; singing, and singing praises in your heart to the Lord; 5.20. giving thanks always concerning all things in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, to God, even the Father; 5.21. subjecting yourselves one to another in the fear of Christ. 5.22. Wives, be subject to your own husbands, as to the Lord. 5.23. For the husband is the head of the wife, and Christ also is the head of the assembly, being himself the savior of the body. 5.24. But as the assembly is subject to Christ, so let the wives also be to their own husbands in everything. 5.25. Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the assembly, and gave himself up for it; 5.26. that he might sanctify it, having cleansed it by the washing of water with the word 5.27. that he might present the assembly to himself gloriously, not having spot or wrinkle or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish. 5.28. Even so ought husbands also to love their own wives as their own bodies. He who loves his own wife loves himself. 5.29. For no man ever hated his own flesh; but nourishes and cherishes it, even as the Lord also does the assembly; 5.30. because we are members of his body, of his flesh and bones. 5.31. For this cause a man will leave his father and mother, and will be joined to his wife. The two will become one flesh. 5.32. This mystery is great, but I speak concerning Christ and of the assembly. 5.33. Nevertheless each of you must also love his own wife even as himself; and let the wife see that she respects her husband.
54. New Testament, Galatians, 2.2, 4.5, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.2. I went up byrevelation, and I laid before them the gospel which I preach among theGentiles, but privately before those who were respected, for fear thatI might be running, or had run, in vain. 4.5. thathe might redeem those who were under the law, that we might receive theadoption of sons. 5.1. Stand firm therefore in the liberty by which Christ has madeus free, and don't be entangled again with a yoke of bondage.
55. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.1-1.6, 1.10-1.12, 2.10-2.18, 6.1, 7.3, 9.13, 10.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. God, having in the past spoken to the fathers through the prophets at many times and in various ways 1.2. has at the end of these days spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, through whom also he made the worlds. 1.3. His Son is the radiance of his glory, the very image of his substance, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself made purification for our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high; 1.4. having become so much better than the angels, as he has inherited a more excellent name than they have. 1.5. For to which of the angels did he say at any time, "You are my Son, Today have I become your father?"and again, "I will be to him a Father, And he will be to me a Son? 1.6. Again, when he brings in the firstborn into the world he says, "Let all the angels of God worship him. 1.10. And, "You, Lord, in the beginning, laid the foundation of the earth. The heavens are the works of your hands. 1.11. They will perish, but you continue. They all will grow old like a garment does. 1.12. As a mantle you will roll them up, And they will be changed; But you are the same. Your years will not fail. 2.10. For it became him, for whom are all things, and through whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to make the author of their salvation perfect through sufferings. 2.11. For both he who sanctifies and those who are sanctified are all from one, for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brothers 2.12. saying, "I will declare your name to my brothers. In the midst of the congregation I will sing your praise. 2.13. Again, "I will put my trust in him." Again, "Behold, here am I and the children whom God has given me. 2.14. Since then the children have shared in flesh and blood, he also himself in like manner partook of the same, that through death he might bring to nothing him who had the power of death, that is, the devil 2.15. and might deliver all of them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage. 2.16. For most assuredly, not to angels does he give help, but he gives help to the seed of Abraham. 2.17. Therefore he was obligated in all things to be made like his brothers, that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make atonement for the sins of the people. 2.18. For in that he himself has suffered being tempted, he is able to help those who are tempted. 6.1. Therefore leaving the doctrine of the first principles of Christ, let us press on to perfection -- not laying again a foundation of repentance from dead works, of faith toward God 7.3. without father, without mother, without genealogy, having neither beginning of days nor end of life, but made like the Son of God), remains a priest continually. 9.13. For if the blood of goats and bulls, and the ashes of a heifer sprinkling those who have been defiled, sanctify to the cleanness of the flesh: 10.4. For it is impossible that the blood of bulls and goats should take away sins.
56. New Testament, Philippians, 1.29, 2.5-2.11, 3.21, 4.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.29. Because it has been granted to you on behalf of Christ, not only to believe in him, but also to suffer on his behalf 2.5. Have this in your mind, which was also in Christ Jesus 2.6. who, existing in the form of God, didn't consider it robbery to be equal with God 2.7. but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of men. 2.8. And being found in human form, he humbled himself, becoming obedient to death, yes, the death of the cross. 2.9. Therefore God also highly exalted him, and gave to him the name which is above every name; 2.10. that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those in heaven, those on earth, and those under the earth 2.11. and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. 3.21. who will change the body of our humiliation to be conformed to the body of his glory, according to the working by which he is able even to subject all things to himself. 4.19. My God will supply every need of yours according to his riches in glory in Christ Jesus.
57. New Testament, Romans, 1.3-1.4, 1.18-1.19, 1.23, 3.8, 3.18, 3.24, 3.29-3.30, 4.4, 4.7, 4.10, 4.12, 4.14, 5.12-5.21, 6.1, 6.10-6.11, 7.22, 8.9, 8.15-8.16, 8.29, 9.20-9.21, 11.7, 11.36, 12.1, 12.4-12.6, 13.13-13.14, 14.9, 14.26, 15.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh 1.4. who was declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord 1.18. For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness 1.19. because that which is known of God is revealed in them, for God revealed it to them. 1.23. and traded the glory of the incorruptible God for the likeness of an image of corruptible man, and of birds, and four-footed animals, and creeping things. 3.8. Why not (as we are slanderously reported, and as some affirm that we say), "Let us do evil, that good may come?" Those who say so are justly condemned. 3.18. There is no fear of God before their eyes. 3.24. being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus; 3.29. Or is God the God of Jews only? Isn't he the God of Gentiles also? Yes, of Gentiles also 3.30. since indeed there is one God who will justify the circumcised by faith, and the uncircumcised through faith. 4.4. Now to him who works, the reward is not accounted as of grace, but as of debt. 4.7. Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven, Whose sins are covered. 4.10. How then was it counted? When he was in circumcision, or in uncircumcision? Not in circumcision, but in uncircumcision. 4.12. The father of circumcision to those who not only are of the circumcision, but who also walk in the steps of that faith of our father Abraham, which he had in uncircumcision. 4.14. For if those who are of the law are heirs, faith is made void, and the promise is made of no effect. 5.12. Therefore, as sin entered into the world through one man, and death through sin; and so death passed to all men, because all sinned. 5.13. For until the law, sin was in the world; but sin is not charged when there is no law. 5.14. Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those whose sins weren't like Adam's disobedience, who is a foreshadowing of him who was to come. 5.15. But the free gift isn't like the trespass. For if by the trespass of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God, and the gift by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abound to the many. 5.16. The gift is not as through one who sinned: for the judgment came by one to condemnation, but the free gift came of many trespasses to justification. 5.17. For if by the trespass of the one, death reigned through the one; so much more will those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life through the one, Jesus Christ. 5.18. So then as through one trespass, all men were condemned; even so through one act of righteousness, all men were justified to life. 5.19. For as through the one man's disobedience many were made sinners, even so through the obedience of the one will many be made righteous. 5.20. The law came in besides, that the trespass might abound; but where sin abounded, grace did abound more exceedingly; 5.21. that as sin reigned in death, even so might grace reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. 6.1. What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? 6.10. For the death that he died, he died to sin one time; but the life that he lives, he lives to God. 6.11. Thus also consider yourselves also to be dead to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus our Lord. 7.22. For I delight in God's law after the inward man 8.9. But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if it is so that the Spirit of God dwells in you. But if any man doesn't have the Spirit of Christ, he is not his. 8.15. For you didn't receive the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you received the Spirit of adoption, by whom we cry, "Abba! Father! 8.16. The Spirit himself testifies with our spirit that we are children of God; 8.29. For whom he foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers. 9.20. But indeed, O man, who are you to reply against God? Will the thing formed ask him who formed it, "Why did you make me like this? 9.21. Or hasn't the potter a right over the clay, from the same lump to make one part a vessel for honor, and another for dishonor? 11.7. What then? That which Israel seeks for, that he didn't obtain, but the elect obtained it, and the rest were hardened. 11.36. For of him, and through him, and to him, are all things. To him be the glory for ever! Amen. 12.1. Therefore I urge you, brothers, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God, which is your spiritual service. 12.4. For even as we have many members in one body, and all the members don't have the same function 12.5. so we, who are many, are one body in Christ, and individually members one of another. 12.6. Having gifts differing according to the grace that was given to us, if prophecy, let us prophesy according to the proportion of our faith; 13.13. Let us walk properly, as in the day; not in reveling and drunkenness, not in sexual promiscuity and lustful acts, and not in strife and jealousy. 13.14. But put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh, for its lusts. 14.9. For to this end Christ died, rose, and lived again, that he might be Lord of both the dead and the living. 14.26. to the only wise God, through Jesus Christ, to whom be the glory forever! Amen. 15.7. Therefore receive one another, even as Christ also received you, to the glory of God.
58. New Testament, Titus, 3.10-3.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.10. Avoid a factious man after a first and second warning; 3.11. knowing that such a one is perverted, and sins, being self-condemned.
59. New Testament, John, 1.1-1.18, 3.13, 3.16, 3.18-3.19, 8.45, 14.9, 14.28, 17.5, 20.11-20.18, 21.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 1.2. The same was in the beginning with God. 1.3. All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made. 1.4. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. 1.5. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness hasn't overcome it. 1.6. There came a man, sent from God, whose name was John. 1.7. The same came as a witness, that he might testify about the light, that all might believe through him. 1.8. He was not the light, but was sent that he might testify about the light. 1.9. The true light that enlightens everyone was coming into the world. 1.10. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, and the world didn't recognize him. 1.11. He came to his own, and those who were his own didn't receive him. 1.12. But as many as received him, to them he gave the right to become God's children, to those who believe in his name: 1.13. who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. 1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. 1.15. John testified about him. He cried out, saying, "This was he of whom I said, 'He who comes after me has surpassed me, for he was before me.' 1.16. From his fullness we all received grace upon grace. 1.17. For the law was given through Moses. Grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. 1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. 3.13. No one has ascended into heaven, but he who descended out of heaven, the Son of Man, who is in heaven. 3.16. For God so loved the world, that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish, but have eternal life. 3.18. He who believes in him is not judged. He who doesn't believe has been judged already, because he has not believed in the name of the only born Son of God. 3.19. This is the judgment, that the light has come into the world, and men loved the darkness rather than the light; for their works were evil. 8.45. But because I tell the truth, you don't believe me. 14.9. Jesus said to him, "Have I been with you such a long time, and do you not know me, Philip? He who has seen me has seen the Father. How do you say, 'Show us the Father?' 14.28. You heard how I told you, 'I go away, and I come to you.' If you loved me, you would have rejoiced, because I said 'I am going to my Father;' for the Father is greater than I. 17.5. Now, Father, glorify me with your own self with the glory which I had with you before the world existed. 20.11. But Mary was standing outside at the tomb weeping. So, as she wept, she stooped and looked into the tomb 20.12. and she saw two angels in white sitting, one at the head, and one at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain. 20.13. They told her, "Woman, why are you weeping?"She said to them, "Because they have taken away my Lord, and I don't know where they have laid him. 20.14. When she had said this, she turned around and saw Jesus standing, and didn't know that it was Jesus. 20.15. Jesus said to her, "Woman, why are you weeping? Who are you looking for?"She, supposing him to be the gardener, said to him, "Sir, if you have carried him away, tell me where you have laid him, and I will take him away. 20.16. Jesus said to her, "Mary."She turned and said to him, "Rhabbouni!" which is to say, "Teacher! 20.17. Jesus said to her, "Don't touch me, for I haven't yet ascended to my Father; but go to my brothers, and tell them, 'I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.' 20.18. Mary Magdalene came and told the disciples that she had seen the Lord, and that he had said these things to her. 21.11. Simon Peter went up, and drew the net to land, full of great fish, one hundred fifty-three; and even though there were so many, the net wasn't torn.
60. New Testament, Luke, 11.2, 21.9, 22.19-22.20, 22.69, 24.51 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.2. He said to them, "When you pray, say, 'Our Father in heaven, May your name be kept holy. May your kingdom come. May your will be done on Earth, as it is in heaven. 21.9. When you hear of wars and disturbances, don't be terrified, for these things must happen first, but the end won't come immediately. 22.19. He took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and gave to them, saying, "This is my body which is given for you. Do this in memory of me. 22.20. Likewise, he took the cup after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood, which is poured out for you. 22.69. From now on, the Son of Man will be seated at the right hand of the power of God. 24.51. It happened, while he blessed them, that he withdrew from them, and was carried up into heaven.
61. New Testament, Mark, 1.13, 4.41, 14.22-14.24, 14.62 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.13. He was there in the wilderness forty days tempted by Satan. He was with the wild animals; and the angels ministered to him. 4.41. They were greatly afraid, and said to one another, "Who then is this, that even the wind and the sea obey him? 14.22. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had blessed, he broke it, and gave to them, and said, "Take, eat. This is my body. 14.23. He took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave to them. They all drank of it. 14.24. He said to them, "This is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many. 14.62. Jesus said, "I AM. You will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of the sky.
62. New Testament, Matthew, 5.44-5.45, 19.28, 20.28, 22.19-22.21, 24.4-24.5, 26.24, 26.37, 26.39, 28.9, 28.19-28.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.44. But I tell you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who mistreat you and persecute you 5.45. that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven. For he makes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the just and the unjust. 19.28. Jesus said to them, "Most assuredly I tell you that you who have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of Man will sit on the throne of his glory, you also will sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. 20.28. even as the Son of Man came not to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many. 22.19. Show me the tax money."They brought to him a denarius. 22.20. He asked them, "Whose is this image and inscription? 22.21. They said to him, "Caesar's."Then he said to them, "Give therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's. 24.4. Jesus answered them, "Be careful that no one leads you astray. 24.5. For many will come in my name, saying, 'I am the Christ,' and will lead many astray. 26.24. The Son of Man goes, even as it is written of him, but woe to that man through whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would be better for that man if he had not been born. 26.37. He took with him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, and began to be sorrowful and severely troubled. 26.39. He went forward a little, fell on his face, and prayed, saying, "My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass away from me; nevertheless, not what I desire, but what you desire. 28.9. As they went to tell his disciples, behold, Jesus met them, saying, "Rejoice!"They came and took hold of his feet, and worshiped him. 28.19. Go, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit 28.20. teaching them to observe all things which I commanded you. Behold, I am with you always, even to the end of the age." Amen.
63. Plutarch, Against Colotes, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

64. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 4.1.76-4.1.77 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.1.76.  However on all occasions when we have employed the exordium, whether we intend to pass to the statement of facts or direct to the proof, our intention should be mentioned at the conclusion of the introduction, with the result that the transition to what follows will be smooth and easy. 4.1.77.  There is indeed a pedantic and childish affectation in vogue in the schools of marking the transition by some epigram and seeking to win applause by this feat of legerdemain. Ovid is given to this form of affectation in his Metamorphoses, but there is some excuse for him owing to the fact that he is compelled to weld together subjects of the most diverse nature so as to form a continuous whole.
65. Seneca The Younger, Hercules Oetaeus, 1964-1976, 1963 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

66. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 1.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.1. רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָה רַבָּה פָּתַח (משלי ח, ל): וָאֶהְיֶה אֶצְלוֹ אָמוֹן וָאֶהְיֶה שַׁעֲשׁוּעִים יוֹם יוֹם וגו', אָמוֹן פַּדְּגוֹג, אָמוֹן מְכֻסֶּה, אָמוֹן מֻצְנָע, וְאִית דַּאֲמַר אָמוֹן רַבָּתָא. אָמוֹן פַּדְּגוֹג, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (במדבר יא, יב): כַּאֲשֶׁר יִשָֹּׂא הָאֹמֵן אֶת הַיֹּנֵק. אָמוֹן מְכֻסֶּה, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (איכה ד, ה): הָאֱמֻנִים עֲלֵי תוֹלָע וגו'. אָמוֹן מֻצְנָע, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (אסתר ב, ז): וַיְהִי אֹמֵן אֶת הֲדַסָּה. אָמוֹן רַבָּתָא, כְּמָא דְתֵימָא (נחום ג, ח): הֲתֵיטְבִי מִנֹּא אָמוֹן, וּמְתַרְגְּמִינַן הַאַתְּ טָבָא מֵאֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִיָא רַבָּתָא דְּיָתְבָא בֵּין נַהֲרוֹתָא. דָּבָר אַחֵר אָמוֹן, אֻמָּן. הַתּוֹרָה אוֹמֶרֶת אֲנִי הָיִיתִי כְּלִי אֻמְנוּתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, בְּנֹהַג שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם מֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם בּוֹנֶה פָּלָטִין, אֵינוֹ בּוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא מִדַּעַת אֻמָּן, וְהָאֻמָּן אֵינוֹ בּוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא דִּפְתְּרָאוֹת וּפִנְקְסָאוֹת יֵשׁ לוֹ, לָדַעַת הֵיאךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה חֲדָרִים, הֵיאךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה פִּשְׁפְּשִׁין. כָּךְ הָיָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַבִּיט בַּתּוֹרָה וּבוֹרֵא אֶת הָעוֹלָם, וְהַתּוֹרָה אָמְרָה בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים. וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא תּוֹרָה, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ. 1.1. רַבִּי יוֹנָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר, לָמָּה נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם בְּב', אֶלָּא מַה ב' זֶה סָתוּם מִכָּל צְדָדָיו וּפָתוּחַ מִלְּפָנָיו, כָּךְ אֵין לְךָ רְשׁוּת לוֹמַר, מַה לְּמַטָּה, מַה לְּמַעְלָה, מַה לְּפָנִים, מַה לְּאָחוֹר, אֶלָּא מִיּוֹם שֶׁנִּבְרָא הָעוֹלָם וּלְהַבָּא. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר (דברים ד, לב): כִּי שְׁאַל נָא לְיָמִים רִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ לְפָנֶיךָ, לְמִן הַיּוֹם שֶׁנִּבְרְאוּ אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ, וְאִי אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ לִפְנִים מִכָּאן. (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם, אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ וְחוֹקֵר, וְאִי אַתָּה חוֹקֵר לִפְנִים מִכָּאן. דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן פָּזִי בְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית בַּהֲדֵיהּ דְּבַר קַפָּרָא, לָמָּה נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם בְּב', לְהוֹדִיעֲךָ שֶׁהֵן שְׁנֵי עוֹלָמִים, הָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְהָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְלָמָּה בְּב' שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן בְּרָכָה, וְלָמָּה לֹא בְּאָלֶ"ף שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן אֲרִירָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לָמָּה לֹא בְּאָלֶ"ף שֶׁלֹא לִתֵּן פִּתְחוֹן פֶּה לָאֶפִּיקוֹרְסִין לוֹמַר הֵיאַךְ הָעוֹלָם יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד שֶׁהוּא נִבְרָא בִּלְשׁוֹן אֲרִירָה, אֶלָּא אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ בִּלְשׁוֹן בְּרָכָה, וְהַלְּוַאי יַעֲמֹד. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לָמָּה בְּב' אֶלָּא מַה ב' זֶה יֵשׁ לוֹ שְׁנֵי עוֹקְצִין, אֶחָד מִלְּמַעְלָה וְאֶחָד מִלְּמַטָּה מֵאֲחוֹרָיו, אוֹמְרִים לַב' מִי בְּרָאֲךָ, וְהוּא מַרְאֶה בְּעוּקְצוֹ מִלְּמַעְלָה, וְאוֹמֵר זֶה שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה בְּרָאָנִי. וּמַה שְּׁמוֹ, וְהוּא מַרְאֶה לָהֶן בְּעוּקְצוֹ שֶׁל אַחֲרָיו, וְאוֹמֵר ה' שְׁמוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בַּר חֲנִינָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֲחָא, עֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁשָּׁה דוֹרוֹת הָיְתָה הָאָלֶ"ף קוֹרֵא תִּגָּר לִפְנֵי כִסְאוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, אָמְרָה לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, אֲנִי רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל אוֹתִיּוֹת וְלֹא בָּרָאתָ עוֹלָמְךָ בִּי, אָמַר לָהּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הָעוֹלָם וּמְלוֹאוֹ לֹא נִבְרָא אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ג, יט): ה' בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד אָרֶץ וגו', לְמָחָר אֲנִי בָּא לִתֵּן תּוֹרָה בְּסִינַי וְאֵינִי פּוֹתֵחַ תְּחִלָה אֶלָּא בָּךְ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כ, ב): אָנֹכִי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ. רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא אוֹמֵר לָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ אָלֶ"ף, שֶׁהוּא מַסְכִּים מֵאָלֶ"ף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קה, ח): דָּבָר צִוָּה לְאֶלֶף דּוֹר. 1.1. The great Rabbi Hoshaya opened [with the verse (Mishlei 8:30),] \"I [the Torah] was an amon to Him and I was a plaything to Him every day.\" Amon means \"pedagogue\" (i.e. ny). Amon means \"covered.\" Amon means \"hidden.\" And there is one who says amon means \"great.\" Amon means \"ny,\" as in (Bamidbar 11:12) “As a ny (omein) carries the suckling child.\" Amon means \"covered,\" as in (Eichah 4:5) \"Those who were covered (emunim) in scarlet have embraced refuse heaps.\" Amon means \"hidden,\" as in (Esther 2:7) \"He hid away (omein) Hadassah.\" Amon means \"great,\" as in (Nahum 3:8) \"Are you better than No-amon [which dwells in the rivers]?\" which the Targum renders as, \"Are you better than Alexandria the Great (amon), which dwells between the rivers?\" Alternatively, amon means \"artisan.\" The Torah is saying, \"I was the artisan's tool of Hashem.\" In the way of the world, a king of flesh and blood who builds a castle does not do so from his own knowledge, but rather from the knowledge of an architect, and the architect does not build it from his own knowledge, but rather he has scrolls and books in order to know how to make rooms and doorways. So too Hashem gazed into the Torah and created the world. Similarly the Torah says, \"Through the reishis Hashem created [the heavens and the earth],\" and reishis means Torah, as in \"Hashem made me [the Torah] the beginning (reishis) of His way\" (Mishlei 8:22)."
67. Clement of Alexandria, Excerpts From Theodotus, 19.2, 33.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

68. Clement of Alexandria, Christ The Educator, 1.6.25-1.6.32, 1.6.34-1.6.43, 1.6.45 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

69. Clement of Alexandria, Exhortation To The Greeks, 10.98.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

70. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 4.3.9, 4.6.39, 6.58.1, 7.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

71. Hermas, Mandates, 1.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

72. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.12.1, 1.26 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

73. Justin, First Apology, 23.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. But we have received by tradition that God does not need the material offerings which men can give, seeing, indeed, that He Himself is the provider of all things. And we have been taught, and are convinced, and do believe, that He accepts those only who imitate the excellences which reside in Him, temperance, and justice, and philanthropy, and as many virtues as are peculiar to a God who is called by no proper name. And we have been taught that He in the beginning did of His goodness, for man's sake, create all things out of unformed matter; and if men by their works show themselves worthy of this His design, they are deemed worthy, and so we have received - of reigning in company with Him, being delivered from corruption and suffering. For as in the beginning He created us when we were not, so do we consider that, in like manner, those who choose what is pleasing to Him are, on account of their choice, deemed worthy of incorruption and of fellowship with Him. For the coming into being at first was not in our own power; and in order that we may follow those things which please Him, choosing them by means of the rational faculties He has Himself endowed us with, He both persuades us and leads us to faith. And we think it for the advantage of all men that they are not restrained from learning these things, but are even urged thereto. For the restraint which human laws could not effect, the Word, inasmuch as He is divine, would have effected, had not the wicked demons, taking as their ally the lust of wickedness which is in every man, and which draws variously to all manner of vice, scattered many false and profane accusations, none of which attach to us.
74. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 61.1, 62.4, 84.2, 100.2, 125.3, 128.3, 138.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

75. Tertullian, Against Marcion, 5.19 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.19. I am accustomed in my prescription against all heresies, to fix my compendious criterion (of truth) in the testimony of time; claiming priority therein as our rule, and alleging lateness to be the characteristic of every heresy. This shall now be proved even by the apostle, when he says: For the hope which is laid up for you in heaven, whereof you heard before in the word of the truth of the gospel; which has come unto you, as it is unto all the world. Colossians 1:5-6 For if, even at that time, the tradition of the gospel had spread everywhere, how much more now! Now, if it is our gospel which has spread everywhere, rather than any heretical gospel, much less Marcion's, which only dates from the reign of Antoninus, then ours will be the gospel of the apostles. But should Marcion's gospel succeed in filling the whole world, it would not even in that case be entitled to the character of apostolic. For this quality, it will be evident, can only belong to that gospel which was the first to fill the world; in other words, to the gospel of that God who of old declared this of its promulgation: Their sound is gone out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world. He calls Christ the image of the invisible God. Colossians 1:15 We in like manner say that the Father of Christ is invisible, for we know that it was the Son who was seen in ancient times (whenever any appearance was vouchsafed to men in the name of God) as the image of (the Father) Himself. He must not be regarded, however, as making any difference between a visible and an invisible God; because long before he wrote this we find a description of our God to this effect: No man can see the Lord, and live. Exodus 33:20 If Christ is not the first-begotten before every creature, as that Word of God by whom all things were made, and without whom nothing was made; John 1:3 if all things were not in Him created, whether in heaven or on earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones or dominions, or principalities, or powers; if all things were not created by Him and for Him (for these truths Marcion ought not to allow concerning Him), then the apostle could not have so positively laid it down, that He is before all. For how is He before all, if He is not before all things? How, again, is He before all things, if He is not the first-born of every creature - if He is not the Word of the Creator? Now how will he be proved to have been before all things, who appeared after all things? Who can tell whether he had a prior existence, when he has found no proof that he had any existence at all? In what way also could it have pleased (the Father) that in Him should all fullness dwell? Colossians 1:19 For, to begin with, what fullness is that which is not comprised of the constituents which Marcion has removed from it - even those that were created in Christ, whether in heaven or on earth, whether angels or men? Which is not made of the things that are visible and invisible? Which consists not of thrones and dominions and principalities and powers? If, on the other hand, our false apostles and Judaizing gospellers have introduced all these things out of their own stores, and Marcion has applied them to constitute the fullness of his own god, (this hypothesis, absurd though it be, alone would justify him;) for how, on any other supposition, could the rival and the destroyer of the Creator have been willing that His fullness should dwell in his Christ? To whom, again, does He reconcile all things by Himself, making peace by the blood of His cross, Colossians 1:20 but to Him whom those very things had altogether offended, against whom they had rebelled by transgression, (but) to whom they had at last returned? Conciliated they might have been to a strange god; but reconciled they could not possibly have been to any other than their own God. Accordingly, ourselves who were sometime alienated and enemies in our mind by wicked works Colossians 1:21 does He reconcile to the Creator, against whom we had committed offense - worshipping the creature to the prejudice of the Creator. As, however, he says elsewhere, Ephesians 1:23 that the Church is the body of Christ, so here also (the apostle) declares that he fills up that which is behind of the afflictions of Christ in his flesh for His body's sake, which is the Church. Colossians 1:24 But you must not on this account suppose that on every mention of His body the term is only a metaphor, instead of meaning real flesh. For he says above that we are reconciled in His body through death; Colossians 1:22 meaning, of course, that He died in that body wherein death was possible through the flesh: (therefore he adds,) not through the Church (per ecclesiam), but expressly for the sake of the Church (proper ecclesiam), exchanging body for body - one of flesh for a spiritual one. When, again, he warns them to beware of subtle words and philosophy, as being a vain deceit, such as is after the rudiments of the world (not understanding thereby the mundane fabric of sky and earth, but worldly learning, and the tradition of men, subtle in their speech and their philosophy), Colossians 2:8 it would be tedious, and the proper subject of a separate work, to show how in this sentence (of the apostle's) all heresies are condemned, on the ground of their consisting of the resources of subtle speech and the rules of philosophy. But (once for all) let Marcion know that the principle term of his creed comes from the school of Epicurus, implying that the Lord is stupid and indifferent; wherefore he refuses to say that He is an object to be feared. Moreover, from the porch of the Stoics he brings out matter, and places it on a par with the Divine Creator. He also denies the resurrection of the flesh - a truth which none of the schools of philosophy agreed together to hold. But how remote is our (Catholic) verity from the artifices of this heretic, when it dreads to arouse the anger of God, and firmly believes that He produced all things out of nothing, and promises to us a restoration from the grave of the same flesh (that died) and holds without a blush that Christ was born of the virgin's womb! At this, philosophers, and heretics, and the very heathen, laugh and jeer. For God has chosen the foolish things of the world to confound the wise 1 Corinthians 1:27 - that God, no doubt, who in reference to this very dispensation of His threatened long before that He would destroy the wisdom of the wise. Thanks to this simplicity of truth, so opposed to the subtlety and vain deceit of philosophy, we cannot possibly have any relish for such perverse opinions. Then, if God quickens us together with Christ, forgiving us our trespasses, Colossians 2:13 we cannot suppose that sins are forgiven by Him against whom, as having been all along unknown, they could not have been committed. Now tell me, Marcion, what is your opinion of the apostle's language, when he says, Let no man judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of a holy day, or of the new moon, or of the sabbath, which is a shadow of things to come, but the body is of Christ? Colossians 2:16-17 We do not now treat of the law, further than (to remark) that the apostle here teaches clearly how it has been abolished, even by passing from shadow to substance - that is, from figurative types to the reality, which is Christ. The shadow, therefore, is His to whom belongs the body also; in other words, the law is His, and so is Christ. If you separate the law and Christ, assigning one to one god and the other to another, it is the same as if you were to attempt to separate the shadow from the body of which it is the shadow. Manifestly Christ has relation to the law, if the body has to its shadow. But when he blames those who alleged visions of angels as their authority for saying that men must abstain from meats - you must not touch, you must not taste - in a voluntary humility, (at the same time) vainly puffed up in the fleshly mind, and not holding the Head, (the apostle) does not in these terms attack the law or Moses, as if it was at the suggestion of superstitious angels that he had enacted his prohibition of sundry aliments. For Moses had evidently received the law from God. When, therefore, he speaks of their following the commandments and doctrines of men, Colossians 2:22 he refers to the conduct of those persons who held not the Head, even Him in whom all things are gathered together; for they are all recalled to Christ, and concentrated in Him as their initiating principle - even the meats and drinks which were indifferent in their nature. All the rest of his precepts, as we have shown sufficiently, when treating of them as they occurred in another epistle, emanated from the Creator, who, while predicting that old things were to pass away, and that He would make all things new, commanded men to break up fresh ground for themselves, and thereby taught them even then to put off the old man and put on the new.
76. Theophilus, To Autolycus, 2.13, 2.22 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.13. Moreover, his [Hesiod's] human, and mean, and very weak conception, so far as regards God, is discovered in his beginning to relate the creation of all things from the earthly things here below. For man, being below, begins to build from the earth, and cannot in order make the roof, unless he has first laid the foundation. But the power of God is shown in this, that, first of all, He creates out of nothing, according to His will, the things that are made. For the things which are impossible with men are possible with God. Luke 18:27 Wherefore, also, the prophet mentioned that the creation of the heavens first of all took place, as a kind of roof, saying: At the first God created the heavens - that is, that by means of the first principle the heavens were made, as we have already shown. And by earth he means the ground and foundation, as by the deep he means the multitude of waters; and darkness he speaks of, on account of the heaven which God made covering the waters and the earth like a lid. And by the Spirit which is borne above the waters, he means that which God gave for animating the creation, as he gave life to man, mixing what is fine with what is fine. For the Spirit is fine, and the water is fine, that the Spirit may nourish the water, and the water penetrating everywhere along with the Spirit, may nourish creation. For the Spirit being one, and holding the place of light, was between the water and the heaven, in order that the darkness might not in any way communicate with the heaven, which was nearer God, before God said, Let there be light. The heaven, therefore, being like a dome-shaped covering, comprehended matter which was like a clod. And so another prophet, Isaiah by name, spoke in these words: It is God who made the heavens as a vault, and stretched them as a tent to dwell in. Isaiah 40:22 The command, then, of God, that is, His Word, shining as a lamp in an enclosed chamber, lit up all that was under heaven, when He had made light apart from the world. And the light God called Day, and the darkness Night. Since man would not have been able to call the light Day, or the darkness Night, nor, indeed, to have given names to the other things, had not he received the nomenclature from God, who made the things themselves. In the very beginning, therefore, of the history and genesis of the world, the holy Scripture spoke not concerning this firmament [which we see], but concerning another heaven, which is to us invisible, after which this heaven which we see has been called firmament, and to which half the water was taken up that it might serve for rains, and showers, and dews to mankind. And half the water was left on earth for rivers, and fountains, and seas. The water, then, covering all the earth, and specially its hollow places, God, through His Word, next caused the waters to be collected into one collection, and the dry land to become visible, which formerly had been invisible. The earth thus becoming visible, was yet without form. God therefore formed and adorned it with all kinds of herbs, and seeds and plants. 2.22. You will say, then, to me: You said that God ought not to be contained in a place, and how do you now say that He walked in Paradise? Hear what I say. The God and Father, indeed, of all cannot be contained, and is not found in a place, for there is no place of His rest; but His Word, through whom He made all things, being His power and His wisdom, assuming the person of the Father and Lord of all, went to the garden in the person of God, and conversed with Adam. For the divine writing itself teaches us that Adam said that he had heard the voice. But what else is this voice but the Word of God, who is also His Son? Not as the poets and writers of myths talk of the sons of gods begotten from intercourse [with women], but as truth expounds, the Word, that always exists, residing within the heart of God. For before anything came into being He had Him as a counsellor, being His own mind and thought. But when God wished to make all that He determined on, He begot this Word, uttered, the first-born of all creation, not Himself being emptied of the Word [Reason], but having begotten Reason, and always conversing with His Reason. And hence the holy writings teach us, and all the spirit-bearing [inspired] men, one of whom, John, says, In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, John 1:1 showing that at first God was alone, and the Word in Him. Then he says, The Word was God; all things came into existence through Him; and apart from Him not one thing came into existence. The Word, then, being God, and being naturally produced from God, whenever the Father of the universe wills, He sends Him to any place; and He, coming, is both heard and seen, being sent by Him, and is found in a place.
77. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

58a. למדורה וקדרות מקיפות אותה,מטה של תלמידי חכמים כיצד כל שאין תחתיה אלא סנדלין בימות החמה ומנעלין בימות הגשמים ושל עם הארץ דומה לאוצר בלוס:,ר' בנאה הוה קא מציין מערתא כי מטא למערתא דאברהם אשכחיה לאליעזר עבד אברהם דקאי קמי בבא א"ל מאי קא עביד אברהם א"ל גאני בכנפה דשרה וקא מעיינא ליה ברישיה,א"ל זיל אימא ליה בנאה קאי אבבא א"ל ליעול מידע ידיע דיצר בהאי עלמא ליכא עייל עיין ונפק,כי מטא למערתא דאדם הראשון יצתה בת קול ואמרה נסתכלת בדמות דיוקני בדיוקני עצמה אל תסתכל הא בעינא לציוני מערתא כמדת החיצונה כך מדת הפנימית ולמ"ד שני בתים זו למעלה מזו כמדת עליונה כך מדת התחתונה,א"ר בנאה נסתכלתי בשני עקיביו ודומים לשני גלגלי חמה הכל בפני שרה כקוף בפני אדם שרה בפני חוה כקוף בפני אדם חוה בפני אדם כקוף בפני אדם אדם בפני שכינה כקוף בפני אדם,שופריה דרב כהנא (מעין שופריה דרב שופריה דרב) מעין שופריה דרבי אבהו שופריה דר' אבהו מעין שופריה דיעקב אבינו שופריה דיעקב אבינו מעין שופריה דאדם הראשון,ההוא אמגושא דהוה חטיט שכבי כי מטא אמערתא דרב טובי בר מתנה תפשיה בדיקניה אתא אביי א"ל במטותא מינך שבקיה לשנה אחריתי הדר אתא תפשיה בדיקניה אתא אביי לא שבקיה עד דאייתי מספרא וגזיא לדיקניה,ההוא דאמר להו חביתא דעפרא לחד בראי חביתא דגרמי לחד בראי חביתא דאודרא לחד בראי לא הוו ידעי מאי קאמר להו אתו לקמיה דרבי בנאה אמר להו אית לכו ארעא אמרו ליה אין אית לכו חיותא אין אית לכו בסתרקי אין אי הכי הכי קאמר לכו,ההוא גברא דשמעה לדביתהו דקא אמרה לברתה אמאי לא צניעת באיסורא הך איתתא עשרה בני אית לה ולית לי מאבוך אלא חד כי שכיב אמר להו כל נכסי לחד ברא,לא ידעי להי מינייהו אתו לקמיה דרבי בנאה אמר להו זילו חבוטו קברא דאבוכון עד דקאי ומגלי לכו להי מינייכו שבקא אזלו כולהו ההוא דבריה הוה לא אזל אמר להו כולהו נכסי דהאי אזלו אכלו קורצא בי מלכא אמרי איכא גברא חד ביהודאי דקא מפיק ממונא מאנשי בלא סהדי ובלא מידי אתיוהו חבשוהו,אזלא דביתהו אמרה להו עבדא חד הוה לי פסקו לרישיה ופשטו למשכיה ואכלו בישריה וקא מלו ביה מיא ומשקו ביה לחברייא ולא קא יהבי לי דמי ולא אגריה,לא ידעי מאי קא אמרה להו אמרי ניתו לחכימא דיהודאי ולימא קריוהו לר' בנאה אמר להו זרנוקא אמרה לכו אמרי הואיל וחכים כולי האי ליתיב אבבא ונידון דינא,חזא דהוה כתיב באבולא כל דיין דמתקרי לדין לא שמיה דיין אמר להו אלא מעתה אתא איניש מעלמא 58a. bto a bonfire,where the fire is in the center band pots surround it.Similarly, the table of an ignoramus is arranged with the food in the center and is surrounded by plates.,Rabbi Yoḥa asked: bHowshould bthe bed of Torah scholarsbe kept? He replied: It is acceptable bas long as thereis bnothing except sandals beneath it during the summer, and shoesbeneath it bduring the rainy season,i.e., winter. bAndthe bed bof an ignoramusis bsimilar to a cluttered [ ibalus /i] storehouse,as he keeps a wide array of items beneath it.,§ Having mentioned Rabbi Bena’a, the Gemara relates an incident in which he was involved. bRabbi Bena’a was markingburial bcavesfor the purpose of helping to prevent the contracting of ritual impurity. bWhen he arrived at the cave of Abraham,i.e., the Cave of Machpelah, bhe encountered Eliezer,the bservantof bAbraham, who was standing before the entrance.Rabbi Bena’a bsaid to him: What is Abraham doingat this moment? Eliezer bsaid to him:He is blying in the arms of Sarah, and she is examining his head. /b,Rabbi Bena’a bsaid to him: Go tell himthat bBena’a is standing at the entrance,so that he should assume an appropriate position to receive a visitor. Eliezer bsaid to him: Lethim, i.e., Rabbi Bena’a, benter,since bit is known that there is noevil binclination in thishigher bworld,so it is not inappropriate for Rabbi Bena’a to see Abraham and Sarah in this position. He bentered, examinedthe cave in order to measure it, band exited. /b, bWhen he arrived at the cave of Adam the firstman, who is buried in the same area, ba Divine Voice emerged and said: You gazed upon the likeness of My image,i.e., Abraham, who is similar to the image of Adam the first man. bDo not gaze upon My image itself,i.e., Adam the first man, about whom the verse states that he was formed in the image of God (see Genesis 1:27). Rabbi Bena’a said: bBut I need to mark the cave.The voice said to him: bAsthe measurements of the bdimensions of the outercave where Abraham is buried, bsoare the measurements of the bdimensions of the innercave, where Adam is buried. The Gemara notes: bAnd according to the one who saysthat the Cave of Machpelah consists of btwo chambers, thisone babove thatone, not two adjacent chambers, the voice said: bAsthe measurements of the bdimensions of the uppercave where Abraham is buried, bsoare the measurements of the bdimensions of the lowercave. Therefore, there is no need to measure it., bRabbi Bena’a says: I gazed at his,Adam’s, btwo heels, andthey shone so brightly that bthey are similar to two suns.Along these lines, the Gemara states that ballpeople bcompared to Sarahare blike a monkey compared to a human,as Sarah was exceedingly beautiful; bSarah compared to Eveis blike a monkey compared to a human; Eve compared to Adamis blike a monkey compared to a human;and bAdam compared to the Divine Presenceis blike a monkey compared to a human. /b,It was also stated that bthe beauty of Rav Kahana is a semblance of the beauty of Rav. The beauty of Rav is a semblance of the beauty of Rabbi Abbahu. The beauty of Rabbi Abbahu is a semblance of the beauty of Jacob our forefather. The beauty of Jacob our forefather is a semblance of the beauty of Adam the firstman.,On the topic of burial caves, the Gemara relates that there was ba certain magus [ iamgusha /i] who was rummagingthrough the graves of the bdead. Whenhe barrived at theburial bcave of Rav Tovi bar Mattana,Rav Tovi bgrabbed him by his beardand would not release him. bAbaye came and said toRav Tovi: bI beg of youto brelease him.The magus bcame again in another year,and Rav Tovi bgrabbed him by his beard. Abaye cameand requested that he release him, but Rav Tovi bdid not release him, untilAbaye bbrought a scissors and cut his beard. /b,§ The Gemara relates additional incidents involving Rabbi Bena’a: There was ba certainindividual bwho said tohis family before he died: bA barrel of earth to one of my sons, a barrel of bones to one of my sons,and ba barrel of wadsof wool bto one of my sons. They did not know what he was saying to them. They came before Rabbi Bena’afor guidance. Rabbi Bena’a bsaid to them: Do you have landthat your father left as an inheritance? bThey said to him: Yes.He asked: bDo you have livestockthat your father left as an inheritance? They said: bYes.He asked: bDo you have quilts [ ibistarkei /i]that your father left as an inheritance? They said: bYes.He said to them: bIf so, this is what he said to you,i.e., he meant that he is bequeathing land to one son, livestock to the second, and quilts to the third.,There was ba certain man who heard his wife saying to her daughter: Why do you not act clandestinelywhen you engage bin forbiddensexual intercourse? bThat woman has,i.e., I have, bten sons, and I have only one from your father,and no one knows. So too, you must be careful so that no one will discover your illicit behavior. Having overheard that only one son was his, bwhenthat man bwas dying he said tohis family: bAll of my propertyis left bto one son. /b, bThey did not knowto bwhich of themhe intended to leave his property. bThey came before Rabbi Bena’afor guidance, and bhe said tothe sons: bGo strike your father’s grave, until he rises and reveals to you to which of you he lefthis property. bThey all went,but bthatone bwho was his son did not go.Rabbi Bena’a bsaid to them: All ofthe bproperty belongs to thisson who did not go. The other brothers were angry. bThey went and slandered [ iakhlu kuretza /i]Rabbi Bena’a in bthe king’s house. They said: There is one man among the Jews who removes money from people without witnesses and without anyevidence. The king’s guards bbroughtRabbi Bena’a band imprisoned him. /b, bThe wife ofRabbi Bena’a bwentand bsaid tothe guards: bI had one servant. They cut off his head, and skinned him and ate his flesh, and they fill him with water andgive their bfriends to drink from him, and they have not paid mehis bvalue nor have they rented him. /b, bThey did not know what she was saying to them. They said: Let us bring the wiseman bof the Jews, and let him saywhat she meant. bThey called Rabbi Bena’a,and bhe said to them: She spoke to you of a water skin [ izarnuka /i].In other words, she was referring to a goat she owned that was slaughtered, its meat eaten, and its skin made into a water skin that could be filled with drinking water. bThey said: Sincehe is bso wise, lethim bsit at the gatewhere the judges congregate band render judgment. /b,Rabbi Bena’a bsaw that it was written upon the gate [ ibe’abbula /i]: Any judge who is summoned to judgment is not considered a judge,as judges must be above reproach. bHe said to them: If that is so,then if ba person comes from elsewhere /b
78. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

91b. הנה הוא זורה את גורן השעורים,רבי אבהו אמר מהכא (בראשית כב, ג) וישכם אברהם בבקר ויחבוש את וגו',ורבנן אמרי מהכא (בראשית לז, יד) לך נא ראה את שלום אחיך ואת שלום וגו',רב אמר מהכא (בראשית לב, לב) ויזרח לו השמש,אמר ר' עקיבא שאלתי את רבן גמליאל ואת רבי יהושע באיטליז של אימאום שהלכו ליקח בהמה למשתה בנו של רבן גמליאל כתיב ויזרח לו השמש וכי שמש לו לבד זרחה והלא לכל העולם זרחה,אמר ר' יצחק שמש הבאה בעבורו זרחה בעבורו דכתיב (בראשית כח, י) ויצא יעקב מבאר שבע וילך חרנה וכתיב ויפגע במקום כי מטא לחרן אמר אפשר עברתי על מקום שהתפללו אבותי ואני לא התפללתי כד יהיב דעתיה למיהדר קפצה ליה ארעא מיד ויפגע במקום,כד צלי בעי למיהדר אמר הקב"ה צדיק זה בא לבית מלוני ויפטר בלא לינה מיד בא השמש,כתיב (בראשית כח, יא) ויקח מאבני המקום וכתיב ויקח את האבן אמר רבי יצחק מלמד שנתקבצו כל אותן אבנים למקום אחד וכל אחת ואחת אומרת עלי יניח צדיק זה ראשו תנא וכולן נבלעו באחד,(בראשית כח, יב) ויחלום והנה סולם מוצב ארצה תנא כמה רחבו של סולם שמונת אלפים פרסאות דכתיב (בראשית כח, יב) והנה מלאכי אלהים עולים ויורדים בו עולים שנים ויורדים שנים וכי פגעו בהדי הדדי הוו להו ארבעה,וכתיב ביה במלאך (דניאל י, ו) וגויתו כתרשיש וגמירי דתרשיש תרי אלפי פרסי הוו,תנא עולין ומסתכלין בדיוקנו של מעלה ויורדין ומסתכלין בדיוקנו של מטה בעו לסכוניה מיד (בראשית כח, יג) והנה ה' נצב עליו אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש אלמלא מקרא כתוב אי אפשר לאמרו כאדם שמניף על בנו,(בראשית כח, יג) הארץ אשר אתה שוכב עליה וגו' מאי רבותיה אמר רבי יצחק מלמד שקפלה הקב"ה לכל ארץ ישראל והניחה תחת יעקב אבינו שתהא נוחה ליכבש לבניו,(בראשית כח, א) ויאמר שלחני כי עלה השחר אמר לו גנב אתה או קוביוסטוס אתה שמתיירא מן השחר אמר לו מלאך אני ומיום שנבראתי לא הגיע זמני לומר שירה עד עכשיו,מסייע ליה לרב חננאל אמר רב דאמר רב חננאל אמר רב שלש כתות של מלאכי השרת אומרות שירה בכל יום אחת אומרת קדוש ואחת אומרת קדוש ואחת אומרת קדוש ה' צבאות,מיתיבי חביבין ישראל לפני הקב"ה יותר ממלאכי השרת שישראל אומרים שירה בכל שעה ומלאכי השרת אין אומרים שירה אלא פעם אחת ביום ואמרי לה פעם אחת בשבת ואמרי לה פעם אחת בחודש ואמרי לה פעם אחת בשנה ואמרי לה פעם אחת בשבוע ואמרי לה פעם אחת ביובל ואמרי לה פעם אחת בעולם,וישראל מזכירין את השם אחר שתי תיבות שנאמר (דברים ו, ד) שמע ישראל ה' וגו' ומלאכי השרת אין מזכירין את השם אלא לאחר ג' תיבות כדכתיב (ישעיהו ו, ג) קדוש קדוש קדוש ה' צבאות,ואין מה"ש אומרים שירה למעלה עד שיאמרו ישראל למטה שנאמר (איוב לח, ז) ברן יחד כוכבי בקר והדר ויריעו כל בני אלהים,אלא אחת אומרת קדוש ואחת אומרת קדוש קדוש ואחת אומרת קדוש קדוש קדוש ה' צבאות והאיכא ברוך 91b. “And now is there not Boaz our kinsman, whose maidens you were with? bBehold, he winnows barley tonight in the threshing floor /b…and it shall be, when he lies down, that you shall mark the place where he shall lie” (Ruth 3:2–3). This teaches that the reason Boaz did not return home from the threshing floor was that a Torah scholar should not go out alone at night., bRabbi Abbahu saidthat the source is bfrom here: “And Abraham rose early in the morning, and saddledhis donkey, and took two of his young men with him and Isaac his son; and he split the wood for the burnt offering, and rose up, and went to the place that God had told him” (Genesis 22:3). The fact that Abraham waited until morning and did not set off at night, even though others were traveling with him, indicates that a Torah scholar should not go out at night at all, and certainly not alone., bAnd the Rabbis saythat the source is bfrom here,the verse that describes when Jacob sent Joseph to his brothers: “And he said to him: bGo now, see whether it is well with you brothers and wellwith the flock; and bring me back word. So he sent him out of the valley of Hebron, and he came to Shechem” (Genesis 37:14). The verse indicates that Jacob sent Joseph at a time when he could see his brothers, i.e., during the day. This shows that a Torah scholar should not go out alone at night., bRav saidthat the source is bfrom here: “And the sun rose for himas he passed over Peniel, and he limped upon his thigh” (Genesis 32:32). This indicates that Jacob remained where he was all night and left in the morning, because a Torah scholar should not go out alone at night.,The Gemara cites an incident involving the final verse cited above. bRabbi Akiva says: I askedthe following question of bRabban Gamliel and Rabbi Yehoshua in the meat market [ ibe’itliz /i] ofthe town bEmmaus, where they went to purchase an animal for thewedding bfeast of Rabban Gamliel’s son: It is writtenin the verse: b“And the sun shone for himwhen he passed Peniel, and he limped upon his thigh” (Genesis 32:32). bBut did the sun shine only for him? Didn’t it shine for the entire world? /b, bRabbi Yitzḥak says:The verse means that bthe sun, which setearly exclusively bfor him,also bshoneearly exclusively bfor himin order to rectify the disparity created by the premature sunset. The Gemara explains when the sun set early for him: bAs it is written: “And Jacob went out from Beersheba and went toward Haran”(Genesis 28:10). bAnd it is writtenthereafter: b“And he encountered the place,and he slept there, because the sun had set” (Genesis 28:11). bWhenJacob barrived at Haran, he said:Is it bpossiblethat bI passed a place where my fathers prayed and I did not praythere? bWhen he set his mind to return, the land contracted for him. Immediatelythe verse states: b“And he encountered the place,”indicating that he arrived there miraculously., bWhen hehad finished bprayingand bhe wanted to returnto Haran, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: This righteous man came to my lodging place and he will depart without remaining overnight? Immediately, the sun setbefore its proper time so that Jacob would stay overnight in that place.,The Gemara cites another exposition of Rabbi Yitzḥak to explain an apparent contradiction between two verses pertaining to this incident. bIt is written: “And he took of the stones of the place,and placed them under his head, and lay down in that place to sleep” (Genesis 28:11). bAnd it is written:“And Jacob rose up early in the morning, band he took the stonethat he had placed under his head, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it” (Genesis 28:18). The first verse indicates that Jacob took several stones, whereas the latter verse indicates that he took only one stone. bRabbi Yitzḥak says:This bteaches that all those stones gathered to one place and each one said:Let bthis righteous man place his head upon me.And it was btaught: And all of them were absorbed into onelarge rock.,The Gemara expounds other verses pertaining to the same incident. The verse states: b“And he dreamed, and behold a ladder set up on the earth,and the top of it reached to heaven; and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it” (Genesis 28:12). It was btaught: How wide was the ladder?It was beight thousand parasangs [ iparsaot /i], as it is written: “And behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it.”The word b“ascending [ iolim /i],”written in plural, indicates that there were btwoangels ascending simultaneously. Likewise, the term b“and descending [ iveyordim /i],”also in the plural, indicates that btwoangels were descending simultaneously. bAnd when they met one another they werea total of bfourin one place, so the ladder must have been wide enough to accommodate four angels., bAnd it is writtenin a verse bwith regard to an angel: “His body was like Tarshish”(Daniel 10:6). bAndit bis learnedas a tradition bthatthe city of bTarshish was two thousand parasangs.Consequently, in order to accommodate four angels, the ladder must have been eight thousands parasangs wide.,It was btaughtthat the angels were bascending and gazing at the image of [ ibidyokeno /i]Jacob babove,engraved on the Throne of Glory, band descending and gazing at his image below.The angels subsequently became jealous of Jacob, and bwanted to endangerhis life. bImmediatelyJacob received divine protection, as the verse states: b“And behold, the Lord stood over him”(Genesis 28:13). bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: Were it not writtenin a bverse it would be impossible to utter it,in deference to God, since it describes God as standing over Jacob to protect him from the angels blike a man who wavesa fan bover his sonto cool him down.,The Gemara explains another verse from Jacob’s dream. “And behold, the Lord stood over him and said: I am the Lord, the God of Abraham your father and the God of Isaac. bThe land upon which you lie,to you will I give it, and to your seed” (Genesis 28:13). The Gemara asks: bWhat is the greatnessof this promise, i.e., why is it expressed in this way despite the fact that in a literal sense Jacob was lying on a very small amount of land? bRabbi Yitzḥak says:This bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, foldedup bthe entirety of Eretz Yisrael and placed it under Jacob, our patriarch, so that it would be easy for his children to conquer. /b,The Gemara returns to the verses that describe Jacob wrestling with the angel. b“And he said: Let me go, for the dawn has risen.And he said: I will not let you go until you bless me” (Genesis 32:27). Jacob bsaid tothe angel: bAre you a thief, or are you a gambler [ ikuveyustus /i], who is afraid of dawn?The angel bsaid to him: I am an angel, and from the day I was created my time to recite a songbefore God bhas not arrived, until now.Now I must ascend so that I can sing songs of praise to God.,The Gemara comments: This bsupportsthe opinion bof Rav Ḥaelwhen he related what bRav said. As Rav Ḥael saidthat bRav said: Three groups of ministering angels recite a song every dayfrom the verse “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord”; bone says: “Holy,” andanother bone says: “Holy,” andanother bone says: “Holy is the Lord of hosts;the whole earth is full of His glory” (Isaiah 6:3).,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom the following ibaraita /i: bThe Jewish people are more dear to the Holy One, Blessed be He, than the ministering angels, as the Jewish peoplemay brecite a songof praise to God bat any time, but ministering angels recite a songof praise bonly one time per day. And some saythat the ministering angels recite a song of praise bone time per week. And some saythat they recite a song of praise bone time per month. And some saythat they recite a song of praise bone time per year. And some saythat they recite a song of praise bone time inevery bseven years. And some saythat they recite a song of praise bone time per Jubilee. And some saythat they recite a song of praise bone time inthe entire history of bthe world. /b, bAndfurthermore, bthe Jewish people mention the nameof God bafter two words, as it is stated: “Hear, Israel: The Lordour God, the Lord is one” (Deuteronomy 6:4). bBut the ministering angels mention the nameof God bonly after three words, as it is written:“And one called unto another, and said: b“Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts;the whole earth is full of His glory” (Isaiah 6:3)., bAnd the ministering angels do not recitetheir bsong above until the Jewish people recitetheir song bbelow,on earth, bas it is stated: “When the morning stars sang together”(Job 38:7), referring to the Jewish people, who are compared to stars; bandonly bthendoes the verse state: b“And all the sons of God shouted for joy,”which is a reference to the angels. This ibaraitateaches that the angels mention the name of God only after three words, i.e., after saying the word “holy” three times, whereas according to what Rav Ḥael stated that Rav said, the third group of angels says the word “holy” once and then immediately mentions the name of God.,The Gemara emends Rav Ḥael’s statement citing Rav: bRather,Rav said that bonegroup of ministering angels bsays: “Holy,” andanother bone says: “Holy, holy,” andanother bone says: “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts.”The Gemara challenges the statement of the ibaraitathat the angels mention the name of God only after three words: bBut there isthe verse: “Then a spirit lifted me up, and I heard behind me the voice of a great rushing: bBlessed bethe glory of the Lord from His place” (Ezekiel 3:12). In this praise, “Blessed be the glory of the Lord,” the word “Lord” appears as the third Hebrew word, apparently uttered by the ministering angels.
79. Babylonian Talmud, Moed Qatan, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

15b. דמות דיוקני נתתי בהן ובעונותיהם הפכתיה כפו מטותיהן עליה מנודה ומצורע מה הן בכפיית המטה תיקו,אבל אסור בעשיית מלאכה דכתיב (עמוס ח, י) והפכתי חגיכם לאבל מה חג אסור במלאכה אף אבל אסור במלאכה,מנודה מהו בעשיית מלאכה אמר רב יוסף ת"ש כשאמרו אסור בעשיית מלאכה לא אמרו אלא ביום אבל בלילה מותר וכן אתה מוצא במנודה ובאבל מאי לאו אכולהו לא אשארא,ת"ש מנודה שונה ושונין לו נשכר ונשכרין לו שמע מינה מצורע מהו בעשיית מלאכה תיקו,אבל אסור ברחיצה דכתיב (שמואל ב יד, ב) ואל תסוכי שמן ורחיצה בכלל סיכה,מנודה מהו ברחיצה אמר רב יוסף ת"ש כשאמרו אסור ברחיצה לא אמרו אלא כל גופו אבל פניו ידיו ורגליו מותר וכן אתה מוצא במנודה ובאבל מאי לאו אכולהו לא אשארא מצורע מהו ברחיצה תיקו,אבל אסור בנעילת הסנדל מדקאמר ליה רחמנא ליחזקאל (יחזקאל כד, יז) ונעליך תשים ברגליך מכלל דכולי עלמא אסור,מנודה מהו בנעילת הסנדל אמר רב יוסף תא שמע כשאמרו אסור בנעילת הסנדל לא אמרו אלא בעיר אבל בדרך מותר הא כיצד יצא לדרך נועל נכנס לעיר חולץ וכן אתה מוצא במנודה ובאבל מאי לאו אכולהו לא אשארא,מצורע מהו בנעילת הסנדל תיקו,אבל אסור בתשמיש המטה דכתיב (שמואל ב יב, כד) וינחם דוד את בת שבע אשתו ויבא אליה מכלל דמעיקרא אסור,מנודה מהו בתשמיש המטה אמר רב יוסף ת"ש כל אותן שנים שהיו ישראל במדבר מנודין היו ושימשו מטותיהן א"ל אביי ודלמא מנודה לשמים שאני דקיל,קיל והא אמרת חמיר ספוקי מספקא ליה זיל הכא קמדחי ליה וזיל הכא קמדחי ליה,מצורע מהו בתשמיש המטה ת"ש דתניא (ויקרא יד, ח) וישב מחוץ לאהלו שיהא כמנודה וכאבל ואסור בתשמיש המטה ואין אהלו אלא אשתו שנא' (דברים ה, ל) לך אמור להם שובו לכם לאהליכם שמע מינה,וניפשוט נמי למנודה אמר רב הונא בריה דרב פנחס משמיה דרב יוסף מי קתני שאסור שיהא כמנודה וכאבל במילי אחרנייתא ואסור נמי בתשמיש המטה,אבל אינו משלח קרבנותיו דתניא ר"ש אומר שלמים בזמן שהוא שלם ולא בזמן שהוא אונן,מנודה מהו שישלח קרבנותיו אמר רב יוסף ת"ש כל אותן שנים שהיו ישראל במדבר מנודין היו ושלחו קרבנותיהן א"ל אביי ודלמא מנודה לשמים שאני דקיל,קיל והאמרת חמיר ספוקי מספקא ליה ומדחי ליה,מצורע מהו שישלח קרבנותיו ת"ש דתניא (יחזקאל מד, כו) ואחרי טהרתו אחר פרישתו מן המת שבעת ימים יספרו לו אלו ז' ימי ספירו (יחזקאל מד, כז) וביום באו אל הקודש אל החצר הפנימית לשרת בקודש יקריב חטאתו 15b. God stated: bI have placed the likeness of My image [ ideyokan /i] withinhumans, as they were created in My image, band owing to their sins I have overturned it,as when this person died the Divine image in him was removed. Therefore, you must also boverturn your beds on account of this.The Gemara asks: bWhatis the ihalakhagoverning bone who was ostracized or a leper,with regard to boverturning the bed?The Gemara has no answer, and the question bshall standunresolved.,§ The Gemara proceeds to the next topic: bA mourner is prohibited from performing work, as it is written: “And I will turn your Festivals into mourning”(Amos 8:10). The Gemara infers: bJust as a Festivalis a time when it is bprohibited to work, so too, a mourner is prohibited from performing work. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe ihalakhaconcerning bone who was ostracizedwith regard to bthe performance of work? Rav Yosef said: Comeand bhearthat which is taught in the following ibaraita /i: bWhenthe Sages bsaid that the performance of work is prohibitedon a communal fast due to lack of rain, bthey meant onlythat work is prohibited bduring the dayof the fast, bbut during the nightof the fast bit is permitted. And you find a similar ihalakha bwith regard to a personwho was bostracized andwith regard to ba mourner. What, is it not with regard to allof the prohibitions stated that the ibaraitasays that they apply to one who was ostracized as well, including the prohibition to engage in work? The Gemara rejects this argument: bNo,this bis referring to the restof the prohibitions, but not to work.,The Gemara offers a different proof: bComeand bhear that whichwas taught in the following ibaraita /i: bOne who is ostracized may teach Torahto others, bandothers bmay teach himTorah. Similarly, bhe may be hiredfor work by others, bandothers bmay be hired by him.The Gemara concludes: bLearn from herethat it is permitted for one who is ostracized to engage in work. The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe ihalakhaconcerning ba leper,with regard to bthe performance of work?An answer is not found, and the question bshall standunresolved.,§ The Gemara discusses a different prohibition: bA mourner is prohibited from bathing, as it is written: “And do not anoint yourself with oil,but be as a woman that had for a long time mourned for the dead” (II Samuel 14:2). bAnd bathing is included inthe category of banointing,as both activities have a similar goal, i.e., cleanliness.,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe ihalakhaconcerning bone who is ostracizedwith regard to bbathing? Rav Yosef said: Comeand bhear that whichwas taught in the following ibaraita /i: bWhenthe Sages bsaid that bathing is prohibitedon a communal fast, bthey meant onlythat a person may not wash bhis entire body, butwashing bhis face, his hands, and his feet is permitted. And you find a similar ihalakha bwith regard to a person who was ostracized andwith regard to ba mourner. What, is it not with regard to allthe prohibitions stated in the ibaraita /i, including the prohibition against bathing, that they apply also to one who is ostracized? The Gemara rejects this argument: bNo,this bis referring to the restof the prohibitions, but not to bathing. The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe ihalakhaconcerning ba leperwith regard to bbathing?An answer is not found, and the question bshall standunresolved.,§ The Gemara moves to the next topic: bA mourner is prohibited from wearing shoes. Since the Merciful One says toEzekiel with regard to how his mourning rites should differ from the accepted custom: b“And put your shoes upon your feet”(Ezekiel 24:17), which shows bby inference that everyoneelse, i.e., all other mourners, bis prohibitedfrom wearing shoes.,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe ihalakhaconcerning bone who is ostracizedwith regard to bwearing shoes? Rav Yosef said: Comeand bhear that whichis taught in the following ibaraita /i: bWhenthe Sages bsaidthat bwearing shoes is prohibitedon a communal fast, bthey meant onlythat one may not wear shoes when he is walking about bin the city, butif he set out to travel bon the road,wearing shoes bis permitted. How so?When bhe sets out on the road, he may put onhis shoes. But as soon as bhe enters the cityonce again, bhe must take offhis shoes and continue barefoot. bAnd you find a similar ihalakha bwith regard to a personwho was bostracized andwith regard to ba mourner. What, is it not with regard to allof the prohibitions stated in the ibaraita /i, including the prohibition against wearing shoes, that they apply also to one who was ostracized? The Gemara rejects this argument: bNo,this bis referring to the restof the prohibitions, but not to wearing shoes.,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe ihalakhaconcerning ba leperwith regard to bwearing shoes?No answer is found, and the question bshall standunresolved.,§ The Gemara considers another issue: bA mourner is prohibited from engaging in sexual relations, as it is written: “And David comforted Bath-Sheba his wife, and went into her,and lay with her” (II Samuel 12:24), after their son had died. This proves bby inference that initially,during the period of mourning, sexual relations bwere forbidden. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe ihalakhaconcerning bone who is ostracizedwith regard to bsexual relations? Rav Yosef said: Comeand bhear that whichis taught in a ibaraita /i: bAll those years that the Jewish people were in the wilderness they were ostracized, andyet bthey engaged in sexual relations,as there were children born to them during that period. It follows that it is permitted for one who is ostracized to engage in sexual relations. bAbaye said to him: Perhaps one who is ostracized by Heaven is different,as bthat is less seriousthan being ostracized by an earthly court.,The Gemara asks in astonishment: Is it bless serious? But didn’t you,Abaye, bsayelsewhere that a decree of ostracism imposed by Heaven is bmore seriousthan one issued by an earthly court? For this reason, Abaye rejected several proofs of Rav Yosef from the previously cited ibaraita /i. The Gemara answers: Abaye bis uncertainwhether a decree of ostracism imposed by Heaven is more or less serious than one imposed by an earthly court. Therefore, when bhe goes in thisdirection bhe rejectsthe argument, bandwhen bhe goes in thatdirection bhe rejectsthe argument. Abaye asserts that since the issue is in doubt, no proof can be derived from ostracism issued by Heaven.,The Gemara continues: bWhat isthe ihalakhaconcerning ba leperwith regard to bsexual relations? Comeand bheara proof, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse concerning a leper states: b“But he shall remain outside his tentseven days” (Leviticus 14:8), from which it is derived bthata leper bshould be like one who is ostracized and like a mourner, and he is prohibitedfrom engaging bin sexual relations.How is this derived? The bonlymeaning of the term b“his tent”is bhis wife, as is statedafter the giving of the Torah: b“Go say to them, return again to your tents”(Deuteronomy 5:27). This statement rendered it permitted for the men to once again engage in sexual relations with their wives after they had previously been prohibited to do so in anticipation of the giving of the Torah, as expressed in the verse: “Come not near a woman” (Exodus 19:15). The Gemara concludes: Indeed, blearn from thisthat it is prohibited for a leper to engage in sexual relations.,The Gemara asks: If this is the case, then bcan wealso bresolvethe question raised above with regard to bone who is ostracized,by saying that it is prohibited for such a person to engage in sexual relations? bRav Huna, son of Rav Pineḥas, said in the name of Rav Yosef: Is it taughtthat a leper bis prohibitedfrom engaging in sexual relations like one who is ostracized? bIt statesonly that bhe should betreated blike one who is ostracized and like a mourner,i.e., he should be like them bwith regard to other things, and in addition he is prohibitedfrom engaging in bsexual relations.Therefore, no proof can be derived from here with regard to one who is ostracized that he, too, is prohibited from engaging in sexual relations.,§ The Gemara continues: bA mourner may not send his offeringsto the Temple, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Shimon says: A peace /b-offering b[ ishelamim /i]is given this name also to teach us that one may sacrifice it only bat a time when he is whole [ ishalem /i]and his mind is settled, bbut not at a time when he is an acute mourner,i.e., on the first day of his bereavement, when he is distressed.,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe ihalakhaconcerning bone who is ostracizedwith regard to bsending his offeringsto the Temple? bRav Yosef said: Comeand bheara proof from that which is taught in a ibaraita /i: bAll those years that the Jewish people were in the wilderness they were ostracized, andyet bthey sent their offerings. Abaye said to him: Perhaps one who is ostracized by Heaven is different, as that is less seriousthan being ostracized by an earthly court.,The Gemara asks in astonishment: Is it bless serious? But certainly you,Abaye, bsaidelsewhere that being ostracized by Heaven is bmore seriousthan being ostracized by an earthly court. The Gemara offers a resolution: Abaye bis uncertainwhether being ostracized by Heaven is more or less serious than being ostracized by an earthly court, and therefore bhe rejectsRav Yosef’s arguments in both directions.,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe ihalakhawith regard to ba leper sending his offeringsto the Temple? The Gemara answers: bComeand bheara proof, bas it is taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to a priest who became ritually impure: “And after he is purified, they shall count for him seven days” (Ezekiel 44:26). The verse should be understood as follows: b“And after he is purified”; after he has separated fromhis bdeceasedrelative. b“They shall count for him seven days”; these are the seven days of his countingbefore he may purify himself. b“And on the day that he goes into the Sanctuary, into the inner court, to minister in the Sanctuary, he shall sacrifice his sin /b-offering, says the Lord God” (Ezekiel 44:27);
80. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

54a. ואיש תבונה ידלנה מים עמוקים עצה בלב איש זה עולא ואיש תבונה ידלנה זה רבה בר בר חנה ואינהו כמאן סברוה כי הא דאמר ר' בנימן בר יפת אמר רבי יוחנן מברכין על האור בין במוצאי שבת בין במוצאי יום הכפורים וכן עמא דבר,מיתיבי אין מברכין על האור אלא במוצאי שבת הואיל ותחילת ברייתו הוא וכיון שרואה מברך מיד רבי יהודה אומר סודרן על הכוס ואמר רבי יוחנן הלכה כרבי יהודה,לא קשיא כאן באור ששבת כאן באור היוצא מן העצים ומן האבנים,תני חדא אור היוצא מן העצים ומן האבנים מברכין עליו ותני חדא אין מברכין עליו לא קשיא כאן במוצאי שבת כאן במוצאי יום הכפורים,רבי מפזרן רבי חייא מכנסן אמר רבי יצחק בר אבדימי אע"פ שרבי מפזרן חוזר וסודרן על הכוס כדי להוציא בניו ובני ביתו,ואור במוצאי שבת איברי והא תניא עשרה דברים נבראו בערב שבת בין השמשות אלו הן באר והמן וקשת כתב ומכתב והלוחות וקברו של משה ומערה שעמד בו משה ואליהו פתיחת פי האתון ופתיחת פי הארץ לבלוע את הרשעים,רבי נחמיה אומר משום אביו אף האור והפרד ר' יאשיה אומר משום אביו אף האיל והשמיר רבי יהודה אומר אף הצבת הוא היה אומר צבתא בצבתא מתעבדא וצבתא קמייתא מאן עבד הא לאי בריה בידי שמים היא אמר ליה אפשר יעשנה בדפוס ויקבענה כיון הא לאי בריה בידי אדם היא,לא קשיא הא באור דידן הא באור דגיהנם אור דידן במוצאי שבת אור דגיהנם בערב שבת ואור דגיהנם בערב שבת איברי והא תניא *שבעה דברים נבראו קודם שנברא העולם ואלו הן תורה ותשובה וגן עדן וגיהנם וכסא הכבוד ובית המקדש ושמו של משיח,תורה דכתיב (משלי ח, כב) ה' קנני ראשית דרכו תשובה דכתיב (תהלים צ, ב) בטרם הרים יולדו וכתיב (תהלים צ, ג) תשב אנוש עד דכא ותאמר שובו בני אדם,גן עדן דכתיב (בראשית ב, ח) ויטע ה' אלהים גן בעדן מקדם גיהנם דכתיב (ישעיהו ל, לג) כי ערוך מאתמול תפתה,כסא הכבוד ובית המקדש דכתיב (ירמיהו יז, יב) כסא כבוד מרום מראשון מקום מקדשנו שמו של משיח דכתיב (תהלים עב, יז) יהי שמו לעולם לפני שמש ינון שמו,אמרי חללה הוא דנברא קודם שנברא העולם ואור דידיה בערב שבת,ואור דידיה בערב שבת איברי והתניא רבי יוסי אומר אור שברא הקב"ה בשני בשבת אין לו כבייה לעולם שנאמר (ישעיהו סו, כד) ויצאו וראו בפגרי האנשים הפושעים בי כי תולעתם לא תמות ואשם לא תכבה ואמר רבי בנאה בריה דרבי עולא מפני מה לא נאמר כי טוב בשני בשבת מפני שנברא בו אור של גיהנם ואמר רבי אלעזר אע"פ שלא נאמר בו כי טוב חזר וכללו בששי שנאמר (בראשית א, לא) וירא אלהים את כל אשר עשה והנה טוב מאד,אלא חללה קודם שנברא העולם ואור דידיה בשני בשבת ואור דידן במחשבה עלה ליבראות בערב שבת ולא נברא עד מוצאי שבת דתניא ר' יוסי אומר שני דברים עלו במחשבה ליבראות בערב שבת ולא נבראו עד מוצאי שבת ובמוצאי שבת נתן הקב"ה דיעה באדם הראשון מעין דוגמא של מעלה והביא שני אבנים וטחנן זו בזו ויצא מהן אור והביא שתי בהמות והרכיב זו בזו ויצא מהן פרד רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר פרד בימי ענה היה שנאמר (בראשית לו, כד) הוא ענה אשר מצא את הימים במדבר,דורשי חמורות היו אומרים ענה פסול היה לפיכך הביא פסול לעולם שנאמר (בראשית לו, כ) אלה בני שעיר החורי וכתיב אלה בני צבעון ואיה וענה אלא מלמד שבא צבעון על אמו והוליד ממנה ענה,ודילמא תרי ענה הוו אמר רבא אמינא מילתא דשבור מלכא לא אמרה ומנו שמואל איכא דאמרי אמר ר"פ אמינא מילתא דשבור מלכא לא אמרה ומנו רבא אמר קרא הוא ענה הוא ענה דמעיקרא,תנו רבנן עשרה דברים נבראו בערב שבת בין השמשות ואלו הן באר ומן וקשת הכתב והמכתב והלוחות קברו של משה ומערה שעמד בה משה ואליהו פתיחת פי האתון ופתיחת פי הארץ לבלוע את הרשעים ויש אומרים אף מקלו של אהרן שקדיה ופרחיה ויש אומרים אף המזיקין ויש אומרים אף 54a. bbut a man of understanding will draw it out”(Proverbs 20:5). bCounsel in the heart of man is like deep water; that isa reference to bUlla,who had a thought but did not articulate it. bBut a man of understanding will draw it out; that isa reference to bRabba bar bar Ḥana,who understood the allusion even though it was not articulated. The Gemara asks: bAnd in accordance with whoseopinion bdoUlla and Rabba bar bar Ḥana bhold,leading them to reject Rabbi Abba’s statement of Rabbi Yoḥa’s opinion? The Gemara answers: They hold bin accordance with thatwhich bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: One recites the blessing over fire both at the conclusion of Shabbat and at the conclusion of Yom Kippur. And that ishow bthe people act. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom that which was previously taught: bOne recites a blessing over fire only at the conclusion of Shabbatand not at the conclusion of Festivals or Yom Kippur, bsincethe conclusion of Shabbat bisthe time of bits original creation.And once bhe sees it, he recites the blessing immediately. Rabbi Yehuda says:One does not recite the blessing immediately; rather, he waits and barrangesand recites the blessings over fire and spices bover the cupof wine that accompanies the recitation of havdala. bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda.How does Rabbi Yoḥa explain the baraita?,The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Here,where Rabbi Yoḥa said that one recites the blessing at the conclusion of Yom Kippur, it is referring to bfire that restedon Yom Kippur, i.e., fire for which no prohibition was involved in its kindling, either because it was kindled before Yom Kippur or because it was kindled in a permitted manner, e.g., for a dangerously ill person. bThere,where Rabbi Yoḥa said that the blessing is recited only at the conclusion of Shabbat, it is referring to fire bgenerated from wood and from stonesafter Shabbat, similar to the primordial fire, which was created at the conclusion of Shabbat.,It was btaughtin bone ibaraita /i: With regard to bfire generated from wood and stones, one recites a blessing over it; andit was btaughtin boneother ibaraita /i: bOne does not recite a blessing over it.This apparent contradiction is bnot difficult. Here,where the ibaraitastates that one recites a blessing, it is referring bto the conclusion of Shabbat. There,where the ibaraitastates that one does not recite a blessing, it is referring bto the conclusion of Yom Kippur. /b, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi would bdistributethe blessings over the fire and the spices, reciting each when the opportunity arose. bRabbi Ḥiyyawould bcollect them,reciting all the blessings at the same time in the framework of ihavdala /i. bRabbi Yitzḥak bar Avdimi said: Even though RabbiYehuda HaNasi bdistributes themand recites each blessing at his first opportunity, bhe repeatsthe blessings band arrangesand recites bthem over the cupof wine bin order to discharge the obligation of his children and the members of his household. /b,The Gemara stated that fire was originally created at the conclusion of Shabbat. The Gemara asks: bWas fire created at the conclusion of Shabbat? Wasn’tit btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bTenmiraculous bphenomena were createdin heaven bon Shabbat eve during twilight,and were revealed in the world only later? bThey were:Miriam’s bwell, and the mannathat fell in the desert, band the rainbow, writing [ iketav/b], bandthe bwriting instrument [ imikhtav /i], and the tabletsof the Ten Commandments, band the grave of Moses, and the cave in which Moses and Elijah stood, the opening of the mouth ofBalaam’s bdonkey, and the opening of the earth’s mouth to swallow the wickedin the incident involving Korah., bRabbi Neḥemya said in the name of his father: Even the fire and the mule,which is a product of crossbreeding, were created at that time. bRabbi Yoshiya said in the name of his father: Even the ramslaughtered by Abraham in place of Isaac, band the ishamir /iworm used to shape the stones for the altar, were created at that time. bRabbi Yehuda says: Even the tongswere created at this time. bHe would say: Tongscan be bfashionedonly bwithother btongs, but who fashioned the first tongs? Indeed,the first pair of tongs bwas fashioned at the hand of Heaven.An anonymous questioner bsaid to him: It is possible to fashiontongs bwith a mold and align itwithout the need for other tongs. bIndeed,the first tongs bwere a creation of man.In any event, fire was originally created before Shabbat, not at the conclusion of Shabbat.,The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. This ibaraitais referring bto our fire, and that ibaraitais referring bto the fireof bGehenna.The Gemara explains: bOur firewas created bat the conclusion of Shabbat,but bthe fire of Gehenna was created on Shabbat eve.The Gemara proceeds to ask: bWas the fire of Gehenna created on Shabbat eve? Wasn’tit btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bSeven phenomena were created before the world was created, and they are: Torah, and repentance, and the Garden of Eden, and Gehenna, and the Throne of Glory, and the Temple, and the name of Messiah. /b,The Gemara provides sources for the notion that each of these phenomena was created before the world was. bTorahwas created before the world was created, bas it is written: “The Lord made me as the beginning of His way,the first of His works of old” (Proverbs 8:22), which, based on the subsequent verses, is referring to the Torah. bRepentancewas created before the world was created, bas it is written: “Before the mountains were brought forth,or ever You had formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting, You are God,” band it is writtenimmediately afterward: b“You return man to contrition; and You say: Repent, children of man”(Psalms 90:2–3)., bThe Garden of Edenwas created before the world was created, bas it is written: “And God planted the Garden of Eden in the east [ imikedem /i]”(Genesis 2:8). The term: In the east [ imikedem /i] is interpreted in the sense of: Before [ imikodem /i], i.e., before the world was created. bGehennawas created before the world was created, bas it is written: “For its hearth is ordained of old”(Isaiah 30:33). The hearth, i.e., Gehenna, was created before the world was created., bThe Throne of Glory and the Templewere created before the world was created, bas it is written: “Your Throne of Glory on high from the beginning, in the place of our Sanctuary”(Jeremiah 17:12). bThe name of Messiahwas created before the world was created, bas it is writtenin the chapter discussing the Messiah: b“May his name endure forever; his name existed before the sun”(Psalms 72:17). The name of Messiah already existed before the creation of the sun and the rest of the world. This ibaraitastates that Gehenna was created before the world was created and not during twilight before the first Shabbat., bThey sayin answer: The bvoidof Gehenna bwas created before the world, but its fire was created on Shabbat eve. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd was its fire created on Shabbat eve? Wasn’tit btaughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei says: The fire that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created on the second day of the week will never be extinguished, as it is stated: “And they shall go forth, and look upon the carcasses of the men who have rebelled against Me; for their worm shall not die, nor will their fire be extinguished;and they shall be an abhorrence to all flesh” (Isaiah 66:24)? bAnd Rabbi Bana’a, sonof bRabbi Ulla, said: Why doesn’t the verse state: That it was good,at the end of the bsecond day of the weekof Creation, as it does on the other days? It is bbecause onthat day bthe fire of Gehenna was created. And Rabbi Elazar saidthat beven though: That it was good, was not stated with regard tothe creations of the second day, bHe later included iton the bsixth day, as it is stated: “And God saw all that He had done and behold, it was very good”(Genesis 1:31)., bRather, the voidof Gehenna was created bbefore the world was created, and its firewas created only bon the second day of the week. Andthe thought barosein God’s bmind to create our fire on Shabbat eve;however, bit was notactually bcreated until the conclusion of Shabbat, as it was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei says:The thoughts of btwo phenomena arose inGod’s bmind on Shabbat eve, but were notactually bcreated until the conclusion of Shabbat. At the conclusion of Shabbat, the Holy One, Blessed be He, granted Adam, the firstman, creative bknowledge similar to divineknowledge, band he brought two rocks and rubbed them against each other, andthe first bfire emerged from them. Adamalso bbrought two animals,a female horse and a male donkey, band mated them with each other, andthe resultant offspring that bemerged from themwas ba mule. Rabban Shimon ben Gamlieldisagrees and bsaysthat the first bmule was in the days of Anah, as it is stated:“And these are the children of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah; bthis is Anah who found the mules in the wilderness,as he fed the donkeys of Zibeon his father” (Genesis 36:24)., bThe interpretersof Torah bsymbolism [ iḥamurot /i] would say: Anah wasthe product of an incestuous relationship, and as a result he was spiritually bunfitto produce offspring. bTherefore,he bbroughtan example of bunfitness,i.e., an animal physically unfit to produce offspring, binto the world, as it is stated: “These are the sons of Seir the Horite,the inhabitants of the land: Lotan, and Shoval, and Zibeon, and Anah” (Genesis 36:20). bAnd it isalso bstated: “And these are the sons of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah”(Genesis 36:24). One verse describes both Anah and Zibeon as sons of Seir, meaning that they are brothers, while the other verse describes Anah as Zibeon’s son. bRather, this teaches that Zibeon cohabited with his mother,the wife of Seir, band fathered Anah from her.He is called Seir’s son although in fact he was the offspring of Seir’s son and Seir’s wife.,The Gemara asks: bAnd perhaps there were twopeople named bAnah,one the son of Zibeon and the other the son of Seir? bRava said: I will state a matterthat even bKing Shapur did not state. And who isthis King Shapur? This cannot be a reference to Shapur, king of Persia; rather, it must be an epithet for someone else. He is bShmuel,whose legal rulings were accepted by the public like the edicts of a king by his subjects. bSome saya different version, that it was bRav Pappawho bsaid: I will state a matterthat even bKing Shapur did not state. And who is hethat Rav Pappa is referring to by the epithet King Shapur? He is bRava. The verse said: “This is Anahwho found the mules,” indicating that bhe isthe same bAnahmentioned binitiallyin the earlier verse., bThe Sages taught: Ten phenomena were created on Shabbat eve during twilight, and they were:Miriam’s bwell, and manna, andthe brainbow, writing, and the writing instrument, and the tablets, the grave of Moses, and the cave in which Moses and Elijah stood, the opening of the mouth ofBalaam’s bdonkey, and the opening of the mouth of the earth to swallow the wickedin the time of Korah. bAnd some saythat beven Aaron’s staffwas created then with bits almonds and its blossoms. Some saythat beven the demonswere created at this time. bAnd some saythat beven /b
81. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

98b. שאין כל דקל ודקל שבבבל שאין סוס של פרסיים נקשר בו ואין לך כל ארון וארון שבארץ ישראל שאין סוס מדי אוכל בו תבן,אמר רב אין בן דוד בא עד שתתפשט המלכות על ישראל תשעה חדשים שנאמר (מיכה ה, ב) לכן יתנם עד עת יולדה ילדה ויתר אחיו ישובון על בני ישראל,אמר עולא ייתי ולא איחמיניה וכן אמר [רבה] ייתי ולא איחמיניה רב יוסף אמר ייתי ואזכי דאיתיב בטולא דכופיתא דחמריה,אמר ליה אביי (לרבא) [לרבה] מאי טעמא אילימא משום חבלו של משיח והתניא שאלו תלמידיו את רבי אלעזר מה יעשה אדם וינצל מחבלו של משיח יעסוק בתורה ובגמילות חסדים ומר הא תורה והא גמילות חסדים,אמר [ליה] שמא יגרום החטא כדר' יעקב בר אידי דר' יעקב בר אידי רמי כתיב (בראשית כח, טו) הנה אנכי עמך ושמרתיך בכל אשר תלך וכתיב (בראשית לב, ח) ויירא יעקב מאד וייצר לו,שהיה מתיירא שמא יגרום החטא כדתניא (שמות טו, טז) עד יעבור עמך ה' זו ביאה ראשונה עד יעבור עם זו קנית זו ביאה שניה,אמור מעתה ראויים היו ישראל לעשות להם נס בביאה שניה כביאה ראשונה אלא שגרם החטא,וכן אמר ר' יוחנן ייתי ולא איחמיניה א"ל ריש לקיש מ"ט אילימא משום דכתיב (עמוס ה, יט) כאשר ינוס איש מפני הארי ופגעו הדוב [ובא הבית] וסמך ידו אל הקיר ונשכו נחש בא ואראך דוגמתו בעולם הזה בזמן שאדם יוצא לשדה ופגע בו סנטר דומה כמי שפגע בו ארי נכנס לעיר פגע בו גבאי דומה כמי שפגעו דוב נכנס לביתו ומצא בניו ובנותיו מוטלין ברעב דומה כמי שנשכו נחש,אלא משום דכתיב (ירמיהו ל, ו) שאלו נא וראו אם ילד זכר מדוע ראיתי כל גבר ידיו על חלציו כיולדה ונהפכו כל פנים לירקון,מאי ראיתי כל גבר אמר רבא בר יצחק אמר רב מי שכל גבורה שלו ומאי ונהפכו כל פנים לירקון אמר רבי יוחנן פמליא של מעלה ופמליא של מטה בשעה שאמר הקב"ה הללו מעשה ידי והללו מעשה ידי היאך אאבד אלו מפני אלו,אמר רב פפא היינו דאמרי אינשי רהיט ונפל תורא ואזיל ושדי ליה סוסיא באורייה,אמר רב גידל אמר רב עתידין ישראל דאכלי שני משיח אמר רב יוסף פשיטא ואלא מאן אכיל להו חילק ובילק אכלי להו לאפוקי מדרבי הילל דאמר אין משיח לישראל שכבר אכלוהו בימי חזקיה,אמר רב לא אברי עלמא אלא לדוד ושמואל אמר למשה ורבי יוחנן אמר למשיח,מה שמו דבי רבי שילא אמרי שילה שמו שנאמר (בראשית מט, י) עד כי יבא שילה דבי רבי ינאי אמרי ינון שמו שנאמר (תהלים עב, יז) יהי שמו לעולם לפני שמש ינון שמו דבי רבי חנינה אמר חנינה שמו שנאמר (ירמיהו טז, יג) אשר לא אתן לכם חנינה ויש אומרים מנחם בן חזקיה שמו שנאמר (איכה א, טז) כי רחק ממני מנחם משיב נפשי ורבנן אמרי חיוורא דבי רבי שמו שנאמר (ישעיהו נג, ד) אכן חליינו הוא נשא ומכאובינו סבלם ואנחנו חשבנוהו נגוע מוכה אלהים ומעונה,אמר רב נחמן אי מן חייא הוא כגון אנא שנאמר (ירמיהו ל, כא) והיה אדירו ממנו ומושלו מקרבו יצא אמר רב אי מן חייא הוא כגון רבינו הקדוש אי מן מתיא הוא כגון דניאל איש חמודות,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב עתיד הקדוש ברוך הוא להעמיד להם דוד אחר שנאמר (ירמיהו ל, ט) ועבדו את ה' אלהיהם ואת דוד מלכם אשר אקים להם הקים לא נאמר אלא אקים א"ל רב פפא לאביי והכתיב (יחזקאל לז, כה) ודוד עבדי נשיא להם לעולם כגון קיסר ופלגי קיסר,דרש רבי שמלאי מאי דכתיב (עמוס ה, יח) הוי המתאוים את יום ה' למה זה לכם יום ה' הוא חשך ולא אור משל לתרנגול ועטלף שהיו מצפין לאור א"ל תרנגול לעטלף אני מצפה לאורה שאורה שלי היא ואתה למה לך אורה 98b. bas there is no palmtree bthat is in Babylonia to which a horse of the Persians will not be tetheredwhen the Persians and Medes go to conquer other lands. bAnd there is no coffinburied bin Eretz Yisrael from which a Median horse will not eat straw.During wars, all the coffins will be removed from the ground and used as animal troughs. I do not want my coffin to be used for that purpose., bRav says: The son of David will not come until the evilRoman bkingdom will disperse throughout Eretz Yisrael for nine months, as it is stated: “Therefore will He give them up, until the time when she who is in labor has given birth; then the remt of his brethren shall return with the children of Israel”(Micah 5:2). Once a period equivalent to a term of pregcy passes, the redemption will come.,§ bUlla says: Letthe Messiah bcome, butafter my death, so that bI will not see him,as I fear the suffering that will precede his coming. bLikewise, Rabba says: Letthe Messiah bcome, butafter my death, so that bI will not see him. Rav Yosef says: Letthe Messiah bcome, and I will be privileged to sit in the shadow of his donkey’s excrement.I am willing to undergo all the pain and disgrace associated with his arrival., bAbaye said to Rabba: What is the reasonthat you are so concerned? bIf we say it is due to the painspreceding and accompanying the coming bof the Messiah, but isn’t it taughtin a ibaraitathat Rabbi Elazar’s bstudents asked Rabbi Elazar: What shall a person do to be spared from the painspreceding the coming bofthe bMessiah? Rabbi Elazarsaid to them: bThey shall engage in Torahstudy band acts of kindness.Abaye continued: bAndas far as bthe Masteris concerned, bisn’t therethe bTorah and aren’t therethe bacts of kindnessthat you performed?,Rabba bsaid to him:I am concerned blest sin causeme to suffer the pain despite the Torah study and the good deeds in which I engage, bin accordance withthe statement bof Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi. As Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi raises a contradiction. It is writtenthat God said to Jacob: b“And I am with you, and will keep you wherever you go”(Genesis 28:15), band it is written: “And Jacob was greatly afraid and distressed”(Genesis 32:7). If God assured Jacob that He would keep him, why was he concerned?,Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi explains: bHe was afraid lest sinon his part bcausethat assurance to be abrogated, bas it is taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the verse: “Until Your people pass over, Lord, until Your people, whom You have acquired, pass over” (Exodus 15:16). b“Until Your people pass over, Lord”; this isa reference to bthe first entryinto the land, led by Joshua. b“Until Your people, whom You have acquired, pass over”; this isa reference to bthe second entryinto the land, when they returned to Zion from Babylonia.,Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi explains: bSay from now,based on this statement, that bthe Jewish people were worthyfor God bto perform a miracle on theirbehalf bin the second entryinto the land that was blikethe miracles that were performed during the exodus from Egypt and bthe first entryinto the land, bbut the sin causedthe second entry to take place in an unremarkable manner, with the Jewish people being subject to the dominion of the gentiles., bAnd sotoo bRabbi Yoḥa said: Letthe Messiah bcome, butafter my death, so that bI will not see him. Reish Lakish said to him: What is the reasonthat you are concerned? bIf we say it is because it is writtenwith regard to the day of God: b“As when a man did flee from a lion and a bear met him, or went into the house and leaned his arm on the wall and a snake bit him”(Amos 5:19), that is not a reason. bCome, and I will show you a counterpart in this worldto the situation described in this verse, as even today one encounters those situations. bAt a time when a person goes out to the field and is accosted by a guard [ isantar /i]who demands payment, his situation bis similar tothat of bone who is accosted by a lion. Hethen benters the city and is accosted bya royal btax collector.His situation bis similar tothat of bone who is accosted by a bear. Hethen benters his house and finds his sons and daughters afflicted with famine.His situation bis similar tothat of bone whom a snake bit. /b,Rabbi Yoḥa said to him: bRather,the reason I am concerned is bthat it is writtenwith regard to the day of God: b“Ask now, and see whether a man gives birth. Why, then, do I see every man [ ikol gever /i] with his hands on his loins, as a woman in labor, and all faces turned green?”(Jeremiah 30:6).,The Gemara clarifies: bWhatis the meaning of the phrase b“I see ikol gever /i”? Rava bar Yitzḥak saysthat bRav says:It is a reference to bHe Whom all strength is His.It is as though even God will suffer like a woman in labor due to the troubles of the Jewish people. bAnd whatis the meaning of the phrase b“And all faces turned green”? Rabbi Yoḥa says:The reference is to the heavenly bentourage above,i.e., angels, bandthe earthly bentourage below,i.e., the Jewish people, who will all suffer bat the time when the Holy One, Blessed be He, says: These,the Jewish people, bare My handiwork, and those,the gentiles, bare My handiwork. How shall I destroy those on account of these?It appears that the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not distinguish between the Jewish people and the gentiles. That is why Rabbi Yoḥa was concerned with regard to the coming of the Messiah., bRav Pappa saysthat bthisis in accordance with the adage bthat people say: An ox runs and falls, andits owner bgoes and casts a horse in its place.Although the horse is an inferior work animal relative to the ox, when there is no ox available, a horse must suffice. So too, after the Jewish people sin, it is as though the Holy One, Blessed be He, transfers their prominence to the gentiles.,§ bRav Giddel saysthat bRav says: The Jewish people are destined to eatfrom the bounty of, i.e., enjoy, bthe years ofthe bMessiah. Rav Yosef says:Isn’t this bobvious? And rather, whoelse bwill eatfrom bthem?Will bḤillak and Billak,two shiftless characters, beatfrom bthem?The Gemara explains that Rav Giddel’s statement serves bto excludethe statement of bRabbi Hillel, who says: There is no Messiahcoming bfor the Jewish people, as they already atefrom bhim,as all the prophecies relating to the Messiah were already fulfilled bduring the days of Hezekiah. /b, bRav says: The world was created only forthe sake of bDavid,by virtue of his merit. bAnd Shmuel says:It was created by virtue of the merit of bMoses. And Rabbi Yoḥa says:It was created by virtue of the merit of the bMessiah. /b,Apropos the Messiah, the Gemara asks: bWhat is his name? The school of Rabbi Sheila says: Shiloh is his name, as it is stated: “Until when Shiloh shall come”(Genesis 49:10). bThe school of Rabbi Yannai says: Yinnon is his name, as it is stated: “May his name endure forever; may his name continue [ iyinnon /i] as long as the sun;and may men bless themselves by him” (Psalms 72:17). bThe school of Rabbi Ḥanina says: Ḥanina is his name, as it is stated: “For I will show you no favor [ iḥanina /i]”(Jeremiah 16:13). bAnd some saythat bMenaḥem ben Ḥizkiyya is his name, as it is stated: “Because the comforter [ imenaḥem /i] that should relieve my soul is far from me”(Lamentations 1:16). bAnd the Rabbis say: The leper of the house of RabbiYehuda HaNasi bis his name, as it is stated: “Indeed our illnesses he did bear and our pains he endured; yet we did esteem him injured, stricken by God, and afflicted”(Isaiah 53:4)., bRav Naḥman says: Ifthe Messiah bis among the livingin this generation, he is a person bsuch as me,who already has dominion over the Jewish people, bas it is stated: “And their prince shall be of themselves, and their governor shall proceed from their midst”(Jeremiah 30:21), indicating that the redeemer is already in power. bRav says: Ifthe Messiah bis among the livingin this generation, he is a person bsuch as our saintly RabbiYehuda HaNasi, who was renowned for his sanctity, piety, and Torah knowledge. bIfthe Messiah bis among the deadhe is a person bsuch as Daniel, the beloved man. /b, bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, is destined to establish another Davidfor the Jewish people as the Messiah, bas it is stated: “And they shall serve the Lord their God, and David their king, whom I will establish for them”(Jeremiah 30:9). bIt is not stated: I established, but “I will establish,”indicating that the name of the future king will be David. bRav Pappa said to Abaye: But isn’t it written: “And my servant David shall be their prince forever”(Ezekiel 37:25), indicating that King David himself will rule over the Jewish people? Abaye said: They will rule in tandem blike an emperor and a viceroy;the Messiah will be king and David will be second-in-command.,§ bRabbi Simlai taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Woe to you who desire the day of the Lord. Why would you have this day of the Lord? It is darkness, and not light”(Amos 5:18)? It is bcomparable to a rooster and a bat who were looking forward tothe blightof day. bThe rooster said to the bat: I look forward to light, as light isan indication of bmytime to be active. bButas for byou, why do youneed blight?Nighttime for you is like daytime for me.
82. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 3.28 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

83. Nag Hammadi, The Apocalypse of Adam, 76.8-76.11 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

84. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of The Egyptians, 63.4-63.8, 65.17-65.18 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

85. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Thomas, 5, 30 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

86. Nag Hammadi, Trimorphic Protennoia, 41.4-41.7, 43.9-43.10 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

87. Origen, Commentary On Matthew, 11.12, 14.2, 16.12, 17.14 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

11.12. And He called to Him the multitude and said to them, Hear and understand, etc. Matthew 15:10 We are clearly taught in these words by the Saviour that, when we read in Leviticus and Deuteronomy the precepts about meat clean and unclean, for the transgression of which we are accused by the material Jews and by the Ebionites who differ little from them, we are not to think that the scope of the Scripture is found in any superficial understanding of them. For if not that which enters into the mouth defiles the man, but that which proceeds out of the mouth, Matthew 15:11 and especially when, according to Mark, the Saviour said these things making all meats clean, Mark 7:19 manifestly we are not defiled when we eat those things which the Jews who desire to be in bondage to the letter of the law declare to be unclean, but we are then defiled when, whereas our lips ought to be bound with perception and we ought to make for them what we call a balance and weight, Sirach 28:25 we speak offhand and discuss matters we ought not, from which there comes to us the spring of sins. And it is indeed becoming to the law of God to forbid those things which arise from wickedness, and to enjoin those things which tend to virtue, but as for things which are in their own nature indifferent to leave them in their own place, as they may, according to our choice and the reason which is in us, be done ill if we sin in them, but if rightly directed by us be done well. And any one who has carefully thought on these matters will see that, even in those things which are thought to be good, it is possible for a man to sin who has taken them up in an evil way and under the impulse of passion, and that these things called impure may be considered pure, if used by us in accordance with reason. As, then, when the Jew sins his circumcision shall be reckoned for uncircumcision, but when one of the Gentiles acts uprightly his uncircumcision shall be reckoned for circumcision, Romans 2:25-26 so those things which are thought to be pure shall be reckoned for impure in the case of him who does not use them fittingly, nor when one ought, nor as far as he ought, nor for what reason he ought. But as for the things which are called impure, All things become pure to the pure, for, To them that are defiled and unbelieving nothing is pure, since both their minds and their conscience are defiled. Titus 1:15 And when these are defiled, they make all things whatsoever they touch defiled; as again on the contrary the pure mind and the pure conscience make all things pure, even though they may seem to be impure; for not from intemperance, nor from love of pleasure, nor with doubting which draws a man both ways, do the righteous use meats or drinks, mindful of the precept, Whether you eat or drink or whatsoever other thing ye do, do all to the glory of God. 1 Corinthians 10:31 And if it be necessary to delineate the foods which are unclean according to the Gospel, we will say that they are such as are supplied by covetousness, and are the result of base love of gain, and are taken up from love of pleasure, and from deifying the belly which is treated with honour, when it, with its appetites, and not reason, rules our souls. But as for us who know that some things are used by demons, or if we do not know, but suspect, and are in doubt about it, if we use such things, we have used them not to the glory of God, nor in the name of Christ; for not only does the suspicion that things have been sacrificed to idols condemn him who eats, but even the doubt concerning this; for he that doubts, according to the Apostle, is condemned if he eat, because he eats not of faith; and whatsoever is not of faith is sin. Romans 14:23 He then eats in faith who believes that that which is eaten has not been sacrificed in the temples of idols, and that it is not strangled nor blood; but he eats not of faith who is in doubt about any of these things. And the man who knowing that they have been sacrificed to demons nevertheless uses them, becomes a communicant with demons, while at the same time, his imagination is polluted with reference to demons participating in the sacrifice. And the Apostle, however, knowing that it is not the nature of meats which is the cause of injury to him who uses them or of advantage to him who refrains from their use, but opinions and the reason which is in them, said, But meat commends us not to God, for neither if we eat are we the better, nor if we eat not are we the worse. 1 Corinthians 8:8 And since he knew that those who have a loftier conception of what things are pure and what impure according to the law, turning aside from the distinction about the use of things pure and impure, and superstition, I think, in respect of things being different, become indifferent to the use of meats, and on this account are condemned by the Jews as transgressors of law, he said therefore, somewhere, Let no man therefore judge you in meat or in drink, etc., Colossians 2:16 teaching us that the things according to the letter are a shadow, but that the true thoughts of the law which are stored up in them are the good things to come, in which one may find what are the pure spiritual meats of the soul, and what are the impure foods in false and contradictory words which injure the man who is nourished in them, For the law had a shadow of the good things to come. Hebrews 10:1 14.2. So much then for the more common understanding of the two or three whom the Word exhorts to be in agreement. But now let us also touch upon another interpretation which was uttered by some one of our predecessors, exhorting those who were married to sanctity and purity; for by the two, he says, whom the Word desires to agree on earth, we must understand the husband and wife, who by agreement defraud each other of bodily intercourse that they may give themselves unto prayer; 1 Corinthians 7:5 when if they pray for anything whatever that they shall ask, they shall receive it, the request being granted to them by the Father in heaven of Jesus Christ on the ground of such agreement. And this interpretation does not appear to me to cause dissolution of marriage, but to be an incitement to agreement, so that if the one wished to be pure, but the other did not desire it, and on this account he who willed and was able to fulfil the better part, condescended to the one who had not the power or the will, they would not both have the accomplishment from the Father in heaven of Jesus Christ, of anything whatever that they might ask.
88. Origen, Against Celsus, 5.61, 6.69-6.72 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.61. After the above remarks he proceeds as follows: Let no one suppose that I am ignorant that some of them will concede that their God is the same as that of the Jews, while others will maintain that he is a different one, to whom the latter is in opposition, and that it was from the former that the Son came. Now, if he imagine that the existence of numerous heresies among the Christians is a ground of accusation against Christianity, why, in a similar way, should it not be a ground of accusation against philosophy, that the various sects of philosophers differ from each other, not on small and indifferent points, but upon those of the highest importance? Nay, medicine also ought to be a subject of attack, on account of its many conflicting schools. Let it be admitted, then, that there are among us some who deny that our God is the same as that of the Jews: nevertheless, on that account those are not to be blamed who prove from the same Scriptures that one and the same Deity is the God of the Jews and of the Gentiles alike, as Paul, too, distinctly says, who was a convert from Judaism to Christianity, I thank my God, whom I serve from my forefathers with a pure conscience. And let it be admitted also, that there is a third class who call certain persons carnal, and others spiritual,- I think he here means the followers of Valentinus - yet what does this avail against us, who belong to the Church, and who make it an accusation against such as hold that certain natures are saved, and that others perish in consequence of their natural constitution? And let it be admitted further, that there are some who give themselves out as Gnostics, in the same way as those Epicureans who call themselves philosophers: yet neither will they who annihilate the doctrine of providence be deemed true philosophers, nor those true Christians who introduce monstrous inventions, which are disapproved of by those who are the disciples of Jesus. Let it be admitted, moreover, that there are some who accept Jesus, and who boast on that account of being Christians, and yet would regulate their lives, like the Jewish multitude, in accordance with the Jewish law - and these are the twofold sect of Ebionites, who either acknowledge with us that Jesus was born of a virgin, or deny this, and maintain that He was begotten like other human beings - what does that avail by way of charge against such as belong to the Church, and whom Celsus has styled those of the multitude? He adds, also, that certain of the Christians are believers in the Sibyl, having probably misunderstood some who blamed such as believed in the existence of a prophetic Sibyl, and termed those who held this belief Sibyllists. 6.69. Celsus, however, asserts that the answer which we give is based upon a probable conjecture, admitting that he describes our answer in the following terms: Since God is great and difficult to see, He put His own Spirit into a body that resembled ours, and sent it down to us, that we might be enabled to hear Him and become acquainted with Him. But the God and Father of all things is not the only being that is great in our judgment; for He has imparted (a share) of Himself and His greatness to His Only-begotten and First-born of every creature, in order that He, being the image of the invisible God, might preserve, even in His greatness, the image of the Father. For it was not possible that there could exist a well-proportioned, so to speak, and beautiful image of the invisible God, which did not at the same time preserve the image of His greatness. God, moreover, is in our judgment invisible, because He is not a body, while He can be seen by those who see with the heart, that is, the understanding; not indeed with any kind of heart, but with one which is pure. For it is inconsistent with the fitness of things that a polluted heart should look upon God; for that must be itself pure which would worthily behold that which is pure. Let it be granted, indeed, that God is difficult to see, yet He is not the only being who is so; for His Only-begotten also is difficult to see. For God the Word is difficult to see, and so also is His wisdom, by which God created all things. For who is capable of seeing the wisdom which is displayed in each individual part of the whole system of things, and by which God created every individual thing? It was not, then, because God was difficult to see that He sent God His Son to be an object easy to be seen. And because Celsus does not understand this, he has represented us as saying, Because God was 'difficult to see,' He put His own Spirit in a body resembling ours, and sent it down to us, that we might be enabled to hear Him and become acquainted with Him. Now, as we have stated, the Son also is difficult to see, because He is God the Word, through whom all things were made, and who tabernacled among us. 6.70. If Celsus, indeed, had understood our teaching regarding the Spirit of God, and had known that as many as are led by the Spirit of God, these are the sons of God, he would not have returned to himself the answer which he represents as coming from us, that God put His own Spirit into a body, and sent it down to us; for God is perpetually bestowing of His own Spirit to those who are capable of receiving it, although it is not by way of division and separation that He dwells in (the hearts of) the deserving. Nor is the Spirit, in our opinion, a body, any more than fire is a body, which God is said to be in the passage, Our God is a consuming fire. For all these are figurative expressions, employed to denote the nature of intelligent beings by means of familiar and corporeal terms. In the same way, too, if sins are called wood, and straw, and stubble, we shall not maintain that sins are corporeal; and if blessings are termed gold, and silver, and precious stones, we shall not maintain that blessings are corporeal; so also, if God be said to be a fire that consumes wood, and straw, and stubble, and all substance of sin, we shall not understand Him to be a body, so neither do we understand Him to be a body if He should be called fire. In this way, if God be called spirit, we do not mean that He is a body. For it is the custom of Scripture to give to intelligent beings the names of spirits and spiritual things, by way of distinction from those which are the objects of sense; as when Paul says, But our sufficiency is of God; who has also made us able ministers of the New Testament; not of the letter, but of the spirit; for the letter kills, but the spirit gives life, where by the letter he means that exposition of Scripture which is apparent to the senses, while by the spirit that which is the object of the understanding. It is the same, too, with the expression, God is a Spirit. And because the prescriptions of the law were obeyed both by Samaritans and Jews in a corporeal and literal manner, our Saviour said to the Samaritan woman, The hour is coming, when neither in Jerusalem, nor in this mountain, shall you worship the Father. God is a Spirit; and they that worship Him must worship Him in spirit and in truth. And by these words He taught men that God must be worshipped not in the flesh, and with fleshly sacrifices, but in the spirit. And He will be understood to be a Spirit in proportion as the worship rendered to Him is rendered in spirit, and with understanding. It is not, however, with images that we are to worship the Father, but in truth, which came by Jesus Christ, after the giving of the law by Moses. For when we turn to the Lord (and the Lord is a Spirit ), He takes away the veil which lies upon the heart when Moses is read. 6.71. Celsus accordingly, as not understanding the doctrine relating to the Spirit of God (for the natural man receives not the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness unto him; neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned ), weaves together (such a web) as pleases himself, imagining that we, in calling God a Spirit, differ in no respect in this particular from the Stoics among the Greeks, who maintain that God is a Spirit, diffused through all things, and containing all things within Himself. Now the superintendence and providence of God does extend through all things, but not in the way that spirit does, according to the Stoics. Providence indeed contains all things that are its objects, and comprehends them all, but not as a containing body includes its contents, because they also are body, but as a divine power does it comprehend what it contains. According to the philosophers of the Porch, indeed, who assert that principles are corporeal, and who on that account make all things perishable, and who venture even to make the God of all things capable of perishing, the very Word of God, who descends even to the lowest of mankind, would be - did it not appear to them to be too gross an incongruity - nothing else than a corporeal spirit; whereas, in our opinion - who endeavour to demonstrate that the rational soul is superior to all corporeal nature, and that it is an invisible substance, and incorporeal - God the Word, by whom all things were made, who came, in order that all things might be made by the Word, not to men only, but to what are deemed the very lowest of things, under the dominion of nature alone, would be no body. The Stoics, then, may consign all things to destruction by fire; we, however, know of no incorporeal substance that is destructible by fire, nor (do we believe) that the soul of man, or the substance of angels, or of thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers, can be dissolved by fire. 6.72. It is therefore in vain that Celsus asserts, as one who knows not the nature of the Spirit of God, that as the Son of God, who existed in a human body, is a Spirit, this very Son of God would not be immortal. He next becomes confused in his statements, as if there were some of us who did not admit that God is a Spirit, but maintain that only with regard to His Son, and he thinks that he can answer us by saying that there is no kind of spirit which lasts forever. This is much the same as if, when we term God a consuming fire, he were to say that there is no kind of fire which lasts for ever; not observing the sense in which we say that our God is a fire, and what the things are which He consumes, viz., sins, and wickedness. For it becomes a God of goodness, after each individual has shown, by his efforts, what kind of combatant he has been, to consume vice by the fire of His chastisements. He proceeds, in the next place, to assume what we do not maintain, that God must necessarily have given up the ghost; from which also it follows that Jesus could not have risen again with His body. For God would not have received back the spirit which He had surrendered after it had been stained by contact with the body. It is foolish, however, for us to answer statements as ours which were never made by us.
89. Origen, On Prayer, 22.3, 27.9 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

90. Origen, On First Principles, 1.1.2, 1.1.8, 2.6.1, 4.3.15 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1.2. If, then, they acquiesce in our assertion, which reason itself has demonstrated, regarding the nature of light, and acknowledge that God cannot be understood to be a body in the sense that light is, similar reasoning will hold true of the expression a consuming fire. For what will God consume in respect of His being fire? Shall He be thought to consume material substance, as wood, or hay, or stubble? And what in this view can be called worthy of the glory of God, if He be a fire, consuming materials of that kind? But let us reflect that God does indeed consume and utterly destroy; that He consumes evil thoughts, wicked actions, and sinful desires, when they find their way into the minds of believers; and that, inhabiting along with His Son those souls which are rendered capable of receiving His word and wisdom, according to His own declaration, I and the Father shall come, and We shall make our abode with him? He makes them, after all their vices and passions have been consumed, a holy temple, worthy of Himself. Those, moreover, who, on account of the expression God is a Spirit, think that He is a body, are to be answered, I think, in the following manner. It is the custom of sacred Scripture, when it wishes to designate anything opposed to this gross and solid body, to call it spirit, as in the expression, The letter kills, but the spirit gives life, where there can be no doubt that by letter are meant bodily things, and by spirit intellectual things, which we also term spiritual. The apostle, moreover, says, Even unto this day, when Moses is read, the veil is upon their heart: nevertheless, when it shall turn to the Lord, the veil shall be taken away: and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty. For so long as any one is not converted to a spiritual understanding, a veil is placed over his heart, with which veil, i.e., a gross understanding, Scripture itself is said or thought to be covered: and this is the meaning of the statement that a veil was placed over the countece of Moses when he spoke to the people, i.e., when the law was publicly read aloud. But if we turn to the Lord, where also is the word of God, and where the Holy Spirit reveals spiritual knowledge, then the veil is taken away, and with unveiled face we shall behold the glory of the Lord in the holy Scriptures. 1.1.8. But perhaps these declarations may seem to have less weight with those who wish to be instructed in divine things out of the holy Scriptures, and who seek to have it proved to them from that source how the nature of God surpasses the nature of bodies. See, therefore, if the apostle does not say the same thing, when, speaking of Christ, he declares, that He is the image of the invisible God, the first-born of every creature. Not, as some suppose, that the nature of God is visible to some and invisible to others: for the apostle does not say the image of God invisible to men or invisible to sinners, but with unvarying constancy pronounces on the nature of God in these words: the image of the invisible God. Moreover, John, in his Gospel, when asserting that no one has seen God at any time, manifestly declares to all who are capable of understanding, that there is no nature to which God is visible: not as if, He were a being who was visible by nature, and merely escaped or baffled the view of a frailer creature, but because by the nature of His being it is impossible for Him to be seen. And if you should ask of me what is my opinion regarding the Only-begotten Himself, whether the nature of God, which is naturally invisible, be not visible even to Him, let not such a question appear to you at once to be either absurd or impious, because we shall give you a logical reason. It is one thing to see, and another to know: to see and to be seen is a property of bodies; to know and to be known, an attribute of intellectual being. Whatever, therefore, is a property of bodies, cannot be predicated either of the Father or of the Son; but what belongs to the nature of deity is common to the Father and the Son. Finally, even He Himself, in the Gospel, did not say that no one has seen the Father, save the Son, nor any one the Son, save the Father; but His words are: No one knows the Son, save the Father; nor any one the Father, save the Son. By which it is clearly shown, that whatever among bodily natures is called seeing and being seen, is termed, between the Father and the Son, a knowing and being known, by means of the power of knowledge, not by the frailness of the sense of sight. Because, then, neither seeing nor being seen can be properly applied to an incorporeal and invisible nature, neither is the Father, in the Gospel, said to be seen by the Son, nor the Son by the Father, but the one is said to be known by the other. 2.6.1. It is now time, after this cursory notice of these points, to resume our investigation of the incarnation of our Lord and Saviour, viz., how or why He became man. Having therefore, to the best of our feeble ability, considered His divine nature from the contemplation of His own works rather than from our own feelings, and having nevertheless beheld (with the eye) His visible creation while the invisible creation is seen by faith, because human frailty can neither see all things with the bodily eye nor comprehend them by reason, seeing we men are weaker and frailer than any other rational beings (for those which are in heaven, or are supposed to exist above the heaven, are superior), it remains that we seek a being intermediate between all created things and God, i.e., a Mediator, whom the Apostle Paul styles the first-born of every creature. Seeing, moreover, those declarations regarding His majesty which are contained in holy Scripture, that He is called the image of the invisible God, and the first-born of every creature, and that in Him were all things created, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers, all things were created by Him, and in Him: and He is before all things, and by Him all things consist, who is the head of all things, alone having as head God the Father; for it is written, The head of Christ is God; seeing clearly also that it is written, No one knows the Father, save the Son, nor does any one know the Son, save the Father (for who can know what wisdom is, save He who called it into being? Or, who can understand clearly what truth is, save the Father of truth? Who can investigate with certainty the universal nature of His Word, and of God Himself, which nature proceeds from God, except God alone, with whom the Word was), we ought to regard it as certain that this Word, or Reason (if it is to be so termed), this Wisdom, this Truth, is known to no other than the Father only; and of Him it is written, that I do not think that the world itself could contain the books which might be written, regarding, viz., the glory and majesty of the Son of God. For it is impossible to commit to writing (all) those particulars which belong to the glory of the Saviour. After the consideration of questions of such importance concerning the being of the Son of God, we are lost in the deepest amazement that such a nature, pre-eminent above all others, should have divested itself of its condition of majesty and become man, and tabernacled among men, as the grace that was poured upon His lips testifies, and as His heavenly Father bore Him witness, and as is confessed by the various signs and wonders and miracles that were performed by Him; who also, before that appearance of His which He manifested in the body, sent the prophets as His forerunners, and the messengers of His advent; and after His ascension into heaven, made His holy apostles, men ignorant and unlearned, taken from the ranks of tax-gatherers or fishermen, but who were filled with the power of His divinity, to itinerate throughout the world, that they might gather together out of every race and every nation a multitude of devout believers in Himself.
91. Origen, Homiliae In Genesim (In Catenis), 14.3 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

92. Ambrose, Hexameron, 1.4.15 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

93. Gregory of Nyssa, De Vita Mosis, 2.313 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

94. Titus of Bostra, Contra Manich., 3.21 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

95. Anon., 2 Enoch, 30.8

96. Anon., 4 Ezra, 3.4, 6.49-6.59, 8.44-8.45

3.4. O sovereign Lord, didst thou not speak at the beginning when thou didst form the earth -- and that without help -- and didst command the dust 6.53. On the sixth day thou didst command the earth to bring forth before thee cattle, beasts, and creeping things; 6.54. and over these thou didst place Adam, as ruler over all the works which thou hadst made; and from him we have all come, the people whom thou hast chosen. 6.55. All this I have spoken before thee, O Lord, because thou hast said that it was for us that thou didst create this world. 6.56. As for the other nations which have descended from Adam, thou hast said that they are nothing, and that they are like spittle, and thou hast compared their abundance to a drop from a bucket. 6.57. And now, O Lord, behold, these nations, which are reputed as nothing, domineer over us and devour us. 6.58. But we thy people, whom thou hast called thy first-born, only begotten, zealous for thee, and most dear, have been given into their hands. 6.59. If the world has indeed been created for us, why do we not possess our world as an inheritance? How long will this be so? 8.44. But man, who has been formed by thy hands and is called thy own image because he is made like thee, and for whose sake thou hast formed all things -- hast thou also made him like the farmer's seed? 8.45. No, O Lord who art over us! But spare thy people and have mercy on thy inheritance, for thou hast mercy on thy own creation.
97. Anon., Apocalypse of Abraham, 18-19, 17

98. Anon., Epistle To Diognetus, 5.5, 5.17, 9.2, 10.2



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
bible Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 330
christ, body of' ... '109.0_182@papyrus Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 35
christ, body of Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 330
translation, omissions' Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 182
translation Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 182