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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8244
New Testament, Apocalypse, 18.4-18.5


Καὶ ἤκουσα ἄλλην φωνὴν ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ λέγουσανἘξέλθατε, ὁ λαός μου, ἐξ αὐτῆς,ἵνα μὴ συνκοινωνήσητε ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις αὐτῆς, καὶ ἐκ τῶν πληγῶν αὐτῆς ἵνα μὴ λάβητε·I heard another voice from heaven, saying, "Come forth, my people, out of her, that you have no participation in her sins, and that you don't receive of her plagues


ὅτι ἐκολλήθησαν αὐτῆς αἱ ἁμαρτίαιἄχρι τοῦ οὐρανοῦ,καὶ ἐμνημόνευσεν ὁ θεὸς τὰ ἀδικήματα αὐτῆς.for her sins have reached to the sky, and God has remembered her iniquities.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

49 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 31.6-31.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

31.6. חִזְקוּ וְאִמְצוּ אַל־תִּירְאוּ וְאַל־תַּעַרְצוּ מִפְּנֵיהֶם כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הוּא הַהֹלֵךְ עִמָּךְ לֹא יַרְפְּךָ וְלֹא יַעַזְבֶךָּ׃ 31.7. וַיִּקְרָא מֹשֶׁה לִיהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו לְעֵינֵי כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל חֲזַק וֶאֱמָץ כִּי אַתָּה תָּבוֹא אֶת־הָעָם הַזֶּה אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתָם לָתֵת לָהֶם וְאַתָּה תַּנְחִילֶנָּה אוֹתָם׃ 31.6. Be strong and of good courage, fear not, nor be affrighted at them; for the LORD thy God, He it is that doth go with thee; He will not fail thee, nor forsake thee.’" 31.7. And Moses called unto Joshua, and said unto him in the sight of all Israel: ‘Be strong and of good courage; for thou shalt go with this people into the land which the LORD hath sworn unto their fathers to give them; and thou shalt cause them to inherit it."
2. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 13.20, 28.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

28.24. גּוֹזֵל אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ וְאֹמֵר אֵין־פָּשַׁע חָבֵר הוּא לְאִישׁ מַשְׁחִית׃ 13.20. He that walketh with wise men shall be wise; But the companion of fools shall smart for it." 28.24. Whoso robbeth his father or his mother, and saith: ‘It is no transgression’, The same is the companion of a destroyer."
3. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 10.13-10.20, 10.22-10.23, 22.15-22.16, 66.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.13. כִּי אָמַר בְּכֹחַ יָדִי עָשִׂיתִי וּבְחָכְמָתִי כִּי נְבֻנוֹתִי וְאָסִיר גְּבוּלֹת עַמִּים ועתידתיהם [וַעֲתוּדוֹתֵיהֶם] שׁוֹשֵׂתִי וְאוֹרִיד כַּאבִּיר יוֹשְׁבִים׃ 10.14. וַתִּמְצָא כַקֵּן יָדִי לְחֵיל הָעַמִּים וְכֶאֱסֹף בֵּיצִים עֲזֻבוֹת כָּל־הָאָרֶץ אֲנִי אָסָפְתִּי וְלֹא הָיָה נֹדֵד כָּנָף וּפֹצֶה פֶה וּמְצַפְצֵף׃ 10.15. הֲיִתְפָּאֵר הַגַּרְזֶן עַל הַחֹצֵב בּוֹ אִם־יִתְגַּדֵּל הַמַּשּׂוֹר עַל־מְנִיפוֹ כְּהָנִיף שֵׁבֶט וְאֶת־מְרִימָיו כְּהָרִים מַטֶּה לֹא־עֵץ׃ 10.16. לָכֵן יְשַׁלַּח הָאָדוֹן יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת בְּמִשְׁמַנָּיו רָזוֹן וְתַחַת כְּבֹדוֹ יֵקַד יְקֹד כִּיקוֹד אֵשׁ׃ 10.17. וְהָיָה אוֹר־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְאֵשׁ וּקְדוֹשׁוֹ לְלֶהָבָה וּבָעֲרָה וְאָכְלָה שִׁיתוֹ וּשְׁמִירוֹ בְּיוֹם אֶחָד׃ 10.18. וּכְבוֹד יַעְרוֹ וְכַרְמִלּוֹ מִנֶּפֶשׁ וְעַד־בָּשָׂר יְכַלֶּה וְהָיָה כִּמְסֹס נֹסֵס׃ 10.19. וּשְׁאָר עֵץ יַעְרוֹ מִסְפָּר יִהְיוּ וְנַעַר יִכְתְּבֵם׃ 10.22. כִּי אִם־יִהְיֶה עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל כְּחוֹל הַיָּם שְׁאָר יָשׁוּב בּוֹ כִּלָּיוֹן חָרוּץ שׁוֹטֵף צְדָקָה׃ 10.23. כִּי כָלָה וְנֶחֱרָצָה אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה צְבָאוֹת עֹשֶׂה בְּקֶרֶב כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 22.15. כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה צְבָאוֹת לֶךְ־בֹּא אֶל־הַסֹּכֵן הַזֶּה עַל־שֶׁבְנָא אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַבָּיִת׃ 22.16. מַה־לְּךָ פֹה וּמִי לְךָ פֹה כִּי־חָצַבְתָּ לְּךָ פֹּה קָבֶר חֹצְבִי מָרוֹם קִבְרוֹ חֹקְקִי בַסֶּלַע מִשְׁכָּן לוֹ׃ 66.22. כִּי כַאֲשֶׁר הַשָּׁמַיִם הַחֳדָשִׁים וְהָאָרֶץ הַחֲדָשָׁה אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי עֹשֶׂה עֹמְדִים לְפָנַי נְאֻם־יְהוָה כֵּן יַעֲמֹד זַרְעֲכֶם וְשִׁמְכֶם׃ 10.13. For he hath said: By the strength of my hand I have done it, And by my wisdom, for I am prudent; In that I have removed the bounds of the peoples, And have robbed their treasures, And have brought down as one mighty the inhabitants;" 10.14. And my hand hath found as a nest the riches of the peoples; And as one gathereth eggs that are forsaken, Have I gathered all the earth; And there was none that moved the wing, Or that opened mouth, or chirped." 10.15. Should the axe boast itself against him that heweth therewith? Should the saw magnify itself against him that moveth it? As if a rod should move them that lift it up, Or as if a staff should lift up him that is not wood." 10.16. Therefore will the Lord, the LORD of hosts, Send among his fat ones leanness; And under his glory there shall be kindled A burning like the burning of fire." 10.17. And the light of Israel shall be for a fire, And his Holy One for a flame; And it shall burn and devour his thorns And his briers in one day." 10.18. And the glory of his forest and of his fruitful field, He will consume both soul and body; And it shall be as when a sick man wasteth away." 10.19. And the remt of the trees of his forest shall be few, That a child may write them down." 10.20. And it shall come to pass in that day, That the remt of Israel, And they that are escaped of the house of Jacob, Shall no more again stay upon him that smote them; But shall stay upon the LORD, the Holy One of Israel, in truth." 10.22. For though thy people, O Israel, be as the sand of the sea, Only a remt of them shall return; An extermination is determined, overflowing with righteousness. ." 10.23. For an extermination wholly determined Shall the Lord, the GOD of hosts, make in the midst of all the earth." 22.15. Thus saith the Lord, the GOD of hosts: Go, get thee unto this steward, even unto Shebna, who is over the house:" 22.16. What hast thou here, and whom hast thou here, that thou hast hewed thee out here a sepulchre, Thou that hewest thee out a sepulchre on high, And gravest a habitation for thyself in the rock?" 66.22. For as the new heavens and the new earth, which I will make, shall remain before Me, saith the LORD, so shall your seed and your name remain."
4. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 50.29, 51.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

50.29. הַשְׁמִיעוּ אֶל־בָּבֶל רַבִּים כָּל־דֹּרְכֵי קֶשֶׁת חֲנוּ עָלֶיהָ סָבִיב אַל־יְהִי־[לָהּ] פְּלֵטָה שַׁלְּמוּ־לָהּ כְּפָעֳלָהּ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר עָשְׂתָה עֲשׂוּ־לָהּ כִּי אֶל־יְהוָה זָדָה אֶל־קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 51.7. כּוֹס־זָהָב בָּבֶל בְּיַד־יְהוָה מְשַׁכֶּרֶת כָּל־הָאָרֶץ מִיֵּינָהּ שָׁתוּ גוֹיִם עַל־כֵּן יִתְהֹלְלוּ גוֹיִם׃ 50.29. Call together the archers against Babylon, All them that bend the bow; Encamp against her round about, Let none thereof escape; Recompense her according to her work, According to all that she hath done, do unto her: For she hath been arrogant against the LORD, Against the Holy One of Israel. ." 51.7. Babylon hath been a golden cup in LORD’S hand, That made all the earth drunken; The nations have drunk of her wine, Therefore the nations are mad. ."
5. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 1.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.7. רַק חֲזַק וֶאֱמַץ מְאֹד לִשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּכָל־הַתּוֹרָה אֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ מֹשֶׁה עַבְדִּי אַל־תָּסוּר מִמֶּנּוּ יָמִין וּשְׂמֹאול לְמַעַן תַּשְׂכִּיל בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר תֵּלֵךְ׃ 1.7. Only be strong and very courageous, to observe to do according to all the law, which Moses My servant commanded thee; turn not from it to the right hand or to the left, that thou mayest have good success whithersoever thou goest."
6. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 23.12-23.38 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

23.12. אֶל־בְּנֵי אַשּׁוּר עָגָבָה פַּחוֹת וּסְגָנִים קְרֹבִים לְבֻשֵׁי מִכְלוֹל פָּרָשִׁים רֹכְבֵי סוּסִים בַּחוּרֵי חֶמֶד כֻּלָּם׃ 23.13. וָאֵרֶא כִּי נִטְמָאָה דֶּרֶךְ אֶחָד לִשְׁתֵּיהֶן׃ 23.14. וַתּוֹסֶף אֶל־תַּזְנוּתֶיהָ וַתֵּרֶא אַנְשֵׁי מְחֻקֶּה עַל־הַקִּיר צַלְמֵי כשדיים [כַשְׂדִּים] חֲקֻקִים בַּשָּׁשַׁר׃ 23.15. חֲגוֹרֵי אֵזוֹר בְּמָתְנֵיהֶם סְרוּחֵי טְבוּלִים בְּרָאשֵׁיהֶם מַרְאֵה שָׁלִשִׁים כֻּלָּם דְּמוּת בְּנֵי־בָבֶל כַּשְׂדִּים אֶרֶץ מוֹלַדְתָּם׃ 23.16. ותעגב [וַתַּעְגְּבָה] עֲלֵיהֶם לְמַרְאֵה עֵינֶיהָ וַתִּשְׁלַח מַלְאָכִים אֲלֵיהֶם כַּשְׂדִּימָה׃ 23.17. וַיָּבֹאוּ אֵלֶיהָ בְנֵי־בָבֶל לְמִשְׁכַּב דֹּדִים וַיְטַמְּאוּ אוֹתָהּ בְּתַזְנוּתָם וַתִּטְמָא־בָם וַתֵּקַע נַפְשָׁהּ מֵהֶם׃ 23.18. וַתְּגַל תַּזְנוּתֶיהָ וַתְּגַל אֶת־עֶרְוָתָהּ וַתֵּקַע נַפְשִׁי מֵעָלֶיהָ כַּאֲשֶׁר נָקְעָה נַפְשִׁי מֵעַל אֲחוֹתָהּ׃ 23.19. וַתַּרְבֶּה אֶת־תַּזְנוּתֶיהָ לִזְכֹּר אֶת־יְמֵי נְעוּרֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר זָנְתָה בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 23.21. וַתִּפְקְדִי אֵת זִמַּת נְעוּרָיִךְ בַּעְשׂוֹת מִמִּצְרַיִם דַּדַּיִךְ לְמַעַן שְׁדֵי נְעוּרָיִךְ׃ 23.22. לָכֵן אָהֳלִיבָה כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנְנִי מֵעִיר אֶת־מְאַהֲבַיִךְ עָלַיִךְ אֵת אֲשֶׁר־נָקְעָה נַפְשֵׁךְ מֵהֶם וַהֲבֵאתִים עָלַיִךְ מִסָּבִיב׃ 23.23. בְּנֵי בָבֶל וְכָל־כַּשְׂדִּים פְּקוֹד וְשׁוֹעַ וְקוֹעַ כָּל־בְּנֵי אַשּׁוּר אוֹתָם בַּחוּרֵי חֶמֶד פַּחוֹת וּסְגָנִים כֻּלָּם שָׁלִשִׁים וּקְרוּאִים רֹכְבֵי סוּסִים כֻּלָּם׃ 23.24. וּבָאוּ עָלַיִךְ הֹצֶן רֶכֶב וְגַלְגַּל וּבִקְהַל עַמִּים צִנָּה וּמָגֵן וְקוֹבַע יָשִׂימוּ עָלַיִךְ סָבִיב וְנָתַתִּי לִפְנֵיהֶם מִשְׁפָּט וּשְׁפָטוּךְ בְּמִשְׁפְּטֵיהֶם׃ 23.25. וְנָתַתִּי קִנְאָתִי בָּךְ וְעָשׂוּ אוֹתָךְ בְּחֵמָה אַפֵּךְ וְאָזְנַיִךְ יָסִירוּ וְאַחֲרִיתֵךְ בַּחֶרֶב תִּפּוֹל הֵמָּה בָּנַיִךְ וּבְנוֹתַיִךְ יִקָּחוּ וְאַחֲרִיתֵךְ תֵּאָכֵל בָּאֵשׁ׃ 23.26. וְהִפְשִׁיטוּךְ אֶת־בְּגָדָיִךְ וְלָקְחוּ כְּלֵי תִפְאַרְתֵּךְ׃ 23.27. וְהִשְׁבַּתִּי זִמָּתֵךְ מִמֵּךְ וְאֶת־זְנוּתֵךְ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם וְלֹא־תִשְׂאִי עֵינַיִךְ אֲלֵיהֶם וּמִצְרַיִם לֹא תִזְכְּרִי־עוֹד׃ 23.28. כִּי כֹה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנְנִי נֹתְנָךְ בְּיַד אֲשֶׁר שָׂנֵאת בְּיַד אֲשֶׁר־נָקְעָה נַפְשֵׁךְ מֵהֶם׃ 23.29. וְעָשׂוּ אוֹתָךְ בְּשִׂנְאָה וְלָקְחוּ כָּל־יְגִיעֵךְ וַעֲזָבוּךְ עֵירֹם וְעֶרְיָה וְנִגְלָה עֶרְוַת זְנוּנַיִךְ וְזִמָּתֵךְ וְתַזְנוּתָיִךְ׃ 23.31. בְּדֶרֶךְ אֲחוֹתֵךְ הָלָכְתְּ וְנָתַתִּי כוֹסָהּ בְּיָדֵךְ׃ 23.32. כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהֹוִה כּוֹס אֲחוֹתֵךְ תִּשְׁתִּי הָעֲמֻקָּה וְהָרְחָבָה תִּהְיֶה לִצְחֹק וּלְלַעַג מִרְבָּה לְהָכִיל׃ 23.33. שִׁכָּרוֹן וְיָגוֹן תִּמָּלֵאִי כּוֹס שַׁמָּה וּשְׁמָמָה כּוֹס אֲחוֹתֵךְ שֹׁמְרוֹן׃ 23.34. וְשָׁתִית אוֹתָהּ וּמָצִית וְאֶת־חֲרָשֶׂיהָ תְּגָרֵמִי וְשָׁדַיִךְ תְּנַתֵּקִי כִּי אֲנִי דִבַּרְתִּי נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 23.35. לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה יַעַן שָׁכַחַתְּ אוֹתִי וַתַּשְׁלִיכִי אוֹתִי אַחֲרֵי גַוֵּךְ וְגַם־אַתְּ שְׂאִי זִמָּתֵךְ וְאֶת־תַּזְנוּתָיִךְ׃ 23.36. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלַי בֶּן־אָדָם הֲתִשְׁפּוֹט אֶת־אָהֳלָה וְאֶת־אָהֳלִיבָה וְהַגֵּד לָהֶן אֵת תוֹעֲבוֹתֵיהֶן׃ 23.37. כִּי נִאֵפוּ וְדָם בִּידֵיהֶן וְאֶת־גִּלּוּלֵיהֶן נִאֵפוּ וְגַם אֶת־בְּנֵיהֶן אֲשֶׁר יָלְדוּ־לִי הֶעֱבִירוּ לָהֶם לְאָכְלָה׃ 23.38. עוֹד זֹאת עָשׂוּ לִי טִמְּאוּ אֶת־מִקְדָּשִׁי בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וְאֶת־שַׁבְּתוֹתַי חִלֵּלוּ׃ 23.12. She doted upon the Assyrians, governors and rulers, warriors, clothed most gorgeously, horsemen riding upon horses, all of them handsome young men." 23.13. And I saw that she was defiled; they both took one way." 23.14. And she increased her harlotries; for she saw men portrayed upon the wall, the images of the Chaldeans portrayed with vermilion," 23.15. girded with girdles upon their loins, with pendant turbans upon their heads, all of them captains to look upon, the likeness of the sons of Babylon, even of Chaldea, the land of their nativity." 23.16. And as soon as she saw them she doted upon them, and sent messengers unto them into Chaldea." 23.17. And the Babylonians came to her into the bed of love, and they defiled her with their lust; and she was polluted with them, and her soul was alienated from them." 23.18. So she uncovered her harlotries, and uncovered her nakedness; then My soul was alienated from her, like as My soul was alienated from her sister." 23.19. Yet she multiplied her harlotries, remembering the days of her youth, wherein she had played the harlot in the land of Egypt." 23.20. And she doted upon concubinage with them, whose flesh is as the flesh of asses, and whose issue is like the issue of horses." 23.21. Thus thou didst call to remembrance the lewdness of thy youth, when they from Egypt bruised thy breasts for the bosom of thy youth." 23.22. Therefore, O Oholibah, thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, I will raise up thy lovers against thee, from whom thy soul is alienated, and I will bring them against thee on every side:" 23.23. the Babylonians and all the Chaldeans, Pekod and Shoa and Koa, and all the Assyrians with them, handsome young men, governors and rulers all of them, captains and councillors, all of them riding upon horses." 23.24. And they shall come against thee with hosts, chariots, and wheels, and with an assembly of peoples; they shall set themselves in array against thee with buckler and shield and helmet round about; and I will commit the judgment unto them, and they shall judge thee according to their judgments." 23.25. And I will set My jealousy against thee, and they shall deal with thee in fury; they shall take away thy nose and thine ears, and thy residue shall fall by the sword; they shall take thy sons and thy daughters, and thy residue shall be devoured by the fire." 23.26. They shall also strip thee of thy clothes, and take away thy fair jewels." 23.27. Thus will I make thy lewdness to cease from thee, and thy harlotry brought from the land of Egypt, so that thou shalt not lift up thine eyes unto them, nor remember Egypt any more." 23.28. For thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, I will deliver thee into the hand of them whom thou hatest, into the hand of them from whom thy soul is alienated;" 23.29. and they shall deal with thee in hatred, and shall take away all thy labour, and shall leave thee naked and bare; and the nakedness of thy harlotries shall be uncovered, both thy lewdness and thy harlotries." 23.30. These things shall be done unto thee, for that thou hast gone astray after the nations, and because thou art polluted with their idols." 23.31. In the way of thy sister hast thou walked; therefore will I give her cup into thy hand." 23.32. Thus saith the Lord GOD: Thou shalt drink of thy sister’s cup, Which is deep and large; Thou shalt be for a scorn and a derision; It is full to the uttermost." 23.33. Thou shalt be filled with drunkenness and sorrow, With the cup of astonishment and appalment, With the cup of thy sister Samaria." 23.34. Thou shalt even drink it and drain it, And thou shalt craunch the sherds thereof, And shalt tear thy breasts; For I have spoken it, Saith the Lord GOD." 23.35. Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD: Because thou hast forgotten Me, and cast Me behind thy back, therefore bear thou also thy lewdness and thy harlotries.’" 23.36. The LORD said moreover unto me: ‘Son of man, wilt thou judge Oholah and Oholibah? then declare unto them their abominations." 23.37. For they have committed adultery, and blood is in their hands, and with their idols have they committed adultery; and their sons, whom they bore unto Me, they have also set apart unto them to be devoured." 23.38. Moreover this they have done unto Me: they have defiled My sanctuary in the same day, and have profaned My sabbaths."
7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 22.13, 28.20 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

22.13. אָז תַּצְלִיחַ אִם־תִּשְׁמוֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־הַחֻקִּים וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל חֲזַק וֶאֱמָץ אַל־תִּירָא וְאַל־תֵּחָת׃ 22.13. Then shalt thou prosper, if thou observe to do the statutes and the ordices which the LORD charged Moses with concerning Israel; be strong, and of good courage; fear not, neither be dismayed." 28.20. And David said to Solomon his son: ‘Be strong and of good courage, and do it; fear not, nor be dismayed; for the LORD God, even my God, is with thee; He will not fail thee, nor forsake thee, until all the work for the service of the house of the LORD be finished."
8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 32.7 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

32.7. חִזְקוּ וְאִמְצוּ אַל־תִּירְאוּ וְאַל־תֵּחַתּוּ מִפְּנֵי מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר וּמִלִּפְנֵי כָּל־הֶהָמוֹן אֲשֶׁר־עִמּוֹ כִּי־עִמָּנוּ רַב מֵעִמּוֹ׃ 32.7. ’Be strong and of good courage, be not afraid nor dismayed for the king of Assyria, nor for all the multitude that is with him; for there is a Greater with us than with him:"
9. Anon., 1 Enoch, 8.2, 8.4, 9.1-9.2, 9.9-9.10, 22.5, 65.4, 90.19, 91.12-91.16, 94.3, 94.6-94.10, 95.3-95.7, 96.1, 96.4-96.8, 97.3-97.10, 98.4-98.5, 98.12, 99.11-99.16, 100.7-100.9, 102.9, 103.5-103.8, 104.6-104.9, 108.8-108.15 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

8.2. colouring tinctures. And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they 9.1. And then Michael, Uriel, Raphael, and Gabriel looked down from heaven and saw much blood being 9.1. borne giants, and the whole earth has thereby been filled with blood and unrighteousness. And now, behold, the souls of those who have died are crying and making their suit to the gates of heaven, and their lamentations have ascended: and cannot cease because of the lawless deeds which are 9.2. hed upon the earth, and all lawlessness being wrought upon the earth. And they said one to another: 'The earth made without inhabitant cries the voice of their cryingst up to the gates of heaven. 9.9. women, and have defiled themselves, and revealed to them all kinds of sins. And the women have 22.5. and his voice went forth to heaven and made suit. And I asked Raphael the angel who was 65.4. and shaken, lest perchance I shall perish with it ' And thereupon there was a great commotion, on the earth, and a voice was heard from heaven, and I fell on my face. And Enoch my grandfather came and stood by me, and said unto me: ' Why hast thou cried unto me with a bitter cry and weeping 90.19. And I saw till a great sword was given to the sheep, and the sheep proceeded against all the beasts of the field to slay them, and all the beasts and the birds of the heaven fled before their face. And I saw that man, who wrote the book according to the command of the Lord, till he opened that book concerning the destruction which those twelve last shepherds had wrought, and showed that they had destroyed much more than their predecessors, before the Lord of the sheep. And I saw till the Lord of the sheep came unto them and took in His hand the staff of His wrath, and smote the earth, and the earth clave asunder, and all the beasts and all the birds of the heaven fell from among those sheep, and were swallowed up in the earth and it covered them. 91.12. And after that there shall be another, the eighth week, that of righteousness, And a sword shall be given to it that a righteous judgement may be executed on the oppressors, And sinners shall be delivered into the hands of the righteous. 91.13. And at its close they shall acquire houses through their righteousness, And a house shall be built for the Great King in glory for evermore 91.15. And after this, in the tenth week in the seventh part, There shall be the great eternal judgement, In which He will execute vengeance amongst the angels. 91.16. And the first heaven shall depart and pass away, And a new heaven shall appear, And all the powers of the heavens shall give sevenfold light. 94.3. And now I say unto you the righteous: Walk not in the paths of wickedness, nor in the paths of death, And draw not nigh to them, lest ye be destroyed. 94.6. Woe to those who build unrighteousness and oppression And lay deceit as a foundation; For they shall be suddenly overthrown, And they shall have no peace. 94.7. Woe to those who build their houses with sin; For from all their foundations shall they be overthrown, And by the sword shall they fall. [And those who acquire gold and silver in judgement suddenly shall perish.] 94.8. Woe to you, ye rich, for ye have trusted in your riches, And from your riches shall ye depart, Because ye have not remembered the Most High in the days of your riches. 94.9. Ye have committed blasphemy and unrighteousness, And have become ready for the day of slaughter, And the day of darkness and the day of the great judgement. 95.3. Fear not the sinners, ye righteous; For again will the Lord deliver them into your hands, That ye may execute judgement upon them according to your desires. 95.4. Woe to you who fulminate anathemas which cannot be reversed: Healing shall therefore be far from you because of your sins. 95.5. Woe to you who requite your neighbour with evil; For ye shall be requited according to your works. 95.6. Woe to you, lying witnesses, And to those who weigh out injustice, For suddenly shall ye perish. 95.7. Woe to you, sinners, for ye persecute the righteous; For ye shall be delivered up and persecuted because of injustice, And heavy shall its yoke be upon you. 96.1. Be hopeful, ye righteous; for suddenly shall the sinners perish before you, And ye shall have lordship over them according to your desires. 96.4. Woe unto you, ye sinners, for your riches make you appear like the righteous, But your hearts convict you of being sinners, And this fact shall be a testimony against you for a memorial of (your) evil deeds. 96.5. Woe to you who devour the finest of the wheat, And drink wine in large bowls, And tread under foot the lowly with your might. 96.6. Woe to you who drink water from every fountain, For suddenly shall ye be consumed and wither away, Because ye have forsaken the fountain of life. 96.7. Woe to you who work unrighteousness And deceit and blasphemy: It shall be a memorial against you for evil. 96.8. Woe to you, ye mighty, Who with might oppress the righteous; For the day of your destruction is coming.In those days many and good days shall come to the righteous-in the day of your judgement. 97.3. What will ye do, ye sinners, And whither will ye flee on that day of judgement, When ye hear the voice of the prayer of the righteou 97.4. Yea, ye shall fare like unto them, Against whom this word shall be a testimony: ' Ye have been companions of sinners. 97.5. And in those days the prayer of the righteous shall reach unto the Lord, And for you the days of your judgement shall come. 97.6. And all the words of your unrighteousness shall be read out before the Great Holy One, And your faces shall be covered with shame, And He will reject every work which is grounded on unrighteousness. 97.7. Woe to you, ye sinners, who live on the mid ocean and on the dry land, Whose remembrance is evil against you. 97.8. Woe to you who acquire silver and gold in unrighteousness and say: ' We have become rich with riches and have possessions; And have acquired everything we have desired. 97.9. And now let us do what we purposed: For we have gathered silver 98.4. I have sworn unto you, ye sinners, as a mountain has not become a slave, And a hill does not become the handmaid of a woman, Even so sin has not been sent upon the earth, But man of himself has created it, And under a great curse shall they fall who commit it. 98.5. And barrenness has not been given to the woman, But on account of the deeds of her own hands she dies without children. 98.5. the righteous; for ye shall have no hope of life. Woe to you who write down lying and godless words; for they write down their lies that men may hear them and act godlessly towards (their) 98.12. Woe to you who love the deeds of unrighteousness: wherefore do ye hope for good hap unto yourselves know that ye shall be delivered into the hands of the righteous, and they shall cut 99.11. Woe to you who spread evil to your neighbours; For you shall be slain in Sheol. 99.12. Woe to you who make deceitful and false measures, And (to them) who cause bitterness on the earth; For they shall thereby be utterly consumed. 99.13. Woe to you who build your houses through the grievous toil of others, And all their building materials are the bricks and stones of sin; I tell you ye shall have no peace. 99.14. Woe to them who reject the measure and eternal heritage of their fathers And whose souls follow after idols; For they shall have no rest. 99.15. Woe to them who work unrighteousness and help oppression, And slay their neighbours until the day of the great judgement. 99.16. For He shall cast down your glory, And bring affliction on your hearts, And shall arouse His fierce indignation And destroy you all with the sword; And all the holy and righteous shall remember your sins. 100.7. Woe to you, Sinners, on the day of strong anguish, Ye who afflict the righteous and burn them with fire: Ye shall be requited according to your works. 100.8. Woe to you, ye obstinate of heart, Who watch in order to devise wickedness: Therefore shall fear come upon you And there shall be none to help you. 100.9. Woe to you, ye sinners, on account of the words of your mouth, And on account of the deeds of your hands which your godlessness as wrought, In blazing flames burning worse than fire shall ye burn. 102.9. I tell you, ye sinners, ye are content to eat and drink, and rob and sin, and strip men naked, and 103.5. Woe to you, ye sinners, when ye have died, If ye die in the wealth of your sins, And those who are like you say regarding you: ' Blessed are the sinners: they have seen all their days. 103.6. And how they have died in prosperity and in wealth, And have not seen tribulation or murder in their life; And they have died in honour, And judgement has not been executed on them during their life. 103.7. Know ye, that their souls will be made to descend into Sheol And they shall be wretched in their great tribulation. 103.8. And into darkness and chains and a burning flame where there is grievous judgement shall your spirits enter; And the great judgement shall be for all the generations of the world. Woe to you, for ye shall have no peace. 104.6. judgement shall be far from you for all the generations of the world. And now fear not, ye righteous, when ye see the sinners growing strong and prospering in their ways: be not companions with them 104.7. but keep afar from their violence; for ye shall become companions of the hosts of heaven. And, although ye sinners say: ' All our sins shall not be searched out and be written down, nevertheless 104.8. they shall write down all your sins every day. And now I show unto you that light and darkness 104.9. day and night, see all your sins. Be not godless in your hearts, and lie not and alter not the words of uprightness, nor charge with lying the words of the Holy Great One, nor take account of your 108.8. by God; and of those who have been put to shame by wicked men: Who love God and loved neither gold nor silver nor any of the good things which are in the world, but gave over their bodies to torture. Who, since they came into being, longed not after earthly food, but regarded everything as a passing breath, and lived accordingly, and the Lord tried them much, and their spirits were 108.11. yet they blessed Me. And now I will summon the spirits of the good who belong to the generation of light, and I will transform those who were born in darkness, who in the flesh were not recompensed 108.12. with such honour as their faithfulness deserved. And I will bring forth in shining light those who 108.13. have loved My holy name, and I will seat each on the throne of his honour. And they shall be resplendent for times without number; for righteousness is the judgement of God; for to the faithful 108.14. He will give faithfulness in the habitation of upright paths. And they shall see those who were 108.15. born in darkness led into darkness, while the righteous shall be resplendent. And the sinners shall cry aloud and see them resplendent, and they indeed will go where days and seasons are prescribed for them.'
10. Anon., Jubilees, 10.11-10.12, 22.16, 23.30 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10.11. And the chief of the spirits, Mastêmâ, came and said: "Lord, Creator, let some of them remain before me, and let them hearken to my voice, and do all that I shall say unto them; 10.12. for if some of them are not left to me, I shall not be able to execute the power of my will on the sons of men; 22.16. May nations serve thee, And all the nations bow themselves before thy seed. 23.30. and they will all perish together, beasts and cattle and birds, and all the fish of the sea, on account of the children of men.
11. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 4.13-4.18, 7.13-7.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Dead Sea Scrolls, Pesher On Habakkuk, 5.8, 11.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 1.3, 1.13, 13.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 4.13-4.18, 7.13-7.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 1.18, 2.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Dead Sea Scrolls, Shira, 1.5-1.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 10.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10.19. וַיֹּאמֶר אַל־תִּירָא אִישׁ־חֲמֻדוֹת שָׁלוֹם לָךְ חֲזַק וַחֲזָק וּבְדַבְּרוֹ עִמִּי הִתְחַזַּקְתִּי וָאֹמְרָה יְדַבֵּר אֲדֹנִי כִּי חִזַּקְתָּנִי׃ 10.19. And he said: ‘O man greatly beloved, fear not! peace be unto thee, be strong, yea, be strong.’ And when he had spoken unto me, I was strengthened, and said: ‘Let my lord speak; for thou hast strengthened me.’"
18. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 2.64 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.64. My children, be courageous and grow strong in the law, for by it you will gain honor.
19. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 8.2, 11.18-11.19, 11.21, 12.14, 13.4, 13.19, 31.8, 37.11-37.12, 44.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

8.2. Do not quarrel with a rich man,lest his resources outweigh yours;for gold has ruined many,and has perverted the minds of kings. 12.14. So no one will pity a man who associates with a sinner and becomes involved in his sins. 13.4. A rich man will exploit you if you can be of use to him,but if you are in need he will forsake you. 13.19. Wild asses in the wilderness are the prey of lions;likewise the poor are pastures for the rich. 31.8. Blessed is the rich man who is found blameless,and who does not go after gold. 37.11. Do not consult with a woman about her rival or with a coward about war,with a merchant about barter or with a buyer about selling,with a grudging man about gratitude or with a merciless man about kindness,with an idler about any work or with a man hired for a year about completing his work,with a lazy servant about a big task -- pay no attention to these in any matter of counsel. 37.12. But stay constantly with a godly man whom you know to be a keeper of the commandments,whose soul is in accord with your soul,and who will sorrow with you if you fail. 44.6. rich men furnished with resources,living peaceably in their habitations --
20. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.175-3.190 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

3.175. 175 And with Peneus mixed pours in the sea 3.176. Its water, and men call it Stygian. 3.177. But when the Titans heard that there were son 3.178. Kept secretly, whom Cronos and his wife 3.179. Rhea begat, then Titan sixty youth 3.180. 180 Together gathered, and held fast in chain 3.181. Cronos and his wife Rhea, and concealed 3.182. Them in the earth and guarded them in bonds. 3.183. And then the sons of powerful Cronos heard 3.184. And a great war and uproar they aroused. 3.185. 185 And this is the beginning of dire war 3.186. Among all mortals. [For it is indeed 3.187. With mortals the prime origin of war.] 3.188. And then did God award the Titans evil. 3.189. And all of Titans and of Cronos born 3.190. 190 Died. But then as time rolled around there rose
21. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.294-1.299 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.294. And Balaam replied: "All that I have hitherto uttered have been oracles and words of God; but what I am going to say are merely the suggestions of my own mind: and taking him by the right hand, he, while they two were alone, gave him advice, by the adoption of which he might, as far as possible, guard against the power of his enemies, accusing himself of the most enormous crimes. For why, some one may perhaps say, do you thus retire into solitude and give counsel suggesting things contrary to the oracles of God, unless indeed that your counsels are more powerful than his decrees? 1.295. Come, then, let us examine into his fine recommendations, and see how cunningly they were contrived with reference to the most certain defeat of those who had hitherto always been able to conquer. As he knew that the only way by which the Hebrews could be subdued was by leading them to violate the law, he endeavoured to seduce them by means of debauchery and intemperance, that mighty evil, to the still greater crime of impiety, putting pleasure before them as a bait; 1.296. for, said he, "O king! the women of the country surpass all other women in beauty, and there are no means by which a man is more easily subdued than by the beauty of a woman; therefore, if you enjoin the most beautiful of them to grant their favours to them and to prostitute themselves to them, they will allure and overcome the youth of your enemies. 1.297. But you must warn them not to surrender their beauty to those who desire them with too great facility and too speedily, for resistance and coyness will stimulate the passions and excite them more, and will kindle a more impetuous desire; and so, being wholly subdued by their appetites, they will endure to do and to suffer anything. 1.298. And let any damsel who is thus prepared for the sport resist, and say, wantonly, to a lover who is thus influenced, "It is not fitting for you to enjoy my society till you have first abandoned your native habits, and have changed, and learnt to honour the same practices that I do. And I must have a conspicuous proof of your real change, which I can only have by your consenting to join me in the same sacrifices and libations which I use, and which we may then offer together at the same images and statues, and other erections in honour of my gods. 1.299. And the lover being, as it were, taken in the net of her manifold and multiform snares, not being able to resist her beauty and seductive conversation, will become wholly subdued in his reason, and, like a miserable man, will obey all the commands which she lays upon him, and will en enrolled as the salve of passion.
22. Anon., 2 Baruch, 22.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

23. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 4.126-4.130 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.126. 6. But Balak being very angry that the Israelites were not cursed, sent away Balaam without thinking him worthy of any honor. Whereupon, when he was just upon his journey, in order to pass the Euphrates, he sent for Balak, and for the princes of the Midianites 4.127. and spake thus to them:—“O Balak, and you Midianites that are here present, (for I am obliged even without the will of God to gratify you,) it is true no entire destruction can seize upon the nation of the Hebrews, neither by war, nor by plague, nor by scarcity of the fruits of the earth, nor can any other unexpected accident be their entire ruin; 4.128. for the providence of God is concerned to preserve them from such a misfortune; nor will it permit any such calamity to come upon them whereby they may all perish; but some small misfortunes, and those for a short time, whereby they may appear to be brought low, may still befall them; but after that they will flourish again, to the terror of those that brought those mischiefs upon them. 4.129. So that if you have a mind to gain a victory over them for a short space of time, you will obtain it by following my directions:—Do you therefore set out the handsomest of such of your daughters as are most eminent for beauty, and proper to force and conquer the modesty of those that behold them, and these decked and trimmed to the highest degree you are able. Then do you send them to be near the Israelites’ camp, and give them in charge, that when the young men of the Hebrews desire their company, they allow it them;
24. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 6.300 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

25. Mishnah, Avot, 5.19, 5.22 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.19. Whoever possesses these three things, he is of the disciples of Abraham, our father; and [whoever possesses] three other things, he is of the disciples of Balaam, the wicked. A good eye, a humble spirit and a moderate appetite he is of the disciples of Abraham, our father. An evil eye, a haughty spirit and a limitless appetite he is of the disciples of Balaam, the wicked. What is the difference between the disciples of Abraham, our father, and the disciples of Balaam, the wicked? The disciples of Abraham, our father, enjoy this world, and inherit the world to come, as it is said: “I will endow those who love me with substance, I will fill their treasuries” (Proverbs 8:21). But the disciples of Balaam, the wicked, inherit gehinnom, and descend into the nethermost pit, as it is said: “For you, O God, will bring them down to the nethermost pit those murderous and treacherous men; they shall not live out half their days; but I trust in You” (Psalms 55:24)." 5.22. Ben Bag Bag said:Turn it over, and [again] turn it over, for all is therein. And look into it; And become gray and old therein; And do not move away from it, for you have no better portion than it."
26. New Testament, 1 Peter, 3.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.9. not rendering evil for evil, or reviling for reviling; but instead blessing; knowing that to this were you called, that you may inherit a blessing.
27. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 8.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.4. Therefore concerning the eating of things sacrificed to idols, we knowthat no idol is anything in the world, and that there is no other Godbut one.
28. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 5.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.15. See that no one returns evil for evil to anyone, but always follow after that which is good, for one another, and for all.
29. New Testament, 2 Peter, 1.18, 2.15, 3.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. This voice we heard come out of heaven when we were with him in the holy mountain. 2.15. forsaking the right way, they went astray, having followed the way of Balaam the son of Beor, who loved the wages of wrong-doing; 3.13. But, according to his promise, we look for new heavens and a new earth, in which dwells righteousness.
30. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 12.2-12.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

31. New Testament, Acts, 10.13, 16.14-16.15, 28.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10.13. A voice came to him, "Rise, Peter, kill and eat! 16.14. A certain woman named Lydia, a seller of purple, of the city of Thyatira, one who worshiped God, heard us; whose heart the Lord opened to listen to the things which were spoken by Paul. 16.15. When she and her household were baptized, she begged us, saying, "If you have judged me to be faithful to the Lord, come into my house, and stay." She urged us. 28.5. However he shook off the creature into the fire, and wasn't harmed.
32. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.5, 1.9, 2.5, 2.9-2.10, 2.13-2.14, 2.16, 2.21-2.23, 3.3, 3.8, 3.14, 3.17, 3.19-3.22, 4.1-4.11, 6.10, 8.1-8.3, 9.20-9.21, 10.4, 10.8, 11.11-11.12, 11.15-11.18, 13.1-13.18, 14.2, 14.8, 14.10, 14.13-14.15, 14.20, 16.9, 16.11, 17.1-17.18, 18.1-18.3, 18.5-18.24, 19.2, 19.19, 20.4, 20.8-20.9, 20.11-20.12, 21.1, 22.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To him who loves us, and washed us from our sins by his blood; 1.9. I John, your brother and partner with you in oppression, kingdom, and perseverance in Christ Jesus, was on the isle that is called Patmos because of God's Word and the testimony of Jesus Christ. 2.5. Remember therefore from where you have fallen, and repent and do the first works; or else I am coming to you swiftly, and will move your lampstand out of its place, unless you repent. 2.9. I know your works, oppression, and your poverty (but you are rich), and the blasphemy of those who say they are Jews, and they are not, but are a synagogue of Satan. 2.10. Don't be afraid of the things which you are about to suffer. Behold, the devil is about to throw some of you into prison, that you may be tested; and you will have oppression for ten days. Be faithful to death, and I will give you the crown of life. 2.13. I know your works and where you dwell, where Satan's throne is. You hold firmly to my name, and didn't deny my faith in the days of Antipas my witness, my faithful one, who was killed among you, where Satan dwells. 2.14. But I have a few things against you, because you have there some who hold the teaching of Balaam, who taught Balak to throw a stumbling block before the children of Israel , to eat things sacrificed to idols, and to commit sexual immorality. 2.16. Repent therefore, or else I am coming to you quickly, and I will make war against them with the sword of my mouth. 2.21. I gave her time to repent, but she refuses to repent of her sexual immorality. 2.22. Behold, I will throw her into a bed, and those who commit adultery with her into great oppression, unless they repent of her works. 2.23. I will kill her children with Death, and all the assemblies will know that I am he who searches the minds and hearts. I will give to each one of you according to your deeds. 3.3. Remember therefore how you have received and heard. Keep it, and repent. If therefore you won't watch, I will come as a thief, and you won't know what hour I will come upon you. 3.8. I know your works (behold, I have set before you an open door, which no one can shut), that you have a little power, and kept my word, and didn't deny my name. 3.14. To the angel of the assembly in Laodicea write: "The Amen, the Faithful and True Witness, the Head of God's creation, says these things: 3.17. Because you say, 'I am rich, and have gotten riches, and have need of nothing;' and don't know that you are the wretched one, miserable, poor, blind, and naked; 3.19. As many as I love, I reprove and chasten. Be zealous therefore, and repent. 3.20. Behold, I stand at the door and knock. If anyone hears my voice and opens the door, then I will come in to him, and will dine with him, and he with me. 3.21. He who overcomes, I will give to him to sit down with me on my throne, as I also overcame, and sat down with my Father on his throne. 3.22. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the assemblies. 4.1. After these things I looked and saw a door opened in heaven, and the first voice that I heard, like a trumpet speaking with me, was one saying, "Come up here, and I will show you the things which must happen after this. 4.2. Immediately I was in the Spirit. Behold, there was a throne set in heaven, and one sitting on the throne 4.3. that looked like a jasper stone and a sardius. There was a rainbow around the throne, like an emerald to look at. 4.4. Around the throne were twenty-four thrones. On the thrones were twenty-four elders sitting, dressed in white garments, with crowns of gold on their heads. 4.5. Out of the throne proceed lightnings, sounds, and thunders. There were seven lamps of fire burning before his throne, which are the seven Spirits of God. 4.6. Before the throne was something like a sea of glass, like a crystal. In the midst of the throne, and around the throne were four living creatures full of eyes before and behind. 4.7. The first creature was like a lion, and the second creature like a calf, and the third creature had a face like a man, and the fourth was like a flying eagle. 4.8. The four living creatures, having each one of them six wings, are full of eyes around about and within. They have no rest day and night, saying, "Holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy is the Lord God, the Almighty, who was and who is and who is to come! 4.9. When the living creatures give glory, honor, and thanks to him who sits on the throne, to him who lives forever and ever 4.10. the twenty-four elders fall down before him who sits on the throne, and worship him who lives forever and ever, and throw their crowns before the throne, saying 4.11. Worthy are you, our Lord and our God, the Holy One, to receive the glory, the honor, and the power, for you created all things, and because of your desire they existed, and were created! 6.10. They cried with a loud voice, saying, "How long, Master, the holy and true, do you not judge and avenge our blood on those who dwell on the earth? 8.1. When he opened the seventh seal, there followed a silence in heaven for about half an hour. 8.2. I saw the seven angels who stand before God, and seven trumpets were given to them. 8.3. Another angel came and stood over the altar, having a golden censer. Much incense was given to him, that he should add it to the prayers of all the saints on the golden altar which was before the throne. 9.20. The rest of mankind, who were not killed with these plagues, didn't repent of the works of their hands, that they wouldn't worship demons, and the idols of gold, and of silver, and of brass, and of stone, and of wood; which can neither see, nor hear, nor walk. 9.21. They didn't repent of their murders, nor of their sorceries, nor of their sexual immorality, nor of their thefts. 10.4. When the seven thunders sounded, I was about to write; but I heard a voice from the sky saying, "Seal up the things which the seven thunders said, and don't write them. 10.8. The voice which I heard from heaven, again speaking with me, said, "Go, take the book which is open in the hand of the angel who stands on the sea and on the land. 11.11. After the three and a half days, the breath of life from God entered into them, and they stood on their feet. Great fear fell on those who saw them. 11.12. I heard a loud voice from heaven saying to them, "Come up here!" They went up into heaven in the cloud, and their enemies saw them. 11.15. The seventh angel sounded, and great voices in heaven followed, saying, "The kingdom of the world has become the Kingdom of our Lord, and of his Christ. He will reign forever and ever! 11.16. The twenty-four elders, who sit before God's throne on their thrones, fell on their faces and worshiped God 11.17. saying: "We give you thanks, Lord God, the Almighty, the one who is and who was; because you have taken your great power, and reigned. 11.18. The nations were angry, and your wrath came, as did the time for the dead to be judged, and to give your servants the prophets, their reward, as well as the saints, and those who fear your name, the small and the great; and to destroy those who destroy the earth. 13.1. Then I stood on the sand of the sea. I saw a beast coming up out of the sea, having ten horns and seven heads. On his horns were ten crowns, and on his heads, blasphemous names. 13.2. The beast which I saw was like a leopard, and his feet were like those of a bear, and his mouth like the mouth of a lion. The dragon gave him his power, his throne, and great authority. 13.3. One of his heads looked like it had been wounded fatally. His fatal wound was healed, and the whole earth marveled at the beast. 13.4. They worshiped the dragon, because he gave his authority to the beast, and they worshiped the beast, saying, "Who is like the beast? Who is able to make war with him? 13.5. A mouth speaking great things and blasphemy was given to him. Authority to make war for forty-two months was given to him. 13.6. He opened his mouth for blasphemy against God, to blaspheme his name, and his dwelling, those who dwell in heaven. 13.7. It was given to him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them. Authority over every tribe, people, language, and nation was given to him. 13.8. All who dwell on the earth will worship him, everyone whose name has not been written from the foundation of the world in the book of life of the Lamb who has been killed. 13.9. If anyone has an ear, let him hear. 13.10. If anyone has captivity, he goes away. If anyone is with the sword, he must be killed. Here is the endurance and the faith of the saints. 13.11. I saw another beast coming up out of the earth. He had two horns like a lamb, and he spoke like a dragon. 13.12. He exercises all the authority of the first beast in his presence. He makes the earth and those who dwell in it to worship the first beast, whose fatal wound was healed. 13.13. He performs great signs, even making fire come down out of the sky on the earth in the sight of men. 13.14. He deceives my own people who dwell on the earth because of the signs which it was given to him to do in front of the beast; saying to those who dwell on the earth, that they should make an image to the beast who had the sword wound and lived. 13.15. It was given to him to give breath to it, to the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak, and cause as many as wouldn't worship the image of the beast to be killed. 13.16. He causes all, the small and the great, the rich and the poor, and the free and the slave, so that they should give them marks on their right hand, or on their forehead; 13.17. and that no one would be able to buy or to sell, unless he has that mark, the name of the beast or the number of his name. 13.18. Here is wisdom. He who has understanding, let him calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man. His number is six hundred sixty-six. 14.2. I heard a sound from heaven, like the sound of many waters, and like the sound of a great thunder. The sound which I heard was like that of harpers playing on their harps. 14.8. Another, a second angel, followed, saying, "Babylon the great has fallen, which has made all the nations to drink of the wine of the wrath of her sexual immorality. 14.10. he also will drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is prepared unmixed in the cup of his anger. He will be tormented with fire and sulfur in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb. 14.13. I heard the voice from heaven saying, "Write, 'Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord from now on.'""Yes," says the Spirit, "that they may rest from their labors; for their works follow with them. 14.14. I looked, and behold, a white cloud; and on the cloud one sitting like a son of man, having on his head a golden crown, and in his hand a sharp sickle. 14.15. Another angel came out from the temple, crying with a loud voice to him who sat on the cloud, "Send forth your sickle, and reap; for the hour to reap has come; for the harvest of the earth is ripe! 14.20. The winepress was trodden outside of the city, and blood came out from the winepress, even to the bridles of the horses, as far as one thousand six hundred stadia. 16.9. People were scorched with great heat, and people blasphemed the name of God who has the power over these plagues. They didn't repent and give him glory. 16.11. and they blasphemed the God of heaven because of their pains and their sores. They didn't repent of their works. 17.1. One of the seven angels who had the seven bowls came and spoke with me, saying, "Come here. I will show you the judgment of the great prostitute who sits on many waters 17.2. with whom the kings of the earth committed sexual immorality, and those who dwell in the earth were made drunken with the wine of her sexual immorality. 17.3. He carried me away in the Spirit into a wilderness. I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet-colored animal, full of blasphemous names, having seven heads and ten horns. 17.4. The woman was dressed in purple and scarlet, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having in her hand a golden cup full of abominations and the impurities of the sexual immorality of the earth. 17.5. And on her forehead a name was written, "MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF THE PROSTITUTES AND OF THE ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH. 17.6. I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus. When I saw her, I wondered with great amazement. 17.7. The angel said to me, "Why do you wonder? I will tell you the mystery of the woman, and of the beast that carries her, which has the seven heads and the ten horns. 17.8. The beast that you saw was, and is not; and is about to come up out of the abyss, and to go into destruction. Those who dwell on the earth will wonder, whose name has not been written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, when they see that the beast was, and is not, and will pe present. 17.9. Here is the mind that has wisdom. The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sits. 17.10. They are seven kings. Five have fallen, the one is, the other has not yet come. When he comes, he must continue a little while. 17.11. The beast that was, and is not, is himself also an eighth, and is of the seven; and he goes to destruction. 17.12. The ten horns that you saw are ten kings who have received no kingdom as yet, but they receive authority as kings, with the beast, for one hour. 17.13. These have one mind, and they give their power and authority to the beast. 17.14. These will war against the Lamb, and the Lamb will overcome them, for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings. They also will overcome who are with him, called and chosen and faithful. 17.15. He said to me, "The waters which you saw, where the prostitute sits, are peoples, multitudes, nations, and languages. 17.16. The ten horns which you saw, and the beast, these will hate the prostitute, and will make her desolate, and will make her naked, and will eat her flesh, and will burn her utterly with fire. 17.17. For God has put in their hearts to do what he has in mind, and to come to unity of mind, and to give their kingdom to the beast, until the words of God should be accomplished. 17.18. The woman whom you saw is the great city, which reigns over the kings of the earth. 18.1. After these things, I saw another angel coming down out of the sky, having great authority. The earth was illuminated with his glory. 18.2. He cried with a mighty voice, saying, "Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great, and has become a habitation of demons, and a prison of every unclean spirit, and a prison of every unclean and hateful bird! 18.3. For all the nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her sexual immorality, the kings of the earth committed sexual immorality with her, and the merchants of the earth grew rich from the abundance of her luxury. 18.5. for her sins have reached to the sky, and God has remembered her iniquities. 18.6. Return to her just as she returned, and double back doubles as she did, and according to her works. In the cup which she mixed, mix to her double. 18.7. However much she glorified herself, and grew wanton, so much give her of torment and mourning. For she says in her heart, 'I sit a queen, and am no widow, and will in no way see mourning.' 18.8. Therefore in one day her plagues will come: death, mourning, and famine; and she will be utterly burned with fire; for the Lord God who has judged her is strong. 18.9. The kings of the earth, who committed sexual immorality and lived wantonly with her, will weep and wail over her, when they look at the smoke of her burning 18.10. standing far away for the fear of her torment, saying, 'Woe, woe, the great city, Babylon, the strong city! For your judgment has come in one hour.' 18.11. The merchants of the earth weep and mourn over her, for no one buys their merchandise any more; 18.12. merchandise of gold, silver, precious stones, pearls, fine linen, purple, silk, scarlet, all expensive wood, every vessel of ivory, every vessel made of most precious wood, and of brass, and iron, and marble; 18.13. and cinnamon, incense, perfume, frankincense, wine, olive oil, fine flour, wheat, sheep, horses, chariots, bodies, and people's souls. 18.14. The fruits which your soul lusted after have been lost to you, and all things that were dainty and sumptuous have perished from you, and you will find them no more at all. 18.15. The merchants of these things, who were made rich by her, will stand far away for the fear of her torment, weeping and mourning; 18.16. saying, 'Woe, woe, the great city, she who was dressed in fine linen, purple, and scarlet, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls! 18.17. For in an hour such great riches are made desolate.' Every shipmaster, and everyone who sails anywhere, and mariners, and as many as gain their living by sea, stood far away 18.18. and cried out as they looked at the smoke of her burning, saying, 'What is like the great city?' 18.19. They cast dust on their heads, and cried, weeping and mourning, saying, 'Woe, woe, the great city, in which all who had their ships in the sea were made rich by reason of her great wealth!' For in one hour is she made desolate. 18.20. Rejoice over her, O heaven, you saints, apostles, and prophets; for God has judged your judgment on her. 18.21. A mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone and cast it into the sea, saying, "Thus with violence will Babylon, the great city, be thrown down, and will be found no more at all. 18.22. The voice of harpers and minstrels and flute players and trumpeters will be heard no more at all in you. No craftsman, of whatever craft, will be found any more at all in you. The sound of a mill will be heard no more at all in you. 18.23. The light of a lamp will shine no more at all in you. The voice of the bridegroom and of the bride will be heard no more at all in you; for your merchants were the princes of the earth; for with your sorcery all the nations were deceived. 18.24. In her was found the blood of prophets and of saints, and of all who have been slain on the earth. 19.2. for true and righteous are his judgments. For he has judged the great prostitute, her who corrupted the earth with her sexual immorality, and he has avenged the blood of his servants at her hand. 19.19. I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against him who sat on the horse, and against his army. 20.4. I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was given to them. I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded for the testimony of Jesus, and for the word of God, and such as didn't worship the beast nor his image, and didn't receive the mark on their forehead and on their hand. They lived, and reigned with Christ for the thousand years. 20.8. and he will come out to deceive the nations which are in the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to the war; the number of whom is as the sand of the sea. 20.9. They went up over the breadth of the earth, and surrounded the camp of the saints, and the beloved city. Fire came down out of heaven from God, and devoured them. 20.11. I saw a great white throne, and him who sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away. There was found no place for them. 20.12. I saw the dead, the great and the small, standing before the throne, and they opened books. Another book was opened, which is the book of life. The dead were judged out of the things which were written in the books, according to their works. 21.1. I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth have passed away, and the sea is no more. 22.12. Behold, I come quickly. My reward is with me, to repay to each man according to his work.
33. New Testament, Jude, 11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

34. New Testament, Romans, 12.17-12.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.17. Repay no one evil for evil. Respect what is honorable in the sight of all men. 12.18. If it is possible, as much as it is up to you, be at peace with all men. 12.19. Don't seek revenge yourselves, beloved, but give place to God's wrath. For it is written, "Vengeance belongs to me; I will repay, says the Lord. 12.20. Therefore "If your enemy is hungry, feed him. If he is thirsty, give him a drink. For in doing so, you will heap coals of fire on his head.
35. New Testament, Luke, 3.22, 6.27-6.35, 24.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.22. and the Holy Spirit descended in a bodily form as a dove on him; and a voice came out of the sky, saying "You are my beloved Son. In you I am well pleased. 6.27. But I tell you who hear: love your enemies, do good to those who hate you 6.28. bless those who curse you, and pray for those who insult you. 6.29. To him who strikes you on the cheek, offer also the other; and from him who takes away your cloak, don't withhold your coat also. 6.30. Give to everyone who asks you, and don't ask him who takes away your goods to give them back again. 6.31. As you would like people to do to you, do exactly so to them. 6.32. If you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners love those who love them. 6.33. If you do good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners do the same. 6.34. If you lend to those from whom you hope to receive, what credit is that to you? Even sinners lend to sinners, to receive back as much. 6.35. But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing back; and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High; for he is kind toward the unthankful and evil. 24.6. He isn't here, but is risen. Remember what he told you when he was still in Galilee
36. New Testament, Mark, 1.11, 9.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.11. A voice came out of the sky, "You are my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. 9.7. A cloud came, overshadowing them, and a voice came out of the cloud, "This is my beloved Son. Listen to him.
37. New Testament, Matthew, 3.17, 5.44-5.46 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.17. Behold, a voice out of the heavens said, "This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased. 5.44. But I tell you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who mistreat you and persecute you 5.45. that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven. For he makes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the just and the unjust. 5.46. For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Don't even the tax collectors do the same?
38. Tacitus, Annals, 14.15 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14.15.  Reluctant, however, as yet to expose his dishonour on a public stage, he instituted the so‑called Juvenile Games, for which a crowd of volunteers enrolled themselves. Neither rank, nor age, nor an official career debarred a man from practising the art of a Greek or a Latin mummer, down to attitudes and melodies never meant for the male sex. Even women of distinction studied indecent parts; and in the grove with which Augustus fringed his Naval Lagoon, little trysting-places and drinking-dens sprang up, and every incentive to voluptuousness was exposed for sale. Distributions of coin, too, were made, for the respectable man to expend under compulsion and the prodigal from vainglory. Hence debauchery and scandal throve; nor to our morals, corrupted long before, has anything contributed more of uncleanness than that herd of reprobates. Even in the decent walks of life, purity is hard to keep: far less could chastity or modesty or any vestige of integrity survive in that competition of the vices. — Last of all to tread the stage was the sovereign himself, scrupulously testing his lyre and striking a few preliminary notes to the trainers at his side. A cohort of the guards had been added to the audience — centurions and tribunes; Burrus, also, with his sigh and his word of praise. Now, too, for the first time was enrolled the company of Roman knights known as the Augustiani; conspicuously youthful and robust; wanton in some cases by nature; in others, through dreams of power. Days and nights they thundered applause, bestowed the epithets reserved for deity upon the imperial form and voice, and lived in a repute and honour, which might have been earned by virtue.
39. Tosefta, Sotah, 13.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

40. Anon., Marytrdom of Polycarp, 9.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9.1. 1 Now when Polycarp entered into the arena there came a voice from heaven: "Be strong, Polycarp, and play the man." And no one saw the speaker, but our friends who were there heard the voice. And next he was brought forward, and there was a great uproar of those who heard that Polycarp had been arrested.
41. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

102a. ואף אחיה השילוני טעה וחתם דהא יהוא צדיקא רבה הוה שנאמר (מלכים ב י, ל) ויאמר ה' אל יהוא יען אשר הטיבות לעשות הישר בעיני ככל אשר בלבבי עשית לבית אחאב בני רביעים ישבו לך על כסא ישראל וכתיב (מלכים ב י, לא) ויהוא לא שמר ללכת בתורת ה' אלהי ישראל בכל לבבו לא סר מעל חטאת ירבעם אשר החטיא את ישראל,מאי גרמא ליה אמר אביי ברית כרותה לשפתים שנאמר (מלכים ב י, יח) אחאב עבד הבעל מעט יהוא יעבדנו הרבה רבא אמר חותמו של אחיה השילוני ראה וטעה,דכתיב (הושע ה, ב) ושחטה שטים העמיקו ואני מוסר לכולם אמר רבי יוחנן אמר הקב"ה הם העמיקו משלי אני אמרתי כל שאינו עולה לרגל עובר בעשה והם אמרו כל העולה לרגל ידקר בחרב,(מלכים א יא, כט) ויהי בעת ההיא וירבעם יצא מירושלם וימצא אותו אחיה השילוני הנביא בדרך והוא מתכסה בשלמה חדשה תנא משום רבי יוסי עת היא מזומנת לפורענות,(ירמיהו נא, יח) בעת פקודתם יאבדו תנא משום רבי יוסי עת מזומנת לפורענות (ישעיהו מט, ח) בעת רצון עניתיך תנא משום ר' יוסי עת מזומנת לטובה (שמות לב, לד) וביום פקדי ופקדתי עליהם חטאתם תנא משום רבי יוסי עת היא מזומנת לפורענות (בראשית לח, א) ויהי בעת ההיא וירד יהודה מאת אחיו תנא משום ר' יוסי עת מזומנת לפורענות,(מלכים א יב, א) וילך רחבעם שכם כי שכם בא כל ישראל להמליך אותו תנא משום ר' יוסי מקום מזומן לפורענות בשכם עינו את דינה בשכם מכרו אחיו את יוסף בשכם נחלקה מלכות בית דוד,(מלכים א יא, כט) וירבעם יצא מירושלים אמר ר' חנינא בר פפא שיצא מפיתקה של ירושלים,(מלכים א יא, כט) וימצא אותו אחיה השילוני הנביא בדרך והוא מתכסה בשלמה חדשה ושניהם לבדם בשדה מאי בשלמה חדשה אמר רב נחמן כשלמה חדשה מה שלמה חדשה אין בה שום דופי אף תורתו של ירבעם לא היה בה שום דופי ד"א שלמה חדשה שחידשו דברים שלא שמעה אזן מעולם,מאי ושניהם לבדם בשדה אמר רב יהודה אמר רב שכל תלמידי חכמים דומין לפניהם כעשבי השדה ואיכא דאמר שכל טעמי תורה מגולין להם כשדה,(מיכה א, יד) לכן תתני שלוחים על מורשת גת בתי אכזיב לאכזב למלכי ישראל אמר ר' חנינא בר פפא יצאה בת קול ואמרה להן מי שהרג את הפלשתי והוריש אתכם גת תתנו שילוחים לבניו בתי אכזיב לאכזב למלכי ישראל,אמר רב חיננא בר פפא כל הנהנה מן העולם הזה בלא ברכה כאילו גוזל להקב"ה וכנסת ישראל שנאמר (משלי כח, כד) גוזל אביו ואמו ואומר אין פושע חבר הוא לאיש משחית ואין אביו אלא הקב"ה שנאמר (דברים לב, ו) הלא הוא אביך קנך ואין אמו אלא כנסת ישראל שנאמר (משלי א, ח) שמע בני מוסר אביך ואל תטוש תורת אמך,מאי חבר הוא לאיש משחית חבר הוא לירבעם בן נבט שהשחית ישראל לאביהם שבשמים,(מלכים ב יז, כא) וידח ירבעם (בן נבט) את ישראל מאחרי ה' והחטיאם חטאה גדולה אמר רבי חנין כשתי מקלות המתיזות זו את זו,(דברים א, א) ודי זהב אמרו דבי ר' ינאי אמר משה לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם בשביל כסף וזהב שהשפעת להן לישראל עד שיאמרו דיי גרם להם לעשות להם אלהי זהב משל אין ארי דורס ונוהם מתוך קופה של תבן אלא מתוך קופה של בשר,אמר ר' אושעיא עד ירבעם היו ישראל יונקים מעגל אחד מכאן ואילך משנים ושלשה עגלים אמר ר' יצחק אין לך כל פורענות ופורענות שבאה לעולם שאין בה אחד מעשרים וארבעה בהכרע ליטרא של עגל הראשון שנאמר (שמות לב, לד) וביום פקדי ופקדתי עליהם חטאתם,אמר רבי חנינא לאחר עשרים וארבעה דורות נגבה פסוק זה שנאמר (יחזקאל ט, א) ויקרא באזני קול גדול לאמר קרבו פקדות העיר ואיש כלי משחתו בידו,(מלכים א יג, לג) אחר הדבר הזה לא שב ירבעם מדרכו הרעה מאי אחר אמר ר' אבא אחר שתפשו הקב"ה לירבעם בבגדו ואמר לו חזור בך ואני ואתה ובן ישי נטייל בגן עדן אמר לו מי בראש בן ישי בראש אי הכי לא בעינא,ר' אבהו הוה רגיל דהוה קא דריש בשלשה מלכים חלש קביל עליה דלא דריש כיון 102a. bAnd even Ahijah the Shilonite erredin this matter band signedthat he would accept all of Jeroboam’s pronouncements. And generations later this caused Jehu to sin. The Gemara explains: bAs Jehu was an extremely righteous person. As it is stated: “And the Lord said to Jehu: Because you have done well, to perform what is right in My eyes, and have done to the house of Ahab according to all that was in My heart, your children of the fourth generation shall sit on the throne of Israel”(II Kings 10:30). bAnd it is written: “But Jehu took no care to walk in the Torah of the Lord, God of Israel, with all his heart; he departed not from the sins of Jeroboam, who made Israel sin”(II Kings 10:31)., bWhat causedJehu to do so? bAbaye says: A covet is made with the lips, as it is statedthat Jehu said cunningly in an attempt to entrap the priests of the Baal: b“Ahab worshipped Baal a little, but Jehu shall serve him much”(II Kings 10:18). Although it was not his intention, once the statement escaped his lips he began following the path to its fulfillment. bRava says: He saw the seal of Ahijah the Shiloniteon the coronation document of Jeroboam band he erredand believed that it was permitted to act as Jeroboam did.,The Gemara continues its discussion of Jeroboam. With regard to that bwhich is written: “And the apostates are deep in slaughter and I am rejected by them all”(Hosea 5:2), bRabbi Yoḥa saysthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, says: Theyissued decrees that are bmore profoundand more extreme bthan my own. I said: Anyone who does not ascendto Jerusalem bfor the pilgrimage Festival violates a positive mitzva, and they said: Anyone who ascendsto Jerusalem bfor the pilgrimage Festival will be stabbed with the sword.In that way, Jeroboam successfully prevented the residents of the kingdom of Israel from ascending to Jerusalem.,The verse states: b“And it came to pass at that time, and Jeroboam left Jerusalem, and the prophet Ahijah the Shilonite found him on the way, and he was clad in a new garment,and the two were alone in the field” (I Kings 11:29). It was btaught in the name of Rabbi Yosei:The phrase “at that time” indicates that bit is a time ordained for calamity. /b,The verse states: b“At the time of their punishment, they shall perish”(Jeremiah 51:18). It was btaught in the name of Rabbi Yosei:The phrase “at the time” indicates that it is ba time ordained for calamity.The verse states: b“In an acceptable time have I answered you”(Isaiah 49:8). It was btaught in the name of Rabbi Yosei:The phrase “in an acceptable time” indicates that it is ba time ordained for good.The verse states: b“On the day when I punish, I will punish their sin upon them”(Exodus 32:34). It was btaught in the name of Rabbi Yosei:The phrase “on the day when I punish” indicates that bit is a time ordained for calamity.The verse states: b“And it came to pass at that time, and Judah descended from his brothers”(Genesis 38:1). It was btaught in the name of Rabbi Yosei:The phrase “at that time” indicates that it is ba time ordained for calamity. /b,The verse states: b“And Rehoboam went to Shechem; for all Israel came to Shechem, to make him king”(I Kings 12:1). It was btaught in the name of Rabbi Yosei:Shechem is ba place ordained for calamity. In Shechem, they tormentedand raped bDinah, inthe outskirts of bShechem the brothers sold Joseph, in Shechem the kingdom of the house of David was divided. /b,With regard to the verse which states: b“And Jeroboam left Jerusalem”(I Kings 11:29), bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa says:It means bthat he left the destiny of Jerusalem,meaning he removed himself from the category of the residents of Jerusalem, never to return.,The verse states: b“And the prophet Ahijah the Shilonite found him on the way, and he was clad in a new [ iḥadasha /i] garment, and the two were alone in the field.” Whatis taught by the phrase b“in a new garment”? Rav Naḥman says:It was blike a new garment; just as a new garment has no imperfection, so too, the Torahstudies bof Jeroboamat that time bhad no imperfection. Alternatively, “a new garment”teaches bthat they introduced [ isheḥideshu /i] matters thatno bear had ever heard. /b, bWhatis taught by the phrase b“and the two were alone in the field”? Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:It teaches bthat allthe bTorah scholarsof that generation bseemed,relative bto them, like grass of the field,as they were wiser than all of them. bAnd there arethose bwho say:It teaches bthat all the rationales of the Torah were revealed to them like a fieldthat is exposed for all to see.,The verse states: b“Therefore shall you give parting gifts to Moresheth Gath; the houses of Achzib are a deceitful thing for the kings of Israel”(Micah 1:14). bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa says:When they crowned Jeroboam, ba Divine Voice emerged and said tothe subjects of the kingdom of Israel: bHe who killed the Philistine and bequeathedthe city of bGath to you,i.e., King David, bwill you give parting gifts to his sonsand revolt against them? Ultimately, bthe houses of Achzib are a deceitful thing for the kings of Israel,as the kings of Israel will also be forsaken by their subjects., bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa says:With regard to banyone who derives benefit from this world withoutreciting ba blessing, it is as though he stole from the Holy One, Blessed be He, and the congregation of Israel, as it is stated: “Whoever robs his father and his mother and says: It is no transgression, he is the companion of a corrupter”(Proverbs 28:24). bAndthe term b“his father”is referring to bnone other than the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “Is He not your Father Who created you,Who made you and established you?” (Deuteronomy 32:6). bAndthe term b“his mother”is referring to bnone other than the congregation of Israel, as it is stated: “Hear, my son, the discipline of your father, and do not forsake the Torah of your mother”(Proverbs 1:8). The mention of the Torah as emanating from the mother indicates that the mother represents the congregation of Israel, and the Torah of the mother is the tradition of the Jewish people., bWhatis the meaning of the phrase b“He is the companion of a corrupter”?It means that bhe is a companion of Jeroboam, son of Nebat, who corruptedthe people of bIsrael before their Father in Heavenby sinning and by causing others to sin.,With regard to the verse: b“And Jeroboam drove Israel from following the Lord, and caused them to sin a great sin”(II Kings 17:21), bRabbi Ḥanin says:This is blike two sticksthat when they collide bcause each other to carom,as due to the strife, Jeroboam caused the subjects of the kingdom of Israel to grow distant from God.,§ Apropos the calves of Jeroboam, the Gemara discusses the Golden Calf discussed in the Torah. The verse states: b“And Di Zahav”(Deuteronomy 1:1). bThe school of Rabbi Yannai said: Moses said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, because of the gold and silver that You lavished upon the Jewish peopleduring the exodus from Egypt buntil they said enough [ idai /i],this wealth bcaused the Jewish people to fashion for themselves gods of gold.The combination of wealth and leisure left them open to a transgression of that sort. There is ba parablefor this: bA lion does not maul and roar over a basket of strawfrom which he derives no pleasure; brather,he mauls and roars bover a basket of meat,as he roars only when satiated. In other words, the guilt is not exclusively theirs., bRabbi Oshaya says: Until Jeroboam, Israel was suckling,i.e., suffering the consequences, bfromworshipping bone calfthat they fashioned in the wilderness. bFrom thatpoint bforward,they were suckling bfrom two and three calves,as Jeroboam added the calves in Bethel and Dan. bRabbi Yitzḥak says: You have no punishment that comes to the world in which there is not one twenty-fourth of the surplus of a ilitraof the first calf.When weighing a substance, there would often be a disparity of up to one twenty-fourth of its weight. The point is that a minuscule portion of the sin of the Golden Calf is added to every punishment imposed upon the Jewish people, bas it is stated: “On the day when I punish, I will punish their sin upon them”(Exodus 32:34), indicating that atonement for that sin is incomplete, and the Jewish people will continue to suffer for it., bRabbi Ḥanina says: After twenty-four generationselapsed from the sin of the Golden Calf, the debt referred to in bthis verse was collected, as it is stated: “And he cried in my ears with a loud voice, saying: Those who have charge over the city draw near, every man with his deadly weapon in his hand”(Ezekiel 9:1). This prophecy occurred twenty-four generations after the sin of the Golden Calf.,The verse states: b“And after this matter, Jeroboam returned not from his evil way”(I Kings 13:33). To bwhatevent is the verse alluding, when it states: b“Afterthis matter”? bRabbi Abba says:It is bafter the Holy One, Blessed be He, grabbed Jeroboam by his garment,i.e., he sent prophets and implored him, band said to him: Repent, and you and I andthe bson of Yishai will strolltogether bin the Garden of Eden.Jeroboam bsaid to Him: Whowill walk bin the lead?God bsaid toJeroboam: The bson of Yishaiwill walk bin the lead.Jeroboam said: bIf so, I do not wishto repent.,§ The Gemara relates: bRabbi Abbahu was accustomed to lectureat great length babout the three kingsenumerated in the mishna, who have no share in the World-to-Come. bHe fell ill, and he undertook that he would not lectureabout those kings. bOnce /b
42. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

48b. הרחיבה שאול נפשה ופערה פיה לבלי חק וירד הדרה והמונה ושאונה ועלז בה,משמתו נביאים הראשונים מאן נביאים הראשונים אמר רב הונא זה דוד ושמואל ושלמה רב נחמן אמר בימי דוד זימנין סליק וזימנין לא סליק שהרי שאל צדוק ועלתה לו שאל אביתר ולא עלתה לו שנאמר (שמואל ב טו, כד) ויעל אביתר,מתיב רבה בר שמואל (דברי הימים ב כו, ה) ויהי לדרוש אלהים כל ימי זכריה המבין בראות אלהים מאי לאו באורים ותומים לא בנביאים,ת"ש משחרב בהמ"ק ראשון בטלו ערי מגרש ופסקו אורים ותומים ופסק מלך מבית דוד,ואם לחשך אדם לומר (עזרא ב, סג) ויאמר התרשתא להם אשר לא יאכלו מקדש הקדשים עד עמוד כהן לאורים ותומים [אמור לו] כאדם שאומר לחבירו עד שיחיו מתים ויבא משיח בן דוד,אלא אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מאן נביאים הראשונים לאפוקי מחגי זכריה ומלאכי דאחרונים נינהו דת"ר משמתו חגי זכריה ומלאכי נסתלקה רוח הקודש מישראל ואע"פ כן היו משתמשים בבת קול,שפעם אחת היו מסובין בעליית בית גוריא ביריחו נתנה עליהן בת קול מן השמים ואמרה יש בכם אדם אחד שראוי שתשרה שכינה עליו אלא שאין דורו ראוי לכך נתנו עיניהם בהלל הזקן וכשמת הספידוהו הי חסיד הי עניו תלמידו של עזרא,ושוב פעם אחרת היו מסובין בעלייה ביבנה נתנה להן בת קול מן השמים ואמרה להן יש בכם אדם א' שראוי שתשרה שכינה עליו אלא שאין דורו זכאין לכך נתנו עיניהם בשמואל הקטן וכשמת הספידוהו הי עניו הי חסיד תלמידו של הלל,ואף הוא אמר בשעת מיתתו שמעון וישמעאל לחרבא וחברוהי לקטלא ושאר עמא לביזא ועקן סגיאין עתידין למיתי על עמא ואף על ר' יהודה בן בבא בקשו לומר הי חסיד הי עניו אלא שנטרפה שעה שאין מספידין על הרוגי מלכות,משחרב בהמ"ק בטל השמיר כו' ת"ר שמיר שבו בנה שלמה את בהמ"ק שנא' (מלכים א ו, ז) והבית בהבנותו אבן שלמה מסע נבנה הדברים ככתבן דברי ר' יהודה,אמר לו ר' נחמיה וכי אפשר לומר כן והלא כבר נאמר (מלכים א ז, ט) כל אלה אבנים יקרות וגו' מגוררות במגרה אם כן מה ת"ל לא נשמע בבית בהבנותו שהיה מתקין מבחוץ ומכניס מבפנים אמר רבי נראין דברי רבי יהודה באבני מקדש ודברי ר' נחמיה באבני ביתו,ור' נחמיה שמיר למאי אתא מיבעי ליה לכדתניא אבנים הללו אין כותבין אותן בדיו משום שנאמר (שמות כח, יא) פתוחי חותם ואין מסרטין עליהם באיזמל משום שנאמר במלואותם,אלא כותב עליהם בדיו ומראה להן שמיר מבחוץ והן נבקעות מאליהן כתאינה זו שנבקעת בימות החמה ואינה חסירה כלום וכבקעה זו שנבקעת בימות הגשמים ואינה חסירה כלום,ת"ר שמיר זה ברייתו כשעורה ומששת ימי בראשית נברא ואין כל דבר קשה יכול לעמוד בפניו במה משמרין אותו כורכין אותו בספוגין של צמר ומניחין אותו באיטני של אבר מליאה סובי שעורין,אמר רבי אמי משחרב מקדש ראשון בטלה שירא פרנדא וזכוכית לבנה תניא נמי הכי משחרב מקדש ראשון בטלה שירא פרנדא וזכוכית לבנה ורכב ברזל וי"א אף יין קרוש הבא משניר הדומה כעיגולי דבילה,ונופת צופים מאי נופת צופים אמר רב סולת שצפה על גבי נפה ודומה לעיסה שנילושה בדבש ושמן ולוי אמר שתי ככרות הנדבקות בתנור ותופחות ובאות עד שמגיעות זו לזו ורבי יהושע בן לוי אמר זה דבש הבא מן הציפיא מאי משמע כדמתרגם רב ששת כמא דנתזן דבריאתה ושייטן ברומי עלמא ומתיין דובשא מעישבי טורא,תנן התם כל הנצוק טהור חוץ מדבש זיפים והצפיחים מאי זיפים אמר רבי יוחנן דבש שמזייפין בו וריש לקיש אמר על שם מקומו כדכתיב (יהושע טו, כד) זיף וטלם ובעלות,כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (תהלים נד, ב) בבא הזיפים ויאמרו לשאול הלא דוד וגו' מאי זיפים אמר רבי יוחנן בני אדם המזייפין דבריהם ורבי אלעזר אומר על שם מקומן כדכתיב זיף וטלם ובעלות,ופסקו אנשי אמנה אמר רבי יצחק אלו בני אדם שהן מאמינין בהקב"ה דתניא רבי אליעזר הגדול אומר כל מי שיש לו פת בסלו ואומר מה אוכל למחר אינו אלא מקטני אמנה,והיינו דאמר ר' אלעזר מאי דכתיב (זכריה ד, י) כי מי בז ליום קטנות מי גרם לצדיקים שיתבזבז שולחנן לעתיד לבא קטנות שהיה בהן שלא האמינו בהקב"ה רבא אמר אלו קטני בני רשעי ישראל 48b. bthe netherworld has enlarged her desire, and opened her mouth without measure, and down goes their glory and their tumult and their uproar, and he who rejoices among them”(Isaiah 5:14). Their punishment is that they shall descend into the netherworld.,§ The mishna taught: bFromthe time bwhen the early prophets died,the iUrim VeTummimwas nullified. The Gemara poses a question: bWhoare bthe early prophets? Rav Huna says: This isreferring to bDavid, and Samuel, and Solomon,and after their death the iUrim VeTummimwas no longer used. bRav Naḥman said: In the days of Davidthere were btimesan answer brose upfor them from the iUrim VeTummim bandthere were btimesan answer bdid not rise up,i.e., they did not receive an answer. The proof for this is bthat Tzadok,the High Priest in David’s time, baskedthe iUrim VeTummim bandan answer brose up for him,whereas bAbiathar asked andan answer bdid not rise up for him, asit bis stated: “And Abiathar went up”(II Samuel 15:24), and he was removed from serving as the High Priest as a result., bRabba bar Shmuel raises an objection:The verse states concerning Uzziah: b“And he set himself to seek God in the days of Zechariah, who had an understanding of the vision of God”(II Chronicles 26:5). bWhat, isthe verse bnotstating that Uzziah would seek God by asking questions bofthe iUrim VeTummim /i,despite the fact that he lived after the time of Solomon? The Gemara rejects this claim: bNo,he would seek God by asking questions bofthe bprophets,but not of the iUrim VeTummim /i.,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof from a ibaraita( iTosefta13:2) with regard to when the iUrim VeTummimceased: bFromthe time bwhen the First Temple was destroyed, the cities with fieldsthat were allocated to the Levites bwere nullified, and the iUrim VeTummimceased, and the monarchy ceased from the house of David. /b, bAnd if a person would whisper to you sayingthat the iUrim VeTummimwas still extant, as it states with regard to when the Second Temple first stood: b“And the Tirshatha said to them that they should not eat of the most sacred things, until there stood a priest with the iUrim VeTummim /i”(Ezra 2:63), which seems to indicate that they merely had to wait until the Second Temple was built for the reappearance of the iUrim VeTummim /i; you should bsay to himthat this is not referring to an expectation of a short-term development, but it is blike a person who says to his friend,with regard to something that will occur in the distant future: bUntil the dead live and the Messiah,the bson of David, comes.In any case, the ibaraitaindicates that the iUrim VeTummimceased only from the time when the First Temple was destroyed, and not in the time of Solomon., bRather, Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Whoare bthe early prophets,with regard to whom it states that use of the iUrim VeTummimceased immediately after their death? This term early prophets serves bto exclude Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi,who barethe blatter prophets.The iUrim VeTummimwas used throughout the First Temple period, up to, but not including, their time. bAs the Sages taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta13:3): bFromthe time bwhen Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi died the Divine Spirit departed from the Jewish people,as these three were considered to be the last prophets. bAndeven after the Urim VeTummim ceased to exist, they would bneverthelessstill bmake use of a Divine Voiceto receive instructions from Above, even after this time., bFor on one occasionthe Sages bwere reclining in the upper story of the house of Gurya in Jericho. A Divine Voice from Heaven was issued to them, and it said: There is one person among youfor bwhom it is fitting that the Divine Presence should rest upon himas a prophet, bbut his generation is not fit for it;they do not deserve to have a prophet among them. The Sages present bdirected their gaze to Hillel the Elder. And when he died, they eulogized himin the following manner: bAlas pious one, alas humble one, student of Ezra. /b, bAnd again, on another occasionseveral generations later, the Sages bwere reclining in an upper storyof a house bin Yavne,and ba Divine Voice from Heaven was issued to them, and said: There is one person among youfor bwhom it is fitting that the Divine Presence should rest upon him, but his generation is not fit for it.The Sages present bdirected their gaze to Shmuel HaKatan. And when he died, they eulogized himin the following manner: bAlas humble one, alas pious one, student of Hillel. /b, bAnd he too,Shmuel HaKatan, bsaidthe following statement of divinely inspired prediction bat the time of his death: Shimon,i.e., Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, band Yishmael,i.e., Rabbi Yishmael ben Elisha the High Priest, are slated bfor the sword, and their colleagues for killing, and the rest of the people for plunder, and great troubles are destined to befall the people.The Gemara relates: bAnd they also sought to say about Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava,when eulogizing him: bAlas pious one, alas humble one, but the moment was disturbedand they could not do so. That is because beulogies are not given for those killed by the monarchy,which was Rabbi Yehuda ben Baba’s fate, in order not to arouse the monarchy’s wrath.,§ The mishna taught: bFromthe time bwhen theFirst bTemple was destroyed the ishamirceasedto exist. bThe Sages taught:This ishamir /iis the creature bwith which Solomon built the Temple, as it is stated: “For the house, when it was built, was built of whole stone from the quarry”(I Kings 6:7). Now bthese wordsshould be understood exactly bas they are written,that King Solomon took whole stones and shaped them by having the ishamirdo the cutting. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Yehuda. /b, bRabbi Neḥemya said to him: And is it possible to say so? But isn’t it already stated: “All these were costly stones,according to the measures of hewn stones, bsawed with saws”(II Kings 7:9), which indicates that saws, which are iron implements, were used to shape the stones? bIf so, whatis the meaning when bthe verse states:“And hammer, ax, and any tool of iron bwere not heard in the house when it was being built”(I Kings 6:7)? It means bthat he would preparethe stones boutsidethe Temple Mount using tools, band bringthem binsidealready cut, so that no iron tools were used inside the Temple itself. bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: The statement of Rabbi Yehudathat no iron tools were used bappearsto be correct bwith regard to the Temple stones, and the statement of Rabbi Neḥemyathat tools were used appears to be correct bwith regard to the stones of theking’s own bhouse. /b,The Gemara poses a question: bAndaccording to bRabbi Neḥemya,who maintains that they used iron tools even in the cutting of the stones for the Temple, bfor whatpurpose bdid the ishamircome?The Gemara answers: bItwas bnecessary for that which is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThese stonesin the breastplate and ephod, upon which were inscribed the names of the tribes, bthey may not be written on with ink, because it is stated: “Like the engravings of a signet”(Exodus 28:21), which means the names must be engraved onto the stones. bAnd they may not be scratched on with a scalpel [ iizemel /i], because it is stated: “In their full settings”(Exodus 28:20), indicating that the stones must be complete and not missing any of their mass.,The ibaraitacontinues: bRather,one bwritesthe letters bon them in ink, and shows them,i.e., he places the ishamir /iclose to the ink markings bfrom outside,without having it touch the stones, band they splitopen along the lines of the ink bof their own accord, like this fig that splits in the summer without losing anythingof its mass, band like thisfield in ba valley that cracks in the rainy season without losing anythingof its mass. The ishamirwas used in this way for these engravings., bThe Sages taught: This ishamir /i, its size is that of a barleycorn, and it was created in the six days of creation, and nothing hard can withstand it. In what is it kept,so that it will not break everything in the vicinity? bThey wrap it in tufts [ isefogin /i] of wool and place it in a leaden vessel [ iitenei /i], full of barley bran,which is soft and will not be broken by the ishamir /i.,§ bRabbi Ami says: Fromthe time bwhen the First Temple was destroyed, shiny [ iperanda /i] silk [ ishira /i] and white glass ceasedto exist. bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bFromthe time bwhen the First Temple was destroyed, shiny silk, white glass, and iron chariots ceased; and some saythat beven congealed wine that comes from Senir,the Hermon, bwhich is similar to round fig cakesafter it congeals, ceased to exist as well.,The mishna taught: bAndthe bsweetness of the honeycomb [ inofet tzufim /i]also ceased when the First Temple was destroyed. The Gemara asks: bWhatis inofet tzufim /i? Rav says: Fine flour that floatsup and remains bon the top of the sieve [ inafa /i], which is similarin taste bto dough kneaded with honey and oil. And Levi saysthat inofet tzufimis the term for btwo loaves stuck together in an oven, which keep swelling until they reach each other. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: This is honey that comes from elevated areas [ itzipiyya /i].The Gemara explains: bFrom where mayit bbe inferredthat this is what inofet tzufimis? bAs Rav Sheshet would translatethe words: “As the bees do” (Deuteronomy 1:44): bLike the bees spread out and fly all over the world and bring honey from mountainous plants.Similarly, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi states that honey comes from elevated areas., bWe learnedin a mishna bthere( iMakhshirin5:9): bAnything that is pouredremains britually pure.In other words, even if a liquid is poured into a ritually impure utensil, the stream of the liquid does not defile the contents that remain in the ritually pure utensil from which they were poured, bapart from izifimhoney and waferbatter. These substances are too viscous to be considered liquids. The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of izifim /i? Rabbi Yoḥa says: Honeyof such rare quality that btheycould bfalsify [ imezayyefin /i] it,by diluting it with other substances, and it would not be noticed. bAnd Reish Lakish says:It is named bafter its place, as it is written: “Ziph and Telem and Bealoth”(Joshua 15:24)., bSimilarly, youcan bsaywith regard to the verse: b“When the izifimcame and said to Saul, does not Davidhide himself with us” (Psalms 54:2). bWhat isthe meaning of izifim /i,mentioned in this verse? bRabbi Yoḥa says:It means bpeople whowould bfalsify [ ihamzayyefin /i] their words. And Rabbi Elazar says:They are called bafter their place, as it is written: “Ziph and Telem and Bealoth.” /b,§ The mishna states that from the time when the Second Temple was destroyed bmen of faith ceased. Rabbi Yitzḥak says: These are people who believe in the Holy One, Blessed be He,and place their trust in Him in all their ways. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer the Great saysthat bwhoever has bread in his basketto eat today band says: What shall I eat tomorrow,meaning he does not know how he will acquire bread for tomorrow, bhe is nothing otherthan bfrom those of little faith.One must trust in God to provide him with his sustece., bAnd this is what Rabbi Elazar said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “For who plunders the day of small things”(Zechariah 4:10)? bWhat caused the table,i.e., the reward, bof the righteous to be plundered,meaning wasted, bin the future?It was bthesmall-mindedness bthey possessed.And what is this small-mindedness? bThat they did not believe in the Holy One, Blessed be He,with a complete faith. bRava said:Who plunders the day of small things? bThese are the small children of the wicked ones of the Jewish people,who die young
43. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 9.27.1 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

44. Anon., Numbers Rabba, 20.23 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

20.23. וַיָּחֶל הָעָם לִזְנוֹת אֶל בְּנוֹת מוֹאָב (במדבר כה, א), בּוֹא וּרְאֵה מַה כְּתִיב בִּיצִיאָתָן מִמִּצְרַיִם (שמות יד, ב): דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיָשֻׁבוּ וְיַחֲנוּ לִפְנֵי פִּי הַחִירֹת, מַהוּ פִּי הַחִירֹת, מָקוֹם קָבוּעַ לִזְנוּת הָיָה, וּלְפִי שֶׁהִצְנִיעוּ עַצְמָן בִּיצִיאָתָן מִמִּצְרַיִם נִקְרָא פִּי הַחִירֹת, וְאֵלּוּ שֶׁהִפְקִירוּ עַצְמָן לַאֲנָשִׁים, כְּתִיב: וַיָּחֶל הָעָם לִזְנוֹת, וַיָּחֶל הָעָם, כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר הָעָם, לְשׁוֹן גְּנַאי הוּא, וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר יִשְׂרָאֵל, לְשׁוֹן שֶׁבַח הוּא, (במדבר יא, א): וַיְהִי הָעָם כְּמִתְאֹנְנִים. (במדבר כא, ה): וַיְדַבֵּר הָעָם בֵּאלֹהִים וּבְמשֶׁה. (במדבר יד, א): וַיִּבְכּוּ הָעָם בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא. (במדבר יד, יא): עַד אָנָה יְנַאֲצֻנִי הָעָם. (שמות לב, כה): וַיַּרְא משֶׁה אֶת הָעָם כִּי פָרֻעַ הוּא. (שמות לב, א): וַיִּקָּהֵל הָעָם עַל אַהֲרֹן, וְכֵן כֻּלָּם. וַיָּחֶל הָעָם לִזְנוֹת, זְרֹק מַטֶּה לָאֲוִיר לְעִקָּרוֹ נוֹפֵל, מִי שֶׁפָּתַח בִּזְנוּת תְּחִלָּה, הִשְּׁלִים לְבַסּוֹף, אִמּוֹתֵיהֶם הִתְחִילוּ בְּזִמָּה (בראשית יט, לא לד): וַתֹּאמֶר הַבְּכִירָה אֶל הַצְּעִירָה, לְכָה נַשְׁקֶה אֶת אָבִינוּ יַיִן וְנִשְׁכְּבָה, וַיְהִי מִמָּחֳרָת וַתֹּאמֶר הַבְּכִירָה אֶל הַצְּעִירָה הֵן שָׁכַבְתִּי אֱמֶשׁ, לִמְּדַתָּה אֲחוֹתָהּ, וּלְפִיכָךְ חָסַךְ הַכָּתוּב עַל הַצְּעִירָה וְלֹא פֵּרְשָׁהּ, אֶלָּא (בראשית יט, לה): וַתִּשְׁכַּב עִמּוֹ, וּבַגְּדוֹלָה כְּתִיב (בראשית יט, לג): וַתִּשְׁכַּב אֶת אָבִיהָ. אוֹתָהּ שֶׁפָּתְחָה בִּזְּנוּת תְּחִלָּה הִשְׁלִימוּ בְּנוֹתֶיהָ אַחֲרֶיהָ לִזְנוֹת אֶל בְּנוֹת מוֹאָב. (במדבר כה, ב): וַתִּקְרֶאןָ לָעָם לְזִבְחֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶן, שֶׁהָלְכוּ בַּעֲצָתוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר לא, טז): הֵן הֵנָּה הָיוּ לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּדְבַר בִּלְעָם לִמְסָר מַעַל בַּה'. עָשׂוּ לָהֶם קְלָעִים וְהוֹשִׁיבוּ בָּהֶם זוֹנוֹת וּבִידֵיהֶן כָּל כְּלֵי חֶמְדָה, וְהָיְתָה זְקֵנָה יוֹשֶׁבֶת מִבַּחוּץ וּמְשַׁמֶּרֶת לַיַּלְדָה שֶׁהָיְתָה לִפְנִים מִן הַחֲנוּת, כְּשֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל עוֹבְרִין לִטֹּל חֵפֶץ בַּשּׁוּק זְקֵנָה אוֹמֶרֶת לוֹ בָּחוּר אִי אַתָּה רוֹצֶה כְּלִי פִּשְׁתָּן שֶׁבָּא מִבֵּית שְׁאָן, וְהָיְתָה מַרְאָה לוֹ וְאוֹמֶרֶת לוֹ הִכָּנֵס לִפְנִים וְתִרְאֶה חֲפָצִים נָאִים, הַזְּקֵנָה אוֹמֶרֶת לוֹ בְּיוֹתֵר, וְיַלְדָה בְּפָחוֹת, מִכָּאן וָאֵילָךְ אוֹמֶרֶת לוֹ יַלְדָה הֲרֵי אַתָּה כְּבֶן בַּיִת שֵׁב בְּרֹר לְעַצְמְךָ, וְצַרְצוּר יַיִן מֻנָּח אֶצְלָהּ וַעֲדַיִן לֹא נֶאֱסַר יַיִן שֶׁל גּוֹיִם, נַעֲרָה יוֹצְאָה מְקֻשֶּׁטֶת וּמְבֻסֶּמֶת וּמְפַתָּה אוֹתוֹ וְאוֹמֶרֶת לוֹ לָמָּה אָנוּ אוֹהֲבִין אֶתְכֶם וְאַתֶּם שׂוֹנְאִין אוֹתָנוּ, טֹל לְךָ כְּלִי זֶה חִנָּם, הֲלוֹא (בראשית מב, יא): כֻּלָּנוּ בְּנֵי אִישׁ אֶחָד, בְּנֵי תֶּרַח אֲבִי אַבְרָהָם, אֵין אַתֶּם רוֹצִים לֶאֱכֹל מִזִּבְחוֹתֵינוּ וּמִבִּשׁוּלֵינוּ, הֲרֵי לָנוּ עֲגָלִים וְתַרְנְגוֹלִים שַׁחֲטוּ כְּמִצְוַתְכֶם וְאִכְלוּ, מִיָּד מַשְׁקַתּוּ הַיַּיִן וּבוֹעֵר בּוֹ הַשָֹּׂטָן, הָיָה נִשְׂטֶה אַחֲרֶיהָ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (הושע ד, יא): זְנוּת וְיַיִן וְתִירוֹשׁ יִקַּח לֵב, וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים בִּלְעָם צִוָּה אוֹתָם שֶׁלֹא לְהַשְׁקוֹתָם, שֶׁלֹא יִדּוֹנוּ כִּשְׁתוּיֵי יַיִן אֶלָּא כִּמְזִידִין. כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיָה תּוֹבְעָהּ אוֹמֶרֶת לוֹ אֵינִי נִשְׁמַעַת לָךְ עַד שֶׁתִּשְׁחַט זֶה לִפְעוֹר וְתִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לוֹ, וְהוּא אוֹמֵר לַעֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים אֵינִי מִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה, וְאוֹמֶרֶת לוֹ אֵין אַתָּה אֶלָּא כִּמְגַלֶּה עַצְמְךָ, וְהוּא נִשְׂטֶה אַחֲרֶיהָ וְעוֹשֶׂה כֵן. זוֹ שֶׁאָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים הַפּוֹעֵר עַצְמוֹ לְבַעַל פְּעוֹר זוֹ הִיא עֲבוֹדָתוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר כה, ב): וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶן, וַיִּצָּמֶד יִשְׂרָאֵל לְבַעַל פְּעוֹר (במדבר כה, ג), בַּתְּחִלָּה הָיוּ נִכְנָסִין בְּצִנְעָה, וּלְבַסּוֹף נִכְנָסִין צְמִידִים צְמִידִים, זוּגוֹת, כְּעִנְיָן שֶׁל צֶמֶד בָּקָר. דָּבָר אַחֵר, כְּאָדָם צָמִיד בִּמְלַאכְתּוֹ, וַיִּצָּמֶד, כִּצְמִידִים עַל יָדֶיהָ, רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר זוֹ גְזֵרָה קָשָׁה מִן הָעֵגֶל, דְּאִלּוּ בָּעֵגֶל כְּתִיב (שמות לב, ב): פָּרְקוּ נִזְמֵי הַזָּהָב, וּבְכָאן, וַיִּצָּמֶד, כִּצְמִידִים. בָּעֵגֶל נָפְלוּ שְׁלשֶׁת אֲלָפִים, וְכָאן עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה אֶלֶף. (במדבר כה, ד): וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל משֶׁה קַח אֶת כָּל רָאשֵׁי הָעָם וְהוֹקַע אֹתָם, רַבִּי יוּדָן אָמַר רָאשֵׁי הָעָם תָּלָה עַל שֶׁלֹא מִיחוּ בִּבְנֵי אָדָם. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר לֹא תָּלָה רָאשֵׁי הָעָם, אֶלָּא אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְמשֶׁה הוֹשֵׁב לָהֶן רָאשֵׁי סַנְהֶדְרִיּוֹת וְיִהְיוּ דָּנִים כָּל מִי שֶׁהָלַךְ לִפְעוֹר. אָמַר, מִי מוֹדִיעָן, אָמַר לוֹ אֲנִי מְפַרְסְמָן, כָּל מִי שֶׁטָּעָה הֶעָנָן סָר מֵעָלָיו וְהַשֶּׁמֶשׁ זוֹרַחַת עָלָיו בְּתוֹךְ הַקָּהָל, וְיִהְיוּ הַכֹּל יוֹדְעִין מִי שֶׁטָּעָה וְיִתְלוּ אוֹתוֹ, תֵּדַע לְךָ שֶׁהוּא כֵּן (במדבר כה, ה): וַיֹּאמֶר משֶׁה אֶל שֹׁפְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הִרְגוּ אִישׁ אֲנָשָׁיו וגו'. 20.23. 23 (Numb. 25:1) “The people began to go whoring unto the daughters of Moab.” Come and see what is written in their leaving from Egypt: (In Exodus 14:2,) “Tell the Israelites to turn back and encamp before Pi-Hahiroth (which sounds like liberty, iheiruth /i).” What is the meaning of Pi-Hahiroth? It was a place that was fixed for unchastity. And because they sheltered themselves [from it] in their leaving, it was called Pi-Hahiroth. But these [Moabite women] because they made themselves available to the people, it is written, (in Numb. 25:1), “the people began to go whoring [unto the daughters of Moab].” (Numb. 25:1) “The people began”: Every place that “the people” is mentioned, it is an expression of shame; but every place that “Israel” is mentioned, it is an expression of commendation: (In Numb. 11:1,) “Now the people were as murmurers [speaking evil in the ears of the Lord]”; (in Numb. 21:5,) “So the people spoke against God and against Moses”; (in Numb. 14:1,) “and the people wept on that night”; (in Numb. 14:11), “Until when will the people anger Me”; (in Exod. 32:25,) “And Moses saw that the people were wild”; (in Exod. 32:1,) “and the people gathered together against Aaron”; and similarly in all of them. (Numb. 25:1) “The people began to go whoring.” Throw a stick into the air, sup68 /supclass=\"footnote\"Gk.: iaer./i [and] it falls to its place of origin (i.e., its root). sup69 /supclass=\"footnote\"For this proverb in other contexts, see Gen. R. 53:15; 86:6.The one who had begun with the whoredom at first, finished with it in the end. Their matriarchs (i.e., the matriarchs of Ammon and Moab) began with whoredom (according to Gen. 19:31-34), “And the first-born said to the younger, ‘Let us give our father to drink […].’ So it came to pass on the next day that the first-born said unto the younger […].” She (the first-born) had instructed her in whoredom, and for that reason the Holy One, blessed be He, had pity on the younger and did not expose her. Rather (according to vs. 35), “and she slept with him”; but with reference to the elder, it is written (in vs. 33), “and slept with her father.” sup70 /supclass=\"footnote\"Thus in the case of the elder, her incest was specifically mentioned.In the case of the one who began in whoredom at first, her daughters (i.e., the daughters of Moab) went after her to finish [it, as stated (in Numb. 25:1), “the people began] to go whoring unto the daughters of Moab.” (Numb. 25:2) “And they invited the people to the sacrifices for their gods”: Thus they (i.e., daughters of Moab) were going by the counsel of Balaam, as stated (in Numb. 31:16), “Here these women at the bidding of Balaam made the Children of Israel.” sup71 /supclass=\"footnote\" iySanh.10:2 (28cd); iSanh.106a; iPRE47.They made themselves curtained stalls and installed harlots in them with every object of delight in their hands. Now a girl would have an old woman as an agent, for an old woman would be in front of the shop. During the time that Israel was passing by on the way to the marketplace, the woman would say to him, “Young man, surely you want objects of linen which have come from Beth-Shean!” Then she would show them to him and say to him, “Come inside and you will see fine things”; and when the old woman would tell him a high price, the girl would [give him] a lower one. From then on the girl would tell him, “You are like one of the family. Sit down and choose for yourself.” Now a jug of wine was placed by her, since the wine of gentiles had not yet been forbidden. Then out comes the girl, perfumed and adorned, and seduces him and says to him, “Why do you hate us, when we love you? Take for yourself this article gratis. We all are children of a single man, children of Terah, the father of Abraham. So do you not want to eat from our sacrifices and from our cooking? Here are calves and cocks for you; slaughter them according to your own precepts, and eat.” Immediately she has him drink the wine, and then the Satan burned within him, so that he became a fool for her, as stated (in Hosea 4:11), “Harlotry, wine and young wine sway the heart.” There are also those who say [that] Balaam commanded them not to have them drink the wine, so that they would not be judged as those who are drunk, but as willful sinners. When he sought her out, she said to him, “I am not listening to you until you slaughter it [as a sacrifice] to Peor and bow down to it.” But he would say, “I am not bowing down to idolatry.” And she would say to him, “You only need to reveal yourself to it.” And [since] he had become a fool for her, he would do so. This is what the masters said, “One who reveals himself (to defecate) to Baal Peor – this is its worship” (Sanhedrin 64a). It is so stated (Numb. 25:2), “and they bowed down to their gods.” (Numb. 25:3) “Thus Israel was joined (rt.: itsmd /i) to Baal Peor”: At the beginning, they went in chastely, but at the end they went as many teams of pairs, like a pair ( itsemed /i) of oxen. Another explanation: Like a man tied to his work; joined (rt.: itsmd /i) [to Baal Peor] like bracelets (rt.: itsmd /i). R. Levi said, “This was more serious than the [sin of the golden] calf, for while in reference to the calf, it is written (in Exod. 32:2), ‘Take off the gold rings,’ here [it is written] (in Numb. 25:3), ‘was joined (rt.: itsmd /i) [to Baal Peor,]’ like bracelets (rt.: itsmd /i)]. Because of the calf about three thousand fell, but here (according to Numb. 25:9) [the number fallen is] twenty-four thousand.” (Numb. 25:4) “[…] Take all the heads of the people, and impale them [before the Lord in the sun].” R. Judan said, “He hanged the heads of the people, because they had not protested about the people.” R. Nehemiah said, “He did not hang them. Rather the Holy One, blessed be He, said to Moses, ‘Appoint Sanhedrin sup72 /supclass=\"footnote\" iSanhedraot.Gk. plural: isynhedria./i heads for them, and let them judge whoever went to Peor.’ He said to him, ‘But who will make such a one known?’ The Holy One, blessed be He, said to him, ‘I will expose them. In the case of whoever has gone astray, the cloud shall be peeled back from upon him, and the sun shall shine upon him in the midst of the congregation. Then they will know anyone who has gone astray and hang him.’” You know for yourself that it is so, as stated (in Numb. 25:5), “So Moses said unto the judges of Israel, ‘Each of you kill [those of] his own people [who have been joined to Baal Peor].’”"
45. Anon., 3 Enoch, 16.4

46. Anon., Apocalypse of Abraham, 10.3, 19.1

47. Anon., 4 Baruch, 9.3

9.3. And he prayed a prayer, saying: Holy, holy, holy, fragrant aroma of the living trees, true light that enlightens me until I ascend to you;
48. Anon., Gospel of Peter, 10

49. Anon., Pirqe Rabbi Eliezer, 31



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 425
adversary eschatological Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 221
age, present/eschatological Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 200, 201
altar Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154, 201
alternative world Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 16
angel Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 425
angels, of retribution Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 210
angels Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 59
angelus interpres Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 202
antipas Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 200
apocalypticism Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 433
apostle, paul Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 224
apostles Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 59; Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 210
arrogance Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 163
asia minor Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 433; Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 21
babylon, destruction of Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 200
babylon, judgement of Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 202
babylon, rome Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 4
babylon, sins of Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154
babylon, the whore Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 3
babylon, whore of babylon Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 57
babylon Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 433; Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 59; Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 57; Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 163, 200, 201
balaam Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 3, 150, 154, 163
battle Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154, 221
beale, g. k. Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 22
beast, the, mark of Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 200
beast Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 57
beasts Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 202
belial Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 221
bible (hebrew bible and/or new testament) Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 128
biography (lives) Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 224
birth of noah Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 221
blood Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 202, 210
book of revelation Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 128
book of thomas the contender, catholic christianity Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 128
canon Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 59
cargo list Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 202
city Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 57
commerce, commercial Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 57
community, faithful Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 163, 198
community rule Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 221
confession Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 163
conflict, internal Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 150
conflict Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 150
crisis Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 150
crucifixion Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 224
cultural assimilation Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 163
damascus document Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 221
death Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 221; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 224
deeds Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 210
desilva, david Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 11
destruction, of rich Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 200
devotion Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 57
dirge Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 57
divine judgment Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 59
duff, paul Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 21
economic, participation Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 202
economic, system Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 163, 202
economic success Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 3
education, applications of, to address historical, religious or social issues Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 128
education, christian origins and Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 128
empire, roman Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 21
empire Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 210
endurance Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 200
epistle of enoch Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 221
eschatological admonition Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 221
eschaton Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 210
essenes Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 433
evil Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 200, 202
exile Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 150
ezekiel Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 59
ezra, sixth book of Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 433
festivals Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154
final judgment Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 57
fiorenza, e. Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 16
fire Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 202
forehead Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 202
fornication Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154, 202
friesen, steven Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 16, 21
garments Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 202
gender, masculinity Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 224
gold Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 202
golden cup Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 202
greed Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 47; Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 3
guilt Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 163
harlotry Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 202
heaven, silence in Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 201
heaven Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 202, 210, 221
hebrew bible Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 22
hostility Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 150, 221
hour of testing Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 200
idolatry Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 57
idols Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154
imperial cults Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 21
intertextuality Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 22
jeremiah Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 59
jesus Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 59
jezebel Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 3, 21, 150, 154, 163
john, author of revelation Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 57
john of patmos Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 433
judgement, final Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 211
judgement, prophetic announcement of Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 198, 211
judgment Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 57
kings, of the earth Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 202
lament, lamentation Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 57
laodicea Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 3
last trumpets sound Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 57
lukewarm Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 163
luxury Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 201
marketplace Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154
martyrdom Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 224
meat, sacrificial Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154
merchants, shippers Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 10
merchants Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 198, 211
moyise, steve Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 22
name Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 224
narrative Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 57
nature, natural phenomena, fire Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 224
nature, natural phenomena, heaven, sky Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 224
negotiation, of christians Brodd and Reed, Rome and Religion: A Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue on the Imperial Cult (2011) 148
networks, social Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154
new heavens Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 211
new testament Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 128
new testament studies, roman imperial power and Brodd and Reed, Rome and Religion: A Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue on the Imperial Cult (2011) 148
nicolaitans, the Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 150, 154
nicolaitans Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 47
obedience Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 210
obedience and disobedience Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 425
onomatopoeia Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 57
opponents of god Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 163
oppression, of righteous Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 163
oppression Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154
oracles against the nations Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 4, 198
outsiders Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 163
pain Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 224
patmos Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 150
paul Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 47
persecuted Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 163
persecution, domitianic Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 150
persecution, neronic Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 150
persecution Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 150, 200
philadelphia Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 3, 200
pity' Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 128
pleasure Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 224
poor, the, as rich Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 3
power Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 163
prayer Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 201
priest Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154
prison Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 200
prophetic, rivalry Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 150
prophets, biblical Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 201
prophets Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 210
prostitute Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 202
repentance Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 150, 221
representation Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 57
revelation, book of Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 433
rhetoric, narrative Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 224
rhetoric, second sophistic Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 224
rhetoric, topos Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 224
rhetoric Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 224
rhetorics, rhetoric Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 57
rich, the, as poor Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 3
rivalry Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 47
roman empire, conclusions on Brodd and Reed, Rome and Religion: A Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue on the Imperial Cult (2011) 148
roman empire, new testament evidence of Brodd and Reed, Rome and Religion: A Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue on the Imperial Cult (2011) 148
roman senate Brodd and Reed, Rome and Religion: A Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue on the Imperial Cult (2011) 148
rome, romans Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 128
rome Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 433; Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 47
royalty, robert Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 21
sailors Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 211
saints Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 201, 202, 210
satan Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 57; Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 202, 221
sea, seaside, seascapes Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 57
seer Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 202
self-sufficiency Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 163
senate, roman Brodd and Reed, Rome and Religion: A Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue on the Imperial Cult (2011) 148
separation Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 200, 221
seven messages Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 150, 163
ship Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 11
sinners, association with Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 163, 201
sinners, fate of Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 201
sinners, rich Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 163
smyrna Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 3; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 224
sobriquet Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154, 163
social injustice Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 150, 201
son of man Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 200
space, spatial Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 57
spatiotemporality, spatiotemporal Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 57
speech, imputed Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 4
speech, prophetic Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 198, 201
suffering, voluntary Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 221
suffering Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 150, 154, 200
summons to flight Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 198, 201, 202
taunt song Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 202
teachers, rival Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 150
teaching, false Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154
testimony Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 201
thompson, leonard Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 21
trade, maritime Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 11
trade, networks Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 10
trade guilds Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 10, 21
tradition, enochic Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154
tradition, prophetic Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 198
tyre Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 4
violence) Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 59
violence, divine violence Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 59
violence, sexual violence Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 59
violence Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 59
virtue Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 224
vision, visionary world Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 150
vision Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 57; Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 198
wealth, accumulation of Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 163, 200, 202, 210, 211
wealth, critique of Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 9
wealth, imagery Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 198
wealth, material Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 221
wealth Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 3, 9, 10, 200
whore Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 202
wine, immoral Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 202
wine Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 202
wisdom Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 163
witness Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154
woe oracles Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 198
world view Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 163, 198, 200