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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8244
New Testament, Apocalypse, 12.7


Καὶ ἐγένετο πόλεμος ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ, ὁΜιχαὴλκαὶ οἱ ἄγγελοι αὐτοῦτοῦ πολεμῆσαιμετὰ τοῦ δράκοντος. καὶ ὁ δράκων ἐπολέμησεν καὶ οἱ ἄγγελοι αὐτοῦThere was war in the sky. Michael and his angels made war on the dragon. The dragon and his angels made war.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

75 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 32.41-32.43, 34.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

32.41. אִם־שַׁנּוֹתִי בְּרַק חַרְבִּי וְתֹאחֵז בְּמִשְׁפָּט יָדִי אָשִׁיב נָקָם לְצָרָי וְלִמְשַׂנְאַי אֲשַׁלֵּם׃ 32.42. אַשְׁכִּיר חִצַּי מִדָּם וְחַרְבִּי תֹּאכַל בָּשָׂר מִדַּם חָלָל וְשִׁבְיָה מֵרֹאשׁ פַּרְעוֹת אוֹיֵב׃ 32.43. הַרְנִינוּ גוֹיִם עַמּוֹ כִּי דַם־עֲבָדָיו יִקּוֹם וְנָקָם יָשִׁיב לְצָרָיו וְכִפֶּר אַדְמָתוֹ עַמּוֹ׃ 34.3. וְאֶת־הַנֶּגֶב וְאֶת־הַכִּכָּר בִּקְעַת יְרֵחוֹ עִיר הַתְּמָרִים עַד־צֹעַר׃ 32.41. If I whet My glittering sword, And My hand take hold on judgment; I will render vengeance to Mine adversaries, And will recompense them that hate Me." 32.42. I will make Mine arrows drunk with blood, And My sword shall devour flesh; With the blood of the slain and the captives, From the long-haired heads of the enemy.’" 32.43. Sing aloud, O ye nations, of His people; For He doth avenge the blood of His servants, And doth render vengeance to His adversaries, And doth make expiation for the land of His people." 34.3. and the South, and the Plain, even the valley of Jericho the city of palm-trees, as far as Zoar."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 7.9-7.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.9. כִּי יְדַבֵּר אֲלֵכֶם פַּרְעֹה לֵאמֹר תְּנוּ לָכֶם מוֹפֵת וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־אַהֲרֹן קַח אֶת־מַטְּךָ וְהַשְׁלֵךְ לִפְנֵי־פַרְעֹה יְהִי לְתַנִּין׃ 7.11. וַיִּקְרָא גַּם־פַּרְעֹה לַחֲכָמִים וְלַמְכַשְּׁפִים וַיַּעֲשׂוּ גַם־הֵם חַרְטֻמֵּי מִצְרַיִם בְּלַהֲטֵיהֶם כֵּן׃ 7.12. וַיַּשְׁלִיכוּ אִישׁ מַטֵּהוּ וַיִּהְיוּ לְתַנִּינִם וַיִּבְלַע מַטֵּה־אַהֲרֹן אֶת־מַטֹּתָם׃ 7.9. ’When Pharaoh shall speak unto you, saying: Show a wonder for you; then thou shalt say unto Aaron: Take thy rod, and cast it down before Pharaoh, that it become a serpent.’" 7.10. And Moses and Aaron went in unto Pharaoh, and they did so, as the LORD had commanded; and Aaron cast down his rod before Pharaoh and before his servants, and it became a serpent." 7.11. Then Pharaoh also called for the wise men and the sorcerers; and they also, the magicians of Egypt, did in like manner with their secret arts." 7.12. For they cast down every man his rod, and they became serpents; but Aaron’s rod swallowed up their rods."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.26-1.27, 6.1-6.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 6.1. וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃ 6.1. וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 6.2. וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃ 6.2. מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃ 6.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃ 6.4. הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃ 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 6.1. And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them," 6.2. that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose." 6.3. And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’" 6.4. The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown."
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 13.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

13.6. כְּמַרְעִיתָם וַיִּשְׂבָּעוּ שָׂבְעוּ וַיָּרָם לִבָּם עַל־כֵּן שְׁכֵחוּנִי׃ 13.6. When they were fed, they became full, They were filled, and their heart was exalted; Therefore have they forgotten Me."
5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 7.12, 40.25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.12. הֲ‍יָם־אָנִי אִם־תַּנִּין כִּי־תָשִׂים עָלַי מִשְׁמָר׃ 40.25. תִּמְשֹׁךְ לִוְיָתָן בְּחַכָּה וּבְחֶבֶל תַּשְׁקִיעַ לְשֹׁנוֹ׃ 7.12. Am I a sea, or a sea-monster, That Thou settest a watch over me?" 40.25. Canst thou draw out leviathan with a fish-hook? Or press down his tongue with a cord?"
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 26.7-26.8, 26.25, 26.33 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

26.7. וּרְדַפְתֶּם אֶת־אֹיְבֵיכֶם וְנָפְלוּ לִפְנֵיכֶם לֶחָרֶב 26.8. וְרָדְפוּ מִכֶּם חֲמִשָּׁה מֵאָה וּמֵאָה מִכֶּם רְבָבָה יִרְדֹּפוּ וְנָפְלוּ אֹיְבֵיכֶם לִפְנֵיכֶם לֶחָרֶב׃ 26.25. וְהֵבֵאתִי עֲלֵיכֶם חֶרֶב נֹקֶמֶת נְקַם־בְּרִית וְנֶאֱסַפְתֶּם אֶל־עָרֵיכֶם וְשִׁלַּחְתִּי דֶבֶר בְּתוֹכְכֶם וְנִתַּתֶּם בְּיַד־אוֹיֵב׃ 26.33. וְאֶתְכֶם אֱזָרֶה בַגּוֹיִם וַהֲרִיקֹתִי אַחֲרֵיכֶם חָרֶב וְהָיְתָה אַרְצְכֶם שְׁמָמָה וְעָרֵיכֶם יִהְיוּ חָרְבָּה׃ 26.7. And ye shall chase your enemies, and they shall fall before you by the sword." 26.8. And five of you shall chase a hundred, and a hundred of you shall chase ten thousand; and your enemies shall fall before you by the sword." 26.25. And I will bring a sword upon you, that shall execute the vengeance of the covet; and ye shall be gathered together within your cities; and I will send the pestilence among you; and ye shall be delivered into the hand of the enemy." 26.33. And you will I scatter among the nations, and I will draw out the sword after you; and your land shall be a desolation, and your cities shall be a waste."
7. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 5.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.6. וְהָיָה שְׁאֵרִית יַעֲקֹב בְּקֶרֶב עַמִּים רַבִּים כְּטַל מֵאֵת יְהוָה כִּרְבִיבִים עֲלֵי־עֵשֶׂב אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יְקַוֶּה לְאִישׁ וְלֹא יְיַחֵל לִבְנֵי אָדָם׃ 5.6. And the remt of Jacob shall be in the midst of many peoples, As dew from the LORD, as showers upon the grass, That are not looked for from man, Nor awaited at the hands of the sons of men."
8. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 21.6-21.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.6. וַיְשַׁלַּח יְהוָה בָּעָם אֵת הַנְּחָשִׁים הַשְּׂרָפִים וַיְנַשְּׁכוּ אֶת־הָעָם וַיָּמָת עַם־רָב מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃ 21.7. וַיָּבֹא הָעָם אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמְרוּ חָטָאנוּ כִּי־דִבַּרְנוּ בַיהוָה וָבָךְ הִתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־יְהוָה וְיָסֵר מֵעָלֵינוּ אֶת־הַנָּחָשׁ וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל מֹשֶׁה בְּעַד הָעָם׃ 21.8. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עֲשֵׂה לְךָ שָׂרָף וְשִׂים אֹתוֹ עַל־נֵס וְהָיָה כָּל־הַנָּשׁוּךְ וְרָאָה אֹתוֹ וָחָי׃ 21.9. וַיַּעַשׂ מֹשֶׁה נְחַשׁ נְחֹשֶׁת וַיְשִׂמֵהוּ עַל־הַנֵּס וְהָיָה אִם־נָשַׁךְ הַנָּחָשׁ אֶת־אִישׁ וְהִבִּיט אֶל־נְחַשׁ הַנְּחֹשֶׁת וָחָי׃ 21.6. And the LORD sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and much people of Israel died." 21.7. And the people came to Moses, and said: ‘We have sinned, because we have spoken against the LORD, and against thee; pray unto the LORD, that He take away the serpents from us.’ And Moses prayed for the people." 21.8. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole; and it shall come to pass, that every one that is bitten, when he seeth it, shall live.’" 21.9. And Moses made a serpent of brass, and set it upon the pole; and it came to pass, that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he looked unto the serpent of brass, he lived."
9. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 2.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.9. אָז תָּבִין צֶדֶק וּמִשְׁפָּט וּמֵישָׁרִים כָּל־מַעְגַּל־טוֹב׃ 2.9. Then shalt thou understand righteousness and justice, And equity, yea, every good path."
10. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 2.9, 63.10, 73.13-73.14, 74.13-74.14, 103.26, 104.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.9. תְּרֹעֵם בְּשֵׁבֶט בַּרְזֶל כִּכְלִי יוֹצֵר תְּנַפְּצֵם׃ 73.13. אַךְ־רִיק זִכִּיתִי לְבָבִי וָאֶרְחַץ בְּנִקָּיוֹן כַּפָּי׃ 73.14. וָאֱהִי נָגוּעַ כָּל־הַיּוֹם וְתוֹכַחְתִּי לַבְּקָרִים׃ 74.13. אַתָּה פוֹרַרְתָּ בְעָזְּךָ יָם שִׁבַּרְתָּ רָאשֵׁי תַנִּינִים עַל־הַמָּיִם׃ 74.14. אַתָּה רִצַּצְתָּ רָאשֵׁי לִוְיָתָן תִּתְּנֶנּוּ מַאֲכָל לְעָם לְצִיִּים׃ 104.26. שָׁם אֳנִיּוֹת יְהַלֵּכוּן לִוְיָתָן זֶה־יָצַרְתָּ לְשַׂחֶק־בּוֹ׃ 2.9. Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron; Thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel.'" 63.10. But those that seek my soul, to destroy it, Shall go into the nethermost parts of the earth." 73.13. Surely in vain have I cleansed my heart, And washed my hands in innocency;" 73.14. For all the day have I been plagued, And my chastisement came every morning." 74.13. Thou didst break the sea in pieces by Thy strength; Thou didst shatter the heads of the sea-monsters in the waters." 74.14. Thou didst crush the heads of leviathan, Thou gavest him to be food to the folk inhabiting the wilderness." 104.26. There go the ships; There is leviathan, whom Thou hast formed to sport therein."
11. Hebrew Bible, Zephaniah, 2.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.12. גַּם־אַתֶּם כּוּשִׁים חַלְלֵי חַרְבִּי הֵמָּה׃ 2.12. Ye Ethiopians also, Ye shall be slain by My sword."
12. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 10.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.9. יְהִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בָּרוּךְ אֲשֶׁר חָפֵץ בְּךָ לְתִתְּךָ עַל־כִּסֵּא יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאַהֲבַת יְהוָה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְעֹלָם וַיְשִׂימְךָ לְמֶלֶךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת מִשְׁפָּט וּצְדָקָה׃ 10.9. Blessed be the LORD thy God, who delighted in thee, to set thee on the throne of Israel; because the LORD loved Israel for ever, therefore made He thee king, to do justice and righteousness.’"
13. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 18.4 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

18.4. הוּא הֵסִיר אֶת־הַבָּמוֹת וְשִׁבַּר אֶת־הַמַּצֵּבֹת וְכָרַת אֶת־הָאֲשֵׁרָה וְכִתַּת נְחַשׁ הַנְּחֹשֶׁת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה מֹשֶׁה כִּי עַד־הַיָּמִים הָהֵמָּה הָיוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מְקַטְּרִים לוֹ וַיִּקְרָא־לוֹ נְחֻשְׁתָּן׃ 18.4. He removed the high places, and broke the pillars, and cut down the Asherah; and he broke in pieces the brazen serpent that Moses had made; for unto those days the children of Israel did offer to it; and it was called Nehushtan."
14. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 8.15 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.15. וַיִּמְלֹךְ דָּוִד עַל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיְהִי דָוִד עֹשֶׂה מִשְׁפָּט וּצְדָקָה לְכָל־עַמּוֹ׃ 8.15. And David reigned over all Yisra᾽el; and David executed judgment and justice to all his people."
15. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 4.10, 7.17, 9.1, 9.4 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

7.17. לָכֵן כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אִשְׁתְּךָ בָּעִיר תִּזְנֶה וּבָנֶיךָ וּבְנֹתֶיךָ בַּחֶרֶב יִפֹּלוּ וְאַדְמָתְךָ בַּחֶבֶל תְּחֻלָּק וְאַתָּה עַל־אֲדָמָה טְמֵאָה תָּמוּת וְיִשְׂרָאֵל גָּלֹה יִגְלֶה מֵעַל אַדְמָתוֹ׃ 9.1. רָאִיתִי אֶת־אֲדֹנָי נִצָּב עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וַיֹּאמֶר הַךְ הַכַּפְתּוֹר וְיִרְעֲשׁוּ הַסִּפִּים וּבְצַעַם בְּרֹאשׁ כֻּלָּם וְאַחֲרִיתָם בַּחֶרֶב אֶהֱרֹג לֹא־יָנוּס לָהֶם נָס וְלֹא־יִמָּלֵט לָהֶם פָּלִיט׃ 9.1. בַּחֶרֶב יָמוּתוּ כֹּל חַטָּאֵי עַמִּי הָאֹמְרִים לֹא־תַגִּישׁ וְתַקְדִּים בַּעֲדֵינוּ הָרָעָה׃ 9.4. וְאִם־יֵלְכוּ בַשְּׁבִי לִפְנֵי אֹיבֵיהֶם מִשָּׁם אֲצַוֶּה אֶת־הַחֶרֶב וַהֲרָגָתַם וְשַׂמְתִּי עֵינִי עֲלֵיהֶם לְרָעָה וְלֹא לְטוֹבָה׃ 4.10. I have sent among you the pestilence in the way of Egypt; Your young men have I slain with the sword, And have carried away your horses; And I have made the stench of your camp to come up even into your nostrils; Yet have ye not returned unto Me, Saith the LORD." 7.17. Therefore thus saith the LORD: Thy wife shall be a harlot in the city, And thy sons and thy daughters shall fall by the sword, And thy land shall be divided by line; And thou thyself shalt die in an unclean land, And Israel shall surely be led away captive out of his land.’" 9.1. I saw the Lord standing beside the altar; and He said: Smite the capitals, that the posts may shake; And break them in pieces on the head of all of them; And I will slay the residue of them with the sword; There shall not one of them flee away, And there shall not one of them escape." 9.4. And though they go into captivity before their enemies, Thence will I command the sword, and it shall slay them; And I will set Mine eyes upon them For evil, and not for good."
16. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 14.4-14.17, 27.1, 34.6, 41.2, 65.12, 66.16 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

14.4. וְנָשָׂאתָ הַמָּשָׁל הַזֶּה עַל־מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל וְאָמָרְתָּ אֵיךְ שָׁבַת נֹגֵשׂ שָׁבְתָה מַדְהֵבָה׃ 14.5. שָׁבַר יְהוָה מַטֵּה רְשָׁעִים שֵׁבֶט מֹשְׁלִים׃ 14.6. מַכֶּה עַמִּים בְּעֶבְרָה מַכַּת בִּלְתִּי סָרָה רֹדֶה בָאַף גּוֹיִם מֻרְדָּף בְּלִי חָשָׂךְ׃ 14.7. נָחָה שָׁקְטָה כָּל־הָאָרֶץ פָּצְחוּ רִנָּה׃ 14.8. גַּם־בְּרוֹשִׁים שָׂמְחוּ לְךָ אַרְזֵי לְבָנוֹן מֵאָז שָׁכַבְתָּ לֹא־יַעֲלֶה הַכֹּרֵת עָלֵינוּ׃ 14.9. שְׁאוֹל מִתַּחַת רָגְזָה לְךָ לִקְרַאת בּוֹאֶךָ עוֹרֵר לְךָ רְפָאִים כָּל־עַתּוּדֵי אָרֶץ הֵקִים מִכִּסְאוֹתָם כֹּל מַלְכֵי גוֹיִם׃ 14.11. הוּרַד שְׁאוֹל גְּאוֹנֶךָ הֶמְיַת נְבָלֶיךָ תַּחְתֶּיךָ יֻצַּע רִמָּה וּמְכַסֶּיךָ תּוֹלֵעָה׃ 14.12. אֵיךְ נָפַלְתָּ מִשָּׁמַיִם הֵילֵל בֶּן־שָׁחַר נִגְדַּעְתָּ לָאָרֶץ חוֹלֵשׁ עַל־גּוֹיִם׃ 14.13. וְאַתָּה אָמַרְתָּ בִלְבָבְךָ הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶעֱלֶה מִמַּעַל לְכוֹכְבֵי־אֵל אָרִים כִּסְאִי וְאֵשֵׁב בְּהַר־מוֹעֵד בְּיַרְכְּתֵי צָפוֹן׃ 14.14. אֶעֱלֶה עַל־בָּמֳתֵי עָב אֶדַּמֶּה לְעֶלְיוֹן׃ 14.15. אַךְ אֶל־שְׁאוֹל תּוּרָד אֶל־יַרְכְּתֵי־בוֹר׃ 14.16. רֹאֶיךָ אֵלֶיךָ יַשְׁגִּיחוּ אֵלֶיךָ יִתְבּוֹנָנוּ הֲזֶה הָאִישׁ מַרְגִּיז הָאָרֶץ מַרְעִישׁ מַמְלָכוֹת׃ 14.17. שָׂם תֵּבֵל כַּמִּדְבָּר וְעָרָיו הָרָס אֲסִירָיו לֹא־פָתַח בָּיְתָה׃ 27.1. כִּי עִיר בְּצוּרָה בָּדָד נָוֶה מְשֻׁלָּח וְנֶעֱזָב כַּמִּדְבָּר שָׁם יִרְעֶה עֵגֶל וְשָׁם יִרְבָּץ וְכִלָּה סְעִפֶיהָ׃ 27.1. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִפְקֹד יְהוָה בְּחַרְבוֹ הַקָּשָׁה וְהַגְּדוֹלָה וְהַחֲזָקָה עַל לִוְיָתָן נָחָשׁ בָּרִחַ וְעַל לִוְיָתָן נָחָשׁ עֲקַלָּתוֹן וְהָרַג אֶת־הַתַּנִּין אֲשֶׁר בַּיָּם׃ 34.6. חֶרֶב לַיהוָה מָלְאָה דָם הֻדַּשְׁנָה מֵחֵלֶב מִדַּם כָּרִים וְעַתּוּדִים מֵחֵלֶב כִּלְיוֹת אֵילִים כִּי זֶבַח לַיהוָה בְּבָצְרָה וְטֶבַח גָּדוֹל בְּאֶרֶץ אֱדוֹם׃ 41.2. לְמַעַן יִרְאוּ וְיֵדְעוּ וְיָשִׂימוּ וְיַשְׂכִּילוּ יַחְדָּו כִּי יַד־יְהוָה עָשְׂתָה זֹּאת וּקְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּרָאָהּ׃ 41.2. מִי הֵעִיר מִמִּזְרָח צֶדֶק יִקְרָאֵהוּ לְרַגְלוֹ יִתֵּן לְפָנָיו גּוֹיִם וּמְלָכִים יַרְדְּ יִתֵּן כֶּעָפָר חַרְבּוֹ כְּקַשׁ נִדָּף קַשְׁתּוֹ׃ 65.12. וּמָנִיתִי אֶתְכֶם לַחֶרֶב וְכֻלְּכֶם לַטֶּבַח תִּכְרָעוּ יַעַן קָרָאתִי וְלֹא עֲנִיתֶם דִּבַּרְתִּי וְלֹא שְׁמַעְתֶּם וַתַּעֲשׂוּ הָרַע בְּעֵינַי וּבַאֲשֶׁר לֹא־חָפַצְתִּי בְּחַרְתֶּם׃ 66.16. כִּי בָאֵשׁ יְהוָה נִשְׁפָּט וּבְחַרְבּוֹ אֶת־כָּל־בָּשָׂר וְרַבּוּ חַלְלֵי יְהוָה׃ 14.4. that thou shalt take up this parable against the king of Babylon, and say: How hath the oppressor ceased! The exactress of gold ceased!" 14.5. The LORD hath broken the staff of the wicked, the sceptre of the rulers," 14.6. That smote the peoples in wrath with an incessant stroke, that ruled the nations in anger, with a persecution that none restrained." 14.7. The whole earth is at rest, and is quiet; they break forth into singing." 14.8. Yea, the cypresses rejoice at thee, and the cedars of Lebanon: ‘Since thou art laid down, no feller is come up against us.’" 14.9. The nether-world from beneath is moved for thee to meet thee at thy coming; the shades are stirred up for thee, even all the chief ones of the earth; all the kings of the nations are raised up from their thrones." 14.10. All they do answer And say unto thee: ‘Art thou also become weak as we? Art thou become like unto us?" 14.11. Thy pomp is brought down to the nether-world, And the noise of thy psalteries; the maggot is spread under thee, And the worms cover thee.’" 14.12. How art thou fallen from heaven, O day-star, son of the morning! How art thou cut down to the ground, That didst cast lots over the nations!" 14.13. And thou saidst in thy heart: ‘I will ascend into heaven, Above the stars of God Will I exalt my throne, And I will sit upon the mount of meeting, In the uttermost parts of the north;" 14.14. I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the Most High.’" 14.15. Yet thou shalt be brought down to the nether-world, To the uttermost parts of the pit." 14.16. They that saw thee do narrowly look upon thee, They gaze earnestly at thee: ‘Is this the man that made the earth to tremble, That did shake kingdoms;" 14.17. That made the world as a wilderness, And destroyed the cities thereof; That opened not the house of his prisoners?’" 27.1. In that day the LORD with his sore and great and strong sword will punish leviathan the slant serpent, and leviathan the tortuous serpent; and He will slay the dragon that is in the sea." 34.6. The sword of the LORD is filled with blood, It is made fat with fatness, With the blood of lambs and goats, With the fat of the kidneys of rams; For the LORD hath a sacrifice in Bozrah, And a great slaughter in the land of Edom." 41.2. Who hath raised up one from the east, At whose steps victory attendeth? He giveth nations before him, And maketh him rule over kings; His sword maketh them as the dust, His bow as the driven stubble." 65.12. I will destine you to the sword, and ye shall all bow down to the slaughter; because when I called, ye did not answer, when I spoke, ye did not hear; But ye did that which was evil in Mine eyes, And chose that wherein I delighted not." 66.16. For by fire will the LORD contend, And by His sword with all flesh; And the slain of the LORD shall be many."
17. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 9.16, 11.22, 12.12, 14.12, 14.15-14.16, 15.2-15.3, 18.21, 20.4, 21.7, 21.9, 22.3, 23.5, 24.10, 25.16, 25.27, 25.29, 25.31, 32.36, 38.2, 42.16-42.17, 42.22, 44.13, 44.27, 46.10, 50.36-50.37 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9.16. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת הִתְבּוֹנְנוּ וְקִרְאוּ לַמְקוֹנְנוֹת וּתְבוֹאֶינָה וְאֶל־הַחֲכָמוֹת שִׁלְחוּ וְתָבוֹאנָה׃ 11.22. לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת הִנְנִי פֹקֵד עֲלֵיהֶם הַבַּחוּרִים יָמֻתוּ בַחֶרֶב בְּנֵיהֶם וּבְנוֹתֵיהֶם יָמֻתוּ בָּרָעָב׃ 12.12. עַל־כָּל־שְׁפָיִם בַּמִּדְבָּר בָּאוּ שֹׁדְדִים כִּי חֶרֶב לַיהוָה אֹכְלָה מִקְצֵה־אֶרֶץ וְעַד־קְצֵה הָאָרֶץ אֵין שָׁלוֹם לְכָל־בָּשָׂר׃ 14.12. כִּי יָצֻמוּ אֵינֶנִּי שֹׁמֵעַ אֶל־רִנָּתָם וְכִי יַעֲלוּ עֹלָה וּמִנְחָה אֵינֶנִּי רֹצָם כִּי בַּחֶרֶב וּבָרָעָב וּבַדֶּבֶר אָנֹכִי מְכַלֶּה אוֹתָם׃ 14.15. לָכֵן כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה עַל־הַנְּבִאִים הַנִּבְּאִים בִּשְׁמִי וַאֲנִי לֹא־שְׁלַחְתִּים וְהֵמָּה אֹמְרִים חֶרֶב וְרָעָב לֹא יִהְיֶה בָּאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת בַּחֶרֶב וּבָרָעָב יִתַּמּוּ הַנְּבִאִים הָהֵמָּה׃ 14.16. וְהָעָם אֲשֶׁר־הֵמָּה נִבְּאִים לָהֶם יִהְיוּ מֻשְׁלָכִים בְּחֻצוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַם מִפְּנֵי הָרָעָב וְהַחֶרֶב וְאֵין מְקַבֵּר לָהֵמָּה הֵמָּה נְשֵׁיהֶם וּבְנֵיהֶם וּבְנֹתֵיהֶם וְשָׁפַכְתִּי עֲלֵיהֶם אֶת־רָעָתָם׃ 15.2. וּנְתַתִּיךָ לָעָם הַזֶּה לְחוֹמַת נְחֹשֶׁת בְּצוּרָה וְנִלְחֲמוּ אֵלֶיךָ וְלֹא־יוּכְלוּ לָךְ כִּי־אִתְּךָ אֲנִי לְהוֹשִׁיעֲךָ וּלְהַצִּילֶךָ נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 15.2. וְהָיָה כִּי־יֹאמְרוּ אֵלֶיךָ אָנָה נֵצֵא וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לַמָּוֶת לַמָּוֶת וַאֲשֶׁר לַחֶרֶב לַחֶרֶב וַאֲשֶׁר לָרָעָב לָרָעָב וַאֲשֶׁר לַשְּׁבִי לַשֶּׁבִי׃ 15.3. וּפָקַדְתִּי עֲלֵיהֶם אַרְבַּע מִשְׁפָּחוֹת נְאֻם־יְהוָה אֶת־הַחֶרֶב לַהֲרֹג וְאֶת־הַכְּלָבִים לִסְחֹב וְאֶת־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־בֶּהֱמַת הָאָרֶץ לֶאֱכֹל וּלְהַשְׁחִית׃ 18.21. לָכֵן תֵּן אֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם לָרָעָב וְהַגִּרֵם עַל־יְדֵי־חֶרֶב וְתִהְיֶנָה נְשֵׁיהֶם שַׁכֻּלוֹת וְאַלְמָנוֹת וְאַנְשֵׁיהֶם יִהְיוּ הֲרֻגֵי מָוֶת בַּחוּרֵיהֶם מֻכֵּי־חֶרֶב בַּמִּלְחָמָה׃ 20.4. כִּי כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה הִנְנִי נֹתֶנְךָ לְמָגוֹר לְךָ וּלְכָל־אֹהֲבֶיךָ וְנָפְלוּ בְּחֶרֶב אֹיְבֵיהֶם וְעֵינֶיךָ רֹאוֹת וְאֶת־כָּל־יְהוּדָה אֶתֵּן בְּיַד מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל וְהִגְלָם בָּבֶלָה וְהִכָּם בֶּחָרֶב׃ 21.7. וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן נְאֻם־יְהוָה אֶתֵּן אֶת־צִדְקִיָּהוּ מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה וְאֶת־עֲבָדָיו וְאֶת־הָעָם וְאֶת־הַנִּשְׁאָרִים בָּעִיר הַזֹּאת מִן־הַדֶּבֶר מִן־הַחֶרֶב וּמִן־הָרָעָב בְּיַד נְבוּכַדְרֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל וּבְיַד אֹיְבֵיהֶם וּבְיַד מְבַקְשֵׁי נַפְשָׁם וְהִכָּם לְפִי־חֶרֶב לֹא־יָחוּס עֲלֵיהֶם וְלֹא יַחְמֹל וְלֹא יְרַחֵם׃ 21.9. הַיֹּשֵׁב בָּעִיר הַזֹּאת יָמוּת בַּחֶרֶב וּבָרָעָב וּבַדָּבֶר וְהַיּוֹצֵא וְנָפַל עַל־הַכַּשְׂדִּים הַצָּרִים עֲלֵיכֶם יחיה [וְחָיָה] וְהָיְתָה־לּוֹ נַפְשׁוֹ לְשָׁלָל׃ 22.3. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה כִּתְבוּ אֶת־הָאִישׁ הַזֶּה עֲרִירִי גֶּבֶר לֹא־יִצְלַח בְּיָמָיו כִּי לֹא יִצְלַח מִזַּרְעוֹ אִישׁ יֹשֵׁב עַל־כִּסֵּא דָוִד וּמֹשֵׁל עוֹד בִּיהוּדָה׃ 22.3. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה עֲשׂוּ מִשְׁפָּט וּצְדָקָה וְהַצִּילוּ גָזוּל מִיַּד עָשׁוֹק וְגֵר יָתוֹם וְאַלְמָנָה אַל־תֹּנוּ אַל־תַּחְמֹסוּ וְדָם נָקִי אַל־תִּשְׁפְּכוּ בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 23.5. הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה וַהֲקִמֹתִי לְדָוִד צֶמַח צַדִּיק וּמָלַךְ מֶלֶךְ וְהִשְׂכִּיל וְעָשָׂה מִשְׁפָּט וּצְדָקָה בָּאָרֶץ׃ 25.16. וְשָׁתוּ וְהִתְגֹּעֲשׁוּ וְהִתְהֹלָלוּ מִפְּנֵי הַחֶרֶב אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי שֹׁלֵחַ בֵּינֹתָם׃ 25.27. וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁתוּ וְשִׁכְרוּ וּקְיוּ וְנִפְלוּ וְלֹא תָקוּמוּ מִפְּנֵי הַחֶרֶב אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי שֹׁלֵחַ בֵּינֵיכֶם׃ 25.29. כִּי הִנֵּה בָעִיר אֲשֶׁר נִקְרָא־שְׁמִי עָלֶיהָ אָנֹכִי מֵחֵל לְהָרַע וְאַתֶּם הִנָּקֵה תִנָּקוּ לֹא תִנָּקוּ כִּי חֶרֶב אֲנִי קֹרֵא עַל־כָּל־יֹשְׁבֵי הָאָרֶץ נְאֻם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 25.31. בָּא שָׁאוֹן עַד־קְצֵה הָאָרֶץ כִּי רִיב לַיהוָה בַּגּוֹיִם נִשְׁפָּט הוּא לְכָל־בָּשָׂר הָרְשָׁעִים נְתָנָם לַחֶרֶב נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 32.36. וְעַתָּה לָכֵן כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־הָעִיר הַזֹּאת אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם אֹמְרִים נִתְּנָה בְּיַד מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל בַּחֶרֶב וּבָרָעָב וּבַדָּבֶר׃ 38.2. וַיֹּאמֶר יִרְמְיָהוּ לֹא יִתֵּנוּ שְׁמַע־נָא בְּקוֹל יְהוָה לַאֲשֶׁר אֲנִי דֹּבֵר אֵלֶיךָ וְיִיטַב לְךָ וּתְחִי נַפְשֶׁךָ׃ 38.2. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה הַיֹּשֵׁב בָּעִיר הַזֹּאת יָמוּת בַּחֶרֶב בָּרָעָב וּבַדָּבֶר וְהַיֹּצֵא אֶל־הַכַּשְׂדִּים יחיה [וְחָיָה] וְהָיְתָה־לּוֹ נַפְשׁוֹ לְשָׁלָל וָחָי׃ 42.16. וְהָיְתָה הַחֶרֶב אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם יְרֵאִים מִמֶּנָּה שָׁם תַּשִּׂיג אֶתְכֶם בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם וְהָרָעָב אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם דֹּאֲגִים מִמֶּנּוּ שָׁם יִדְבַּק אַחֲרֵיכֶם מִצְרַיִם וְשָׁם תָּמֻתוּ׃ 42.17. וְיִהְיוּ כָל־הָאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר־שָׂמוּ אֶת־פְּנֵיהֶם לָבוֹא מִצְרַיִם לָגוּר שָׁם יָמוּתוּ בַּחֶרֶב בָּרָעָב וּבַדָּבֶר וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה לָהֶם שָׂרִיד וּפָלִיט מִפְּנֵי הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מֵבִיא עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 42.22. וְעַתָּה יָדֹעַ תֵּדְעוּ כִּי בַּחֶרֶב בָּרָעָב וּבַדֶּבֶר תָּמוּתוּ בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר חֲפַצְתֶּם לָבוֹא לָגוּר שָׁם׃ 44.13. וּפָקַדְתִּי עַל הַיּוֹשְׁבִים בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם כַּאֲשֶׁר פָּקַדְתִּי עַל־יְרוּשָׁלִָם בַּחֶרֶב בָּרָעָב וּבַדָּבֶר׃ 44.27. הִנְנִי שֹׁקֵד עֲלֵיהֶם לְרָעָה וְלֹא לְטוֹבָה וְתַמּוּ כָל־אִישׁ יְהוּדָה אֲשֶׁר בְּאֶרֶץ־מִצְרַיִם בַּחֶרֶב וּבָרָעָב עַד־כְּלוֹתָם׃ 50.36. חֶרֶב אֶל־הַבַּדִּים וְנֹאָלוּ חֶרֶב אֶל־גִּבּוֹרֶיהָ וָחָתּוּ׃ 50.37. חֶרֶב אֶל־סוּסָיו וְאֶל־רִכְבּוֹ וְאֶל־כָּל־הָעֶרֶב אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכָהּ וְהָיוּ לְנָשִׁים חֶרֶב אֶל־אוֹצְרֹתֶיהָ וּבֻזָּזוּ׃ 9.16. Thus saith the LORD of hosts: Consider ye, and call for the mourning women, that they may come; and send for the wise women, that they may come;" 11.22. therefore thus saith the LORD of hosts: Behold, I will punish them; The young men shall die by the sword, Their sons and their daughters shall die by famine;" 12.12. Upon all the high hills in the wilderness spoilers are come; for the sword of the LORD devoureth from the one end of the land even to the other end of the land, no flesh hath peace." 14.12. When they fast, I will not hear their cry; and when they offer burnt-offering and meal-offering, I will not accept them; but I will consume them by the sword, and by the famine, and by the pestilence.’" 14.15. Therefore thus saith the LORD: As for the prophets that prophesy in My name, and I sent them not, yet they say: Sword and famine shall not be in this land, by sword and famine shall those prophets be consumed;" 14.16. and the people to whom they prophesy shall be cast out in the streets of Jerusalem because of the famine and the sword; and they shall have none to bury them, them, their wives, nor their sons, nor their daughters; for I will pour their evil upon them.’" 15.2. And it shall come to pass, when they say unto thee: Whither shall we go forth? then thou shall tell them: Thus saith the LORD: Such as are for death, to death; and such as are for the sword, to the sword; and such as are for the famine, to the famine; and such as are for captivity, to captivity." 15.3. And I will appoint over them four kinds, saith the LORD: the sword to slay, and the dogs to drag, and the fowls of the heaven, and the beasts of the earth, to devour and to destroy." 18.21. Therefore deliver up their children to the famine, And hurl them to the power of the sword; And let their wives be bereaved of their children, and widows; And let their men be slain of death, And their young men smitten of the sword in battle." 20.4. For thus saith the LORD: Behold, I will make thee a terror to thyself, and to all thy friends; and they shall fall by the sword of their enemies, and thine eyes shall behold it; and I will give all Judah into the hand of the king of Babylon, and he shall carry them captive to Babylon, and shall slay them with the sword." 21.7. And afterward, saith the LORD, I will deliver Zedekiah king of Judah, and his servants, and the people, and such as are left in this city from the pestilence, from the sword, and from the famine, into the hand of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon, and into the hand of their enemies, and into the hand of those that seek their life; and he shall smite them with the edge of the sword; he shall not spare them, neither have pity, nor have compassion." 21.9. He that abideth in this city shall die by the sword, and by the famine, and by the pestilence; but he that goeth out, and falleth away to the Chaldeans that besiege you, he shall live, and his life shall be unto him for a prey." 22.3. Thus saith the LORD: Execute ye justice and righteousness, and deliver the spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor; and do no wrong, do no violence, to the stranger, the fatherless, nor the widow, neither shed innocent blood in this place." 23.5. Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will raise unto David a righteous shoot, and he shall reign as king and prosper, and shall execute justice and righteousness in the land." 24.10. And I will send the sword, the famine, and the pestilence, among them, till they be consumed from off the land that I gave unto them and to their fathers.’" 25.16. And they shall drink, and reel to and fro, and be like madmen, because of the sword that I will send among them.—" 25.27. And thou shalt say unto them: Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: Drink ye, and be drunken, and spew, and fall, and rise no more, because of the sword which I will send among you." 25.29. For, lo, I begin to bring evil on the city whereupon My name is called, and should ye be utterly unpunished? Ye shall not be unpunished; for I will call for a sword upon all the inhabitants of the earth, saith the LORD of hosts." 25.31. A noise is come even to the end of the earth; For the LORD hath a controversy with the nations, He doth plead with all flesh; As for the wicked, He hath given them to the sword, Saith the LORD." 32.36. And now therefore thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel, concerning this city, whereof ye say: It is given into the hand of the king of Babylon by the sword, and by the famine, and by the pestilence:" 38.2. ’Thus saith the LORD: He that remaineth in this city shall die by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence; but he that goeth forth to the Chaldeans shall live, and his life shall be unto him for a prey, and he shall live." 42.16. then it shall come to pass, that the sword, which ye fear, shall overtake you there in the land of Egypt, and the famine, whereof ye are afraid, shall follow hard after you there in Egypt; and there ye shall die." 42.17. So shall it be with all the men that set their faces to go into Egypt to sojourn there; they shall die by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence; and none of them shall remain or escape from the evil that I will bring upon them." 42.22. Now therefore know certainly that ye shall die by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence, in the place whither ye desire to go to sojourn there.’" 44.13. For I will punish them that dwell in the land of Egypt, as I have punished Jerusalem, by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence;" 44.27. Behold, I watch over them for evil, and not for good; and all the men of Judah that are in the land of Egypt shall be consumed by the sword and by the famine, until there be an end of them." 46.10. For the Lord GOD of hosts shall have on that day A day of vengeance, that He may avenge Him of His adversaries; And the sword shall devour and be satiate, And shall be made drunk with their blood; For the Lord GOD of hosts hath a sacrifice In the north country by the river Euphrates." 50.36. A sword is upon the boasters, and they shall become fools; A sword is upon her mighty men, and they shall be dismayed." 50.37. A sword is upon their horses, and upon their chariots, And upon all the mingled people that are in the midst of her, And they shall become as women; A sword is upon her treasures, and they shall be robbed."
18. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 5.13-5.15 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.13. וַיְהִי בִּהְיוֹת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּירִיחוֹ וַיִּשָּׂא עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה־אִישׁ עֹמֵד לְנֶגְדּוֹ וְחַרְבּוֹ שְׁלוּפָה בְּיָדוֹ וַיֵּלֶךְ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֵלָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ הֲלָנוּ אַתָּה אִם־לְצָרֵינוּ׃ 5.14. וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא כִּי אֲנִי שַׂר־צְבָא־יְהוָה עַתָּה בָאתִי וַיִּפֹּל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶל־פָּנָיו אַרְצָה וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ מָה אֲדֹנִי מְדַבֵּר אֶל־עַבְדּוֹ׃ 5.15. וַיֹּאמֶר שַׂר־צְבָא יְהוָה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ שַׁל־נַעַלְךָ מֵעַל רַגְלֶךָ כִּי הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה עֹמֵד עָלָיו קֹדֶשׁ הוּא וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כֵּן׃ 5.13. And it came to pass, when Joshua was by Jericho, that he lifted up his eyes and looked, and, behold, there stood a man over against him with his sword drawn in his hand; and Joshua went unto him, and said unto him: ‘Art thou for us, or for our adversaries?’ ." 5.14. And he said: ‘Nay, but I am captain of the host of the LORD; I am now come.’ And Joshua fell on his face to the earth, and bowed down, and said unto him: ‘What saith my lord unto his servant?’" 5.15. And the captain of the LORD’S host said unto Joshua: ‘Put off thy shoe from off thy foot; for the place whereon thou standest is holy.’ And Joshua did so."
19. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 5.13, 7.20 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.13. אָז יְרַד שָׂרִיד לְאַדִּירִים עָם יְהוָה יְרַד־לִי בַּגִּבּוֹרִים׃ 5.13. Then he made a remt have dominion over the nobles of the people: the Lord made me have dominion over the mighty ones." 7.20. Then the three companies blew on the shofarot, and broke the jars, and held the torches in their left hands, and the shofarot in their right hands to blow on them: and they cried, The sword of the Lord, and of Gid῾on."
20. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 5.17, 6.3, 6.11, 12.14, 14.17, 14.21, 16.40, 17.21, 21.3, 21.14, 23.25, 23.47, 24.21, 25.13, 28.7, 28.11-28.19, 29.8, 30.4-30.5, 30.22, 32.10-32.11, 32.23-32.26, 32.32, 33.27, 35.8 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.17. וְשִׁלַּחְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם רָעָב וְחַיָּה רָעָה וְשִׁכְּלֻךְ וְדֶבֶר וָדָם יַעֲבָר־בָּךְ וְחֶרֶב אָבִיא עָלַיִךְ אֲנִי יְהוָה דִּבַּרְתִּי׃ 6.3. וְאָמַרְתָּ הָרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שִׁמְעוּ דְּבַר־אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה לֶהָרִים וְלַגְּבָעוֹת לָאֲפִיקִים ולגאית [וְלַגֵּאָיוֹת] הִנְנִי אֲנִי מֵבִיא עֲלֵיכֶם חֶרֶב וְאִבַּדְתִּי בָּמוֹתֵיכֶם׃ 6.11. כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הַכֵּה בְכַפְּךָ וּרְקַע בְּרַגְלְךָ וֶאֱמָר־אָח אֶל כָּל־תּוֹעֲבוֹת רָעוֹת בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר בַּחֶרֶב בָּרָעָב וּבַדֶּבֶר יִפֹּלוּ׃ 12.14. וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר סְבִיבֹתָיו עזרה [עֶזְרוֹ] וְכָל־אֲגַפָּיו אֱזָרֶה לְכָל־רוּחַ וְחֶרֶב אָרִיק אַחֲרֵיהֶם׃ 14.17. אוֹ חֶרֶב אָבִיא עַל־הָאָרֶץ הַהִיא וְאָמַרְתִּי חֶרֶב תַּעֲבֹר בָּאָרֶץ וְהִכְרַתִּי מִמֶּנָּה אָדָם וּבְהֵמָה׃ 14.21. כִּי כֹה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהֹוִה אַף כִּי־אַרְבַּעַת שְׁפָטַי הָרָעִים חֶרֶב וְרָעָב וְחַיָּה רָעָה וָדֶבֶר שִׁלַּחְתִּי אֶל־יְרוּשָׁלִָם לְהַכְרִית מִמֶּנָּה אָדָם וּבְהֵמָה׃ 17.21. וְאֵת כָּל־מברחו [מִבְרָחָיו] בְּכָל־אֲגַפָּיו בַּחֶרֶב יִפֹּלוּ וְהַנִּשְׁאָרִים לְכָל־רוּחַ יִפָּרֵשׂוּ וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה דִּבַּרְתִּי׃ 21.3. וְאַתָּה חָלָל רָשָׁע נְשִׂיא יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר־בָּא יוֹמוֹ בְּעֵת עֲוֺן קֵץ׃ 21.3. וְאָמַרְתָּ לְיַעַר הַנֶּגֶב שְׁמַע דְּבַר־יְהוָה כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנְנִי מַצִּית־בְּךָ אֵשׁ וְאָכְלָה בְךָ כָל־עֵץ־לַח וְכָל־עֵץ יָבֵשׁ לֹא־תִכְבֶּה לַהֶבֶת שַׁלְהֶבֶת וְנִצְרְבוּ־בָהּ כָּל־פָּנִים מִנֶּגֶב צָפוֹנָה׃ 21.14. בֶּן־אָדָם הִנָּבֵא וְאָמַרְתָּ כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי אֱמֹר חֶרֶב חֶרֶב הוּחַדָּה וְגַם־מְרוּטָה׃ 23.25. וְנָתַתִּי קִנְאָתִי בָּךְ וְעָשׂוּ אוֹתָךְ בְּחֵמָה אַפֵּךְ וְאָזְנַיִךְ יָסִירוּ וְאַחֲרִיתֵךְ בַּחֶרֶב תִּפּוֹל הֵמָּה בָּנַיִךְ וּבְנוֹתַיִךְ יִקָּחוּ וְאַחֲרִיתֵךְ תֵּאָכֵל בָּאֵשׁ׃ 23.47. וְרָגְמוּ עֲלֵיהֶן אֶבֶן קָהָל וּבָרֵא אוֹתְהֶן בְּחַרְבוֹתָם בְּנֵיהֶם וּבְנוֹתֵיהֶם יַהֲרֹגוּ וּבָתֵּיהֶן בָּאֵשׁ יִשְׂרֹפוּ׃ 24.21. אֱמֹר לְבֵית יִשְׂרָאֵל כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנְנִי מְחַלֵּל אֶת־מִקְדָּשִׁי גְּאוֹן עֻזְּכֶם מַחְמַד עֵינֵיכֶם וּמַחְמַל נַפְשְׁכֶם וּבְנֵיכֶם וּבְנוֹתֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר עֲזַבְתֶּם בַּחֶרֶב יִפֹּלוּ׃ 25.13. לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה וְנָטִתִי יָדִי עַל־אֱדוֹם וְהִכְרַתִּי מִמֶּנָּה אָדָם וּבְהֵמָה וּנְתַתִּיהָ חָרְבָּה מִתֵּימָן וּדְדָנֶה בַּחֶרֶב יִפֹּלוּ׃ 28.7. לָכֵן הִנְנִי מֵבִיא עָלֶיךָ זָרִים עָרִיצֵי גּוֹיִם וְהֵרִיקוּ חַרְבוֹתָם עַל־יְפִי חָכְמָתֶךָ וְחִלְּלוּ יִפְעָתֶךָ׃ 28.11. וַיְהִי דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר׃ 28.12. בֶּן־אָדָם שָׂא קִינָה עַל־מֶלֶךְ צוֹר וְאָמַרְתָּ לּוֹ כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אַתָּה חוֹתֵם תָּכְנִית מָלֵא חָכְמָה וּכְלִיל יֹפִי׃ 28.13. בְּעֵדֶן גַּן־אֱלֹהִים הָיִיתָ כָּל־אֶבֶן יְקָרָה מְסֻכָתֶךָ אֹדֶם פִּטְדָה וְיָהֲלֹם תַּרְשִׁישׁ שֹׁהַם וְיָשְׁפֵה סַפִּיר נֹפֶךְ וּבָרְקַת וְזָהָב מְלֶאכֶת תֻּפֶּיךָ וּנְקָבֶיךָ בָּךְ בְּיוֹם הִבָּרַאֲךָ כּוֹנָנוּ׃ 28.14. אַתְּ־כְּרוּב מִמְשַׁח הַסּוֹכֵךְ וּנְתַתִּיךָ בְּהַר קֹדֶשׁ אֱלֹהִים הָיִיתָ בְּתוֹךְ אַבְנֵי־אֵשׁ הִתְהַלָּכְתָּ׃ 28.15. תָּמִים אַתָּה בִּדְרָכֶיךָ מִיּוֹם הִבָּרְאָךְ עַד־נִמְצָא עַוְלָתָה בָּךְ׃ 28.16. בְּרֹב רְכֻלָּתְךָ מָלוּ תוֹכְךָ חָמָס וַתֶּחֱטָא וָאֶחַלֶּלְךָ מֵהַר אֱלֹהִים וָאַבֶּדְךָ כְּרוּב הַסֹּכֵךְ מִתּוֹךְ אַבְנֵי־אֵשׁ׃ 28.17. גָּבַהּ לִבְּךָ בְּיָפְיֶךָ שִׁחַתָּ חָכְמָתְךָ עַל־יִפְעָתֶךָ עַל־אֶרֶץ הִשְׁלַכְתִּיךָ לִפְנֵי מְלָכִים נְתַתִּיךָ לְרַאֲוָה בָךְ׃ 28.18. מֵרֹב עֲוֺנֶיךָ בְּעֶוֶל רְכֻלָּתְךָ חִלַּלְתָּ מִקְדָּשֶׁיךָ וָאוֹצִא־אֵשׁ מִתּוֹכְךָ הִיא אֲכָלַתְךָ וָאֶתֶּנְךָ לְאֵפֶר עַל־הָאָרֶץ לְעֵינֵי כָּל־רֹאֶיךָ׃ 28.19. כָּל־יוֹדְעֶיךָ בָּעַמִּים שָׁמְמוּ עָלֶיךָ בַּלָּהוֹת הָיִיתָ וְאֵינְךָ עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 29.8. לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנְנִי מֵבִיא עָלַיִךְ חָרֶב וְהִכְרַתִּי מִמֵּךְ אָדָם וּבְהֵמָה׃ 30.4. וּבָאָה חֶרֶב בְּמִצְרַיִם וְהָיְתָה חַלְחָלָה בְּכוּשׁ בִּנְפֹל חָלָל בְּמִצְרָיִם וְלָקְחוּ הֲמוֹנָהּ וְנֶהֶרְסוּ יְסוֹדֹתֶיהָ׃ 30.5. כּוּשׁ וּפוּט וְלוּד וְכָל־הָעֶרֶב וְכוּב וּבְנֵי אֶרֶץ הַבְּרִית אִתָּם בַּחֶרֶב יִפֹּלוּ׃ 30.22. לָכֵן כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהֹוִה הִנְנִי אֶל־פַּרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם וְשָׁבַרְתִּי אֶת־זְרֹעֹתָיו אֶת־הַחֲזָקָה וְאֶת־הַנִּשְׁבָּרֶת וְהִפַּלְתִּי אֶת־הַחֶרֶב מִיָּדוֹ׃ 32.11. כִּי כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה חֶרֶב מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל תְּבוֹאֶךָ׃ 32.23. אֲשֶׁר נִתְּנוּ קִבְרֹתֶיהָ בְּיַרְכְּתֵי־בוֹר וַיְהִי קְהָלָהּ סְבִיבוֹת קְבֻרָתָהּ כֻּלָּם חֲלָלִים נֹפְלִים בַּחֶרֶב אֲשֶׁר־נָתְנוּ חִתִּית בְּאֶרֶץ חַיִּים׃ 32.24. שָׁם עֵילָם וְכָל־הֲמוֹנָהּ סְבִיבוֹת קְבֻרָתָהּ כֻּלָּם חֲלָלִים הַנֹּפְלִים בַּחֶרֶב אֲ‍שֶׁר־יָרְדוּ עֲרֵלִים אֶל־אֶרֶץ תַּחְתִּיּוֹת אֲשֶׁר נָתְנוּ חִתִּיתָם בְּאֶרֶץ חַיִּים וַיִּשְׂאוּ כְלִמָּתָם אֶת־יוֹרְדֵי בוֹר׃ 32.25. בְּתוֹךְ חֲלָלִים נָתְנוּ מִשְׁכָּב לָהּ בְּכָל־הֲמוֹנָהּ סְבִיבוֹתָיו קִבְרֹתֶהָ כֻּלָּם עֲרֵלִים חַלְלֵי־חֶרֶב כִּי־נִתַּן חִתִּיתָם בְּאֶרֶץ חַיִּים וַיִּשְׂאוּ כְלִמָּתָם אֶת־יוֹרְדֵי בוֹר בְּתוֹךְ חֲלָלִים נִתָּן׃ 32.26. שָׁם מֶשֶׁךְ תֻּבַל וְכָל־הֲמוֹנָהּ סְבִיבוֹתָיו קִבְרוֹתֶיהָ כֻּלָּם עֲרֵלִים מְחֻלְלֵי חֶרֶב כִּי־נָתְנוּ חִתִּיתָם בְּאֶרֶץ חַיִּים׃ 32.32. כִּי־נָתַתִּי אֶת־חתיתו [חִתִּיתִי] בְּאֶרֶץ חַיִּים וְהֻשְׁכַּב בְּתוֹךְ עֲרֵלִים אֶת־חַלְלֵי־חֶרֶב פַּרְעֹה וְכָל־הֲמוֹנֹה נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 33.27. כֹּה־תֹאמַר אֲלֵהֶם כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה חַי־אָנִי אִם־לֹא אֲשֶׁר בֶּחֳרָבוֹת בַּחֶרֶב יִפֹּלוּ וַאֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה לַחַיָּה נְתַתִּיו לְאָכְלוֹ וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמְּצָדוֹת וּבַמְּעָרוֹת בַּדֶּבֶר יָמוּתוּ׃ 35.8. וּמִלֵּאתִי אֶת־הָרָיו חֲלָלָיו גִּבְעוֹתֶיךָ וְגֵאוֹתֶיךָ וְכָל־אֲפִיקֶיךָ חַלְלֵי־חֶרֶב יִפְּלוּ בָהֶם׃ 5.17. and I will send upon you famine and evil beasts, and they shall bereave thee; and pestilence and blood shall pass through thee; and I will bring the sword upon thee. I the LORD have spoken it.’" 6.3. and say: Ye mountains of Israel, hear the word of the Lord GOD: Thus saith the Lord GOD concerning the mountains and concerning the hills, concerning the ravines and concerning the valleys: Behold, I, even I, will bring a sword upon you, and I will destroy your high places." 6.11. Thus saith the Lord GOD: Smite with thy hand, and stamp with thy foot, and say: Alas! because of all the evil abominations of the house of Israel; for they shall fall by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence." 12.14. And I will disperse toward every wind all that are round about him to help him, and all his troops; and I will draw out the sword after them." 14.17. Or if I bring a sword upon that land, and say: Let the sword go through the land, so that I cut off from it man and beast;" 14.21. For thus saith the Lord GOD: How much more when I send My four sore judgments against Jerusalem, the sword, and the famine, and the evil beasts, and the pestilence, to cut off from it man and beast." 16.40. They shall also bring up an assembly against thee, and they shall stone thee with stones, and thrust thee through with their swords." 17.21. And all his mighty men in all his bands shall fall by the sword, and they that remain shall be scattered toward every wind; and ye shall know that I the LORD have spoken it." 21.3. and say to the forest of the South: Hear the word of the LORD: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, I will kindle a fire in thee, and it shall devour every green tree in thee, and every dry tree, it shall not be quenched, even a flaming flame; and all faces from the south to the north shall be seared thereby." 21.14. ’Son of man, prophesy, and say: Thus saith the LORD: Say: A sword, a sword, it is sharpened, And also furbished:" 23.25. And I will set My jealousy against thee, and they shall deal with thee in fury; they shall take away thy nose and thine ears, and thy residue shall fall by the sword; they shall take thy sons and thy daughters, and thy residue shall be devoured by the fire." 23.47. And the assembly shall stone them with stones, and despatch them with their swords; they shall slay their sons and their daughters, and burn up their houses with fire." 24.21. Speak unto the house of Israel: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, I will profane My sanctuary, the pride of your power, the desire of your eyes, and the longing of your soul; and your sons and your daughters whom ye have left behind shall fall by the sword." 25.13. therefore thus saith the Lord GOD: I will stretch out My hand upon Edom, and will cut off man and beast from it; and I will make it desolate from Teman, even unto Dedan shall they fall by the sword." 28.7. Therefore, behold, I will bring strangers upon thee, The terrible of the nations; And they shall draw their swords against the beauty of thy wisdom, And they shall defile thy brightness. ." 28.11. Moreover the word of the LORD came unto me, saying:" 28.12. ’Son of man, take up a lamentation for the king of Tyre, and say unto him: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Thou seal most accurate, full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty," 28.13. thou wast in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the carnelian, the topaz, and the emerald, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the carbuncle, and the smaragd, and gold; the workmanship of thy settings and of thy sockets was in thee, in the day that thou wast created they were prepared." 28.14. Thou wast the far-covering cherub; and I set thee, so that thou wast upon the holy mountain of God; thou hast walked up and down in the midst of stones of fire." 28.15. Thou wast perfect in thy ways from the day that thou wast created, till unrighteousness was found in thee." 28.16. By the multitude of thy traffic they filled the midst of thee with violence, and thou hast sinned; therefore have I cast thee as profane out of the mountain of God; and I have destroyed thee, O covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire." 28.17. Thy heart was lifted up because of thy beauty, thou hast corrupted thy wisdom by reason of thy brightness; I have cast thee to the ground, I have laid thee before kings, that they may gaze upon thee." 28.18. By the multitude of thine iniquities, in the unrighteousness of thy traffic, thou hast profaned thy sanctuaries; therefore have I brought forth a fire from the midst of thee, it hath devoured thee, and I have turned thee to ashes upon the earth in the sight of all them that behold thee." 28.19. All they that know thee among the peoples shall be appalled at thee; thou art become a terror, and thou shalt never be any more.’" 29.8. Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, I will bring a sword upon thee, and will cut off from thee man and beast." 30.4. And a sword shall come upon Egypt, And convulsion shall be in Ethiopia, When the slain shall fall in Egypt; And they shall take away her abundance, And her foundation shall be broken down." 30.5. Ethiopia, and Put, and Lud, and all the mingled people, and Cub, and the children of the land that is in league, shall fall with them by the sword." 30.22. Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, I am against Pharaoh king of Egypt, and will break his arms, the strong, and that which was broken; and I will cause the sword to fall out of his hand." 32.10. Yea, I will make many peoples appalled at thee, and their kings shall be horribly afraid for thee, when I shall brandish My sword before them; and they shall tremble at every moment, every man for his own life, in the day of thy fall." 32.11. For thus saith the Lord GOD: The sword of the king of Babylon shall come upon thee." 32.23. whose graves are set in the uttermost parts of the pit, and her company is round about her grave; all of them slain, fallen by the sword, who caused terror in the land of the living." 32.24. There is Elam and all her multitude round about her grave; all of them slain, fallen by the sword, who are gone down uncircumcised into the nether parts of the earth, who caused their terror in the land of the living; yet have they borne their shame with them that go down to the pit." 32.25. They have set her a bed in the midst of the slain with all her multitude; her graves are round about them; all of them uncircumcised, slain by the sword; because their terror was caused in the land of the living, yet have they borne their shame with them that go down to the pit; they are put in the midst of them that are slain." 32.26. There is Meshech, Tubal, and all her multitude; her graves are round about them; all of them uncircumcised, slain by the sword; because they caused their terror in the land of the living." 32.32. For I have put My terror in the land of the living; and he shall be laid in the midst of the uncircumcised, with them that are slain by the sword, even Pharaoh and all his multitude, saith the Lord GOD.’" 33.27. Thus shalt thou say unto them: Thus saith the Lord GOD: As I live, surely they that are in the waste places shall fall by the sword, and him that is in the open field will I give to the beasts to be devoured, and they that are in the strongholds and in the caves shall die of the pestilence." 35.8. And I will fill his mountains with his slain; in thy hills and in thy valleys and in all thy streams shall they fall that are slain with the sword."
21. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 6.9 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.9. רַק אַתָּה לֹא תִבְנֶה הַבָּיִת כִּי בִנְךָ הַיּוֹצֵא מֵחֲלָצֶיךָ הוּא־יִבְנֶה הַבַּיִת לִשְׁמִי׃ 6.9. nevertheless thou shalt not build the house, but thy son that shall come forth out of thy loins, he shall build the house for My name."
22. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 11.17 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

11.17. הוֹי רֹעִי הָאֱלִיל עֹזְבִי הַצֹּאן חֶרֶב עַל־זְרוֹעוֹ וְעַל־עֵין יְמִינוֹ זְרֹעוֹ יָבוֹשׁ תִּיבָשׁ וְעֵין יְמִינוֹ כָּהֹה תִכְהֶה׃ 11.17. Woe to the worthless shepherd That leaveth the flock! The sword shall be upon his arm, And upon his right eye; His arm shall be clean dried up, And his right eye shall be utterly darkened."
23. Anon., 1 Enoch, 9.1-9.10, 10.12-10.13, 12.5, 15.10, 20.5, 40.2-40.9, 54.6, 71.8-71.9, 87.2, 89.73, 90.14, 91.11 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.1. And then Michael, Uriel, Raphael, and Gabriel looked down from heaven and saw much blood being 9.1. borne giants, and the whole earth has thereby been filled with blood and unrighteousness. And now, behold, the souls of those who have died are crying and making their suit to the gates of heaven, and their lamentations have ascended: and cannot cease because of the lawless deeds which are 9.2. hed upon the earth, and all lawlessness being wrought upon the earth. And they said one to another: 'The earth made without inhabitant cries the voice of their cryingst up to the gates of heaven. 9.3. And now to you, the holy ones of heaven, the souls of men make their suit, saying, 'Bring our cause 9.4. before the Most High.' And they said to the Lord of the ages: 'Lord of lords, God of gods, King of kings, and God of the ages, the throne of Thy glory (standeth) unto all the generations of the 9.5. ages, and Thy name holy and glorious and blessed unto all the ages! Thou hast made all things, and power over all things hast Thou: and all things are naked and open in Thy sight, and Thou seest all 9.6. things, and nothing can hide itself from Thee. Thou seest what Azazel hath done, who hath taught all unrighteousness on earth and revealed the eternal secrets which were (preserved) in heaven, which 9.7. men were striving to learn: And Semjaza, to whom Thou hast given authority to bear rule over his associates. And they have gone to the daughters of men upon the earth, and have slept with the 9.9. women, and have defiled themselves, and revealed to them all kinds of sins. And the women have 10.12. with them in all their uncleanness. And when their sons have slain one another, and they have seen the destruction of their beloved ones, bind them fast for seventy generations in the valleys of the earth, till the day of their judgement and of their consummation, till the judgement that i 10.13. for ever and ever is consummated. In those days they shall be led off to the abyss of fire: and 12.5. wives: 'Ye have wrought great destruction on the earth: And ye shall have no peace nor forgivene 40.2. beyond number and reckoning, who stood before the Lord of Spirits. And on the four sides of the Lord of Spirits I saw four presences, different from those that sleep not, and I learnt their names: for the angel that went with me made known to me their names, and showed me all the hidden things. 40.3. And I heard the voices of those four presences as they uttered praises before the Lord of glory. 40.6. the Elect One and the elect ones who hang upon the Lord of Spirits. And the third voice I heard pray and intercede for those who dwell on the earth and supplicate in the name of the Lord of Spirits. 40.7. And I heard the fourth voice fending off the Satans and forbidding them to come before the Lord 40.8. of Spirits to accuse them who dwell on the earth. After that I asked the angel of peace who went with me, who showed me everything that is hidden: 'Who are these four presences which I have 40.9. een and whose words I have heard and written down' And he said to me: 'This first is Michael, the merciful and long-suffering: and the second, who is set over all the diseases and all the wounds of the children of men, is Raphael: and the third, who is set over all the powers, is Gabriel: and the fourth, who is set over the repentance unto hope of those who inherit eternal life, is named Phanuel.' 54.6. And Michael, and Gabriel, and Raphael, and Phanuel shall take hold of them on that great day, and cast them on that day into the burning furnace, that the Lord of Spirits may take vengeance on them for their unrighteousness in becoming subject to Satan and leading astray those who dwell on the earth.' 71.8. And I saw angels who could not be counted, A thousand thousands, and ten thousand times ten thousand, Encircling that house.And Michael, and Raphael, and Gabriel, and Phanuel, And the holy angels who are above the heavens, Go in and out of that house. 71.9. And they came forth from that house, And Michael and Gabriel, Raphael and Phanuel, And many holy angels without number. 87.2. began to cry aloud. And I raised mine eyes again to heaven, and I saw in the vision, and behold there came forth from heaven beings who were like white men: and four went forth from that place 89.73. house; but the wild boars tried to hinder them, but they were not able. And they began again to build as before, and they reared up that tower, and it was named the high tower; and they began again to place a table before the tower, but all the bread on it was polluted and not pure. 1. The words of the blessing of Enoch, wherewith he blessed the elect and righteous, who will be,living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which is,for to come. Concerning the elect I said, and took up my parable concerning them:The Holy Great One will come forth from His dwelling,,And the eternal God will tread upon the earth, (even) on Mount Sinai, [And appear from His camp] And appear in the strength of His might from the heaven of heavens.,And all shall be smitten with fear And the Watchers shall quake, And great fear and trembling shall seize them unto the ends of the earth.,And the high mountains shall be shaken, And the high hills shall be made low, And shall melt like wax before the flame,And the earth shall be wholly rent in sunder, And all that is upon the earth shall perish, And there shall be a judgement upon all (men).,But with the righteous He will make peace.And will protect the elect, And mercy shall be upon them.And they shall all belong to God, And they shall be prospered, And they shall all be blessed.And He will help them all, And light shall appear unto them, And He will make peace with them'.,And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly:And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him.
24. Anon., Jubilees, 5.7, 15.32, 23.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.7. And He said: "I shall destroy man and all flesh upon the face of the earth which I have created. 15.32. For the command is ordained for a covet, that they should observe it for ever among all the children of Israel. 23.22. illness and overthrow, and snow and frost and ice, and fever, and chills, and torpor, and famine, and death, and sword, and captivity, and all kinds of calamities and pains.
25. Anon., Testament of Isaac, 2.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. Anon., Testament of Moses, 10.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 9.14-9.16, 17.6-17.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

28. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 4.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

29. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.21-7.22, 10.13, 10.21, 11.33, 12.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.21. חָזֵה הֲוֵית וְקַרְנָא דִכֵּן עָבְדָה קְרָב עִם־קַדִּישִׁין וְיָכְלָה לְהוֹן׃ 7.22. עַד דִּי־אֲתָה עַתִּיק יוֹמַיָּא וְדִינָא יְהִב לְקַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין וְזִמְנָא מְטָה וּמַלְכוּתָא הֶחֱסִנוּ קַדִּישִׁין׃ 10.13. וְשַׂר מַלְכוּת פָּרַס עֹמֵד לְנֶגְדִּי עֶשְׂרִים וְאֶחָד יוֹם וְהִנֵּה מִיכָאֵל אַחַד הַשָּׂרִים הָרִאשֹׁנִים בָּא לְעָזְרֵנִי וַאֲנִי נוֹתַרְתִּי שָׁם אֵצֶל מַלְכֵי פָרָס׃ 10.21. אֲבָל אַגִּיד לְךָ אֶת־הָרָשׁוּם בִּכְתָב אֱמֶת וְאֵין אֶחָד מִתְחַזֵּק עִמִּי עַל־אֵלֶּה כִּי אִם־מִיכָאֵל שַׂרְכֶם׃ 11.33. וּמַשְׂכִּילֵי עָם יָבִינוּ לָרַבִּים וְנִכְשְׁלוּ בְּחֶרֶב וּבְלֶהָבָה בִּשְׁבִי וּבְבִזָּה יָמִים׃ 12.1. יִתְבָּרֲרוּ וְיִתְלַבְּנוּ וְיִצָּרְפוּ רַבִּים וְהִרְשִׁיעוּ רְשָׁעִים וְלֹא יָבִינוּ כָּל־רְשָׁעִים וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יָבִינוּ׃ 12.1. וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יַעֲמֹד מִיכָאֵל הַשַּׂר הַגָּדוֹל הָעֹמֵד עַל־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְהָיְתָה עֵת צָרָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נִהְיְתָה מִהְיוֹת גּוֹי עַד הָעֵת הַהִיא וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יִמָּלֵט עַמְּךָ כָּל־הַנִּמְצָא כָּתוּב בַּסֵּפֶר׃ 7.21. I beheld, and the same horn made war with the saints, and prevailed against them;" 7.22. until the Ancient of days came, and judgment was given for the saints of the Most High; and the time came, and the saints possessed the kingdom." 10.13. But the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me one and twenty days; but, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me; and I was left over there beside the kings of Persia." 10.21. Howbeit I will declare unto thee that which is inscribed in the writing of truth; and there is none that holdeth with me against these, except Michael your prince." 11.33. And they that are wise among the people shall cause the many to understand; yet they shall stumble by the sword and by flame, by captivity and by spoil, many days." 12.1. And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince who standeth for the children of thy people; and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time; and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book."
30. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 2.24 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.24. but through the devils envy death entered the world,and those who belong to his party experience it.
31. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 2.215 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

2.215. 215 And there shall be upon them fearful wrath
32. Anon., Testament of Abraham, 8.2-8.3, 8.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

33. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 13.3, 13.6, 28.2, 28.4, 29.3 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

34. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.10-1.17, 12.1-12.10, 15.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. Now Ibeg you, brothers, through the name of our Lord, Jesus Christ, that youall speak the same thing and that there be no divisions among you, butthat you be perfected together in the same mind and in the samejudgment. 1.11. For it has been reported to me concerning you, mybrothers, by those who are from Chloe's household, that there arecontentions among you. 1.12. Now I mean this, that each one of yousays, "I follow Paul," "I follow Apollos," "I follow Cephas," and, "Ifollow Christ. 1.13. Is Christ divided? Was Paul crucified for you?Or were you baptized into the name of Paul? 1.14. I thank God that Ibaptized none of you, except Crispus and Gaius 1.15. o that no oneshould say that I had baptized you into my own name. 1.16. (I alsobaptized the household of Stephanas; besides them, I don't know whetherI baptized any other.) 1.17. For Christ sent me not to baptize, but topreach the gospel -- not in wisdom of words, so that the cross ofChrist wouldn't be made void. 12.1. Now concerning spiritual gifts, brothers, I don't want you tobe ignorant. 12.2. You know that when you were heathen, you were ledaway to those mute idols, however you might be led. 12.3. Therefore Imake known to you that no man speaking by God's Spirit says, "Jesus isaccursed." No one can say, "Jesus is Lord," but by the Holy Spirit. 12.4. Now there are various kinds of gifts, but the same Spirit. 12.5. There are various kinds of service, and the same Lord. 12.6. There are various kinds of workings, but the same God, who works allthings in all. 12.7. But to each one is given the manifestation of theSpirit for the profit of all. 12.8. For to one is given through theSpirit the word of wisdom, and to another the word of knowledge,according to the same Spirit; 12.9. to another faith, by the sameSpirit; and to another gifts of healings, by the same Spirit; 12.10. and to another workings of miracles; and to another prophecy; and toanother discerning of spirits; to another different kinds of languages;and to another the interpretation of languages. 15.26. The lastenemy that will be abolished is death.
35. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 1.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.20. of whom is Hymenaeus and Alexander; whom I delivered to Satan, that they might be taught not to blaspheme.
36. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 6.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

37. New Testament, Acts, 7.40 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.40. saying to Aaron, 'Make us gods that will go before us, for as for this Moses, who led us out of the land of Egypt , we don't know what has become of him.'
38. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.1, 1.9-1.10, 2.5-2.7, 2.10-2.11, 2.16-2.17, 2.22-2.29, 3.3, 3.5, 3.9-3.12, 3.16, 3.20-3.22, 4.1-4.11, 5.5-5.6, 5.8-5.10, 6.9-6.17, 7.1-7.17, 8.7-8.13, 9.20-9.21, 11.1-11.13, 11.17-11.18, 12.1-12.6, 12.8-12.18, 13.1-13.18, 14.1-14.5, 14.9-14.12, 14.17-14.20, 16.2-16.21, 17.1-17.18, 18.2-18.3, 18.9-18.24, 19.1-19.3, 19.6-19.8, 19.11-19.21, 20.2-20.3, 20.11-20.15, 21.7-21.8, 22.3-22.5, 22.14, 22.18-22.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. This is the Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show to his servants the things which must happen soon, which he sent and made known by his angel to his servant, John 1.9. I John, your brother and partner with you in oppression, kingdom, and perseverance in Christ Jesus, was on the isle that is called Patmos because of God's Word and the testimony of Jesus Christ. 1.10. I was in the Spirit on the Lord's day, and I heard behind me a loud voice, as of a trumpet 2.5. Remember therefore from where you have fallen, and repent and do the first works; or else I am coming to you swiftly, and will move your lampstand out of its place, unless you repent. 2.6. But this you have, that you hate the works of the Nicolaitans, which I also hate. 2.7. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the assemblies. To him who overcomes I will give to eat of the tree of life, which is in the Paradise of my God. 2.10. Don't be afraid of the things which you are about to suffer. Behold, the devil is about to throw some of you into prison, that you may be tested; and you will have oppression for ten days. Be faithful to death, and I will give you the crown of life. 2.11. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the assemblies. He who overcomes won't be harmed by the second death. 2.16. Repent therefore, or else I am coming to you quickly, and I will make war against them with the sword of my mouth. 2.17. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the assemblies. To him who overcomes, to him I will give of the hidden manna, and I will give him a white stone, and on the stone a new name written, which no one knows but he who receives it. 2.22. Behold, I will throw her into a bed, and those who commit adultery with her into great oppression, unless they repent of her works. 2.23. I will kill her children with Death, and all the assemblies will know that I am he who searches the minds and hearts. I will give to each one of you according to your deeds. 2.24. But to you I say, to the rest who are in Thyatira, as many as don't have this teaching, who don't know what some call 'the deep things of Satan,' to you I say, I am not putting any other burden on you. 2.25. Nevertheless that which you have, hold firmly until I come. 2.26. He who overcomes, and he who keeps my works to the end, to him I will give authority over the nations. 2.27. He will rule them with a rod of iron, shattering them like clay pots; as I also have received of my Father: 2.28. and I will give him the morning star. 2.29. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the assemblies. 3.3. Remember therefore how you have received and heard. Keep it, and repent. If therefore you won't watch, I will come as a thief, and you won't know what hour I will come upon you. 3.5. He who overcomes will be arrayed in white garments, and I will in no way blot his name out of the book of life, and I will confess his name before my Father, and before his angels. 3.9. Behold, I give of the synagogue of Satan, of those who say they are Jews, and they are not, but lie. Behold, I will make them to come and worship before your feet, and to know that I have loved you. 3.10. Because you kept the word of my patience, I also will keep you from the hour of testing, that which is to come on the whole world, to test those who dwell on the earth. 3.11. I come quickly. Hold firmly that which you have, so that no one takes your crown. 3.12. He who overcomes, I will make him a pillar in the temple of my God, and he will go out from there no more. I will write on him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, the new Jerusalem, which comes down out of heaven from my God, and my own new name. 3.16. So, because you are lukewarm, and neither hot nor cold, I will vomit you out of my mouth. 3.20. Behold, I stand at the door and knock. If anyone hears my voice and opens the door, then I will come in to him, and will dine with him, and he with me. 3.21. He who overcomes, I will give to him to sit down with me on my throne, as I also overcame, and sat down with my Father on his throne. 3.22. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the assemblies. 4.1. After these things I looked and saw a door opened in heaven, and the first voice that I heard, like a trumpet speaking with me, was one saying, "Come up here, and I will show you the things which must happen after this. 4.2. Immediately I was in the Spirit. Behold, there was a throne set in heaven, and one sitting on the throne 4.3. that looked like a jasper stone and a sardius. There was a rainbow around the throne, like an emerald to look at. 4.4. Around the throne were twenty-four thrones. On the thrones were twenty-four elders sitting, dressed in white garments, with crowns of gold on their heads. 4.5. Out of the throne proceed lightnings, sounds, and thunders. There were seven lamps of fire burning before his throne, which are the seven Spirits of God. 4.6. Before the throne was something like a sea of glass, like a crystal. In the midst of the throne, and around the throne were four living creatures full of eyes before and behind. 4.7. The first creature was like a lion, and the second creature like a calf, and the third creature had a face like a man, and the fourth was like a flying eagle. 4.8. The four living creatures, having each one of them six wings, are full of eyes around about and within. They have no rest day and night, saying, "Holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy is the Lord God, the Almighty, who was and who is and who is to come! 4.9. When the living creatures give glory, honor, and thanks to him who sits on the throne, to him who lives forever and ever 4.10. the twenty-four elders fall down before him who sits on the throne, and worship him who lives forever and ever, and throw their crowns before the throne, saying 4.11. Worthy are you, our Lord and our God, the Holy One, to receive the glory, the honor, and the power, for you created all things, and because of your desire they existed, and were created! 5.5. One of the elders said to me, "Don't weep. Behold, the Lion who is of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, has overcome; he who opens the book and its seven seals. 5.6. I saw in the midst of the throne and of the four living creatures, and in the midst of the elders, a Lamb standing, as though it had been slain, having seven horns, and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God, sent out into all the earth. 5.8. Now when he had taken the book, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell down before the Lamb, each one having a harp, and golden bowls full of incense, which are the prayers of the saints. 5.9. They sang a new song, saying, "You are worthy to take the book, And to open its seals: For you were killed, And bought us for God with your blood, Out of every tribe, language, people, and nation 5.10. And made them kings and priests to our God, And they reign on earth. 6.9. When he opened the fifth seal, I saw underneath the altar the souls of those who had been killed for the Word of God, and for the testimony of the Lamb which they had. 6.10. They cried with a loud voice, saying, "How long, Master, the holy and true, do you not judge and avenge our blood on those who dwell on the earth? 6.11. A long white robe was given them. They were told that they should rest yet for a while, until their fellow servants and their brothers, who would also be killed even as they were, completed their course. 6.12. I saw when he opened the sixth seal, and there was a great earthquake. The sun became black as sackcloth made of hair, and the whole moon became as blood. 6.13. The stars of the sky fell to the earth, like a fig tree dropping its unripe figs when it is shaken by a great wind. 6.14. The sky was removed like a scroll when it is rolled up. Every mountain and island were moved out of their places. 6.15. The kings of the earth, the princes, the commanding officers, the rich, the strong, and every slave and free person, hid themselves in the caves and in the rocks of the mountains. 6.16. They told the mountains and the rocks, "Fall on us, and hide us from the face of him who sits on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb 6.17. for the great day of his wrath has come; and who is able to stand? 7.1. After this, I saw four angels standing at the four corners of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth, so that no wind would blow on the earth, or on the sea, or on any tree. 7.2. I saw another angel ascend from the sunrise, having the seal of the living God. He cried with a loud voice to the four angels to whom it was given to harm the earth and the sea 7.3. saying, "Don't harm the earth, neither the sea, nor the trees, until we have sealed the bondservants of our God on their foreheads! 7.4. I heard the number of those who were sealed, one hundred forty-four thousand, sealed out of every tribe of the children of Israel: 7.5. of the tribe of Judah were sealed twelve thousand, of the tribe of Reuben twelve thousand, of the tribe of Gad twelve thousand 7.6. of the tribe of Asher twelve thousand, of the tribe of Naphtali twelve thousand, of the tribe of Manasseh twelve thousand 7.7. of the tribe of Simeon twelve thousand, of the tribe of Levi twelve thousand, of the tribe of Issachar twelve thousand 7.8. of the tribe of Zebulun twelve thousand, of the tribe of Joseph twelve thousand, of the tribe of Benjamin were sealed twelve thousand. 7.9. After these things I looked, and behold, a great multitude, which no man could number, out of every nation and of all tribes, peoples, and languages, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, dressed in white robes, with palm branches in their hands. 7.10. They cried with a loud voice, saying, "Salvation be to our God, who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb! 7.11. All the angels were standing around the throne, the elders, and the four living creatures; and they fell before his throne on their faces, and worshiped God 7.12. saying, "Amen! Blessing, glory, wisdom, thanksgiving, honor, power, and might, be to our God forever and ever! Amen. 7.13. One of the elders answered, saying to me, "These who are arrayed in white robes, who are they, and where did they come from? 7.14. I told him, "My lord, you know."He said to me, "These are those who came out of the great tribulation. They washed their robes, and made them white in the Lamb's blood. 7.15. Therefore they are before the throne of God, they serve him day and night in his temple. He who sits on the throne will spread his tent over them. 7.16. They will never be hungry, neither thirsty any more; neither will the sun beat on them, nor any heat; 7.17. for the Lamb who is in the midst of the throne shepherds them, and leads them to living springs of waters. God will wipe away every tear from their eyes. 8.7. The first sounded, and there followed hail and fire, mixed with blood, and they were thrown on the earth. One third of the earth was burnt up, and one third of the trees were burnt up, and all green grass was burnt up. 8.8. The second angel sounded, and something like a great burning mountain was thrown into the sea. One third of the sea became blood 8.9. and one third of the creatures which were in the sea died, those who had life. One third of the ships were destroyed. 8.10. The third angel sounded, and a great star fell from the sky, burning like a torch, and it fell on one third of the rivers, and on the springs of the waters. 8.11. The name of the star is called "Wormwood." One third of the waters became wormwood. Many men died from the waters, because they were made bitter. 8.12. The fourth angel sounded, and one third of the sun was struck, and one third of the moon, and one third of the stars; so that one third of them would be darkened, and the day wouldn't shine for one third of it, and the night in the same way. 8.13. I saw, and I heard an eagle, flying in mid heaven, saying with a loud voice, "Woe! Woe! Woe for those who dwell on the earth, because of the other voices of the trumpets of the three angels, who are yet to sound! 9.20. The rest of mankind, who were not killed with these plagues, didn't repent of the works of their hands, that they wouldn't worship demons, and the idols of gold, and of silver, and of brass, and of stone, and of wood; which can neither see, nor hear, nor walk. 9.21. They didn't repent of their murders, nor of their sorceries, nor of their sexual immorality, nor of their thefts. 11.1. A reed like a rod was given to me. Someone said, "Rise, and measure God's temple, and the altar, and those who worship in it. 11.2. Leave out the court which is outside of the temple, and don't measure it, for it has been given to the gentiles. They will tread the holy city under foot for forty-two months. 11.3. I will give power to my two witnesses, and they will prophesy one thousand two hundred sixty days, clothed in sackcloth. 11.4. These are the two olive trees and the two lampstands, standing before the Lord of the earth. 11.5. If anyone desires to harm them, fire proceeds out of their mouth and devours their enemies. If anyone desires to harm them, he must be killed in this way. 11.6. These have the power to shut up the sky, that it may not rain during the days of their prophecy. They have power over the waters, to turn them into blood, and to strike the earth with every plague, as often as they desire. 11.7. When they have finished their testimony, the beast that comes up out of the abyss will make war with them, and overcome them, and kill them. 11.8. Their dead bodies will be in the street of the great city, which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt , where also their Lord was crucified. 11.9. From among the peoples, tribes, languages, and nations people will look at their dead bodies for three and a half days, and will not allow their dead bodies to be laid in a tomb. 11.10. Those who dwell on the earth rejoice over them, and they will be glad. They will give gifts to one another, because these two prophets tormented those who dwell on the earth. 11.11. After the three and a half days, the breath of life from God entered into them, and they stood on their feet. Great fear fell on those who saw them. 11.12. I heard a loud voice from heaven saying to them, "Come up here!" They went up into heaven in the cloud, and their enemies saw them. 11.13. In that day there was a great earthquake, and a tenth of the city fell. Seven thousand people were killed in the earthquake, and the rest were terrified, and gave glory to the God of heaven. 11.17. saying: "We give you thanks, Lord God, the Almighty, the one who is and who was; because you have taken your great power, and reigned. 11.18. The nations were angry, and your wrath came, as did the time for the dead to be judged, and to give your servants the prophets, their reward, as well as the saints, and those who fear your name, the small and the great; and to destroy those who destroy the earth. 12.1. A great sign was seen in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars. 12.2. She was with child. She cried out, laboring and in pain, giving birth. 12.3. Another sign was seen in heaven. Behold, a great red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns, and on his heads seven crowns. 12.4. His tail drew one third of the stars of the sky, and threw them to the earth. The dragon stood before the woman who was about to give birth, so that when she gave birth he might devour her child. 12.5. She gave birth to a son, a male child, who is to rule all the nations with a rod of iron. Her child was caught up to God, and to his throne. 12.6. The woman fled into the wilderness, where she has a place prepared by God, that there they may nourish her one thousand two hundred sixty days. 12.8. They didn't prevail, neither was a place found for him any more in heaven. 12.9. The great dragon was thrown down, the old serpent, he who is called the devil and Satan, the deceiver of the whole world. He was thrown down to the earth, and his angels were thrown down with him. 12.10. I heard a loud voice in heaven, saying, "Now is come the salvation, the power, and the Kingdom of our God, and the authority of his Christ; for the accuser of our brothers has been thrown down, who accuses them before our God day and night. 12.11. They overcame him because of the Lamb's blood, and because of the word of their testimony. They didn't love their life, even to death. 12.12. Therefore rejoice, heavens, and you who dwell in them. Woe to the earth and to the sea, because the devil has gone down to you, having great wrath, knowing that he has but a short time. 12.13. When the dragon saw that he was thrown down to the earth, he persecuted the woman who gave birth to the male child. 12.14. Two wings of the great eagle were given to the woman, that she might fly into the wilderness to her place, so that she might be nourished for a time, and times, and half a time, from the face of the serpent. 12.15. The serpent spewed water out of his mouth after the woman like a river, that he might cause her to be carried away by the stream. 12.16. The earth helped the woman, and the earth opened its mouth and swallowed up the river which the dragon spewed out of his mouth. 12.17. The dragon grew angry with the woman, and went away to make war with the rest of her seed, who keep God's commandments and hold Jesus' testimony. 13.1. Then I stood on the sand of the sea. I saw a beast coming up out of the sea, having ten horns and seven heads. On his horns were ten crowns, and on his heads, blasphemous names. 13.2. The beast which I saw was like a leopard, and his feet were like those of a bear, and his mouth like the mouth of a lion. The dragon gave him his power, his throne, and great authority. 13.3. One of his heads looked like it had been wounded fatally. His fatal wound was healed, and the whole earth marveled at the beast. 13.4. They worshiped the dragon, because he gave his authority to the beast, and they worshiped the beast, saying, "Who is like the beast? Who is able to make war with him? 13.5. A mouth speaking great things and blasphemy was given to him. Authority to make war for forty-two months was given to him. 13.6. He opened his mouth for blasphemy against God, to blaspheme his name, and his dwelling, those who dwell in heaven. 13.7. It was given to him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them. Authority over every tribe, people, language, and nation was given to him. 13.8. All who dwell on the earth will worship him, everyone whose name has not been written from the foundation of the world in the book of life of the Lamb who has been killed. 13.9. If anyone has an ear, let him hear. 13.10. If anyone has captivity, he goes away. If anyone is with the sword, he must be killed. Here is the endurance and the faith of the saints. 13.11. I saw another beast coming up out of the earth. He had two horns like a lamb, and he spoke like a dragon. 13.12. He exercises all the authority of the first beast in his presence. He makes the earth and those who dwell in it to worship the first beast, whose fatal wound was healed. 13.13. He performs great signs, even making fire come down out of the sky on the earth in the sight of men. 13.14. He deceives my own people who dwell on the earth because of the signs which it was given to him to do in front of the beast; saying to those who dwell on the earth, that they should make an image to the beast who had the sword wound and lived. 13.15. It was given to him to give breath to it, to the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak, and cause as many as wouldn't worship the image of the beast to be killed. 13.16. He causes all, the small and the great, the rich and the poor, and the free and the slave, so that they should give them marks on their right hand, or on their forehead; 13.17. and that no one would be able to buy or to sell, unless he has that mark, the name of the beast or the number of his name. 13.18. Here is wisdom. He who has understanding, let him calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man. His number is six hundred sixty-six. 14.1. I saw, and behold, the Lamb standing on Mount Zion, and with him a number, one hundred forty-four thousand, having his name, and the name of his Father, written on their foreheads. 14.2. I heard a sound from heaven, like the sound of many waters, and like the sound of a great thunder. The sound which I heard was like that of harpers playing on their harps. 14.3. They sing a new song before the throne, and before the four living creatures and the elders. No one could learn the song except the one hundred forty-four thousand, those who had been redeemed out of the earth. 14.4. These are those who were not defiled with women, for they are virgins. These are those who follow the Lamb wherever he goes. These were redeemed by Jesus from among men, the first fruits to God and to the Lamb. 14.5. In their mouth was found no lie, for they are blameless. 14.9. Another angel, a third, followed them, saying with a great voice, "If anyone worships the beast and his image, and receives a mark on his forehead, or on his hand 14.10. he also will drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is prepared unmixed in the cup of his anger. He will be tormented with fire and sulfur in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb. 14.11. The smoke of their torment goes up forever and ever. They have no rest day and night, those who worship the beast and his image, and whoever receives the mark of his name. 14.12. Here is the patience of the saints, those who keep the commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus. 14.17. Another angel came out from the temple which is in heaven. He also had a sharp sickle. 14.18. Another angel came out from the altar, he who has power over fire, and he called with a great voice to him who had the sharp sickle, saying, "Send forth your sharp sickle, and gather the clusters of the vine of the earth, for the earth's grapes are fully ripe! 14.19. The angel thrust his sickle into the earth, and gathered the vintage of the earth, and threw it into the great winepress of the wrath of God. 14.20. The winepress was trodden outside of the city, and blood came out from the winepress, even to the bridles of the horses, as far as one thousand six hundred stadia. 16.2. The first went, and poured out his bowl into the earth, and it became a harmful and evil sore on the men who had the mark of the beast, and who worshiped his image. 16.3. The second angel poured out his bowl into the sea, and it became blood as of a dead man. Every living thing in the sea died. 16.4. The third poured out his bowl into the rivers and springs of water, and it became blood. 16.5. I heard the angel of the waters saying, "You are righteous, who are and who were, you Holy One, because you judged this way. 16.6. For they poured out the blood of the saints and the prophets, and you have given them blood to drink. They deserve this. 16.7. I heard the altar saying, "Yes, Lord God, the Almighty, true and righteous are your judgments. 16.8. The fourth poured out his bowl on the sun, and it was given to him to scorch men with fire. 16.9. People were scorched with great heat, and people blasphemed the name of God who has the power over these plagues. They didn't repent and give him glory. 16.10. The fifth poured out his bowl on the throne of the beast, and his kingdom was darkened. They gnawed their tongues because of the pain 16.11. and they blasphemed the God of heaven because of their pains and their sores. They didn't repent of their works. 16.12. The sixth poured out his bowl on the great river, the Euphrates. Its water was dried up, that the way might be made ready for the kings that come from the sunrise. 16.13. I saw coming out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet, three unclean spirits, something like frogs; 16.14. for they are spirits of demons, performing signs; which go forth to the kings of the whole inhabited earth, to gather them together for the war of that great day of God, the Almighty. 16.15. Behold, I come like a thief. Blessed is he who watches, and keeps his clothes, so that he doesn't walk naked, and they see his shame. 16.16. He gathered them together into the place which is called in Hebrew, Megiddo. 16.17. The seventh poured out his bowl into the air. A loud voice came forth out of the temple of heaven, from the throne, saying, "It is done! 16.18. There were lightnings, sounds, and thunders; and there was a great earthquake, such as was not since there were men on the earth, so great an earthquake, so mighty. 16.19. The great city was divided into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell. Babylon the great was remembered in the sight of God, to give to her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath. 16.20. Every island fled away, and the mountains were not found. 16.21. Great hailstones, about the weight of a talent, came down out of the sky on men. Men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail, for this plague is exceedingly severe. 17.1. One of the seven angels who had the seven bowls came and spoke with me, saying, "Come here. I will show you the judgment of the great prostitute who sits on many waters 17.2. with whom the kings of the earth committed sexual immorality, and those who dwell in the earth were made drunken with the wine of her sexual immorality. 17.3. He carried me away in the Spirit into a wilderness. I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet-colored animal, full of blasphemous names, having seven heads and ten horns. 17.4. The woman was dressed in purple and scarlet, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having in her hand a golden cup full of abominations and the impurities of the sexual immorality of the earth. 17.5. And on her forehead a name was written, "MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF THE PROSTITUTES AND OF THE ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH. 17.6. I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus. When I saw her, I wondered with great amazement. 17.7. The angel said to me, "Why do you wonder? I will tell you the mystery of the woman, and of the beast that carries her, which has the seven heads and the ten horns. 17.8. The beast that you saw was, and is not; and is about to come up out of the abyss, and to go into destruction. Those who dwell on the earth will wonder, whose name has not been written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, when they see that the beast was, and is not, and will pe present. 17.9. Here is the mind that has wisdom. The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sits. 17.10. They are seven kings. Five have fallen, the one is, the other has not yet come. When he comes, he must continue a little while. 17.11. The beast that was, and is not, is himself also an eighth, and is of the seven; and he goes to destruction. 17.12. The ten horns that you saw are ten kings who have received no kingdom as yet, but they receive authority as kings, with the beast, for one hour. 17.13. These have one mind, and they give their power and authority to the beast. 17.14. These will war against the Lamb, and the Lamb will overcome them, for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings. They also will overcome who are with him, called and chosen and faithful. 17.15. He said to me, "The waters which you saw, where the prostitute sits, are peoples, multitudes, nations, and languages. 17.16. The ten horns which you saw, and the beast, these will hate the prostitute, and will make her desolate, and will make her naked, and will eat her flesh, and will burn her utterly with fire. 17.17. For God has put in their hearts to do what he has in mind, and to come to unity of mind, and to give their kingdom to the beast, until the words of God should be accomplished. 17.18. The woman whom you saw is the great city, which reigns over the kings of the earth. 18.2. He cried with a mighty voice, saying, "Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great, and has become a habitation of demons, and a prison of every unclean spirit, and a prison of every unclean and hateful bird! 18.3. For all the nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her sexual immorality, the kings of the earth committed sexual immorality with her, and the merchants of the earth grew rich from the abundance of her luxury. 18.9. The kings of the earth, who committed sexual immorality and lived wantonly with her, will weep and wail over her, when they look at the smoke of her burning 18.10. standing far away for the fear of her torment, saying, 'Woe, woe, the great city, Babylon, the strong city! For your judgment has come in one hour.' 18.11. The merchants of the earth weep and mourn over her, for no one buys their merchandise any more; 18.12. merchandise of gold, silver, precious stones, pearls, fine linen, purple, silk, scarlet, all expensive wood, every vessel of ivory, every vessel made of most precious wood, and of brass, and iron, and marble; 18.13. and cinnamon, incense, perfume, frankincense, wine, olive oil, fine flour, wheat, sheep, horses, chariots, bodies, and people's souls. 18.14. The fruits which your soul lusted after have been lost to you, and all things that were dainty and sumptuous have perished from you, and you will find them no more at all. 18.15. The merchants of these things, who were made rich by her, will stand far away for the fear of her torment, weeping and mourning; 18.16. saying, 'Woe, woe, the great city, she who was dressed in fine linen, purple, and scarlet, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls! 18.17. For in an hour such great riches are made desolate.' Every shipmaster, and everyone who sails anywhere, and mariners, and as many as gain their living by sea, stood far away 18.18. and cried out as they looked at the smoke of her burning, saying, 'What is like the great city?' 18.19. They cast dust on their heads, and cried, weeping and mourning, saying, 'Woe, woe, the great city, in which all who had their ships in the sea were made rich by reason of her great wealth!' For in one hour is she made desolate. 18.20. Rejoice over her, O heaven, you saints, apostles, and prophets; for God has judged your judgment on her. 18.21. A mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone and cast it into the sea, saying, "Thus with violence will Babylon, the great city, be thrown down, and will be found no more at all. 18.22. The voice of harpers and minstrels and flute players and trumpeters will be heard no more at all in you. No craftsman, of whatever craft, will be found any more at all in you. The sound of a mill will be heard no more at all in you. 18.23. The light of a lamp will shine no more at all in you. The voice of the bridegroom and of the bride will be heard no more at all in you; for your merchants were the princes of the earth; for with your sorcery all the nations were deceived. 18.24. In her was found the blood of prophets and of saints, and of all who have been slain on the earth. 19.1. After these things I heard something like a loud voice of a great multitude in heaven, saying, "Hallelujah! Salvation, power, and glory belong to our God: 19.2. for true and righteous are his judgments. For he has judged the great prostitute, her who corrupted the earth with her sexual immorality, and he has avenged the blood of his servants at her hand. 19.3. A second said, "Hallelujah! Her smoke goes up forever and ever. 19.6. I heard something like the voice of a great multitude, and like the voice of many waters, and like the voice of mighty thunders, saying, "Hallelujah! For the Lord our God, the Almighty, reigns! 19.7. Let us rejoice and be exceedingly glad, and let us give the glory to him. For the marriage of the Lamb has come, and his wife has made herself ready. 19.8. It was given to her that she would array herself in bright, pure, fine linen: for the fine linen is the righteous acts of the saints. 19.11. I saw the heaven opened, and behold, a white horse, and he who sat on it is called Faithful and True. In righteousness he judges and makes war. 19.12. His eyes are a flame of fire, and on his head are many crowns. He has names written and a name written which no one knows but he himself. 19.13. He is clothed in a garment sprinkled with blood. His name is called "The Word of God. 19.14. The armies which are in heaven followed him on white horses, clothed in white, pure, fine linen. 19.15. Out of his mouth proceeds a sharp, double-edged sword, that with it he should strike the nations. He will rule them with a rod of iron. He treads the winepress of the fierceness of the wrath of God, the Almighty. 19.16. He has on his garment and on his thigh a name written, "KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS. 19.17. I saw an angel standing in the sun. He cried with a loud voice, saying to all the birds that fly in the sky, "Come! Be gathered together to the great supper of God 19.18. that you may eat the flesh of kings, the flesh of captains, the flesh of mighty men, and the flesh of horses and of those who sit on them, and the flesh of all men, both free and slave, and small and great. 19.19. I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against him who sat on the horse, and against his army. 19.20. The beast was taken, and with him the false prophet who worked the signs in his sight, with which he deceived those who had received the mark of the beast and those who worshiped his image. They two were thrown alive into the lake of fire that burns with sulfur. 19.21. The rest were killed with the sword of him who sat on the horse, the sword which came forth out of his mouth. All the birds were filled with their flesh. 20.2. He seized the dragon, the old serpent, which is the devil and Satan, who deceives the whole inhabited earth, and bound him for a thousand years 20.3. and cast him into the abyss, and shut it, and sealed it over him, that he should deceive the nations no more, until the thousand years were finished. After this, he must be freed for a short time. 20.11. I saw a great white throne, and him who sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away. There was found no place for them. 20.12. I saw the dead, the great and the small, standing before the throne, and they opened books. Another book was opened, which is the book of life. The dead were judged out of the things which were written in the books, according to their works. 20.13. The sea gave up the dead who were in it. Death and Hades gave up the dead who were in them. They were judged, each one according to his works. 20.14. Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire. 20.15. If anyone was not found written in the book of life, he was cast into the lake of fire. 21.7. He who overcomes, I will give him these things. I will be his God, and he will be my son. 21.8. But for the cowardly, unbelieving, sinners, abominable, murderers, sexually immoral, sorcerers, idolaters, and all liars, their part is in the lake that burns with fire and sulfur, which is the second death. 22.3. There will be no curse any more. The throne of God and of the Lamb will be in it, and his servants serve him. 22.4. They will see his face, and his name will be on their foreheads. 22.5. There will be no night, and they need no lamp light; for the Lord God will illuminate them. They will reign forever and ever. 22.14. Blessed are those who do his commandments, that they may have the right to the tree of life, and may enter in by the gates into the city. 22.18. I testify to everyone who hears the words of the prophecy of this book, if anyone adds to them, may God add to him the plagues which are written in this book. 22.19. If anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, may God take away his part from the tree of life, and out of the holy city, which are written in this book.
39. New Testament, Jude, 9, 6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

40. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.2, 4.13, 6.11-6.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.2. in which you once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the powers of the air, the spirit who now works in the sons of disobedience; 4.13. until we all attain to the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to a full grown man, to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ; 6.11. Put on the whole armor of God, that you may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil. 6.12. For our wrestling is not against flesh and blood, but against the principalities, against the powers, against the world's rulers of the darkness of this age, and against the spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places.
41. New Testament, Philippians, 2.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.7. but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of men.
42. New Testament, Romans, 8.18-8.30, 9.22, 11.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.18. For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which will be revealed toward us. 8.19. For the creation waits with eager expectation for the sons of God to be revealed. 8.20. For the creation was subjected to vanity, not of its own will, but because of him who subjected it, in hope 8.21. that the creation itself also will be delivered from the bondage of decay into the liberty of the glory of the children of God. 8.22. For we know that the whole creation groans and travails in pain together until now. 8.23. Not only so, but ourselves also, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for adoption, the redemption of our body. 8.24. For we were saved in hope, but hope that is seen is not hope. For who hopes for that which he sees? 8.25. But if we hope for that which we don't see, we wait for it with patience. 8.26. In the same way, the Spirit also helps our weaknesses, for we don't know how to pray as we ought. But the Spirit himself makes intercession for us with groanings which can't be uttered. 8.27. He who searches the hearts knows what is on the Spirit's mind, because he makes intercession for the saints according to God. 8.28. We know that all things work together for good for those who love God, to those who are called according to his purpose. 8.29. For whom he foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers. 8.30. Whom he predestined, those he also called. Whom he called, those he also justified. Whom he justified, those he also glorified. 9.22. What if God, willing to show his wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much patience vessels of wrath made for destruction 11.8. According as it is written, "God gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear, to this very day.
43. New Testament, Titus, 3.10-3.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.10. Avoid a factious man after a first and second warning; 3.11. knowing that such a one is perverted, and sins, being self-condemned.
44. New Testament, John, 3.14-3.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.14. As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of Man be lifted up 3.15. that whoever believes in him should not perish, but have eternal life.
45. New Testament, Luke, 10.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.18. He said to them, "I saw Satan having fallen like lightning from heaven.
46. New Testament, Matthew, 28.16-28.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

28.16. But the eleven disciples went into Galilee, to the mountain where Jesus had sent them. 28.17. When they saw him, they bowed down to him, but some doubted. 28.18. Jesus came to them and spoke to them, saying, "All authority has been given to me in heaven and on earth. 28.19. Go, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit 28.20. teaching them to observe all things which I commanded you. Behold, I am with you always, even to the end of the age." Amen.
47. Anon., Acts of Thomas, 32-33, 31 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

31. And when he had so said, a great (Syr. black) serpent (dragon) came out of a hole, beating with his head and shaking his tail upon the ground, and with (using) a loud voice said unto the apostle: I will tell before thee the cause wherefore I slew this man, since thou art come hither for that end, to reprove my works. And the apostle said: Yea, say on. And the serpent: There is a certain beautiful woman in this village over against us; and as she passed by me (or my place) I saw her and was enamoured of her, and I followed her and kept watch upon her; and I found this youth kissing her, and he had intercourse with her and did other shameful acts with her: and for me it was easy to declare them before thee, for I know that thou art the twin brother of the Christ and always abolishest our nature (Syr. easy for me to say, but to thee I do not dare to utter them because I know that the ocean-flood of the Messiah will destroy our nature): but because I would not affright her, I slew him not at that time, but waited for him till he passed by in the evening and smote and slew him, and especially because he adventured to do this upon the Lord's day. And the apostle inquired of him, saying: Tell me of what seed and of what race thou art. 32 And he said unto him: I am a reptile of the reptile nature and noxious son of the noxious father: of him that hurt and smote the four brethren which stood upright (om. Syr.: the elements or four cardinal points may be meant) I am son to him that sitteth on a throne over all the earth that receiveth back his own from them that borrow: I am son to him that girdeth about the sphere: and I am kin to him that is outside the ocean, whose tail is set in his own mouth: I am he that entered through the barrier (fence) into paradise and spake with Eve the things which my father bade me speak unto her: I am he that kindled and inflamed Cain to kill his own brother, and on mine account did thorns and thistles grow up in the earth: I am he that cast down the angels from above and bound them in lusts after women, that children born of earth might come of them and I might work my will in them: I am he that hardened Pharaoh's heart that he should slay the children of Israel and enslave them with the yoke of cruelty: I am he that caused the multitude to err in the wilderness when they made the calf: I am he that inflamed Herod and enkindled Caiaphas unto false accusation of a lie before Pilate; for this was fitting to me: I am he that stirred up Judas and bribed him to deliver up the Christ: I am he that inhabiteth and holdeth the deep of hell (Tartarus), but the Son of God hath wronged me, against my will, and taken (chosen) them that were his own from me: I am kin to him that is to come from the east, unto whom also power is given to do what he will upon the earth.
48. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 44.15 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

44.15. דָּבָר אַחֵר, קְחָה לִי עֶגְלָה מְשֻׁלֶּשֶׁת, זוֹ בָּבֶל, שֶׁהֶעֱמִידָה שְׁלשָׁה מְלָכִים, נְבוּכַדְנֶצַר וֶאֱוִיל מְרוֹדַךְ וּבֵלְשַׁצַּר. וְעֵז מְשֻׁלֶּשֶׁת, זוֹ מָדַי, שֶׁהָיְתָה מַעֲמִידָה שְׁלשָׁה מְלָכִים, כּוֹרֶשׁ וְדָרְיָוֶשׁ וַאֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ. וְאַיִל מְשֻׁלָּשׁ, זוֹ יָוָן, רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר וְרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן, רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר כָּל הָרוּחוֹת כָּבְשׁוּ בְּנֵי יָוָן וְרוּחַ מִזְרָחִית לֹא כָבָשׁוּ, אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן וְהָכְתִיב (דניאל ח, ד): רָאִיתִי אֶת הָאַיִל מְנַגֵּחַ יָמָּה וְצָפוֹנָה וָנֶגְבָּה וְכָל חַיּוֹת לֹא יַעַמְדוּ לְפָנָיו וְאֵין מַצִּיל מִיָּדוֹ וְעָשָׂה כִרְצֹנוֹ וְהִגְדִּיל, הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר דְּלָא אֲמַר מִזְרָחִית. וְתֹר וְגוֹזָל, זוֹ מַלְכוּת אֱדוֹם, תּוֹר הוּא אֶלָּא שֶׁגַּזְלָן הוּא. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַיִּקַּח לוֹ אֶת כָּל אֵלֶּה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אָמַר שָׂרֵי עוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים הֶרְאָה לוֹ. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר שָׂרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הֶרְאָה לוֹ, עַל דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה קָתֶדְרִין דְּדֵין לָקֳבֵל קָתֶדְרִין דְּדֵין. עַל דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה שֶׁשָּׁם הָיוּ סַנְהֶדְּרֵי גְדוֹלָה שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל יוֹשֶׁבֶת וְחוֹתֶמֶת דִּינֵיהֶם שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְאֶת הַצִּפֹּר לֹא בָתָר, רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר הֶרְאָה לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא כָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא מַעֲמִיד פָּנִים בַּגַּל, הַגַּל שׁוֹטְפוֹ, וְכָל מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַעֲמִיד פָּנִים בַּגַּל, אֵין הַגַּל שׁוֹטְפוֹ.
49. Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies, 5.15, 5.19.19-5.19.21 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.15. These are the statements which the patrons of the Sethian doctrines make, as far as it is possible to declare in a few words. Their system, however, is made up (of tenets) from natural (philosophers), and of expressions uttered in reference to different other subjects; and transferring (the sense of) these to the Eternal Logos, they explain them as we have declared. But they assert likewise that Moses confirms their doctrine when he says, Darkness, and mist, and tempest. These, (the Sethian) says, are the three principles (of our system); or when he states that three were born in paradise - Adam, Eve, the serpent; or when he speaks of three (persons, namely) Cain, Abel, Seth; and again of three (others)- Shem, Ham, Japheth; or when he mentions three patriarchs - Abraham, Isaac, Jacob; or when he speaks of the existence of three days before sun and moon; or when he mentions three laws- prohibitory, permissive, and adjudicatory of punishment. Now, a prohibitory law is as follows: of every tree that is in paradise you may freely eat; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you may not eat. But in the passage, Come forth from your land and from your kindred, and hither into a land which I shall show you, this law, he says, is permissive; for one who is so disposed may depart, and one who is not so disposed may remain. But a law adjudicatory of punishment is that which makes the following declaration: You shall not commit adultery, you shall not kill, you shall not steal; for a penalty is awarded to each of these acts of wickedness. The entire system of their doctrine, however, is (derived) from the ancient theologians Musaeus, and Linus, and Orpheus, who elucidates especially the ceremonies of initiation, as well as the mysteries themselves. For their doctrine concerning the womb is also the tenet of Orpheus; and the (idea of the) navel, which is harmony, is (to be found) with the same symbolism attached to it in the Bacchanalian orgies of Orpheus. But prior to the observance of the mystic rite of Celeus, and Triptolemus, and Ceres, and Proserpine, and Bacchus in Eleusis, these orgies have been celebrated and handed down to men in Phlium of Attica. For antecedent to the Eleusinian mysteries, there are (enacted) in Phlium the orgies of her denominated the Great (Mother). There is, however, a portico in this (city), and on the portico is inscribed a representation, (visible) up to the present day, of all the words which are spoken (on such occasions). Many, then, of the words inscribed upon that portico are those respecting which Plutarch institutes discussions in his ten books against Empedocles. And in the greater number of these books is also drawn the representation of a certain aged man, grey-haired, winged, having his pudendum erectum, pursuing a retreating woman of azure color. And over the aged man is the inscription phaos ruentes, and over the woman pereeµphicola . But phaos ruentes appears to be the light (which exists), according to the doctrine of the Sethians, and phicola the darkish water; while the space in the midst of these seems to be a harmony constituted from the spirit that is placed between. The name, however, of phaos ruentes manifests, as they allege, the flow from above of the light downwards. Wherefore one may reasonably assert that the Sethians celebrate rites among themselves, very closely bordering upon those orgies of the Great (Mother which are observed among) the Phliasians. And the poet likewise seems to bear his testimony to this triple division, when he remarks, And all things have been triply divided, and everything obtains its (proper) distinction; that is, each member of the threefold division has obtained (a particular) capacity. But now, as regards the tenet that the subjacent water below, which is dark, ought, because the light has set (over it), to convey upwards and receive the spark borne clown from (the light) itself; in the assertion of this tenet. I say, the all-wise Sethians appear to derive (their opinion) from Homer: - By earth I swore, and yon broad Heaven above, And Stygian stream beneath, the weightiest oath of solemn power, to bind the blessed gods. That is, according to Homer, the gods suppose water to be loathsome and horrible. Now, similar to this is the doctrine of the Sethians, which affirms (water) to be formidable to the mind.
50. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.30.5-1.30.9, 1.30.12, 1.30.15, 5.12-5.18, 5.19.19 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.12. This is the diversified wisdom of the Peratic heresy, which it is difficult to declare in its entirety, so intricate is it on account of its seeming to consist of the astrological art.' As far forth, then, as this is possible, we shall briefly explain the whole force of this (heresy). In order, however, that we may by a compendious statement elucidate the entire doctrine of these persons, it appears expedient to subjoin the following observations. According to them, the universe is Father, Son, (and) Matter; (but) each of these three has endless capacities in itself. Intermediate, then, between the Matter and the Father sits the Son, the Word, the Serpent, always being in motion towards the unmoved Father, and (towards) Matter itself in motion. And at one time he is turned towards the Father, and receives the powers into his own person; but at another time takes up these powers, and is turned towards Matter. And Matter, (though) devoid of attribute, and being unfashioned, moulds (into itself) forms from the Son which the Son moulded from the Father. But the Son derives shape from the Father after a mode ineffable, and unspeakable, and unchangeable; (that is,) in such a manner as Moses says that tire colors of the conceived (cattle) flowed from the rods which were fixed in the drinking-troughs. And in like manner, again, that capacities flowed also from the Son into Matter, similarly to the power in reference to conception which came from the rods upon the conceived (cattle). And the difference of colors, and the dissimilarity which flowed from the rods through the waters upon the sheep, is, he says, the difference of corruptible and incorruptible generation. As, however, one who paints from nature, though he takes nothing away from animals, transfers by his pencil all forms to the canvas; so the Son, by a power which belongs to himself, transfers paternal marks from the Father into Matter. All the paternal marks are here, and there are not any more. For if any one, he says, of those (beings) which are here will have strength to perceive that he is a paternal mark transferred hither from above, (and that he is) incarnate - just as by the conception resulting from the rod a something white is produced - he is of the same substance altogether with the Father in heaven, and returns there. If, however, he may not happen upon this doctrine, neither will he understand the necessity of generation, just as an abortion born at night will perish at night. When, therefore, he says, the Saviour observes, your Father which is in heaven, he alludes to that one from whom the Son deriving his characteristics has transferred them hither. When, however, (Jesus) remarks, Your father is a murderer from the beginning, he alludes to the Ruler and Demiurge of matter, who, appropriating the marks delivered from the Son, generated him here who from the beginning was a murderer, for his work causes corruption and death. No one, then, he says, can be saved or return (into heaven) without the Son, and the Son is the Serpent. For as he brought down from above the paternal marks, so again he carries up from thence those marks roused from a dormant condition and rendered paternal characteristics, substantial ones from the unsubstantial Being, transferring them hither from thence. This, he says, is what is spoken: I am the door. And he transfers (those marks), he says, to those who close the eyelid, as the naphtha drawing the fire in every direction towards itself; nay rather, as the magnet (attracting) the iron and not anything else, or just as the backbone of the sea falcon, the gold and nothing else, or as the chaff is led by the amber. In this manner, he says, is the portrayed, perfect, and con-substantial genus drawn again from the world by the Serpent; nor does he (attract) anything else, as it has been sent down by him. For a proof of this, they adduce the anatomy of the brain, assimilating, from the fact of its immobility, the brain itself to the Father, and the cerebellum to the Son, because of its being moved and being of the form of (the head of) a serpent. And they allege that this (cerebellum), by an ineffable and inscrutable process, attracts through the pineal gland the spiritual and life-giving substance emanating from the vaulted chamber (in which the brain is embedded). And on receiving this, the cerebellum in an ineffable manner imparts the ideas, just as the Son does, to matter; or, in other words, the seeds and the genera of the things produced according to the flesh flow along into the spinal marrow. Employing this exemplar, (the heretics) seem to adroitly introduce their secret mysteries, which are delivered in silence. Now it would be impious for us to declare these; yet it is easy to form an idea of them, by reason of the many statements that have been made. 5.13. But since I consider that I have plainly explained the Peratic heresy, and by many (arguments) have rendered evident (a system that hitherto) has always escaped notice, and is altogether a tissue of fable, and one that disguises its own peculiar venom, it seems expedient to advance no further statement beyond those already put forward; for the opinions propounded by (the heretics) themselves are sufficient for their own condemnation. 5.14. Let us then see what the Sithians affirm. To these it appears that there are three definite principles of the universe, and that each of these principles possesses infinite powers. And when they speak of powers let him that hears take into account that they make this statement. Everything whatsoever you discern by an act of intelligence, or also omit (to discern) as not being understood, this by nature is fitted to become each of the principles, as in the human soul every art whatsoever which is made the subject of instruction. Just for instance, he says, this child will be a musician, having waited the requisite time for (acquiring a knowledge of) the harp; or a geometrician, (having previously undergone the necessary study for acquiring a knowledge) of geometry; (or) a grammarian, (after having sufficiently studied) grammar; (or) a workman, (having acquired a practical acquaintance) with a handicraftsman's business; and to one brought into contact with the rest of the arts a similar occurrence will take place. Now of principles, he says, the substances are light and darkness; and of these, spirit is intermediate without admixture. The spirit, however, is that which has its appointed place in the midst of darkness which is below, and light which is above. It is not spirit as a current of wind, or some gentle breeze that can be felt; but, as it were, some odour of ointment or of incense formed out of a compound. (It is) a subtle power, that insinuates itself by means of some impulsive quality in a fragrance, which is inconceivable and better than could be expressed by words. Since, however, light is above and darkness below, and spirit is intermediate in such a way as stated between these; and since light is so constituted, that, like a ray of the sun, it shines from above upon the underlying darkness; and again, since the fragrance of the spirit, holding an intermediate place, is extended and carried in every direction, as in the case of incense-offerings placed upon fire, we detect the fragrance that is being wafted in every direction: when, I say, there is a power of this description belonging unto the principles which are classified under three divisions, the power of spirit and light simultaneously exists in the darkness that is situated underneath them. But the darkness is a terrible water, into which light is absorbed and translated into a nature of the same description with spirit. The darkness, however, is not devoid of intelligence, but altogether reflective, and is conscious that, where the light has been abstracted from the darkness, the darkness remains isolated, invisible, obscure, impotent, inoperative, (and) feeble. Wherefore it is constrained, by all its reflection and understanding, to collect into itself the lustre and scintillation of light with the fragrance of the spirit. And it is possible to behold an image of the nature of these in the human countece; for instance, the pupil of the eye, dark from the subjacent humours, (but) illuminated with spirit. As, then, the darkness seeks after the splendour, that it may keep in bondage the spark, and may have perceptive power, so the light and spirit seek after the power that belongs to themselves, and strive to uprear, and towards each other to carry up their intermingled powers into the dark and formidable water lying underneath. But all the powers of the three originating principles, which are as regards number indefinitely infinite, are each according to its own substance reflective and intelligent, unnumbered in multitude. And since what are reflective and intelligent are numberless in multitude, while they continue by themselves, they are all at rest. If, however, power approaches power, the dissimilarity of (what is set in) juxtaposition produces a certain motion and energy, which are formed from the motion resulting from the concourse effected by the juxtaposition of the coalescing powers. For the concourse of the powers ensues, just like any mark of a seal that is impressed by means of the concourse correspondingly with (the seal) which prints the figure on the substances that are brought up (into contact with it). Since, therefore, the powers of the three principles are infinite in number, and from infinite powers (arise) infinite concourses, images of infinite seals are necessarily produced. These images, therefore, are the forms of the different sorts of animals. From the first great concourse, then, of the three principles, ensues a certain great form, a seal of heaven and earth. The heaven and the earth have a figure similar to the womb, having a navel in the midst; and if, he says, any one is desirous of bringing this figure under the organ of vision, let him artfully scrutinize the pregt womb of whatsoever animal he wishes, and he will discover an image of the heaven and the earth, and of the things which in the midst of all are unalterably situated underneath. (And so it is, that the first great concourse of the three principles) has produced such a figure of heaven and earth as is similar to a womb after the first coition. But, again, in the midst of the heaven and the earth have been generated infinite concourses of powers. And each concourse did not effect and fashion anything else than a seal of heaven and earth similar to a womb. But, again, in the earth, from the infinite seals are produced infinite crowds of various animals. But into all this infinity of the different animals under heaven is diffused and distributed, along with the light, the fragrance of the Spirit from above. From the water, therefore, has been produced a first-begotten originating principle, viz., wind, (which is) violent and boisterous, and a cause of all generation. For producing a sort of ferment in the waters, (the wind) uplifts waves out of the waters; and the motion of the waves, just as when some impulsive power of pregcy is the origin of the production of a man or mind, is caused when (the ocean), excited by the impulsive power of spirit, is propelled forward. When, however, this wave that has been raised out of the water by the wind, and rendered pregt in its nature, has within itself obtained the power, possessed by the female, of generation, it holds together the light scattered from above along with the fragrance of the spirit - that is, mind moulded in the different species. And this (light) is a perfect God, who from the unbegotten radiance above, and from the spirit, is borne down into human nature as into a temple, by the impulsive power of Nature, and by the motion of wind. And it is produced from water being commingled and blended with bodies as if it were a salt of existent things, and a light of darkness. And it struggles to be released from bodies, and is not able to find liberation and an egress for itself For a very diminutive spark, a severed splinter from above like the ray of a star, has been mingled in the much compounded waters of many (existences), as, says he, (David) remarks in a psalm. Every thought, then, and solicitude actuating the supernal light is as to how and in what manner mind may be liberated, by the death of the depraved and dark body, from the Father that is below, which is the wind that with noise and tumult uplifted the waves, and who generated a perfect mind his own Son; not, however, being his peculiar (offspring) substantially. For he was a ray (sent down) from above, from that perfect light, (and) was overpowered in the dark, and formidable, and bitter, and defiled water; and he is a luminous spirit borne down over the water. When, therefore, the waves that have been upreared from the waters have received within themselves the power of generation possessed by females, they contain, as a certain womb, in different species, the infused radiance, so as that it is visible in the case of all animals. But the wind, at the same time fierce and formidable, whirling along, is, in respect of its hissing sound, like a serpent. First, then, from the wind - that is, from the serpent - has resulted the originating principle of generation in the manner declared, all things having simultaneously received the principle of generation. After, then, the light and the spirit had been received, he says, into the polluted and baneful (and) disordered womb, the serpent - the wind of the darkness, the first-begotten of the waters - enters within and produces man, and the impure womb neither loves nor recognises any other form. The perfect Word of supernal light being therefore assimilated (in form) to the beast, (that is,) the serpent, entered into the defiled womb, having deceived (the womb) through the similitude of the beast itself, in order that (the Word) may loose the chains that encircle the perfect mind which has been begotten amidst impurity of womb by the primal offspring of water, (namely,) serpent, wind, (and) beast. This, he says, is the form of the servant, and this the necessity of the Word of God coming down into the womb of a virgin. But he says it is not sufficient that the Perfect Man, the Word, has entered into the womb of a virgin, and loosed the pangs which were in that darkness. Nay, more than this was requisite; for after his entrance into the foul mysteries of the womb, he was washed, and drank of the cup of life-giving bubbling water. And it was altogether needful that he should drink who was about to strip off the servile form, and assume celestial raiment. 5.15. These are the statements which the patrons of the Sethian doctrines make, as far as it is possible to declare in a few words. Their system, however, is made up (of tenets) from natural (philosophers), and of expressions uttered in reference to different other subjects; and transferring (the sense of) these to the Eternal Logos, they explain them as we have declared. But they assert likewise that Moses confirms their doctrine when he says, Darkness, and mist, and tempest. These, (the Sethian) says, are the three principles (of our system); or when he states that three were born in paradise - Adam, Eve, the serpent; or when he speaks of three (persons, namely) Cain, Abel, Seth; and again of three (others)- Shem, Ham, Japheth; or when he mentions three patriarchs - Abraham, Isaac, Jacob; or when he speaks of the existence of three days before sun and moon; or when he mentions three laws- prohibitory, permissive, and adjudicatory of punishment. Now, a prohibitory law is as follows: of every tree that is in paradise you may freely eat; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you may not eat. But in the passage, Come forth from your land and from your kindred, and hither into a land which I shall show you, this law, he says, is permissive; for one who is so disposed may depart, and one who is not so disposed may remain. But a law adjudicatory of punishment is that which makes the following declaration: You shall not commit adultery, you shall not kill, you shall not steal; for a penalty is awarded to each of these acts of wickedness. The entire system of their doctrine, however, is (derived) from the ancient theologians Musaeus, and Linus, and Orpheus, who elucidates especially the ceremonies of initiation, as well as the mysteries themselves. For their doctrine concerning the womb is also the tenet of Orpheus; and the (idea of the) navel, which is harmony, is (to be found) with the same symbolism attached to it in the Bacchanalian orgies of Orpheus. But prior to the observance of the mystic rite of Celeus, and Triptolemus, and Ceres, and Proserpine, and Bacchus in Eleusis, these orgies have been celebrated and handed down to men in Phlium of Attica. For antecedent to the Eleusinian mysteries, there are (enacted) in Phlium the orgies of her denominated the Great (Mother). There is, however, a portico in this (city), and on the portico is inscribed a representation, (visible) up to the present day, of all the words which are spoken (on such occasions). Many, then, of the words inscribed upon that portico are those respecting which Plutarch institutes discussions in his ten books against Empedocles. And in the greater number of these books is also drawn the representation of a certain aged man, grey-haired, winged, having his pudendum erectum, pursuing a retreating woman of azure color. And over the aged man is the inscription phaos ruentes, and over the woman pereeµphicola . But phaos ruentes appears to be the light (which exists), according to the doctrine of the Sethians, and phicola the darkish water; while the space in the midst of these seems to be a harmony constituted from the spirit that is placed between. The name, however, of phaos ruentes manifests, as they allege, the flow from above of the light downwards. Wherefore one may reasonably assert that the Sethians celebrate rites among themselves, very closely bordering upon those orgies of the Great (Mother which are observed among) the Phliasians. And the poet likewise seems to bear his testimony to this triple division, when he remarks, And all things have been triply divided, and everything obtains its (proper) distinction; that is, each member of the threefold division has obtained (a particular) capacity. But now, as regards the tenet that the subjacent water below, which is dark, ought, because the light has set (over it), to convey upwards and receive the spark borne clown from (the light) itself; in the assertion of this tenet. I say, the all-wise Sethians appear to derive (their opinion) from Homer: - By earth I swore, and yon broad Heaven above, And Stygian stream beneath, the weightiest oath of solemn power, to bind the blessed gods. That is, according to Homer, the gods suppose water to be loathsome and horrible. Now, similar to this is the doctrine of the Sethians, which affirms (water) to be formidable to the mind. 5.16. These, and other assertions similar to these, are made (by the Sethians) in their interminable commentaries. They, however, persuade their disciples to become conversant with the theory respecting composition and mixture. But this theory has formed a subject of meditation to many, but (among others) also to Andronicus the Peripatetic. The Sethians, then, affirm that the theory concerning composition and mixture is constituted according to the following method: The luminous ray from above is intermingled, and the very diminutive spark is delicately blended in the dark waters beneath; and (both of these) become united, and are formed into one compound mass, just as a single savour (results) from the mixture of many incense-offerings in the fire, and (just as) an adept, by having a test in an acute sense of smell, ought to be able from the single odour of the incense to distinguish accurately each (ingredient) of the incense-offerings that have been mingled in the fire - whether, for example, storax, and myrrh, and frankincense, or whatever other (ingredient) may be mixed (in the incense). They, however, employ also other examples, saying both that brass is mixed with gold, and that some art has been discovered which separates the brass from the gold. And, in like manner, if tin or brass, or any substance homogeneous with it, be discovered mixed with silver, these likewise, by some art superior to that of mixing, are distinguished. But already some one also distinguishes water mingled with wine. So, say they, though all things are commingled, they are capable of being separated. Nay, but, he says, derive the same lesson from the case of animals. For when the animal is dead, each of its parts is separated; and when dissolution takes place, the animal in this way vanishes. This is, he says, what has been spoken: I came not to send peace on the earth, but a sword, - that is, the division and separation of the things that have been commingled. For each of the things that have been commingled is separated and divided when it reaches its proper place. For as there is one place of mixture for all animals, so also has there been established one (locality) of separation. And, he says, no one is aware of this (place), save we alone that have been born again, spiritual, not carnal, whose citizenship is in heaven above. In this manner insinuating themselves, they corrupt their pupils, partly by misusing the words spoken (by themselves), while they wickedly pervert, to serve any purpose they wish, what has been admirably said (in Scripture); and partly by concealing their nefarious conduct, by means of whatever comparisons they please. All these things, then, he says, that have been com-mingled, possess, as has been declared, their own particular place, and hurry towards their own peculiar (substances), as iron towards the magnet, and the chaff to the vicinity of amber, and the gold to the spur of the sea falcon. In like manner, the ray of light which has been com-mingled with the water, having obtained from discipline and instruction its own proper locality, hastens towards the Logos that comes from above in servile form; and along with the Logos exists as a logos in that place where the Logos is still: (the light, I say, hastens to the Logos with greater speed) than the iron towards the magnet. And that these things, he says, are so, and that all things that have been commingled are separated in their proper places, learn. There is among the Persians in a city Ampa, near the river Tills, a well; and near the well, at the top, has been constructed a certain reservoir, supplied with three outlets; and when one pumps from this well, and draws off some of its contents in a vessel, what is thus pumped out of the well, whatever it is at all, he pours into the reservoir hard by. And when what is thus infused reaches the outlets, and when what is taken up (out of each outlet) in a single vessel is examined, a separation is observed to have taken place. And in the first of the outlets is exhibited a concretion of salt, and in the second of asphalt, and in the third of oil; and the oil is black, just as, he says, Herodotus also narrates, and it yields a heavy smell, and the Persians call this rhadinace. The similitude of the well is, say the Sethians, more sufficient for the demonstration of their proposition than all the statements that have been previously made. 5.17. The opinion of the Sethians appears to us to have been sufficiently elucidated. If, however, any one is desirous of learning the entire doctrine according to them, let him read a book inscribed Paraphrase of Seth; for all their secret tenets he will find deposited there. But since we have explained the opinions entertained by the Sethians, let us see also what are the doctrines advanced by Justinus. 5.18. Justinus was entirely opposed to the teaching of the holy Scriptures, and moreover to the written or oral teaching of the blessed evangelists, according as the Logos was accustomed to instruct His disciples, saying, Go not into the way of the Gentiles; and this signifies that they should not attend to the futile doctrine of the Gentiles. This (heretic) endeavours to lead on his hearers into an acknowledgment of prodigies detailed by the Gentiles, and of doctrines inculcated by them. And he narrates, word for word, legendary accounts prevalent among the Greeks, and does not previously teach or deliver his perfect mystery, unless he has bound his dupe by an oath. Then he brings forward (these) fables for the purpose of persuasion, in order that they who are conversant with the incalculable trifling of these books may have some consolation in the details of these legends. Thus it happens as when in like manner one making a long journey deems it expedient, on having fallen in with an inn, to take repose. And so it is that, when once more they are induced to turn towards studying the diffuse doctrine of these lectures, they may not abhor them while they, undergoing instruction unnecessarily prolix, rush stupified into the transgression devised by (Justinus); and previously he binds his followers with horrible oaths, neither to publish nor abjure these doctrines, and forces upon them an acknowledgment (of their truth). And in this manner he delivers the mysteries impiously discovered by himself, partly, according to the statements previously made, availing himself of the Hellenic legends, and partly of those pretended books which, to some extent, bear a resemblance to the foresaid heresies. For all, forced together by one spirit, are drawn into one profound abyss of pollution, inculcating the same tenets, and detailing the same legends, each after a different method. All those, however, style themselves Gnostics in this peculiar sense, that they alone themselves have imbibed the marvellous knowledge of the Perfect and Good (Being).
51. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 103 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

103. The Pharisees are the bulls: the roaring lion is Herod or the devil Justin: Then what is next said in the Psalm —'For trouble is near, for there is none to help me. Many calves have compassed me; fat bulls have beset me round. They opened their mouth upon me as a ravening and roaring lion. All my bones are poured out and dispersed like water,'— was likewise a prediction of the events which happened to Him. For on that night when some of your nation, who had been sent by the Pharisees and Scribes, and teachers, came upon Him from the Mount of Olives, those whom Scripture called butting and prematurely destructive calves surrounded Him. And the expression, 'Fat bulls have beset me round,' He spoke beforehand of those who acted similarly to the calves, when He was led before your teachers. And the Scripture described them as bulls, since we know that bulls are authors of calves' existence. As therefore the bulls are the begetters of the calves, so your teachers were the cause why their children went out to the Mount of Olives to take Him and bring Him to them. And the expression, 'For there is none to help,' is also indicative of what took place. For there was not even a single man to assist Him as an innocent person. And the expression, 'They opened their mouth upon me like a roaring lion,' designates him who was then king of the Jews, and was called Herod, a successor of the Herod who, when Christ was born, slew all the infants in Bethlehem born about the same time, because he imagined that among them He would assuredly be of whom the Magi from Arabia had spoken; for he was ignorant of the will of Him that is stronger than all, how He had commanded Joseph and Mary to take the Child and depart into Egypt, and there to remain until a revelation should again be made to them to return into their own country. And there they did remain until Herod, who slew the infants in Bethlehem, was dead, and Archelaus had succeeded him. And he died before Christ came to the dispensation on the cross which was given Him by His Father. And when Herod succeeded Archelaus, having received the authority which had been allotted to him, Pilate sent to him by way of compliment Jesus bound; and God foreknowing that this would happen, had thus spoken: 'And they brought Him to the Assyrian, a present to the king.' Hosea 10:6 Or He meant the devil by the lion roaring against Him: whom Moses calls the serpent, but in Job and Zechariah he is called the devil, and by Jesus is addressed as Satan, showing that a compounded name was acquired by him from the deeds which he performed. For 'Sata' in the Jewish and Syrian tongue means apostate; and 'Nas' is the word from which he is called by interpretation the serpent, i.e., according to the interpretation of the Hebrew term, from both of which there arises the single word Satanas. For this devil, when [Jesus] went up from the river Jordan, at the time when the voice spoke to Him, 'You are my Son: this day have I begotten You,' is recorded in the memoirs of the apostles to have come to Him and tempted Him, even so far as to say to Him, 'Worship me;' and Christ answered him, 'Get behind me, Satan: you shall worship the Lord your God, and Him only shall you serve.' Matthew 4:9-10 For as he had deceived Adam, so he hoped that he might contrive some mischief against Christ also. Moreover, the statement, 'All my bones are poured out and dispersed like water; my heart has become like wax, melting in the midst of my belly,' was a prediction of that which happened to Him on that night when men came out against Him to the Mount of Olives to seize Him. For in the memoirs which I say were drawn up by His apostles and those who followed them, [it is recorded] that His sweat fell down like drops of blood while He was praying, and saying, 'If it be possible, let this cup pass:' Luke 22:44, 42 His heart and also His bones trembling; His heart being like wax melting in His belly: in order that we may perceive that the Father wished His Son really to undergo such sufferings for our sakes, and may not say that He, being the Son of God, did not feel what was happening to Him and inflicted on Him. Further, the expression, 'My strength is dried up like a potsherd, and my tongue has cleaved to my throat,' was a prediction, as I previously remarked, of that silence, when He who convicted all your teachers of being unwise returned no answer at all.
52. Anon., Pistis Sophia, 1.30, 4.136 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

53. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

9b. אותו צדיק (בראשית טו, יג) ועבדום וענו אותם קיים בהם ואחרי כן יצאו ברכוש גדול לא קיים בהם,אמרו לו ולואי שנצא בעצמנו משל לאדם שהיה חבוש בבית האסורים והיו אומרים לו בני אדם מוציאין אותך למחר מבית האסורין ונותנין לך ממון הרבה ואומר להם בבקשה מכם הוציאוני היום ואיני מבקש כלום:,(שמות יב, לו) וישאלום א"ר אמי מלמד שהשאילום בעל כרחם איכא דאמרי בעל כרחם דמצרים וא"ד בעל כרחם דישראל,מ"ד בעל כרחם דמצרים דכתיב (תהלים סח, יג) ונות בית תחלק שלל מ"ד בעל כרחם דישראל משום משוי:,(שמות יב, לו) וינצלו את מצרים א"ר אמי מלמד שעשאוה כמצודה שאין בה דגן ור"ל אמר עשאוה כמצולה שאין בה דגים:,(שמות ג, יד) אהיה אשר אהיה א"ל הקב"ה למשה לך אמור להם לישראל אני הייתי עמכם בשעבוד זה ואני אהיה עמכם בשעבוד מלכיות,אמר לפניו רבש"ע דיה לצרה בשעתה א"ל הקב"ה לך אמור להם (שמות ג, יד) אהיה שלחני אליכם:,(מלכים א יח, לז) ענני ה' ענני א"ר אבהו למה אמר אליהו ענני ב' פעמים מלמד שאמר אליהו לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע ענני שתרד אש מן השמים ותאכל כל אשר על המזבח וענני שתסיח דעתם כדי שלא יאמרו מעשה כשפים הם שנאמר (מלכים א יח, לז) ואתה הסבות את לבם אחורנית:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מאימתי קורין את שמע בשחרית משיכיר בין תכלת ללבן ר' אליעזר אומר בין תכלת לכרתי (וגומרה) עד הנץ החמה ר' יהושע אומר עד שלש שעות שכן דרך מלכים לעמוד בשלש שעות,הקורא מכאן ואילך לא הפסיד כאדם הקורא בתורה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מאי בין תכלת ללבן אילימא בין גבבא דעמרא חיורא לגבבא דעמרא דתכלתא הא בליליא נמי מידע ידעי אלא בין תכלת שבה ללבן שבה.,תניא רבי מאיר אומר משיכיר בין זאב לכלב ר"ע אומר בין חמור לערוד ואחרים אומרים משיראה את חברו רחוק ד' אמות ויכירנו,אמר רב הונא הלכה כאחרים אמר אביי לתפילין כאחרים לק"ש כותיקין דאמר ר' יוחנן ותיקין היו גומרין אותה עם הנץ החמה,תניא נמי הכי ותיקין היו גומרין אותה עם הנץ החמה כדי שיסמוך גאולה לתפלה ונמצא מתפלל ביום,א"ר זירא מאי קראה (תהלים עב, ה) ייראוך עם שמש ולפני ירח דור דורים,העיד ר"י בן אליקים משום קהלא קדישא דבירושלים כל הסומך גאולה לתפלה אינו נזוק כל היום כולו,א"ר זירא איני והא אנא סמכי ואיתזקי א"ל במאי איתזקת דאמטיית אסא לבי מלכא התם נמי מבעי לך למיהב אגרא למחזי אפי מלכא דא"ר יוחנן לעולם ישתדל אדם לרוץ לקראת מלכי ישראל ולא לקראת מלכי ישראל בלבד אלא אפילו לקראת מלכי עכו"ם שאם יזכה יבחין בין מלכי ישראל למלכי עכו"ם.,אמר ליה רבי אלעא לעולא כי עיילת להתם שאיל בשלמא דרב ברונא אחי במעמד כל החבורה דאדם גדול הוא ושמח במצות זימנא חדא סמך גאולה לתפלה ולא פסיק חוכא מפומיה כוליה יומא.,היכי מצי סמיך והא א"ר יוחנן בתחלה הוא אומר ה' שפתי תפתח ולבסוף הוא אומר יהיו לרצון אמרי פי וגו',אמר ר' אלעזר תהא בתפלה של ערבית.,והא אמר ר' יוחנן איזהו בן העוה"ב זהו הסומך גאולה של ערבית לתפלה של ערבית,אלא א"ר אלעזר תהא בתפלת המנחה,רב אשי אמר אפי' תימא אכולהו וכיון דקבעוה רבנן בתפלה כתפלה אריכתא דמיא,דאי לא תימא הכי ערבית היכי מצי סמיך והא בעי למימר השכיבנו אלא כיון דתקינו רבנן השכיבנו כגאולה אריכתא דמיא ה"נ כיון דקבעוה רבנן בתפלה כתפלה אריכתא דמיא.,מכדי האי יהיו לרצון אמרי פי משמע לבסוף ומשמע מעיקרא דבעינא למימר מ"ט תקנוהו רבנן לאחר י"ח ברכות לימרו מעיקרא,א"ר יהודה בריה דר' שמעון בן פזי הואיל ולא אמרו דוד אלא לאחר י"ח פרשיות לפיכך תקינו רבנן לאחר י"ח ברכות.,הני י"ח י"ט הויין,אשרי האיש ולמה רגשו גוים חדא פרשה היא,דאמר ר' יהודה בריה דרבי שמעון בן פזי ק"ג פרשיות אמר דוד ולא אמר הללויה עד שראה במפלתן של רשעים שנאמר (תהלים קד, לה) יתמו חטאים מן הארץ ורשעים עוד אינם ברכי נפשי את ה' הללויה.,הני ק"ג ק"ד הויין אלא שמע מינה אשרי האיש ולמה רגשו גוים חדא פרשה היא,דאמר ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יוחנן 9b. bthat righteous person,Abraham, bwill not say:God bfulfilledHis pronouncement: b“And they will be enslaved and afflicted,”but God bdid not fulfillHis pronouncement: b“And afterward, they will leave with great possessions.”As God said to Abraham: “Surely you shall know that your descendants will be foreigners in a land that is not theirs, and they will be enslaved and afflicted for four hundred years. And also that nation who enslaves them will I judge. And afterward, they will leave with great possessions” (Genesis 15:13–14).,The school of Rabbi Yannai continues: Israel bsaid toMoses: bIf only we could get out ourselves.The Gemara offers ba parable to one who was incarcerated in prison, and people would say to him:We promise, bwe will release you tomorrow and give you much money. He says to them: I beseech you, release me today and I ask for nothing.So too, Israel preferred leaving immediately empty handed rather than leaving later with great riches.,With regard to the spoils taken from Egypt described in the verse: “And the Lord gave the nation grace in the eyes of Egypt, band they gave them what they requestedand they emptied Egypt” (Exodus 12:36), bRabbi Ami said: This teaches thatthe Egyptians bgave them what they requested against their will.There is a dispute with regard to the question: Against whose will? bSome sayit was given bagainst the will of the Egyptians, and some sayit was given bagainst the will of Israel.The proponent of each position cites support for his opinion., bThe one who saidthat it was given bagainst the will of the Egyptianscites the verse describing Israel’s exit from Egypt, bas it is written: “And she who tarries at home divides the spoils”(Psalms 68:13). That which the woman in the verse requested from her counterpart was actually spoils taken against the will of an enemy. bThe one who saidthat it was given bagainst the will of Israel,claims that they did not want the vessels bbecause of theburden of carrying a heavy bloadon a long journey.,With regard to the continuation of the verse: bAnd they emptied Egypt, Rabbi Ami said:This indicates that bthey madeEgypt blike a trap in which there is no grainthat serves as bait to attract birds. bReish Lakish said: They madeEgypt blike an abyssin the sea bwithout fish. /b,The Gemara proceeds to discuss the promise of redemption from Egypt that God made to Moses at the burning bush. When Moses asked God what to say when Israel asks him God’s name, “and God said to Moses: b‘I will be that I will be,’and He said: ‘Thus you will say unto the children of Israel: I will be has sent me to you’” (Exodus 3:14). bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, toldMoses bto go and tell Israel: I was with you in this enslavement,and in this redemption, band I will be with you in the enslavement of the kingdomsin the future.,Moses bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, it is enoughfor them to endure. Let bthefuture bsufferingbe endured bat itsappointed btime.There is no need to mention their future enslavement. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He,agreed with Moses and bsaid to him: Go and tellthe children of Israel only that, b“I will be has sent me to you.” /b,Having explained the use of the double language of “I will be that I will be,” the Gemara proceeds to explain the double language employed by Elijah on Mount Carmel: b“Answer me, Lord, answer me,that this people will know that You are the Lord, God, and You have turned their hearts backward” (I Kings 18:37). bRabbi Abbahu said: Why did Elijah say answer me twice?This repetition bteaches that Elijah said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, answer me that fire will descend from heaven and consume everything that is on the altar, and answer me that You will divert their mindfrom devising alternative explanations for what they witnessed so bthat they will not say that they were acts of sorcery. As it is statedthat Elijah said: b“And You have turned their hearts backward,”God can restore them to the proper path as well., strongMISHNA: /strong bFrom when does one recite iShemain the morning /b? bFromwhen a person bcan distinguish between sky-blue [ itekhelet /i] and white. br bRabbi Eliezer says:From when one can distinguish bbetween sky-blue and leek-green. br bAndone must bfinishreciting iShema buntilthe end of the period when you rise, i.e., bsunrise,when the sun begins to shine. br bRabbi Yehoshua says:One may recite the morning iShema buntil three hoursof the day, which this is still considered when you rise, bas that is the habit of kings to risefrom their sleep bat three hoursof the day.,While there is a set time frame for the recitation of iShema /i, bone who recites iShema bfrom that time onward loses nothing.Although he does not fulfill the mitzva of reciting of iShemaat its appointed time, bhe isnevertheless considered blike one who reads the Torah,and is rewarded accordingly., strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna stated that the time for the recitation of the morning iShemabegins when one can distinguish between sky-blue and white. The Gemara asks: To bwhatis bbetween sky-blue and whitereferring? bIf you saythat it means distinguishing between ba pile of white wool and a pile of sky-blue wool, wouldn’t one knowthe difference bat night, as well? Rather,it must be a reference to ritual fringes made with sky-blue strings (see Numbers 15:38) along with white strings, and one must be able to distinguish bbetween the sky-bluestrings in the ritual fringes band the whitestrings binthe ritual fringes. brWith regard to the beginning of the time for the recitation of the morning iShema /i, a ibaraitacites additional opinions not cited in the mishna., bIt was taughtin a ibaraita /i: br bRabbi Meir saysthat the day begins when bone can distinguish betweentwo similar animals, e.g., ba wolf and a dog. br bRabbi Akivaprovides a different sign, and bsays that theday begins when there is sufficient light to distinguish bbetween a donkey and a wild donkey. br bAnd iAḥerimsay: When one can see anotherperson, who is merely an acquaintance (Jerusalem Talmud) from ba distance of four cubits and recognize him. /b, bRav Huna said: The ihalakhais in accordance with iAḥerim /i. Abaye said:Regarding the time from which one may don bphylacteries,a mitzva incumbent only by day, the ihalakha bis in accordance with iAḥerim /i.But with regard to bthe recitation of iShema /i, one should conduct himself bin accordance withthe custom of bthe ivatikin /i,pious individuals who were scrupulous in their performance of mitzvot. As bRabbi Yoḥa said: The ivatikinwould concludethe recitation of iShema bwith sunrise,and one should act accordingly., bIt was also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe ivatikinwould concludethe recitation of iShema bwith sunrise in order to juxtaposethe blessing of bredemption,which immediately follows the recitation of iShema, bwith prayer, and pray during the day. /b,Regarding this custom of the ivatikin /i, bRabbi Zeira said: What verseis the source for this tradition? b“They shall fear You with the sun, and before the moon for all generations”(Psalms 72:5). This verse indicates that one should express one’s awe of Heaven, they shall fear You, immediately before sunrise, with the sun., bRabbi Yosei ben Elyakim testified in the name of the holy community in Jerusalem,a title accorded a particular group of Sages who lived there, that bone who juxtaposes redemption and prayerat sunrise bwill incur no harm for the entire day. /b, bRabbi Zeira said: Is that so? Didn’t I juxtaposeredemption and prayer bandnevertheless bI was harmed?Rabbi Yosei ben Elyakim baskedRabbi Zeira: bHow were you harmed? That you brought a myrtle branch to the king’s palace?The Gemara refers to Rabbi Zeira’s responsibility as one of the respected members of the community to participate in a delegation that brought a crown of myrtle as a gift to the king, a dubious honor in which Rabbi Zeira had no interest. However, bthere, too, you had to pay a price in order to see the face of the king, as Rabbi Yoḥa said: One should always strive to run to greet the kings of Israelto witness them in their glory. bAnd not onlymust one run bto greet the kings of Israel, but even to greet the kings of the nations of the world, so that if he will be privilegedto witness the redemption of Israel, bhe will distinguish between the kings of Israel and the kings of the nations of the world,to see how much greater the Jewish king will be and how his rule will be manifest. Therefore, it was a privilege for Rabbi Zeira that he was allowed to see the face of the king., bRabbi El’a said to Ullabefore Ulla left for Babylonia: bWhen you go toBabylonia, bask after my brother, Rav Beruna, in the presence of the entire group, as he is a great man who rejoices in mitzvot,and it is only fitting that he should be accorded respect. The Gemara provides proof that he was indeed a great man who rejoiced in mitzvot: bOnce,Rav Beruna bjuxtaposed redemption and prayerat sunrise, as per the custom of the ivatikin( iTosafot /i), band laughterand joy bdid not cease from his mouth for the entire day. /b,In practice, the Gemara asks: bHow is one able to juxtapose redemption and prayer? Didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say: At the beginningof prayer, bone says: “Lord, open my lips,that my mouth may declare Your glory” (Psalms 51:17), band at the endof prayer one says: b“May the words of my mouthand the meditation of my heart bbe acceptablebefore You, Lord, my Rock, and my Redeemer” (Psalms 19:15). If so, the first verse is an interruption between redemption and prayer., bRabbi Elazar said: Let thisverse, “Lord, open my lips,” be recited only bin the evening prayerbut not in the morning prayer.,The Gemara asks: bDidn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say: Who is worthy ofa place in bthe World-to-Come? He who juxtaposes redemption of the evening prayer to the evening prayer.Therefore, this verse from Psalms should not be recited before the evening prayer either., bRather, Rabbi Elazar said: Let thisverse: “Lord, open my lips,” be recited only before bthe afternoon prayer. /b, bRav Ashi saidanother explanation: bEven if you saythat Rabbi Yoḥa holds that “Lord, open my lips” is recited before ballprayers, including the morning and the evening prayers. bSince the Sages institutedthis verse, bit is considered as an extended prayer;it is an inseparable part of the prayers, and if redemption is juxtaposed to this verse, it is no different than if redemption was juxtaposed to prayer directly.,Rabbi Ashi supports his claim: bAs if you do not say so, how does one juxtaposeredemption of the evening prayer to bthe evening prayer? Mustn’t one recite: Help us lie down [ ihashkivenu /i]after redemption? bRather, since the Sages institutedthe recitation of: bHelp us lie down, it is considered as an extended blessing of redemption. So, too, since the Sages institutedthis verse in prayer, bit is considered as an extended prayer. /b,With regard to the verse with which the prayer concludes, the Gemara deliberates: bNow, since thisverse: b“May the words of my mouthand the meditation of my heart bbe acceptablebefore You,” can bconnote the endof prayer, petitioning God that He accept the prayer that was just recited, bandit can bconnote the beginningof the prayer bthat he wants to recite:May the words of my mouth which I am about to recite be acceptable before You. If so, the question arises: bWhy did the Sages institutethat it is to be recited bafter the eighteen blessingsthat constitute the iAmida /i? bLet it be recited at the beginningof the prayer., bRabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, said:This verse is recited after the eighteen blessings comprising the iAmida bbecause David only saidthis verse bafter eighteen chaptersof Psalms (end of ch. 19). bTherefore, the Sages institutedto recite it bafter the eighteen blessingsof the iAmida /i.,The Gemara asks: Are bthese eighteenpsalms? bThey are nineteenchapters that precede that verse.,The Gemara answers: b“Happy is the man,”the first chapter of Psalms, band “Why are the nations in an uproar,”the second chapter, bconstitute a single chapter,so the nineteen chapters are actually eighteen.,The Gemara cites proof that the first two chapters are in fact a single chapter. bAs Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, said: David said one hundred and three chapters, and he did not say iHalleluya /iin any of them buntil he saw the downfall of the wicked.Only then could David say iHalleluyawholeheartedly. bAs it is stated: “Let sinners cease from the earth, and let the wicked be no more. Bless the Lord, my soul, iHalleluya /i”(Psalms 104:35).,Here too, the Gemara notes that the calculation appears inaccurate: Are bthese one hundred and threepsalms? bThey are one hundred and four. Rather, conclude from thisthat b“Happy is the man” and “Why are the nations in uproar” constitute a single portion. /b,Additional proof that these two chapters comprise a single portion is cited from what bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: /b
54. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

12b. את הארץ למה לי להקדים שמים לארץ והארץ היתה תהו ובהו מכדי בשמים אתחיל ברישא מאי שנא דקא חשיב מעשה ארץ תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל משל למלך בשר ודם שאמר לעבדיו השכימו לפתחי השכים ומצא נשים ואנשים למי משבח למי שאין דרכו להשכים והשכים,תניא ר' יוסי אומר אוי להם לבריות שרואות ואינן יודעות מה רואות עומדות ואין יודעות על מה הן עומדות הארץ על מה עומדת על העמודים שנאמר (איוב ט, ו) המרגיז ארץ ממקומה ועמודיה יתפלצון עמודים על המים שנאמר (תהלים קלו, ו) לרוקע הארץ על המים מים על ההרים שנאמר על הרים יעמדו מים הרים ברוח שנאמר (עמוס ד, יג) כי הנה יוצר הרים ובורא רוח רוח בסערה שנאמר (תהלים קמח, ח) רוח סערה עושה דברו סערה תלויה בזרועו של הקב"ה שנאמר (דברים לג, כז) ומתחת זרועות עולם,וחכ"א על י"ב עמודים עומדת שנאמר (דברים לב, ח) יצב גבולות עמים למספר בני ישראל וי"א ז' עמודים שנאמר (משלי ט, א) חצבה עמודיה שבעה ר"א בן שמוע אומר על עמוד אחד וצדיק שמו שנאמר (משלי י, כה) וצדיק יסוד עולם,א"ר יהודה שני רקיעים הן שנאמר (דברים י, יד) הן לה' אלהיך השמים ושמי השמים,ר"ל אמר שבעה ואלו הן וילון רקיע שחקים זבול מעון מכון ערבות וילון אינו משמש כלום אלא נכנס שחרית ויוצא ערבית ומחדש בכל יום מעשה בראשית שנאמר (ישעיהו מ, כב) הנוטה כדוק שמים וימתחם כאהל לשבת רקיע שבו חמה ולבנה כוכבים ומזלות קבועין שנאמר (בראשית א, יז) ויתן אותם אלהים ברקיע השמים שחקים שבו רחיים עומדות וטוחנות מן לצדיקים שנאמר (תהלים עח, כג) ויצו שחקים ממעל ודלתי שמים פתח וימטר עליהם מן לאכול וגו',זבול שבו ירושלים ובית המקדש ומזבח בנוי ומיכאל השר הגדול עומד ומקריב עליו קרבן שנאמר (מלכים א ח, יג) בנה בניתי בית זבול לך מכון לשבתך עולמים ומנלן דאיקרי שמים דכתיב (ישעיהו סג, טו) הבט משמים וראה מזבול קדשך ותפארתך,מעון שבו כיתות של מלאכי השרת שאומרות שירה בלילה וחשות ביום מפני כבודן של ישראל שנאמר (תהלים מב, ט) יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ובלילה שירה עמי,אמר ר"ל כל העוסק בתורה בלילה הקב"ה מושך עליו חוט של חסד ביום שנאמר יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ומה טעם יומם יצוה ה' חסדו משום ובלילה שירה עמי ואיכא דאמרי אמר ר"ל כל העוסק בתורה בעוה"ז שהוא דומה ללילה הקב"ה מושך עליו חוט של חסד לעוה"ב שהוא דומה ליום שנאמר יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ובלילה שירה עמי,א"ר לוי כל הפוסק מדברי תורה ועוסק בדברי שיחה מאכילין אותו גחלי רתמים שנאמר (איוב ל, ד) הקוטפים מלוח עלי שיח ושרש רתמים לחמם ומנלן דאיקרי שמים שנאמר (דברים כו, טו) השקיפה ממעון קדשך מן השמים,מכון שבו אוצרות שלג ואוצרות ברד ועליית טללים רעים ועליית אגלים וחדרה של סופה [וסערה] ומערה של קיטור ודלתותיהן אש שנאמר (דברים כח, יב) יפתח ה' לך את אוצרו הטוב,הני ברקיעא איתנהו הני בארעא איתנהו דכתיב (תהלים קמח, ז) הללו את ה' מן הארץ תנינים וכל תהומות אש וברד שלג וקיטור רוח סערה עושה דברו אמר רב יהודה אמר רב דוד ביקש עליהם רחמים והורידן לארץ אמר לפניו רבש"ע (תהלים ה, ה) לא אל חפץ רשע אתה לא יגורך (במגורך) רע צדיק אתה ה' לא יגור במגורך רע ומנלן דאיקרי שמים דכתיב (מלכים א ח, לט) ואתה תשמע השמים מכון שבתך,ערבות שבו צדק משפט וצדקה גנזי חיים וגנזי שלום וגנזי ברכה ונשמתן של צדיקים ורוחות ונשמות שעתיד להיבראות וטל שעתיד הקב"ה להחיות בו מתים צדק ומשפט דכתיב (תהלים פט, טו) צדק ומשפט מכון כסאך צדקה דכתיב (ישעיהו נט, יז) וילבש צדקה כשרין גנזי חיים דכתיב (תהלים לו, י) כי עמך מקור חיים וגנזי שלום דכתיב (שופטים ו, כד) ויקרא לו ה' שלום וגנזי ברכה דכתיב (תהלים כד, ה) ישא ברכה מאת ה',נשמתן של צדיקים דכתיב (שמואל א כה, כט) והיתה נפש אדוני צרורה בצרור החיים את ה' אלהיך רוחות ונשמות שעתיד להיבראות דכתיב (ישעיהו נז, טז) כי רוח מלפני יעטוף ונשמות אני עשיתי וטל שעתיד הקב"ה להחיות בו מתים דכתיב (תהלים סח, י) גשם נדבות תניף אלהים נחלתך ונלאה אתה כוננתה,שם אופנים ושרפים וחיות הקדש ומלאכי השרת וכסא הכבוד מלך אל חי רם ונשא שוכן עליהם בערבות שנאמר (תהלים סח, ה) סולו לרוכב בערבות ביה שמו ומנלן דאיקרי שמים אתיא רכיבה רכיבה כתיב הכא סולו לרוכב בערבות וכתיב התם (דברים לג, כו) רוכב שמים בעזרך,וחשך וענן וערפל מקיפין אותו שנאמר (תהלים יח, יב) ישת חשך סתרו סביבותיו סוכתו חשכת מים עבי שחקים ומי איכא חשוכא קמי שמיא והכתיב [דניאל ב, כב] הוא (גלי) עמיקתא ומסתרתא ידע מה בחשוכא ונהורא עמיה שרי לא קשיא הא 12b. bWhy do Ineed b“and the earth” [ iet ha’aretz /i]? Toteach that bheaven preceded earthin the order of Creation. The next verse states: b“And the earth was unformed and void”(Genesis 1:2). The Gemara asks: bAfter all,the Bible bbegan with heaven first; what is differentabout the second verse? Why does the Bible brecount the creation of earthfirst in the second verse? bThe Sage of the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught:This can be explained by ba parable of a flesh-and-blood king who said to his servants: Rise earlyand come bto my entrance. He arose and found women and menwaiting for him. bWhom does he praise? Those who are unaccustomed to rising early butyet brose early,the women. The same applies to the earth: Since it is a lowly, physical sphere, we would not have expected it to be created together with heaven. Therefore, it is fitting to discuss it at greater length.,§ bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei says: Woe to them, the creations, who see and know not what they see;who bstand and know not upon what they stand.He clarifies: bUpon what does the earth stand? Upon pillars, as it is stated: “Who shakes the earth out of its place, and its pillars tremble”(Job 9:6). These bpillarsare positioned bupon water, as it is stated: “To Him Who spread forth the earth over the waters”(Psalms 136:6). These bwatersstand bupon mountains, as it is stated: “The waters stood above the mountains”(Psalms 104:6). The bmountainsare upon the bwind, as it is stated: “For behold He forms the mountains and creates the wind”(Amos 4:13). The bwindis bupon a storm, as it is stated: “Stormy wind, fulfilling His word”(Psalms 148:8). The bstorm hangs upon the arm of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “And underneath are the everlasting arms”(Deuteronomy 33:27), which demonstrates that the entire world rests upon the arms of the Holy One, Blessed be He.,And the Rabbis say: The earth bstands on twelve pillars, as it is stated: “He set the borders of the nations according to the number of the children of Israel”(Deuteronomy 32:8). Just as the children of Israel, i.e., the sons of Jacob, are twelve in number, so does the world rest on twelve pillars. bAnd some say:There are bseven pillars, as it is stated: “She has hewn out her seven pillars”(Proverbs 9:1). bRabbi Elazar ben Shammua says:The earth rests bon one pillar and a righteous person is its name, as it is stated: “But a righteous person is the foundation of the world”(Proverbs 10:25).,§ bRabbi Yehuda said: There are two firmaments, as it is stated: “Behold, to the Lord your God belongs the heaven and the heaven of heavens”(Deuteronomy 10:14), indicating that there is a heaven above our heaven., bReish Lakish said:There are bsevenfirmaments, band they are as follows: iVilon /i, iRakia /i, iSheḥakim /i, iZevul /i, iMa’on /i, iMakhon /i,and iAravot /i.The Gemara proceeds to explain the role of each firmament: iVilon /i,curtain, is the firmament that bdoes not contain anything, but enters at morning and departsin the bevening, and renews the act of Creation daily, as it is stated: “Who stretches out the heavens as a curtain [ iVilon /i], and spreads them out as a tent to dwell in”(Isaiah 40:22). iRakia /i,firmament, is the one bin whichthe bsun, moon, stars, and zodiac signs are fixed, as it is stated: “And God set them in the firmament [ iRakia /i] of the heaven”(Genesis 1:17). iSheḥakim /i,heights, is the one bin which mills stand and grind manna for the righteous, as it is stated: “And He commanded the heights [ iShehakim /i] above, and opened the doors of heaven; and He caused manna to rain upon them for food,and gave them of the corn of heaven” (Psalms 78:23–24).,iZevul /i,abode, bisthe location bofthe heavenly bJerusalem andthe heavenly bTemple, andthere the heavenly baltar is built, andthe angel bMichael, the great minister, stands and sacrifices an offering upon it, as it is stated: “I have surely built a house of iZevulfor You, a place for You to dwell forever”(I Kings 8:13). bAnd from where do wederive bthat iZevul bis called heaven? As it is written: “Look down from heaven and see, from Your holy and glorious abode [ iZevul /i]”(Isaiah 63:15).,iMa’on /i,habitation, bis wherethere are bgroups of ministering angels who recite song at night and are silent during the day out of respect for Israel,in order not to compete with their songs, bas it is stated: “By day the Lord will command His kindness, and in the night His song is with me”(Psalms 42:9), indicating that the song of the angels is with God only at night.,With regard to the aforementioned verse, bReish Lakish said: Whoever occupieshimself bwith Torah at night, the Holy One, Blessed be He, extends a thread of kindness over him by day, as it is stated: “By day, the Lord will command His kindness,” and what is the reasonthat b“by day, the Lord will command His kindness”? Because “and in the night His song,”i.e., the song of Torah, b“is with me.” And some saythat bReish Lakish said: Whoever occupies himself with Torah in this world, which is comparable to night, the Holy One, Blessed be He, extends a thread of kindness over him in the World-to-Come, which is comparable to day, as it is stated: “By day, the Lord will command His kindness, and in the night His song is with me.” /b,With regard to the same matter, bRabbi Levi said: Anyone who pauses from words of Torah to occupy himself with mundane conversation will be fed with the coals of the broom tree, as it is stated: “They pluck saltwort [ imaluaḥ /i] with wormwood [ ialei siaḥ /i], and the roots of the broom tree [ iretamim /i] are their food”(Job 30:4). The exposition is as follows: Those who pluck, i.e., pause, from learning Torah, which was given upon two tablets, iluḥot /i, which sounds similar to imaluaḥ /i, for the purpose of isiaḥ /i, idle chatter, are punished by having to eat coals made from “the roots of the broom tree.” bAnd from where do wederive bthat iMa’on bis called heaven? As it is stated: “Look forth from Your holy iMa’on /i, from heaven”(Deuteronomy 26:15).,iMakhon /i,dwelling place, bis where there are storehouses of snow and storehouses of hail, and the upper chamber of harmful dews, and the upper chamber of drops, and the room of tempests and storms, and the cave of mist. And the doorsof all these are made of bfire.How do we know that there are storehouses for evil things? bFor it is stated: “The Lord will open for you His good storehouse,the heavens” (Deuteronomy 28:12), which indicates the existence of a storehouse that contains the opposite of good.,The Gemara asks a question: With regard to bthesethings listed above, are they blocated in heaven?It is obvious that btheyare blocated on the earth. As it is written: “Praise the Lord from the earth, sea monsters and all depths, fire and hail, snow and mist, stormy wind, fulfilling His word”(Psalms 148:7–8). The verse seems to indicate that all these things are found on the earth. bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: David requested mercy with regard to them,that they should not remain in heaven, band He brought them down to earth. He said before Him: Master of the Universe, “You are not a God that has pleasure in wickedness, evil shall not sojourn with You”(Psalms 5:5). In other words, bYou are righteous, O Lord.Nothing bevil should sojourn in Your vicinity.Rather, it is better that they remain close to us. bAnd from where do wederive bthatthis place bis called “heaven”? As it is written: “And You shall hearin bheaven, the iMakhonof Your dwelling”(I Kings 8:39).,iAravot /i,skies, is the firmament bthat contains righteousness; justice; righteousness,i.e., charity; bthe treasuries of life; the treasuries of peace; the treasuries of blessing; the souls of the righteous; the spirits and souls that are to be created; and the dew that the Holy One, Blessed be He, will use to revive the dead.The Gemara proves this statement: bRighteousness and justiceare found in heaven, bas it is written: “Righteousness and justice are the foundation of Your throne”(Psalms 89:15); brighteousness, as it is written: “And He donned righteousness as armor”(Isaiah 59:17); bthe treasuries of life, as it is written: “For with You is the source of life”(Psalms 36:10). bAnd the treasuries of peaceare found in heaven, bas it is written: “And he called Him the Lord of peace”(Judges 6:24), implying that peace is God’s name and is therefore found close to Him. bAnd the treasuries of blessing, as it is written: “He shall receive a blessing from the Lord”(Psalms 24:5)., bThe souls of the righteousare found in heaven, bas it is written: “And the soul of my master shall be bound in the bundle of life with the Lord, your God”(I Samuel 25:29). bSpirits and souls that are to be createdare found there, bas it is written: “For the spirit that enwraps itself is from Me, and the souls that I have made”(Isaiah 57:16), which indicates that the spirit to be released into the world, wrapped around a body, is located close to God. bThe dew that the Holy One, Blessed be He, will use to revive the deadis found in heaven, bas it is written: “A bountiful rain You will pour down, God; when Your inheritance was weary, You confirmed it”(Psalms 68:10)., bThere,in the firmaments, are the iofanim /i,the bseraphim,the bholy divine creatures, and the ministering angels, and the Throne of Glory. The King, God,the bliving, lofty, exalted One dwells above them in iAravot /i, as it is stated: “Extol Him Who rides upon the skies [ iAravot /i], Whose name is God”(Psalms 68:5). bAnd from where do wederive bthat iAravot bis called “heaven”?This is blearnedby using a verbal analogy between two instances of b“rides”and b“rides”: Here, it is written: “Extol Him Who rides upon the skies [ iAravot /i],” and there, it is written: “Who rides upon the heaven as your help”(Deuteronomy 33:26)., bAnd darkness and clouds and fog surround Him, as it is stated: “He made darkness His hiding place, His pavilion round about Him; darkness of waters, thick clouds of the skies”(Psalms 18:12). The Gemara asks: bAnd is there darkness before Heaven,i.e., before God? bBut isn’t it written: “He reveals deep and secret things, He knows what is in the darkness, and the light dwells with Him”(Daniel 2:22), demonstrating that only light, not darkness, is found with God? The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Thisverse, which states that only light dwells with Him, is referring
55. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

110a. band swear to the Lord of hosts;one shall be called the city of destruction” (Isaiah 19:18). bThey went to Alexandria in Egypt and built an altar and sacrificedofferings bupon it for the sake of Heaven, as it is statedin the following verse: b“In that day shall there be an altar to the Lord in the midst of the land of Egypt,and a pillar at its border, to the Lord” (Isaiah 19:19).,The verse states: b“One shall be called the city of destruction”(Isaiah 19:18). The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the verse: b“One shall be called the city of destruction”?The Gemara answers: bAs Rav Yosef translatesinto Aramaic: Concerning bthe City of the Sun, which will be destroyed in the future, it will be said that it is one of them. And from whereis it derived bthatin the phrase: b“The city of destruction [ iheres /i],” the term iheres bisreferring bto the sun? As it is written: “Who commands the sun [ iḥeres /i], and it does not rise;and seals up the stars” (Job 9:7).,§ After mentioning the Jewish community in Egypt, the Gemara discusses Jewish communities in other locations. The verse states: “Fear not, for I am with you; I will bring your seed from the east and gather you from the west; I will say to the north: Give up, and to the south: Keep not back, bbring My sons from far, and My daughters from the end of the earth”(Isaiah 43:5–6). What is the meaning of b“bring My sons from far”? Rav Huna says: These are the exiles of Babylonia, whose minds are calm, like sons,and who can therefore focus properly on Torah study and mitzvot. What is the meaning of b“and My daughters from the end of the earth”? These are the exiles of other countries, whose minds are unsettled, like daughters. /b,§ bRabbi Abba bar Rav Yitzḥak saysthat bRav Ḥisda says, and some saythat bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:The gentiles living bfrom Tyre to Carthage recognize the Jewish people,their religion, band their Father in Heaven. Butthose living bto the west of Tyre and to the east of Carthage recognize neither the Jewish people nor their Father in Heaven. /b, bRav Shimi bar Ḥiyya raised an objection tothe statement of bRavfrom the verse: b“From the rising of the sun until it sets, My name is great among the nations; and in every place offerings are presented to My name, and a pure meal offering;for My name is great among the nations, says the Lord of hosts” (Malachi 1:11). This indicates that God’s name is known across the entire world, even to the west of Tyre and the east of Carthage. Rav bsaid to him: Shimi,is it byouwho is raising such an objection? The verse does not mean that they recognize God and worship him. Rather, it means bthatalthough they worship idols, bthey call Him the God of gods. /b,§ The verse states: “And bin every place offerings are presented to My name,and a pure meal offering; for My name is great among the nations, says the Lord of hosts.” Does it benter your mindto say that it is permitted to sacrifice offerings bin every place?Rather, bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says: These are Torah scholars, who engage in Torahstudy bin every place.God says: bI ascribe themcredit bas though they burn and presentofferings bto My name. /b,Furthermore, when the verse states: b“And a pure meal offering,” thisis referring to bone who studies Torah in purity,i.e., one who first bmarries a woman and afterward studies Torah.Since he is married, he is not disturbed by sinful thoughts.,The Gemara cites another verse that praises Torah scholars. b“A Song of Ascents, Behold, bless the Lord, all you servants of the Lord, who stand in the House of the Lord at night”(Psalms 134:1). bWhatis the meaning of b“at night,”given that the Temple service is not performed at night and all the offerings must be sacrificed during the daytime? bRabbi Yoḥa says: These are Torah scholars, who engage in Torahstudy bat night. The verse ascribes themcredit bas though they engage in theTemple bservice. /b,§ The Gemara cites another verse that is interpreted in a similar vein. King Solomon said to Hiram of Tyre: “Behold, I am about to build a house for the name of the Lord my God, to dedicate it to Him, and to burn before Him incense of sweet spices, and for the continual shewbread, and for the burnt offerings morning and evening, on the iShabbatot /i, and on the New Moons, and on the Festivals of the Lord our God. bThis is an ordice forever for Israel”(II Chronicles 2:3). Since the Temple was eventually destroyed, what did Solomon mean when he said that it is “an ordice forever”? bRav Giddel saysthat bRav says: Thisis referring to the baltarthat remains bbuiltin Heaven even after the earthly Temple was destroyed, bandthe angel bMichael, the great minister, stands and sacrifices an offering upon it. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa saysthat there is an alternative explanation of the verse: bThese are Torah scholars, who engage instudying bthe ihalakhotofthe Temple bservice. The verse ascribes themcredit bas though the Temple was built in their daysand they are serving in it.,§ The Gemara cites similar interpretations of verses: bReish Lakish said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “This is the law [ itorah /i] of the burnt offering, of the meal offering, and of the sin offering, and of the guilt offering,and of the consecration offering, and of the sacrifice of peace offerings” (Leviticus 7:37)? This teaches that banyone who engages in Torahstudy is considered bas though he sacrificed a burnt offering, a meal offering, a sin offering, and a guilt offering. /b, bRava saidan objection to this interpretation: bThisverse states: b“of the burnt offering, of the meal offering.”If the interpretation of Reish Lakish is correct, the verse bshould havewritten: b“Burnt offering and meal offering.” Rather, Rava saysthat the correct interpretation of this verse is: bAnyone who engages in Torahstudy bneed notbring ba burnt offering, nor a sin offering, nor a meal offering, nor a guilt offering. /b, bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “This is the law of the sin offering”(Leviticus 6:18), band: “This is the law of the guilt offering”(Leviticus 7:1)? These verses teach that banyone who engages instudying bthe law of the sin offeringis ascribed credit bas though he sacrificed a sin offering, and anyone who engages instudying bthe law of a guilt offeringis ascribed credit bas though he sacrificed a guilt offering. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bIt is stated with regard to an animal burnt offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 1:9), band with regard to a bird burnt offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 1:17), band with regard to a meal offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 2:2). The repetitive language employed concerning all of these different offerings is bto say to youthat bone who brings a substantialoffering band one who brings a meageroffering have equal merit, bprovided that he directs his heart toward Heaven. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bRabbi Zeira said: What is the versefrom which this principle is derived? b“Sweet is the sleep of a laboring man, whether he consumes little or much” /b(Ecclesiastes 5:11).The verse is interpreted as referring to one who brings an offering, and teaches that one who brings a substantial offering and one who brings a meager offering can be equally assured that their offering will be accepted., bRav Adda bar Ahava saidthat the source is bfrom here: “When goods increase, those who consume them increase; and what advantage is there to the owner,except seeing them with his eyes?” (Ecclesiastes 5:10). One who brings a substantial offering, who thereby increases the number of priests who partake of it, does not have more merit than one who brings a meager offering. Rather, the offering that God desires is one where He recognizes, i.e., “seeing them with His eyes,” that its owner has the proper intent.,The Gemara addresses the expression “an aroma pleasing to the Lord” stated in the verses mentioned in the mishna. bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon ben Azzai says: Come and see what is written in the portion of offerings: Asin these verses, the divine names iEland iElohimare not stated, butonly b“the Lord.”This is bsoas bnot to give a claim to a litigant to argue.Only one name of God is used in conjunction with all the various offerings, to prevent heretics from claiming that different offerings are brought to different gods., bAnd it is stated with regard to a large bulloffering: b“A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 1:9), band with regard to a small birdoffering: b“A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 1:17), band with regard to a meal offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 1:9). The repetitive language employed concerning all of these different offerings is bto say to youthat bone who brings a substantialoffering band one who brings a meageroffering have equal merit, bprovided that he directs his heart toward Heaven. /b, bAnd lest you saythat God bneedsthese offerings bfor consumption,in which case a larger offering would be preferable to a smaller one, bthe verse states: “If I were hungry, I would not tell you; for the world is Mine, and everything within it”(Psalms 50:12). bAnd it is stated: “For every beast of the forest is Mine, and the cattle upon a thousand hills. I know all the fowls of the mountains; and the wild beasts of the field are Mine”(Psalms 50:10–11). Similarly, it is stated in the following verse: b“Do I eat the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of goats?”(Psalms 50:13)., bI did not say to you: Sacrificeofferings to me, bso that you will say: I will do His will,i.e., fulfill His needs, band He will do my will. You are not sacrificing tofulfill bMy will,i.e., My needs, bbut you are sacrificing tofulfill byour will,i.e., your needs, in order to achieve atonement for your sins by observing My mitzvot, bas it is stated:“And when you sacrifice an offering of peace offerings to the Lord, byou shall sacrifice it so that you may be accepted”(Leviticus 19:5)., bAlternatively,the verse: “And when you sacrifice an offering of peace offerings to the Lord, byou shall sacrifice it so that you may be accepted [ ilirtzonkhem /i]”(Leviticus 19:5), can be interpreted differently: bSacrifice willingly [ ilirtzonkhem /i]; sacrifice intentionally. /b,This is bas Shmuel asked Rav Huna: From whereis it derived with regard bto one who acts unawaresin the case bof consecrateditems, i.e., if one slaughtered an offering without intending to perform the act of slaughter at all, but rather appeared like one occupied with other matters, bthatthe offering bis disqualified?Rav Huna said to Shmuel: It is derived from a verse, bas it is stated: “And he shall slaughter the young bullbefore the Lord” (Leviticus 1:5), teaching that the mitzva is not performed properly bunless the slaughter is for the sake of a young bull,i.e., with the knowledge that he is performing an act of slaughter.,Shmuel bsaid toRav Huna: bWe have thisas an established ihalakhaalready, that it is a mitzva to slaughter the offering for the sake of a bull, but bfrom whereis it derived that this requirement is bindispensable?Rav Huna bsaid to himthat the verse states: b“With your will you shall slaughter it”(Leviticus 19:5), i.e., bsacrifice intentionally,in the form of a purposeful action.,...Y
56. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

37a. ומנין שבאנא נאמר כאן כפרה ונאמר להלן בחורב כפרה מה להלן באנא אף כאן באנא ומנין שבשם נאמר כאן כפרה ונאמרה בעגלה ערופה כפרה מה להלן בשם אף כאן בשם,אמר אביי בשלמא חורב מעגלה ערופה לא יליף מאי דהוה הוה אלא עגלה ערופה תיליף מחורב וכי תימא ה"נ והתנן הכהנים אומרים (דברים כא, ח) כפר לעמך ישראל ואילו באנא לא קא אמר קשיא,והן עונין אחריו תניא רבי אומר (דברים לב, ג) כי שם ה' אקרא הבו גודל לאלהינו אמר להם משה לישראל בשעה שאני מזכיר שמו של הקב"ה אתם הבו גודל חנניה בן אחי ר' יהושע אומר (משלי י, ז) זכר צדיק לברכה אמר להם נביא לישראל בשע' שאני מזכיר צדיק עולמים אתם תנו ברכה, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בא לו למזרח העזרה לצפון המזבח הסגן מימינו וראש בית אב משמאלו ושם שני שעירים וקלפי היתה שם ובה שני גורלו' של אשכרוע היו ועשאן בן גמלא של זהב והיו מזכירים אותו לשבח,בן קטין עשה י"ב דד לכיור שלא היה לו אלא שנים ואף הוא עשה מוכני לכיור שלא יהיו מימיו נפסלין בלינה,מונבז המלך היה עושה כל ידות הכלים של יוה"כ של זהב הילני אמו עשתה נברשת של זהב על פתח היכל ואף היא עשתה טבלא של זהב שפרשת סוטה כתובה עליה נקנור נעשו נסים לדלתותיו והיו מזכירין אותן לשבח, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מדקאמר לצפון המזבח מכלל דמזבח לאו בצפון קאי מני ראב"י היא דתניא (ויקרא א, יא) צפונה לפני ה' שיהא צפון כולו פנוי דברי ראב"י,והא רישא ר"א בר"ש היא כולה ראב"י היא ותני בבין האולם ולמזבח,הסגן בימינו וראש בית אב בשמאלו אמר רב יהודה המהלך לימין רבו הרי זה בור תנן הסגן בימינו וראש בית אב בשמאלו,ועוד תניא שלשה שהיו מהלכין בדרך הרב באמצע גדול בימינו וקטן משמאלו וכן מצינו בשלשה מלאכי השרת שבאו אצל אברהם מיכאל באמצע גבריאל בימינו ורפאל בשמאלו,תרגומא רב שמואל בר פפא קמיה דרב אדא כדי שיתכסה בו רבו והתניא המהלך כנגד רבו הרי זה בור אחורי רבו הרי זה מגסי הרוח דמצדד אצדודי,וקלפי היתה שם ובה שני גורלות ת"ר (ויקרא טז, ח) ונתן אהרן על שני השעירים גורלות [גורלות] של כל דבר,יכול יתן שנים על זה ושנים על זה ת"ל גורל אחד לה' וגורל אחד לעזאזל אין כאן לשם אלא גורל אחד ואין כאן לעזאזל אלא אחד יכול יתן של שם ושל עזאזל על זה ושל שם ושל עזאזל על זה ת"ל גורל אחד [לה' אין כאן לה' אלא אחד ואין כאן לעזאזל אלא א'] א"כ מה ת"ל גורלות שיהיו שוין שלא יעשה אחד של זהב ואחד של כסף אחד גדול ואחד קטן,גורלות של כל דבר פשיטא לא צריכא לכדתניא לפי שמצינו בציץ שהשם כתוב עליו והוא של זהב יכול אף זה כן ת"ל גורל גורל ריבה ריבה של זית ריבה של אגוז ריבה של אשכרוע,בן קטין עשה שנים עשר דד לכיור וכו' תנא כדי שיהיו שנים עשר אחיו הכהנים העסוקין בתמיד מקדשין ידיהן ורגליהן בבת אחת תנא שחרית במילואו מקדש ידיו ורגליו מן העליון ערבית בירידתו מקדש ידיו ורגליו מן התחתון,ואף הוא עשה מוכני לכיור וכו' מאי מוכני אמר אביי גילגלא דהוה משקעא ליה,מונבז המלך עשה כל ידות הכלים וכו' נעבדינהו לדידהו דזהב 37a. bAnd from whereis it derived that the confession must begin with the word bplease? It is stated here: Atonement, and it is stated there,just before Moses’s plea following the sin of the Golden Calf bat Horeb:“Perhaps I may secure batonementfor your sin” (Exodus 32:30). bJust as there,the prayer includes: b“Please,this people is guilty of a great sin” (Exodus 32:31), bso too here,the term bpleaseshould be used. bAnd from whereis it derived bthatthe Yom Kippur confession includes bthe nameof God? bIt is stated here: Atonement, and it is stated with regard to the heifer whose neck is broken: “Atone,O God, for Your nation of Israel whom You redeemed, and do not let guilt for the blood of the innocent remain among Your people Israel, and they will be atoned of bloodguilt” (Deuteronomy 21:8). bJust as there,with regard to the heifer, bthe nameof God is mentioned, bso too here, the nameof God is mentioned., bAbaye said: Granted,the obligation to include the name of God in the confession at bHoreb cannot be derived from the heifer whose neck is broken,since bwhat was, was.The sin of the Golden Calf predated the mitzva of the heifer. bHowever, youshould bderivethat the confession in the ritual of the bheifer whose neck is brokenrequires use of the term: Please, bfrom Horeb,where Moses employed that term. bAnd if you say that is so,and the term: Please, should be employed, bdidn’t we learnin a mishna that bthe priests say: “Atone,O God, bfor Your nation, Israel”(Deuteronomy 21:8), bwhilethe mishna bdoes not statethe term bplease.Apparently, the formula of confession during the ritual of the heifer is not derived from Horeb. The Gemara says: It is indeed bdifficultwhy that is not derived.,§ The mishna continues: bAndthe priests and the people who were in the courtyard brespond after herecites the name of God: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom forever and all time. bIt was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaysthe following with regard to the verse: b“When I call out the name of the Lord, give glory to our God”(Deuteronomy 32:3). bMoses said to the Jewish people: When I mention the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He, you giveHim bgloryand recite praises in his honor. bḤaya, son of the brother of Rabbi Yehoshua, saysthat proof for the practice is from a different source: b“The memory of the righteous shall be for a blessing”(Proverbs 10:7). bThe prophet,Solomon, bsaid to the Jewish people: When I mention the Righteous One of all worlds, you accord Him a blessing. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong The priest then bcame tothe beasternside bof theTemple bcourtyard,farthest from the Holy of Holies, btothe bnorth of the altar. The deputywas bto his right, and the head of the patrilineal familybelonging to the priestly watch that was assigned to serve in the Temple that week was bto his left. Andthey arranged btwo goats there, and there was alottery breceptacle there, and in it were two lots. These wereoriginally made of bboxwood,and the High Priest Yehoshua bben Gamla fashioned them of gold,and the people bwould mention him favorablyfor what he did.,Since the mishna mentions an item designed to enhance the Temple service, it also lists other such items: The High Priest bben Katin made twelve spigots for the basinso that several priests could sanctify their hands and feet at once, baspreviously the basin bhad only two. He also made a machine [ imukheni /i] forsinking bthe basininto flowing water during the night bso that its water would not be disqualified by remaining overnight.Had the water remained in the basin overnight, it would have been necessary to pour it out the following morning. By immersing the basin in flowing water, the water inside remained fit for use the next morning., bKing Munbaz wouldcontribute the funds required to bmake the handles of all the Yom Kippur vessels of gold.Queen bHelene, his mother, fashioned adecorative bgold chandelier above the entrance of the Sanctuary. She also fashioned a golden tablet [ itavla /i] on which theTorah bportionrelating to isotawas written.The tablet could be utilized to copy this Torah portion, so that a Torah scroll need not be taken out for that purpose. With regard to bNicanor, miracles were performed to his doors,the doors in the gate of the Temple named for him, the Gate of Nicanor. bAndthe people bwould mentionall of bthosewhose contributions were listed bfavorably. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bFromthe fact bthat it saysin the mishna that the priest comes btothe bnorth of the altar,it can be learned bby inference thatthe baltaritself bdoes not stand in the northbut in the south of the courtyard. The Gemara asks: In accordance with bwhoseopinion is the mishna? The Gemara answers: bIt isin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov, as it was taughtin a ibaraitathat from the verse: “And he shall slaughter it on the side of the altar bnorthward before God”(Leviticus 1:11), it is derived bthatthe bentire northside should bbe vacant.The altar is in the south, and the north is vacant. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t the first clause,the previous mishna, as explained above, in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon,who holds that the altar was partially in the north? The Gemara rejects this assertion: The bentiremishna, including the first clause, bisin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov.Emend the previous mishna band teachit as referring to the space badjacent tothe area bbetween the Entrance Hall and the altarand not actually the space between them, north of the altar, where everyone agrees that it is the north.,§ The mishna states that bthe deputyHigh Priest stands bto the rightof the High Priest, band the head of the patrilineal family is to his left. Rav Yehuda saidwith regard to the laws of etiquette: bOne who walks to the right of his teacher is a boor,in that he hasn’t the slightest notion of good manners. The Gemara asks: Didn’t bwe learnin the mishna that bthe deputy,who is like a student to the High Priest, bis to the rightof the High Priest, band the head of the patrilinealpriestly bfamilyresponsible for the Temple service that day bis to his left? /b, bAnd furthermore, it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThreepeople bwho were walking on the roadshould not walk in single file but should walk with bthe teacher in the middle, the greaterof the students bon his right, and the lesserof them bto his left. And so too do we find with the three ministering angels who came to Abraham: Michael,the greatest of the three, was bin the middle, Gabriel was to his right, and Raphael was to his left.Apparently, a student walks to the right of his teacher., bRav Shmuel bar Pappa interpreted it before Rav Adda:He does not walk next to his teacher as an equal, but walks slightly behind him bso that he isslightly bobscured by his teacher.The Gemara asks: bBut wasn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who walks next to his teacher is a boor;one who walks bbehind his teacher,allowing his teacher to walk before him, bis among the arrogant.The Gemara answers: He does not walk directly beside him but slightly btohis bsideand slightly behind his teacher.,§ The mishna continues: bAnd there wasa lottery breceptaclein the east of the courtyard bthere, and in it were two lots. The Sages taughtthe following in a ibaraitawith regard to the verse: b“And Aaron shall place lots on the two goats,one lot for God and one lot for Azazel” (Leviticus 16:8). bLotsis a general term; they may be fashioned bfrom any material,as the Torah does not specify the material of which they are made.,One bmighthave thought that bheshould bplace twolots bon thisgoat band twolots bon thatgoat; therefore, bthe verse states: “One lot for God and one lot for Azazel”(Leviticus 16:8), meaning bthere is only one lot here for God, and there is only one lot here for Azazel.Likewise, one bmighthave thought bheshould bplacethe lot bof God andthe lot bof Azazel on thisgoat, bandthe lot bof God andthe lot bof Azazel on thatgoat; therefore, bthe verse states: One lot for God,i.e., bthere is only onelot bhere for God, and there is only onelot bhere for Azazel. If so, whatis the meaning when bthe verse states lots,in the plural, since each of the two goats has one lot not two? It is to teach bthatthe two lots should bbe identical;that bhe should not make one of gold and one of silver,or bone big and one small. /b,It was taught in the ibaraitathat the blotsmay be fashioned bfrom any material.The Gemara asks: This is bobvious,considering that the Torah does not designate a particular material. The Gemara answers: bNo,it is bnecessaryonly due to that bwhich was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bBecause we find with regard to theHigh Priest’s bfrontplate that the name of God was written upon it and it was made of gold,one bmighthave thought bthat thislot, btoo,should be made of gold since it has God’s name on it. Therefore, bthe verse states: Lot, lot,twice bto includeother materials and not exclusively gold. bIt includeslots made of bolivewood, and bincludeslots made of bwalnutwood, and bincludeslots made of bboxwood. /b,§ The mishna continues: The High Priest bben Katin made twelve spigots for the basin.It was btaught:Ben Katin did this bso that twelve of his fellow priests, who are occupied withsacrificing bthe daily offeringas explained above, could bsanctify their hands and their feet simultaneously.It was btaught: In the morning,when the basin bis full, one sanctifies his hands and his feet fromthe spigots fixed bat the topof the basin because the water level is high. And in the bafternoon, whenthe water level bis low, he sanctifies his hands and his feetfrom the spigots fixed bat the bottom. /b,The mishna continues with regard to ben Katin: bHe also made a machine forsinking bthe basin.The Gemara asks: bWhatis this bmachine? Abaye said:It is ba wheel with which he loweredthe basin into the pit.,The mishna continues: bKing Munbaz wouldcontribute the funds required to bmake the handles of all theYom Kippur bvesselsof gold. The Gemara asks: If he wanted to donate money to beautify the Temple, bhe should have madethe vessels bthemselves of gold,not just the handles.
57. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Philip, 61.5-61.10 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

58. Origen, Commentary On Romans, 8.8 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

59. Origen, Commentary On Romans, 8.8 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

60. Origen, Commentary On Romans, 8.8 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

61. Origen, On First Principles, 1.6.2, 3.1.21, 3.6, 3.6.5 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.6.2. Seeing, then, that such is the end, when all enemies will be subdued to Christ, when death — the last enemy — shall be destroyed, and when the kingdom shall be delivered up by Christ (to whom all things are subject) to God the Father; let us, I say, from such an end as this, contemplate the beginnings of things. For the end is always like the beginning: and, therefore, as there is one end to all things, so ought we to understand that there was one beginning; and as there is one end to many things, so there spring from one beginning many differences and varieties, which again, through the goodness of God, and by subjection to Christ, and through the unity of the Holy Spirit, are recalled to one end, which is like the beginning: all those, viz., who, bending the knee at the name of Jesus, make known by so doing their subjection to Him: and these are they who are in heaven, on earth, and under the earth: by which three classes the whole universe of things is pointed out, those, viz., who from that one beginning were arranged, each according to the diversity of his conduct, among the different orders, in accordance with their desert; for there was no goodness in them by essential being, as in God and His Christ, and in the Holy Spirit. For in the Trinity alone, which is the author of all things, does goodness exist in virtue of essential being; while others possess it as an accidental and perishable quality, and only then enjoy blessedness, when they participate in holiness and wisdom, and in divinity itself. But if they neglect and despise such participation, then is each one, by fault of his own slothfulness, made, one more rapidly, another more slowly, one in a greater, another in a less degree, the cause of his own downfall. And since, as we have remarked, the lapse by which an individual falls away from his position is characterized by great diversity, according to the movements of the mind and will, one man falling with greater ease, another with more difficulty, into a lower condition; in this is to be seen the just judgment of the providence of God, that it should happen to every one according to the diversity of his conduct, in proportion to the desert of his declension and defection. Certain of those, indeed, who remained in that beginning which we have described as resembling the end which is to come, obtained, in the ordering and arrangement of the world, the rank of angels; others that of influences, others of principalities, others of powers, that they may exercise power over those who need to have power upon their head. Others, again, received the rank of thrones, having the office of judging or ruling those who require this; others dominion, doubtless, over slaves; all of which are conferred by Divine Providence in just and impartial judgment according to their merits, and to the progress which they had made in the participation and imitation of God. But those who have been removed from their primal state of blessedness have not been removed irrecoverably, but have been placed under the rule of those holy and blessed orders which we have described; and by availing themselves of the aid of these, and being remoulded by salutary principles and discipline, they may recover themselves, and be restored to their condition of happiness. From all which I am of opinion, so far as I can see, that this order of the human race has been appointed in order that in the future world, or in ages to come, when there shall be the new heavens and new earth, spoken of by Isaiah, it may be restored to that unity promised by the Lord Jesus in His prayer to God the Father on behalf of His disciples: I do not pray for these alone, but for all who shall believe in Me through their word: that they all may be one, as You, Father, are in Me, and I in You, that they also may be one in Us; and again, when He says: That they may be one, even as We are one; I in them, and You in Me, that they may be made perfect in one. And this is further confirmed by the language of the Apostle Paul: Until we all come in the unity of the faith to a perfect man, to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ. And in keeping with this is the declaration of the same apostle, when he exhorts us, who even in the present life are placed in the Church, in which is the form of that kingdom which is to come, to this same similitude of unity: That you all speak the same thing, and that there be no divisions among you; but that you be perfectly joined together in the same mind and in the same judgment. 3.1.21. And at the same time, it is clearly shown that, as far as regards the underlying nature, as there is one (piece of) clay which is under the hands of the potter, from which piece vessels are formed unto honour and dishonour; so the one nature of every soul being in the hands of God, and, so to speak, there being (only) one lump of reasonable beings, certain causes of more ancient date led to some being created vessels unto honour, and others vessels unto dishonour. But if the language of the apostle convey a censure when he says, Nay but, O man, who are you that replies against God? it teaches us that he who has confidence before God, and is faithful, and has lived virtuously, would not hear the words, Who are you that replies against God? Such an one, e.g., as Moses was, For Moses spoke, and God answered him with a voice; and as God answers Moses, so does a saint also answer God. But he who does not possess this confidence, manifestly, either because he has lost it, or because he investigates these matters not from a love of knowledge, but from a desire to find fault, and who therefore says, Why does He yet find fault? For who has resisted His will? would merit the language of censure, which says, Nay but, O man, who are you that replies against God? 3.6.5. The last enemy, moreover, who is called death, is said on this account to be destroyed, that there may not be anything left of a mournful kind when death does not exist, nor anything that is adverse when there is no enemy. The destruction of the last enemy, indeed, is to be understood, not as if its substance, which was formed by God, is to perish, but because its mind and hostile will, which came not from God, but from itself, are to be destroyed. Its destruction, therefore, will not be its non-existence, but its ceasing to be an enemy, and (to be) death. For nothing is impossible to the Omnipotent, nor is anything incapable of restoration to its Creator: for He made all things that they might exist, and those things which were made for existence cannot cease to be. For this reason also will they admit of change and variety, so as to be placed, according to their merits, either in a better or worse position; but no destruction of substance can befall those things which were created by God for the purpose of permanent existence. For those things which agreeably to the common opinion are believed to perish, the nature either of our faith or of the truth will not permit us to suppose to be destroyed. Finally, our flesh is supposed by ignorant men and unbelievers to be destroyed after death, in such a degree that it retains no relic at all of its former substance. We, however, who believe in its resurrection, understand that a change only has been produced by death, but that its substance certainly remains; and that by the will of its Creator, and at the time appointed, it will be restored to life; and that a second time a change will take place in it, so that what at first was flesh (formed) out of earthly soil, and was afterwards dissolved by death, and again reduced to dust and ashes (For dust you are, it is said, and to dust shall you return), will be again raised from the earth, and shall after this, according to the merits of the indwelling soul, advance to the glory of a spiritual body.
62. Papyri, Papyri Graecae Magicae, 4.1227-4.1264, 4.2708-4.2784, 13.930 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

63. Anon., Exodus Rabbah, 18.5 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

18.5. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַיְהִי בַּחֲצִי הַלַּיְלָה, אָמַר דָּוִד (תהלים עז, ז): אֶזְכְּרָה נְגִינָתִי בַּלָּיְלָה, אָמְרָה כְּנֶסֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל נִזְכֶּרֶת אֲנִי אֶת הַשְּׁבָרִים שֶׁהָיִיתָ שׁוֹבֵר אֶת הָאוֹיְבִים בַּעֲבוּרִי בַּלַּיְלָה. וְאֵין נְגִינָתִי אֶלָּא לְשׁוֹן שֶׁבֶר, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (איכה ג, סג): אֲנִי מַנְגִינָתָם, וְאוֹמֵר (בראשית יד, כ): אֲשֶׁר מִגֵּן צָרֶיךָ בְּיָדֶךָ. בָּא עָלֵינוּ סַנְחֵרִיב שָׁבַרְתָּ אוֹתוֹ בַּלַּיְלָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלכים ב יט, לה): וַיְהִי בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא וַיֵּצֵא מַלְאַךְ ה' וַיַּךְ בְּמַחֲנֵה אַשּׁוּר, אָמַר רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה בּוֹא וּרְאֵה אַהֲבָתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁהֲרֵי מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת שֶׁהֵן גִּבּוֹרֵי כֹחַ עוֹשֵׂי דְבָרוֹ עֲשָׂאָן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שׁוֹמְרִין לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, וּמִי הֵם מִיכָאֵל וְגַבְרִיאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה סב, ו): עַל חוֹמֹתַיִךְ יְרוּשָׁלָיִם הִפְקַדְתִּי שֹׁמְרִים, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁבָּא סַנְחֵרִיב מִיכָאֵל יָצָא וְהִכָּה בָהֶם, וְגַבְרִיאֵל הִצִּיל בְּמִצְוָתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַחֲנַנְיָה וַחֲבֵרָיו. לָמָּה כָךְ, אֶלָּא תְּנָאִין עָשָׂה עִמָּהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, אֵימָתַי, כְּשֶׁבִּקֵּשׁ לֵירֵד לְהַצִּיל אַבְרָהָם מִכִּבְשַׁן הָאֵשׁ אָמְרוּ מִיכָאֵל וְגַבְרִיאֵל לְפָנָיו אָנוּ יוֹרְדִין לְהַצִּיל אוֹתוֹ, אָמַר לָהֶם אִלּוּ יָרַד לְשֵׁם אֶחָד מִכֶּם לַכִּבְשָׁן אַתֶּם הֱיִיתֶם מַצִּילִין אוֹתוֹ, אֶלָּא לִשְׁמִי יָרַד וַאֲנִי יוֹרֵד וּמַצִּילוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית טו, ז): אֲנִי ה' אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאוּר כַּשְׂדִּים, אֶלָּא אֶתֵּן לָכֶם זְמַן אֵימָתַי תֵּרְדוּ עַל שֶׁנִּזְדַּקַּקְתֶּם לְהַצִּילוֹ לִכְבוֹד שְׁמִי, אַתָּה מִיכָאֵל עַל מַחֲנֵה אַשּׁוּר, וְאַתָּה גַּבְרִיאֵל עַל מַחֲנֵה כַּשְׂדִּים. כֵּיוָן שֶׁיָּרַד גַּבְרִיאֵל לְהַצִּיל לַחֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה, גָּזַר לָאֵשׁ וְיָצָא וְלִהַט כָּל אוֹתָן שֶׁהִשְׁלִיכוּ אוֹתָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל ג, כב): גֻּבְרַיָא אִלֵּךְ דִּי הַסִּקוּ לְשַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וגו'. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים אַרְבַּע אֻמּוֹת מֵתוּ שָׁם, בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה כְּתִיב (דניאל ג, ג): בֵּאדַיִן מִתְכַּנְשִׁין אֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנַיָא סְגָנַיָא וּפַחֲוָתָא וְהַדָּבְרֵי מַלְכָּא, וְכָאן חָסְרוּ אַרְבַּע, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל ג, כז): וּמִתְכַּנְשִׁין אֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנַיָא, לְפִיכָךְ אָמַר חֲנַנְיָה (תהלים קיז, א): הַלְלוּ אֶת ה' כָּל גּוֹיִם. מִישָׁאֵל אָמַר (תהלים קיז א): שַׁבְּחוּהוּ כָּל הָאֻמִּים. וַעֲזַרְיָה אָמַר (תהלים קיז, ב): כִּי גָבַר עָלֵינוּ חַסְדּוֹ. הַמַּלְאָךְ אוֹמֵר (תהלים קיז ב): וֶאֱמֶת ה' לְעוֹלָם, אֱמֶת מַה שֶּׁאָמַר לִי כְּשֶׁיָּרַדְתִּי לְהַצִּיל אַבְרָהָם, וְכֵן מִיכָאֵל עָשָׂה מַה שֶּׁאָמַר לוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלכים ב יט, לה): וַיְהִי בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא וַיֵּצֵא מַלְאַךְ ה', תָּנָא כֻּלָּן פּוֹלֶמַרְכִין וְדֻכָּסִין הָיוּ שׁוֹתִין יַיִן וְהִנִּיחוּ קַנְקַנֵּיהֶם מֻשְׁלָכִים, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְסַנְחֵרִיב אַתָּה עָשִׂיתָ שֶׁלָּךְ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלכים ב יט, כג): בְּיַד מַלְאָכֶיךָ חֵרַפְתָּ, אַף אֲנִי בְּיַד מַלְאָכִי, מֶה עָשָׂה לוֹ (ישעיה י, טז): וְתַחַת כְּבֹדוֹ יְקַד יְקֹד כִּיקוֹד אֵשׁ. מַהוּ וְתַחַת כְּבֹדוֹ, שֶׁשָֹּׂרַף גּוּפָן מִבִּפְנִים וְהִנִּיחַ בִּגְדֵיהֶם מִבַּחוּץ, שֶׁכְּבוֹדוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם בִּגְדוֹ, וְלָמָּה הִנִּיחַ בִּגְדֵיהֶם, אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיוּ בָּנָיו שֶׁל שֵׁם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית י, כב): בְּנֵי שֵׁם עֵילָם וְאַשּׁוּר, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא חַיָּב אֲנִי לְשֵׁם אֲבִיהֶם שֶׁנָּטְלוּ הוּא וְיֶפֶת בִּגְדֵיהֶם וְכִסּוּ עֶרְוַת אֲבִיהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ט, כג): וַיִּקַּח שֵׁם וָיֶפֶת אֶת הַשִֹּׂמְלָה, לְכָךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְמִיכָאֵל הַנַּח בִּגְדֵיהֶן וּשְׂרֹף נִשְׁמָתָן, מַה כְּתִיב שָׁם (מלכים ב יט, לה): וַיַּשְׁכִּימוּ בַבֹּקֶר וְהִנֵּה כֻלָּם פְּגָרִים מֵתִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קא, ח): לַבְּקָרִים אַצְמִית כָּל רִשְׁעֵי אָרֶץ, וְהָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְחִזְקִיָּהוּ יוֹשְׁבִין וְאוֹמְרִין אֶת הַהַלֵּל, שֶׁהָיָה לַיִל שֶׁל פֶּסַח וְהָיוּ מִתְיָרְאִים לוֹמַר עַכְשָׁו יְרוּשָׁלַיִם מִתְכַּבֶּשֶׁת בְּיָדוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִשְׁכִּימוּ בַבֹּקֶר לַעֲמֹד וְלִקְרוֹת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל, מָצְאוּ אוֹיְבֵיהֶם פְּגָרִים מֵתִים, לְפִיכָךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לִישַׁעְיָה (ישעיה ח, ג): קְרָא שְׁמוֹ מַהֵר שָׁלָל חָשׁ בַּז, וּמִהֵר לָבֹז שְׁלָלָם. וְהָאֶחָד קָרָא שְׁמוֹ (ישעיה ז, יד): עִמָּנוּאֵל, לוֹמַר שֶׁאֲנִי עִמּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברי הימים ב לב, ח): עִמּוֹ זְרוֹעַ בָּשָׂר וְעִמָּנוּ ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ, וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁעָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה בְּיַד מִיכָאֵל וְגַבְרִיאֵל, כֵּן לֶעָתִיד לָבֹא יַעֲשֶׂה עַל יְדֵיהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (עובדיה א, כא): וְעָלוּ מוֹשִׁיעִים בְּהַר צִיּוֹן לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת הַר עֵשָׂו, זֶה מִיכָאֵל וְגַבְרִיאֵל. וְרַבֵּנוּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ אוֹמֵר זֶה מִיכָאֵל לְעַצְמוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל יב, א): וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יַעֲמֹד מִיכָאֵל הַשַֹּׂר הַגָּדוֹל הָעֹמֵד עַל בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ, שֶׁהוּא תּוֹבֵעַ צְרָכֵיהֶן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמְדַבֵּר עֲלֵיהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (זכריה א, יב): וַיַּעַן מַלְאַךְ ה' וַיֹּאמַר ה' צְבָאוֹת עַד מָתַי אַתָּה לֹא תְרַחֵם אֶת יְרוּשָׁלָיִם, וְאוֹמֵר (דניאל י, כא): וְאֵין אֶחָד מִתְחַזֵּק עִמִּי עַל אֵלֶּה כִּי אִם מִיכָאֵל שַׂרְכֶם, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי לְמָה מִיכָאֵל וְסמא"ל דּוֹמִין לְסָנֵיגוֹר וְקָטֵיגוֹר עוֹמְדִין בַּדִּין, זֶה מְדַבֵּר וְזֶה מְדַבֵּר, גָּמַר זֶה דְּבָרָיו וְזֶה דְּבָרָיו, יָדַע אוֹתוֹ הַסְּנֵיגוֹר שֶׁנָּצַח הִתְחִיל מְשַׁבֵּחַ אֶת הַדַּיָּין שֶׁיּוֹצִיא אִיפוֹפָסִין. בִּקֵּשׁ אוֹתוֹ קָטֵיגוֹר לְהוֹסִיף דָּבָר, אָמַר לוֹ הַסָּנֵיגוֹר הַחֲרֵשׁ וְנִשְׁמַע מִן הַדַּיָּן. כָּךְ מִיכָאֵל וְסמא"ל עוֹמְדִים לִפְנֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה וְהַשָֹּׂטָן מְקַטְרֵג וּמִיכָאֵל מְלַמֵּד זְכוּתָן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְהַשָֹּׂטָן בָּא לְדַבֵּר וּמִיכָאֵל מְשַׁתְּקוֹ, לָמָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים פה, ט): אֶשְׁמְעָה מַה יְּדַבֵּר הָאֵל ה' כִּי יְדַבֵּר שָׁלוֹם אֶל עַמּוֹ, הֱוֵי (תהלים עז, ז): אֶזְכְּרָה נְגִינָתִי בַּלָּיְלָה, עַל נֵס שֶׁל חִזְקִיָּהוּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אֶזְכְּרָה נְגִינָתִי, נִזְכַּר אֲנִי מַה שֶּׁעָשִׂיתָ לָנוּ בְּמִצְרַיִם, וּמְנַגְנִין שֶׁעָשִׂיתָ לְמִצְרַיִם, הֵיאַךְ מִתְּחִלָּה כְּשֶׁבִּקֵּשׁ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהָבִיא הַמַּכּוֹת עַל הַמִּצְרִים, מַכַּת בְּכוֹרוֹת אָמַר לְהָבִיא תְּחִלָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות ד, כג): הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי הֹרֵג אֶת בִּנְךָ בְּכֹרֶךָ. הִתְחִיל אוֹמֵר (שמות ה, ב): מִי ה' אֲשֶׁר אֶשְׁמַע בְּקֹלוֹ. אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אִם אָבִיא עָלָיו מַכַּת בְּכוֹרוֹת תְּחִלָּה מְשַׁלְּחָן, אֶלָּא מֵבִיא אֲנִי עָלָיו מַכּוֹת אַחֵרוֹת [תחלה] וּבְעֵקֶב זֹאת אֲנִי מֵבִיא אֶת כֻּלָּן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַה' הִכָּה כָל בְּכוֹר, לְפִיכָךְ דָּוִד מְקַלֵּס (תהלים צ, יא): מִי יוֹדֵעַ עֹז אַפֶּךָ, מִי יוֹדֵעַ נַגְנִין שֶׁלְּךָ שֶׁאַתָּה עוֹשֶׂה בַּיָּם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עז, כ): בַּיָּם דַּרְכֶּךָ וּשְׁבִילְךָ בְּמַיִם רַבִּים וְעִקְּבוֹתֶיךָ לֹא נוֹדָעוּ, דְּבָרִים שֶׁאַתָּה עוֹשֶׂה בְּעָקֵב מִי יוֹדֵעַ. 18.5. Another explanation: \"And it was in the middle of the night\" - David said (Psalms 77:7), \"I recall my music at night:\" The congregation of Israel said, \"I recall the breakings, that You broke the enemies for my sake at night.\" And [the term], 'my music' ( iniginati /i) only means breaking, as you would say (Lamentations 3:63), \"I am their song.\" And I [would also] say (Genesis 14:20), \"who gave over ( imigen /i) your enemies into your hand.\" Sancheriv came against us - You broke him at night, as it is stated (II Kings 19:35), \"And it was on that night and the angel of the Lord came out and he smote in the camp of Assyria.\" Rabbi Nechemia said, \"Come and see the love of the Holy One, blessed be He for Israel; as behold, the ministering angels - who are mighty of strength, doers of His will - the Holy One, blessed be He, made them guardians over Israel. And who are they? Michael and Gavriel, as it is stated (Isaiah 62:6), 'Upon your walls Jerusalem, I have appointed guardians.' And when Sancheriv came, Michael went out and smote them; and Gavriel, from the command of the Holy One, blessed be He, saved Chaia and his friends.\" Why was it like that? Rather the Holy One, blessed be He, made a condition with them. When? When He wanted to go down to save Avaraham from the fiery pit: Michael and Gavriel said in front of Him, \"We will go down to save him.\" He said [back] to them, \"If [even] one of you would go down there to the pit, you would save him, but [since Avraham] went down for My name, then I will go down and save him,\" as it is stated (Genesis 15:7), \"I am the Lord who took you out of the Ur Kasdim (understood here as the fire of Kasdim);\" \"but I will give you a time [to go down and save others.\"] When did they go down? \"Since you were prepared to save him for My honor, you, Michael [will descend] against the camp of Assyria; and you, Gavriel [will descend] against the camp of Kasdim (the Chaldeans).\" When Gavriel went down to save Chaia, Mishael and Azaria, he tore the fire and came out and set aflame all those that had thrown them in, as it is stated (Daniel 3:22), \"those men that raised Shadrakh, Meshakh, etc.\" And some say, \"Four nations died there: At first, it is written (Ibid. 3), 'Then were gathered the satraps, the prefects, the governors[, etc.]' and the advisers of the king and, here, four [of them] are lacking, as it states (Ibid. 27), 'And the satraps gathered.'\" Hence Chaia said (Psalms 117:1), \"Praise the Lord, all nations;\" Mishael said (Ibid.), \"exalt him all peoples;\" and Azaria said (Ibid. 2), \"Since His kindness has overwhelmed us;\" and the angel said (Ibid.), \"'and the truth of the Lord is forever' - what He said to me when I went down to save Avraham is true.\" And so [too with] Michael, [God] did what He told him, as it is stated (II Kings 19:35), \"And it was on that night and the angel of the Lord came out.\" It was taught, \"All of the commanders and the dukes were drinking wine and left their receptacles thrown out. The Holy One, blessed be He, said to Sancheriv, 'You have done yours,' as it is stated (Ibid. 23), 'By the hand of your messengers have you cursed;' 'I too [will act] by the hand of my messenger.'\" What did He do to him? \"And under his glory there shall be kindled a burning like the burning of fire.\" (Isaiah 10:16) What is [meant by] \"and under his glory?\" That He burned his body from the inside and left his clothing on the outside, since the glory of a person is his clothing. And why did He leave his clothing? Rather, since they were the descendants of Shem, as it is stated (Genesis 10:22), \"The sons of Shem were Eilam and Ashur (Assyria).\" The Holy One, blessed be He, said, \"I am indebted to Shem, their father, as he and Yafet took their clothing and covered the nakedness of their father,\" as it is stated (Genesis 9:23), \"And Shem and Yafet took the cloak.\" Hence, the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Michael, \"Leave their clothing and burn their souls.\" What is written there? \"And they arose in the morning and, behold, dead corpses.\" This is [the meaning of] that which is written (Psalms 101:8), \"In the mornings, I will annihilate the evildoers of the world.\" And Hizkiyahu and Israel were sitting and saying Hallel (Psalms of praise recited on festivals), as it was the night of Pesach, and they were afraid to say [it] now - Jerusalem was being conquered by his hand. When they woke up early in the morning to stand and read the Shema and to pray, they found their enemies were dead corpses. Hence, the Holy One, blessed be He, said to Yeshaya (Isaiah 8:3), \"'and call his name, \"quick take booty, fast loot\"' and be quick to loot booty; and the [other] one call 'with us is the Power ( iImanuel /i),' to say that I am with him,\" as it is stated (II Chronicles 32:8), \"with him is the forearm of flesh but with us is the Lord, our God.\" And just like the Holy One, blessed be He, acted in this world by the hand of Michael and Gavriel, so [too] in the future to come, he will act through them, as it is stated (Obadiah 1:21), \"And the saviors will come up on Mount Zion to judge the mountain of Esav\" - this is [referring to] Michael and Gavriel. And our Holy Rabbi said, \"This is Michael by himself, as it is stated (Daniel 12:1), 'And at that time, Michael will stand, the great minister who stands for the children of Your people.'\" As he [is the one that] demands the needs of Israel and speaks for them, as it is stated (Zechariah 1:12), \"And the angel of the Lord answered and said, 'Lord of hosts, until when when will you not have mercy on Jerusalem?'\" And I will [also] say (Daniel 10:21), \"and none is being strong with Me except for Michael, your minister.\" Rabbi Yose said, \"To what are Michael and Samael similar? To a defender and a prosecutor standing in court. This one is speaking and that one is speaking. [When] this one finished his words and that one his words, that defender knows that he has won. [Then] he begins to praise the judge, that issues the verdict. That prosecutor [then] requests to add something. The defender [then] says to him, 'Be quiet and let us hear from the judge.' So is it that Michael and Samael stand in front of the Divine Presence; and the Satan [Samael] prosecutes and Michael deliberates on the merit of Israel, and [then] the Satan comes to speak and Michael silences him. Why? As it is stated (Psalms 85:9), 'I will hear what the Power, the Lord, will speak, as He will speak peace about His people.'\" This is [the meaning of] \"I recall my music at night\" - about the miracle of Hizkiyahu. Another explanation: \"I recall my music at night\" - I recall what you have done for us in Egypt, and the plots ( imenagnin /i) that you did to the Egyptians. How is it? At first, when the Holy One, blessed be He, requested to bring plagues upon the Egyptians, He said to bring the plague of the firstborn first, as it is stated (Exodus 4:23), \"behold I am killing your son, your firstborn.\" [Pharaoh] started to say (Exodus 5:2), \"Who is the Lord that I should listen to His voice?\" The Holy One, blessed be He, said [to Himself], \"If I bring the plague of the firstborn first, he will send them [right away], but rather I will bring other plagues upon him (first). And in its heels ( ibeekev zot /i), I will bring them all,\" as it is stated, \"And the Lord smote every firstborn.\" Hence David praises (Psalms 90:11), \"Who knows the boldness of Your anger\" - who knows your plots that You do in the sea, as it is stated (Psalms 77:20), \"In the sea is Your way and Your path in the great waters, and Your footsteps ( ieekvotekha /i) were not known\" - things that you do afterward ( ibeekev /i), who [can] know? "
64. Aphrahat, Demonstrations, 14 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

65. Epiphanius, Panarion, 37.5.4, 39.1.3, 39.3.5 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

66. Theodoret of Cyrus, Compendium Against Heresies, 1.14 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

67. Jerome, Apologetici Adversus Rufinum (Apologia Adversus Libros Rufini.), 2.19 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

68. Anon., 2 Enoch, 22.6-22.7, 29.4-29.5, 31.1, 31.4-31.6, 33.10

69. Anon., 3 Baruch, 4.8, 11.4, 11.6-11.8, 13.3

70. Anon., 3 Enoch, 1.7

71. Anon., 4 Ezra, 3.21-3.22, 3.26, 4.4, 4.7-4.9, 4.30, 7.48, 7.106

3.21. For the first Adam, burdened with an evil heart, transgressed and was overcome, as were also all who were descended from him. 3.22. Thus the disease became permanent; the law was in the people's heart along with the evil root, but what was good departed, and the evil remained. 3.26. in everything doing as Adam and all his descendants had done, for they also had the evil heart. 4.4. If you can solve one of them for me, I also will show you the way you desire to see, and will teach you why the heart is evil. 4.7. And he said to me, "If I had asked you, `How many dwellings are in the heart of the sea, or how many streams are at the source of the deep, or how many streams are above the firmament, or which are the exits of hell, or which are the entrances of paradise?' 4.8. Perhaps you would have said to me, `I never went down into the deep, nor as yet into hell, neither did I ever ascend into heaven.' 4.9. But now I have asked you only about fire and wind and the day, things through which you have passed and without which you cannot exist, and you have given me no answer about them! 4.30. For a grain of evil seed was sown in Adam's heart from the beginning, and how much ungodliness it has produced until now, and will produce until the time of threshing comes! 7.48. For an evil heart has grown up in us, which has alienated us from God, and has brought us into corruption and the ways of death, and has shown us the paths of perdition and removed us far from life -- and that not just a few of us but almost all who have been created!
72. Anon., Apocalypse of Abraham, 15-19, 10

73. Anon., Assumption of Moses, 10.2

74. Anon., 4 Baruch, 9.5

9.5. And may Michael, archangel of righteousness, who opens the gates to the righteous, be my guardian (?) until he causes the righteous to enter.
75. Pseudo-Tertullian, Adversus Omnes Haereses, 2.9



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264; Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 108
absolution, individual Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
adam, heart of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
adam Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 109
age/era, of fertility Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 135
andrew of caesarea Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 343
angel/angelic passim see also archangel, intercession of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
angel/s Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 108
angel Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 109
angels, evil, fallen, or impure Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
angels Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 105; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 190; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 94, 175
antichrist figure Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 177
apocalypticism, christian Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 345, 346
apollo Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 105
apotropaic devices Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 29
archangel, guardian, as Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 414
archangel Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 414; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
archangels Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
archon Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 109
ascension Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
ascent to heaven Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 94
asceticism Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 190
asia minor Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 51
astrology Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
atonement Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
audience Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 51, 54
babylon Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 51
baptism, and sin Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
baptism, liturgy of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
baptism, mystery of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
beast Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 699; Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 51
beasts, metaphor for gentiles Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 135
beasts Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 192
birth Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 28
blasphemy, blasphemers Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 51
body, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
body Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 168
boys/boyhood Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 28
cain Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 109
cherubim Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 175
child soldiers Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 28
children, adam and eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
children, as agents Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 28
christ, image of Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 177
christ, see also jesus Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 24, 67, 109
christ Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 108
christian/s, authors Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 108
christian/s Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 108
church Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 54; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 175
collective guilt Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
combat myth Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 105
conquering Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 177
consolamentum Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 190
contrasted with manhood, overlooked in biblical figures Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 28
cosmos Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 168
creation, creator Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 94
creation, devil, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 504
creation, of fate Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
creator archons, archons Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 25, 67, 109
creator archons, devil Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 67, 109
creator archons, serpent Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 67, 109
creator archons, yhwh ( Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 109
creator archons Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 109
creatures, malevolent Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 177
crime Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 54
crisis Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 54
crown, gold Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 177
davidic kingdom Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 135
dead sea scrolls, qumran Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 175
death, of ialdabaoth/samael Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 67
decans Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
deceiver Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 192
deception/deceit Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 135
deception Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 504
demons Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 109
descent, heaven to earth, from Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 504
descent, of christ Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 109
devil, the Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 192
devil Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 109
dinah Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 135
disciples Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
door, open Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 168
dragon, the Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 192
dualism Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 94
earth Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 168
economic, participation Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 192
egypt Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 105
elchesai Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 175
empire, roman Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 192
empire Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 192
ennoia Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 67, 109
enoch, ascension of Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 168
enoch Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310; Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 51
ephesians, letter to the Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 175
eschatological Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
eucharist Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 24, 25
eve Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 67
evil, forces and powers Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
evil, origin of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
evil Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 190
expulsion, satan from heaven, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 504
eye, much-suffering Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 29
ezekiel Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 175
faith Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 54
faithful, the Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 177
fall, primordial Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
fallen angels Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 190
false prophecy Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 94
fate, as a power Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
fear of god Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 504
femininity Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 28
feminist criticism Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 28
flesh Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
foot/feet Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 699
fragments of papias, and satan Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 343
fruit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264, 452
gabriel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
gender, gendered Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 51
gender studies Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 28
geography Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 51
giant Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
glory, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
gnosticism, gnosis Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 94
god, anger of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 504
god, fear of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 504
god Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 54
grain Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
gush halav pendant Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 29
hands, dragon, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 699
head Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 699
heart, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
heart, evil Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
heart Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
heaven, enemies in Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
heaven, hierarchy in Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
heaven, reigning in Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
heaven, third Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
heavenly ascent Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 168
heavenly journey Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 168
heavens Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 168
hebdomad, see also week Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 67, 109
hekhalot Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 168
himmelfarb, m. Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 168
horse, white Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 177
horseman, first Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 177
horseman, fourth Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 177
horseman, second Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 177
humanity, agency in judgement Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 135
ialdabaoth Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 67, 109
iaoˉ sabaōth Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 29
idolatry Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 54
image Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 109
image of god Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 504
imagination Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 51
inscriptions, greek, boeˉth(e)i (help) Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 29
intercession Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
invisible divinities Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
isaiah, book of Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 175
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 190; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 25
jacob Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 108
jerusalem Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 51, 54
jesus, see also christ Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 25
jesus Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 105
jesus christ Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 108
jeu Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
jeuians Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
jewelry amulets, pendants Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 29
john, author of revelation Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 51, 54
judgment Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 699
justin martyr Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 109
kingdom (βασιλεία) Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
kingship, davidic/monarchy Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 135
knowledge Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 25; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 175
lamb, the, conquering Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 177
light Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 414; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
likeness Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 109
linen Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
magic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
man (anthropos) barbelo, first/immortal man Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 109
martyrdom, martyr, imagination, imagined Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 51, 54
mary (mother of jesus), in pistis sophia Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
mercy Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
merkava xiii–xvi, xix Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 175
messianism/messianic expectations, book of revelations symbol of the lamb that was slain Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 345
michael, archangel Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 109
michael, devil Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 109
michael, mediator (intercessor), as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
michael Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 414; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264, 504; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 175; Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 108
michael (archangel) Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 29
ministers Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
mission Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
moses Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 25
mothers/motherhood Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 28
mystery, divine Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
mystery, of intercourse Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
mystery, of light Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
mystery Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 175
myth, leviathan-behemoth Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 192
mythology Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 504
naasseni Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 25
name, divine Bull, Lied and Turner, Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty (2011) 11
narrative Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 51
oil, mercy, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
ophites, the diagram Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 109
oppressors Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 135
origen, distinctions between heresies and their taxonomy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 567, 568
orpheus, orphic Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 67
orthodoxy, purity of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 568
ouroboros Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 67
paradise Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 25, 67, 109
paul Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 175
peace Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
people of israel Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 190
peratic Bull, Lied and Turner, Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty (2011) 11
peratics Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 24, 67
performance Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 54
persecution Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 177, 192
petitions / prayers, by levi Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 135
pillars, see also seth hezekiah Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 25
plea, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
power, power of god, powers Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 94, 175
prayer Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 190
prayers, righteous, of the Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
priest, high Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
priest and high priest Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 414
prophecy Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 94
punishment Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 54
punishment of wrongdoers Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 135
rabbinic literature xiii, xvi Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 94
raphael Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
rebellion, of the archons Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
redeemed Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 190
representation Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 51, 54
restoration, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
restoration Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 135
revelation, the apocalypse of jesus christ Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 94, 175
revelation (apocalypse of john), messianic symbol of the lamb that was slain Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 345
revelation (apocalypse of john), satan Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 346
revelation (apocalypse of john), son of man imagery Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 345
revelation (apocalypse of john), the war with the dragon Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 345, 346
revelation (apocalypse of john) Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 345, 346
righteousness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
rome Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 51
sabaoth the adamas Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
sabaōth Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 29
salvation Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
samael Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 109
sariel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
satan, and heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 568
satan, belial/beliar Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 346
satan, fall of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 504
satan, in the book of revelation Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 346
satan Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264, 504, 699; Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 54; Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 192
sea, seaside, seascapes Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 51
sea Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 192
sea of glass Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 94
secrecy Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 175
seeds, evil Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
seer Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 168
seer of revelation, as intellectual Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 17
seer of revelation, communities and churches of asia, relationship to Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 17
seer of revelation Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 17
serpent, christ Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 24, 25
serpent, creator Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 67
serpent, devil/in paradise Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 24, 25, 67, 109
serpent, of moses Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 25
serpent, other Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 24, 67
serpent, ouroboros Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 67
serpent, sophia Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 67
serpent, world soul Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 24, 67
serpent, worship Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 24, 25
serpent Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 192
sethians, sethianism Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 24, 25, 67, 109
seven messages Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 177
sheep Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 135
shiur koma Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 175
son of man, imagery in book of revelation Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 345
sophia, see also prunicus, wisdom, zoe Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 67
soteriology Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 175
soul, world Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 67
soul Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 310
space, spatial, space-time Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 54
space, spatial, spatiality Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 54
space, spatial Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 51, 54
space Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 192
spatiotemporality, spatiotemporal Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 54
spirit, cosmic/primordial/archontic Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 67
spirit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 699; Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 51
stephen Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 94
subject index, of enoch Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 108
suffering Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 177
sun woman Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 28
sword Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 504; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 135
temple Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 94, 175
temptation, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 504
temptation Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 504
testament of eve Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 699
theriomorphism Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 109
thirdspace (edward soja) Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 51
throne, enthroned Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 175