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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8244
New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.20


τὸ μυστήριον τῶν ἑπτὰ ἀστέρων οὓς εἶδες ἐπὶ τῆς δεξιᾶς μου, καὶ τὰς ἑπτὰ λυχνίας τὰς χρυσᾶς· οἱ ἑπτὰ ἀστέρες ἄγγελοι τῶν ἑπτὰ ἐκκλησιῶν εἰσίν, καὶ αἱ λυχνίαι αἱἑπτὰ ἑπτὰ ἐκκλησίαι εἰσίν.the mystery of the seven stars which you saw in my right hand, and the seven golden lampstands. The seven stars are the angels of the seven assemblies. The seven lampstands are seven assemblies.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

56 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 12.15 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.15. I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels who present the prayers of the saints and enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.2. וְאֶתְכֶם לָקַח יְהוָה וַיּוֹצִא אֶתְכֶם מִכּוּר הַבַּרְזֶל מִמִּצְרָיִם לִהְיוֹת לוֹ לְעַם נַחֲלָה כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 4.2. לֹא תֹסִפוּ עַל־הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם וְלֹא תִגְרְעוּ מִמֶּנּוּ לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם׃ 4.2. Ye shall not add unto the word which I command you, neither shall ye diminish from it, that ye may keep the commandments of the LORD your God which I command you."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 19.19, 25.31-25.40, 27.20, 34.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.19. וַיְהִי קוֹל הַשּׁוֹפָר הוֹלֵךְ וְחָזֵק מְאֹד מֹשֶׁה יְדַבֵּר וְהָאֱלֹהִים יַעֲנֶנּוּ בְקוֹל׃ 25.31. וְעָשִׂיתָ מְנֹרַת זָהָב טָהוֹר מִקְשָׁה תֵּעָשֶׂה הַמְּנוֹרָה יְרֵכָהּ וְקָנָהּ גְּבִיעֶיהָ כַּפְתֹּרֶיהָ וּפְרָחֶיהָ מִמֶּנָּה יִהְיוּ׃ 25.32. וְשִׁשָּׁה קָנִים יֹצְאִים מִצִּדֶּיהָ שְׁלֹשָׁה קְנֵי מְנֹרָה מִצִּדָּהּ הָאֶחָד וּשְׁלֹשָׁה קְנֵי מְנֹרָה מִצִּדָּהּ הַשֵּׁנִי׃ 25.33. שְׁלֹשָׁה גְבִעִים מְשֻׁקָּדִים בַּקָּנֶה הָאֶחָד כַּפְתֹּר וָפֶרַח וּשְׁלֹשָׁה גְבִעִים מְשֻׁקָּדִים בַּקָּנֶה הָאֶחָד כַּפְתֹּר וָפָרַח כֵּן לְשֵׁשֶׁת הַקָּנִים הַיֹּצְאִים מִן־הַמְּנֹרָה׃ 25.34. וּבַמְּנֹרָה אַרְבָּעָה גְבִעִים מְשֻׁקָּדִים כַּפְתֹּרֶיהָ וּפְרָחֶיהָ׃ 25.35. וְכַפְתֹּר תַּחַת שְׁנֵי הַקָּנִים מִמֶּנָּה וְכַפְתֹּר תַּחַת שְׁנֵי הַקָּנִים מִמֶּנָּה וְכַפְתֹּר תַּחַת־שְׁנֵי הַקָּנִים מִמֶּנָּה לְשֵׁשֶׁת הַקָּנִים הַיֹּצְאִים מִן־הַמְּנֹרָה׃ 25.36. כַּפְתֹּרֵיהֶם וּקְנֹתָם מִמֶּנָּה יִהְיוּ כֻּלָּהּ מִקְשָׁה אַחַת זָהָב טָהוֹר׃ 25.37. וְעָשִׂיתָ אֶת־נֵרֹתֶיהָ שִׁבְעָה וְהֶעֱלָה אֶת־נֵרֹתֶיהָ וְהֵאִיר עַל־עֵבֶר פָּנֶיהָ׃ 25.38. וּמַלְקָחֶיהָ וּמַחְתֹּתֶיהָ זָהָב טָהוֹר׃ 25.39. כִּכָּר זָהָב טָהוֹר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָהּ אֵת כָּל־הַכֵּלִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 34.5. וַיֵּרֶד יְהוָה בֶּעָנָן וַיִּתְיַצֵּב עִמּוֹ שָׁם וַיִּקְרָא בְשֵׁם יְהוָה׃ 19.19. And when the voice of the horn waxed louder and louder, Moses spoke, and God answered him by a voice." 25.31. And thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work shall the candlestick be made, even its base, and its shaft; its cups, its knops, and its flowers, shall be of one piece with it." 25.32. And there shall be six branches going out of the sides thereof: three branches of the candlestick out of the one side thereof, and three branches of the candle-stick out of the other side thereof;" 25.33. three cups made like almond-blossoms in one branch, a knop and a flower; and three cups made like almond-blossoms in the other branch, a knop and a flower; so for the six branches going out of the candlestick." 25.34. And in the candlestick four cups made like almond-blossoms, the knops thereof, and the flowers thereof." 25.35. And a knop under two branches of one piece with it, and a knop under two branches of one piece with it, and a knop under two branches of one piece with it, for the six branches going out of the candlestick." 25.36. Their knops and their branches shall be of one piece with it; the whole of it one beaten work of pure gold." 25.37. And thou shalt make the lamps thereof, seven; and they shall light the lamps thereof, to give light over against it." 25.38. And the tongs thereof, and the snuffdishes thereof, shall be of pure gold." 25.39. of a talent of pure gold shall it be made, with all these vessels." 25.40. And see that thou make them after their pattern, which is being shown thee in the mount." 27.20. And thou shalt command the children of Israel, that they bring unto thee pure olive oil beaten for the light, to cause a lamp to burn continually." 34.5. And the LORD descended in the cloud, and stood with him there, and proclaimed the name of the LORD."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 3.24, 5.22-5.24, 17.1, 18.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.24. וַיְגָרֶשׁ אֶת־הָאָדָם וַיַּשְׁכֵּן מִקֶּדֶם לְגַן־עֵדֶן אֶת־הַכְּרֻבִים וְאֵת לַהַט הַחֶרֶב הַמִּתְהַפֶּכֶת לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־דֶּרֶךְ עֵץ הַחַיִּים׃ 5.22. וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־מְתוּשֶׁלַח שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 5.23. וַיְהִי כָּל־יְמֵי חֲנוֹךְ חָמֵשׁ וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּשְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה׃ 5.24. וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֵינֶנּוּ כִּי־לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים׃ 17.1. זֹאת בְּרִיתִי אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁמְרוּ בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ הִמּוֹל לָכֶם כָּל־זָכָר׃ 17.1. וַיְהִי אַבְרָם בֶּן־תִּשְׁעִים שָׁנָה וְתֵשַׁע שָׁנִים וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אֲנִי־אֵל שַׁדַּי הִתְהַלֵּךְ לְפָנַי וֶהְיֵה תָמִים׃ 18.1. וַיֹּאמֶר שׁוֹב אָשׁוּב אֵלֶיךָ כָּעֵת חַיָּה וְהִנֵּה־בֵן לְשָׂרָה אִשְׁתֶּךָ וְשָׂרָה שֹׁמַעַת פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וְהוּא אַחֲרָיו׃ 18.1. וַיֵּרָא אֵלָיו יְהוָה בְּאֵלֹנֵי מַמְרֵא וְהוּא יֹשֵׁב פֶּתַח־הָאֹהֶל כְּחֹם הַיּוֹם׃ 3.24. So He drove out the man; and He placed at the east of the garden of Eden the cherubim, and the flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way to the tree of life." 5.22. And Enoch walked with God after he begot Methuselah three hundred years, and begot sons and daughters." 5.23. And all the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty and five years." 5.24. And Enoch walked with God, and he was not; for God took him." 17.1. And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the LORD appeared to Abram, and said unto him: ‘I am God Almighty; walk before Me, and be thou wholehearted." 18.1. And the LORD appeared unto him by the terebinths of Mamre, as he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day;"
5. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 5.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6. Hebrew Bible, Job, 10.16-10.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.16. וְיִגְאֶה כַּשַּׁחַל תְּצוּדֵנִי וְתָשֹׁב תִּתְפַּלָּא־בִי׃ 10.16. And if it exalt itself, Thou huntest me as a lion; And again Thou showest Thyself marvellous upon me."
7. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 3.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.18. עֵץ־חַיִּים הִיא לַמַּחֲזִיקִים בָּהּ וְתֹמְכֶיהָ מְאֻשָּׁר׃ 3.18. She is a tree of life to them that lay hold upon her, And happy is every one that holdest her fast."
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 1.3, 21.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.3. וְהָיָה כְּעֵץ שָׁתוּל עַל־פַּלְגֵי מָיִם אֲשֶׁר פִּרְיוֹ יִתֵּן בְּעִתּוֹ וְעָלֵהוּ לֹא־יִבּוֹל וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה יַצְלִיחַ׃ 1.3. And he shall be like a tree planted by streams of water, that bringeth forth its fruit in its season, and whose leaf doth not wither; and in whatsoever he doeth he shall prosper."
9. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 7.1, 7.4, 7.7, 8.1, 9.1-9.4 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

7.4. כֹּה הִרְאַנִי אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה וְהִנֵּה קֹרֵא לָרִב בָּאֵשׁ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה וַתֹּאכַל אֶת־תְּהוֹם רַבָּה וְאָכְלָה אֶת־הַחֵלֶק׃ 7.7. כֹּה הִרְאַנִי וְהִנֵּה אֲדֹנָי נִצָּב עַל־חוֹמַת אֲנָךְ וּבְיָדוֹ אֲנָךְ׃ 8.1. כֹּה הִרְאַנִי אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה וְהִנֵּה כְּלוּב קָיִץ׃ 8.1. וְהָפַכְתִּי חַגֵּיכֶם לְאֵבֶל וְכָל־שִׁירֵיכֶם לְקִינָה וְהַעֲלֵיתִי עַל־כָּל־מָתְנַיִם שָׂק וְעַל־כָּל־רֹאשׁ קָרְחָה וְשַׂמְתִּיהָ כְּאֵבֶל יָחִיד וְאַחֲרִיתָהּ כְּיוֹם מָר׃ 9.1. רָאִיתִי אֶת־אֲדֹנָי נִצָּב עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וַיֹּאמֶר הַךְ הַכַּפְתּוֹר וְיִרְעֲשׁוּ הַסִּפִּים וּבְצַעַם בְּרֹאשׁ כֻּלָּם וְאַחֲרִיתָם בַּחֶרֶב אֶהֱרֹג לֹא־יָנוּס לָהֶם נָס וְלֹא־יִמָּלֵט לָהֶם פָּלִיט׃ 9.1. בַּחֶרֶב יָמוּתוּ כֹּל חַטָּאֵי עַמִּי הָאֹמְרִים לֹא־תַגִּישׁ וְתַקְדִּים בַּעֲדֵינוּ הָרָעָה׃ 9.2. אִם־יַחְתְּרוּ בִשְׁאוֹל מִשָּׁם יָדִי תִקָּחֵם וְאִם־יַעֲלוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם מִשָּׁם אוֹרִידֵם׃ 9.3. וְאִם־יֵחָבְאוּ בְּרֹאשׁ הַכַּרְמֶל מִשָּׁם אֲחַפֵּשׂ וּלְקַחְתִּים וְאִם־יִסָּתְרוּ מִנֶּגֶד עֵינַי בְּקַרְקַע הַיָּם מִשָּׁם אֲצַוֶּה אֶת־הַנָּחָשׁ וּנְשָׁכָם׃ 9.4. וְאִם־יֵלְכוּ בַשְּׁבִי לִפְנֵי אֹיבֵיהֶם מִשָּׁם אֲצַוֶּה אֶת־הַחֶרֶב וַהֲרָגָתַם וְשַׂמְתִּי עֵינִי עֲלֵיהֶם לְרָעָה וְלֹא לְטוֹבָה׃ 7.4. Thus the Lord GOD showed me; and, behold, the Lord GOD called to contend by fire; and it devoured the great deep, and would have eaten up the land." 7.7. Thus He showed me; and, behold, the Lord stood beside a wall made by a plumbline, with a plumbline in His hand." 8.1. Thus the Lord GOD showed me; and behold a basket of summer fruit." 9.1. I saw the Lord standing beside the altar; and He said: Smite the capitals, that the posts may shake; And break them in pieces on the head of all of them; And I will slay the residue of them with the sword; There shall not one of them flee away, And there shall not one of them escape." 9.2. Though they dig into the nether-world, Thence shall My hand take them; And though they climb up to heaven, Thence will I bring them down." 9.3. And though they hide themselves in the top of Carmel, I will search and take them out thence; And though they be hid from My sight in the bottom of the sea, Thence will I command the serpent, and he shall bite them." 9.4. And though they go into captivity before their enemies, Thence will I command the sword, and it shall slay them; And I will set Mine eyes upon them For evil, and not for good."
11. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 2.2 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

2.2. וַיַּעֲנֵנִי יְהוָה וַיֹּאמֶר כְּתוֹב חָזוֹן וּבָאֵר עַל־הַלֻּחוֹת לְמַעַן יָרוּץ קוֹרֵא בוֹ׃ 2.2. וַיהוָה בְּהֵיכַל קָדְשׁוֹ הַס מִפָּנָיו כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 2.2. And the LORD answered me, and said: ‘Write the vision, and make it plain upon tables, That a man may read it swiftly."
12. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 8.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.1. עֻצוּ עֵצָה וְתֻפָר דַּבְּרוּ דָבָר וְלֹא יָקוּם כִּי עִמָּנוּ אֵל׃ 8.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלַי קַח־לְךָ גִּלָּיוֹן גָּדוֹל וּכְתֹב עָלָיו בְּחֶרֶט אֱנוֹשׁ לְמַהֵר שָׁלָל חָשׁ בַּז׃ 8.1. And the LORD said unto me: ‘Take thee a great tablet, and write upon it in common script: The spoil speedeth, the prey hasteth;"
13. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 29.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

29.1. וְאֵלֶּה דִּבְרֵי הַסֵּפֶר אֲשֶׁר שָׁלַח יִרְמְיָה הַנָּבִיא מִירוּשָׁלִָם אֶל־יֶתֶר זִקְנֵי הַגּוֹלָה וְאֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים וְאֶל־הַנְּבִיאִים וְאֶל־כָּל־הָעָם אֲשֶׁר הֶגְלָה נְבוּכַדְנֶאצַּר מִירוּשָׁלִַם בָּבֶלָה׃ 29.1. כִּי־כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה כִּי לְפִי מְלֹאת לְבָבֶל שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה אֶפְקֹד אֶתְכֶם וַהֲקִמֹתִי עֲלֵיכֶם אֶת־דְּבָרִי הַטּוֹב לְהָשִׁיב אֶתְכֶם אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 29.1. Now these are the words of the letter that Jeremiah the prophet sent from Jerusalem unto the residue of the elders of the captivity, and to the priests, and to the prophets, and to all the people, whom Nebuchadnezzar had carried away captive from Jerusalem to Babylon,"
14. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 1.10, 1.25, 43.6 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.25. וַיְהִי־קוֹל מֵעַל לָרָקִיעַ אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשָׁם בְּעָמְדָם תְּרַפֶּינָה כַנְפֵיהֶן׃ 43.6. וָאֶשְׁמַע מִדַּבֵּר אֵלַי מֵהַבָּיִת וְאִישׁ הָיָה עֹמֵד אֶצְלִי׃ 1.10. As for the likeness of their faces, they had the face of a man; and they four had the face of a lion on the right side; and they four had the face of an ox on the left side; they four had also the face of an eagle." 1.25. For, when there was a voice above the firmament that was over their heads, as they stood, they let down their wings." 43.6. And I heard one speaking unto me out of the house; and a man stood by me."
15. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 4.2 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

4.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי מָה אַתָּה רֹאֶה ויאמר [וָאֹמַר] רָאִיתִי וְהִנֵּה מְנוֹרַת זָהָב כֻּלָּהּ וְגֻלָּהּ עַל־רֹאשָׁהּ וְשִׁבְעָה נֵרֹתֶיהָ עָלֶיהָ שִׁבְעָה וְשִׁבְעָה מוּצָקוֹת לַנֵּרוֹת אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשָׁהּ׃ 4.2. And he said unto me: ‘What seest thou?’ And I said: ‘I have seen, and behold a candlestick all of gold, with a bowl upon the top of it, and its seven lamps thereon; there are seven pipes, yea, seven, to the lamps, which are upon the top thereof;"
16. Septuagint, Tobit, 12.15 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.15. I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels who present the prayers of the saints and enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One.
17. Anon., 1 Enoch, 1.9, 20.5, 38.3, 40.8-40.9, 52.1-52.4, 93.2, 103.2-103.3, 104.10, 104.12 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.9. And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly:And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him. 38.3. When the secrets of the righteous shall be revealed and the sinners judged, And the godless driven from the presence of the righteous and elect 40.8. of Spirits to accuse them who dwell on the earth. After that I asked the angel of peace who went with me, who showed me everything that is hidden: 'Who are these four presences which I have 40.9. een and whose words I have heard and written down' And he said to me: 'This first is Michael, the merciful and long-suffering: and the second, who is set over all the diseases and all the wounds of the children of men, is Raphael: and the third, who is set over all the powers, is Gabriel: and the fourth, who is set over the repentance unto hope of those who inherit eternal life, is named Phanuel.' 52.1. And after those days in that place where I had seen all the visions of that which is hidden -for 52.2. I had been carried off in a whirlwind and they had borne me towards the west-There mine eyes saw all the secret things of heaven that shall be, a mountain of iron, and a mountain of copper, and a mountain of silver, and a mountain of gold, and a mountain of soft metal, and a mountain of lead. 52.3. And I asked the angel who went with me, saying, 'What things are these which I have seen in 52.4. ecret' And he said unto me: 'All these things which thou hast seen shall serve the dominion of His Anointed that he may be potent and mighty on the earth.' 103.2. Mighty One in dominion, and by His greatness I swear to you. I know a mystery And have read the heavenly tablets, And have seen the holy books, And have found written therein and inscribed regarding them: 103.3. That all goodness and joy and glory are prepared for them, And written down for the spirits of those who have died in righteousness, And that manifold good shall be given to you in recompense for your labours, And that your lot is abundantly beyond the lot of the living. 104.12. concerning them. Then, I know another mystery, that books will be given to the righteous and the 1. The words of the blessing of Enoch, wherewith he blessed the elect and righteous, who will be,living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which is,for to come. Concerning the elect I said, and took up my parable concerning them:The Holy Great One will come forth from His dwelling,,And the eternal God will tread upon the earth, (even) on Mount Sinai, [And appear from His camp] And appear in the strength of His might from the heaven of heavens.,And all shall be smitten with fear And the Watchers shall quake, And great fear and trembling shall seize them unto the ends of the earth.,And the high mountains shall be shaken, And the high hills shall be made low, And shall melt like wax before the flame,And the earth shall be wholly rent in sunder, And all that is upon the earth shall perish, And there shall be a judgement upon all (men).,But with the righteous He will make peace.And will protect the elect, And mercy shall be upon them.And they shall all belong to God, And they shall be prospered, And they shall all be blessed.And He will help them all, And light shall appear unto them, And He will make peace with them'.,And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly:And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him.
18. Anon., Testament of Job, 7.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Dead Sea Scrolls, Pesher On Habakkuk, 7.4-7.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 4.6, 9.17-9.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 19.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 19.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 2.27-2.28, 4.31, 7.18, 7.21, 7.27, 8.16, 10.1-10.3, 10.5-10.6, 10.8-10.14, 10.16-10.18, 10.20-10.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.27. עָנֵה דָנִיֵּאל קֳדָם מַלְכָּא וְאָמַר רָזָה דִּי־מַלְכָּא שָׁאֵל לָא חַכִּימִין אָשְׁפִין חַרְטֻמִּין גָּזְרִין יָכְלִין לְהַחֲוָיָה לְמַלְכָּא׃ 2.28. בְּרַם אִיתַי אֱלָהּ בִּשְׁמַיָּא גָּלֵא רָזִין וְהוֹדַע לְמַלְכָּא נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מָה דִּי לֶהֱוֵא בְּאַחֲרִית יוֹמַיָּא חֶלְמָךְ וְחֶזְוֵי רֵאשָׁךְ עַל־מִשְׁכְּבָךְ דְּנָה הוּא׃ 4.31. וְלִקְצָת יוֹמַיָּה אֲנָה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר עַיְנַי לִשְׁמַיָּא נִטְלֵת וּמַנְדְּעִי עֲלַי יְתוּב ולעליא [וּלְעִלָּאָה] בָּרְכֵת וּלְחַי עָלְמָא שַׁבְּחֵת וְהַדְּרֵת דִּי שָׁלְטָנֵהּ שָׁלְטָן עָלַם וּמַלְכוּתֵהּ עִם־דָּר וְדָר׃ 7.18. וִיקַבְּלוּן מַלְכוּתָא קַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין וְיַחְסְנוּן מַלְכוּתָא עַד־עָלְמָא וְעַד עָלַם עָלְמַיָּא׃ 7.21. חָזֵה הֲוֵית וְקַרְנָא דִכֵּן עָבְדָה קְרָב עִם־קַדִּישִׁין וְיָכְלָה לְהוֹן׃ 7.27. וּמַלְכוּתָה וְשָׁלְטָנָא וּרְבוּתָא דִּי מַלְכְוָת תְּחוֹת כָּל־שְׁמַיָּא יְהִיבַת לְעַם קַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין מַלְכוּתֵהּ מַלְכוּת עָלַם וְכֹל שָׁלְטָנַיָּא לֵהּ יִפְלְחוּן וְיִשְׁתַּמְּעוּן׃ 8.16. וָאֶשְׁמַע קוֹל־אָדָם בֵּין אוּלָי וַיִּקְרָא וַיֹּאמַר גַּבְרִיאֵל הָבֵן לְהַלָּז אֶת־הַמַּרְאֶה׃ 10.1. וְהִנֵּה־יָד נָגְעָה בִּי וַתְּנִיעֵנִי עַל־בִּרְכַּי וְכַפּוֹת יָדָי׃ 10.1. בִּשְׁנַת שָׁלוֹשׁ לְכוֹרֶשׁ מֶלֶךְ פָּרַס דָּבָר נִגְלָה לְדָנִיֵּאל אֲשֶׁר־נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּר וֶאֱמֶת הַדָּבָר וְצָבָא גָדוֹל וּבִין אֶת־הַדָּבָר וּבִינָה לוֹ בַּמַּרְאֶה׃ 10.2. וַיֹּאמֶר הֲיָדַעְתָּ לָמָּה־בָּאתִי אֵלֶיךָ וְעַתָּה אָשׁוּב לְהִלָּחֵם עִם־שַׂר פָּרָס וַאֲנִי יוֹצֵא וְהִנֵּה שַׂר־יָוָן בָּא׃ 10.2. בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם אֲנִי דָנִיֵּאל הָיִיתִי מִתְאַבֵּל שְׁלֹשָׁה שָׁבֻעִים יָמִים׃ 10.3. לֶחֶם חֲמֻדוֹת לֹא אָכַלְתִּי וּבָשָׂר וָיַיִן לֹא־בָא אֶל־פִּי וְסוֹךְ לֹא־סָכְתִּי עַד־מְלֹאת שְׁלֹשֶׁת שָׁבֻעִים יָמִים׃ 10.5. וָאֶשָּׂא אֶת־עֵינַי וָאֵרֶא וְהִנֵּה אִישׁ־אֶחָד לָבוּשׁ בַּדִּים וּמָתְנָיו חֲגֻרִים בְּכֶתֶם אוּפָז׃ 10.6. וּגְוִיָּתוֹ כְתַרְשִׁישׁ וּפָנָיו כְּמַרְאֵה בָרָק וְעֵינָיו כְּלַפִּידֵי אֵשׁ וּזְרֹעֹתָיו וּמַרְגְּלֹתָיו כְּעֵין נְחֹשֶׁת קָלָל וְקוֹל דְּבָרָיו כְּקוֹל הָמוֹן׃ 10.8. וַאֲנִי נִשְׁאַרְתִּי לְבַדִּי וָאֶרְאֶה אֶת־הַמַּרְאָה הַגְּדֹלָה הַזֹּאת וְלֹא נִשְׁאַר־בִּי כֹּח וְהוֹדִי נֶהְפַּךְ עָלַי לְמַשְׁחִית וְלֹא עָצַרְתִּי כֹּחַ׃ 10.9. וָאֶשְׁמַע אֶת־קוֹל דְּבָרָיו וּכְשָׁמְעִי אֶת־קוֹל דְּבָרָיו וַאֲנִי הָיִיתִי נִרְדָּם עַל־פָּנַי וּפָנַי אָרְצָה׃ 10.11. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי דָּנִיֵּאל אִישׁ־חֲמֻדוֹת הָבֵן בַּדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי דֹבֵר אֵלֶיךָ וַעֲמֹד עַל־עָמְדֶךָ כִּי עַתָּה שֻׁלַּחְתִּי אֵלֶיךָ וּבְדַבְּרוֹ עִמִּי אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה עָמַדְתִּי מַרְעִיד׃ 10.12. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי אַל־תִּירָא דָנִיֵּאל כִּי מִן־הַיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן אֲשֶׁר נָתַתָּ אֶת־לִבְּךָ לְהָבִין וּלְהִתְעַנּוֹת לִפְנֵי אֱלֹהֶיךָ נִשְׁמְעוּ דְבָרֶיךָ וַאֲנִי־בָאתִי בִּדְבָרֶיךָ׃ 10.13. וְשַׂר מַלְכוּת פָּרַס עֹמֵד לְנֶגְדִּי עֶשְׂרִים וְאֶחָד יוֹם וְהִנֵּה מִיכָאֵל אַחַד הַשָּׂרִים הָרִאשֹׁנִים בָּא לְעָזְרֵנִי וַאֲנִי נוֹתַרְתִּי שָׁם אֵצֶל מַלְכֵי פָרָס׃ 10.14. וּבָאתִי לַהֲבִינְךָ אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יִקְרָה לְעַמְּךָ בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים כִּי־עוֹד חָזוֹן לַיָּמִים׃ 10.16. וְהִנֵּה כִּדְמוּת בְּנֵי אָדָם נֹגֵעַ עַל־שְׂפָתָי וָאֶפְתַּח־פִּי וָאֲדַבְּרָה וָאֹמְרָה אֶל־הָעֹמֵד לְנֶגְדִּי אֲדֹנִי בַּמַּרְאָה נֶהֶפְכוּ צִירַי עָלַי וְלֹא עָצַרְתִּי כֹּחַ׃ 10.17. וְהֵיךְ יוּכַל עֶבֶד אֲדֹנִי זֶה לְדַבֵּר עִם־אֲדֹנִי זֶה וַאֲנִי מֵעַתָּה לֹא־יַעֲמָד־בִּי כֹחַ וּנְשָׁמָה לֹא נִשְׁאֲרָה־בִי׃ 10.18. וַיֹּסֶף וַיִּגַּע־בִּי כְּמַרְאֵה אָדָם וַיְחַזְּקֵנִי׃ 10.21. אֲבָל אַגִּיד לְךָ אֶת־הָרָשׁוּם בִּכְתָב אֱמֶת וְאֵין אֶחָד מִתְחַזֵּק עִמִּי עַל־אֵלֶּה כִּי אִם־מִיכָאֵל שַׂרְכֶם׃ 2.27. Daniel answered before the king, and said: ‘The secret which the king hath asked can neither wise men, enchanters, magicians, nor astrologers, declare unto the king;" 2.28. but there is a God in heaven that revealeth secrets, and He hath made known to the king Nebuchadnezzar what shall be in the end of days. Thy dream, and the visions of thy head upon thy bed, are these:" 4.31. ‘And at the end of the days I Nebuchadnezzar lifted up mine eyes unto heaven, and mine understanding returned unto me, and I blessed the Most High, and I praised and honoured Him that liveth for ever; For His dominion is an everlasting dominion, And His kingdom from generation to generation;" 7.18. But the saints of the Most High shall receive the kingdom, and possess the kingdom for ever, even for ever and ever.’" 7.21. I beheld, and the same horn made war with the saints, and prevailed against them;" 7.27. And the kingdom and the dominion, and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High; their kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey them.’" 8.16. And I heard the voice of a man between the banks of Ulai, who called, and said: ‘Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision.’" 10.1. In the third year of Cyrus king of Persia a word was revealed unto Daniel, whose name was called Belteshazzar; and the word was true, even a great warfare; and he gave heed to the word, and had understanding of the vision." 10.2. In those days I Daniel was mourning three whole weeks." 10.3. I ate no pleasant bread, neither came flesh nor wine in my mouth, neither did I anoint myself at all, till three whole weeks were fulfilled." 10.5. I lifted up mine eyes, and looked, and behold a man clothed in linen, whose loins were girded with fine gold of Uphaz;" 10.6. his body also was like the beryl, and his face as the appearance of lightning, and his eyes as torches of fire, and his arms and his feet like in colour to burnished brass, and the voice of his words like the voice of a multitude." 10.8. So that I was left alone, and saw this great vision, and there remained no strength in me; for my comeliness was turned in me into corruption, and I retained no strength." 10.9. Yet heard I the voice of his words; and when I heard the voice of his words, then was I fallen into a deep sleep on my face, with my face toward the ground." 10.10. And, behold, a hand touched me, which set me tottering upon my knees and upon the palms of my hands." 10.11. And he said unto me: ‘O Daniel, thou man greatly beloved, give heed unto the words that I speak unto thee, and stand upright; for now am I sent unto thee’; and when he had spoken this word unto me, I stood trembling." 10.12. Then said he unto me: ‘Fear not, Daniel; for from the first day that thou didst set thy heart to understand, and to humble thyself before thy God, thy words were heard; and I am come because of thy words." 10.13. But the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me one and twenty days; but, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me; and I was left over there beside the kings of Persia." 10.14. Now I am come to make thee understand what shall befall thy people in the end of days; for there is yet a vision for the days.’" 10.16. And, behold, one like the similitude of the sons of men touched my lips; then I opened my mouth, and spoke and said unto him that stood before me: ‘O my lord, by reason of the vision my pains are come upon me, and I retain no strength." 10.17. For how can this servant of my lord talk with this my lord? for as for me, straightway there remained no strength in me, neither was there breath left in me.’" 10.18. Then there touched me again one like the appearance of a man, and he strengthened me." 10.20. Then said he: Knowest thou wherefore I come unto thee? and now will I return to fight with the prince of Persia; and when I go forth, lo, the prince of Greece shall come." 10.21. Howbeit I will declare unto thee that which is inscribed in the writing of truth; and there is none that holdeth with me against these, except Michael your prince."
24. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 14.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

14.16. It was heard in Rome, and as far away as Sparta, that Jonathan had died, and they were deeply grieved.
25. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 6.29 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.29. And those who a little before had acted toward him with good will now changed to ill will, because the words he had uttered were in their opinion sheer madness.'
26. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 19.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

27. Septuagint, Judith, 6.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

6.16. They called together all the elders of the city, and all their young men and their women ran to the assembly; and they set Achior in the midst of all their people, and Uzziah asked him what had happened.
28. Anon., 2 Baruch, 48.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

29. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 8.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.5. Then there is the placing the wool on the tree. This means that the kingdom of Jesus is on the cross, and that they who set their hope on Him shall live for ever.
30. Artemidorus, Oneirocritica, 5.51 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

31. Ignatius, To The Romans, 4.2-4.3, 6.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.2. Rather entice the wild beasts, that they may become my sepulchre and may leave no part of my body behind, so that I may not, when I am fallen asleep, be burdensome to any one. Then shall I be truly a disciple of Jesus Christ, when the world shall not so much as see my body. Supplicate the Lord for me, that through these instruments I may be found a sacrifice to God. 4.3. I do not enjoin you, as Peter and Paul did. They were Apostles, I am a convict; they were free, but I am a slave to this very hour. Yet if I shall suffer, then am I a freed-man of Jesus Christ, and I shall rise free in Him. Now I am learning in my bonds to put away every desire. 6.3. Permit me to be an imitator of the passion of my God. If any man hath Him within himself, let him understand what I desire, and let him have fellow- feeling with me, for he knoweth the things which straiten me.
32. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.2, 3.12, 4.17, 7.17, 10.32, 11.2, 11.16, 11.18, 11.22, 12.28, 14.4, 14.23, 14.33-14.35, 15.9, 15.51, 16.1-16.2, 16.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. to the assembly of God whichis at Corinth; those who are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to besaints, with all who call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ in everyplace, both theirs and ours: 3.12. But if anyone builds on thefoundation with gold, silver, costly stones, wood, hay, or stubble; 4.17. Becauseof this I have sent Timothy to you, who is my beloved and faithfulchild in the Lord, who will remind you of my ways which are in Christ,even as I teach everywhere in every assembly. 7.17. Only, as the Lord hasdistributed to each man, as God has called each, so let him walk. So Icommand in all the assemblies. 10.32. Give no occasions for stumbling, either to Jews, or to Greeks,or to the assembly of God; 11.2. Now Ipraise you, brothers, that you remember me in all things, and hold firmthe traditions, even as I delivered them to you. 11.16. But if any man seems to be contentious, we have nosuch custom, neither do God's assemblies. 11.18. For firstof all, when you come together in the assembly, I hear that divisionsexist among you, and I partly believe it. 11.22. What, don't you have houses to eat and to drink in?Or do you despise God's assembly, and put them to shame who don't have?What shall I tell you? Shall I praise you? In this I don't praise you. 12.28. God has set some in the assembly: first apostles, secondprophets, third teachers, then miracle workers, then gifts of healings,helps, governments, and various kinds of languages. 14.4. He whospeaks in another language edifies himself, but he who prophesiesedifies the assembly. 14.23. If therefore thewhole assembly is assembled together and all speak with otherlanguages, and unlearned or unbelieving people come in, won't they saythat you are crazy? 14.33. for God is not a God of confusion, but of peace.As in all the assemblies of the saints 14.34. let your wives keepsilent in the assemblies, for it has not been permitted for them tospeak; but let them be in subjection, as the law also says. 14.35. Ifthey desire to learn anything, let them ask their own husbands at home,for it is shameful for a woman to chatter in the assembly. 15.9. For I am the least of theapostles, who is not worthy to be called an apostle, because Ipersecuted the assembly of God. 15.51. Behold, I tell you a mystery. We will not all sleep, but wewill all be changed 16.1. Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I commandedthe assemblies of Galatia, you do likewise. 16.2. On the first day ofthe week, let each one of you save, as he may prosper, that nocollections be made when I come. 16.19. The assemblies of Asia greet you. Aquila and Priscilla greetyou much in the Lord, together with the assembly that is in theirhouse.
33. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.1, 2.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, Silvanus, and Timothy, to the assembly of the Thessalonians in God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 2.14. For you, brothers, became imitators of the assemblies of God which are in Judea in Christ Jesus; for you also suffered the same things from your own countrymen, even as they did from the Jews;
34. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 3.5, 3.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.5. (but if a man doesn't know how to rule his own house, how will he take care of the assembly of God?) 3.15. but if I wait long, that you may know how men ought to behave themselves in the house of God, which is the assembly of the living God, the pillar and ground of the truth.
35. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.1, 1.14, 6.1-6.10, 8.1, 8.18-8.19, 8.23-8.24, 11.8, 11.21-11.33 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

36. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 1.1, 2.1, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, Silvanus, and Timothy, to the assembly of the Thessalonians in God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ: 2.1. Now, brothers, concerning the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, and our gathering together to him, we ask you 3.3. But the Lord is faithful, who will establish you, and guard you from the evil one.
37. New Testament, Acts, 1.9-1.11, 5.11, 5.30, 7.38, 8.3, 11.22, 11.26, 12.1, 12.5, 13.1, 14.23, 15.3-15.4, 15.22, 19.32, 19.39-19.40, 20.28 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.9. When he had said these things, as they were looking, he was taken up, and a cloud received him out of their sight. 1.10. While they were looking steadfastly into the sky as he went, behold, two men stood by them in white clothing 1.11. who also said, "You men of Galilee, why do you stand looking into the sky? This Jesus, who was received up from you into the sky will come back in the same way as you saw him going into the sky. 5.11. Great fear came on the whole assembly, and on all who heard these things. 5.30. The God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom you killed, hanging him on a tree. 7.38. This is he who was in the assembly in the wilderness with the angel that spoke to him on Mount Sinai, and with our fathers, who received living oracles to give to us 8.3. But Saul ravaged the assembly, entering into every house, and dragged both men and women off to prison. 11.22. The report concerning them came to the ears of the assembly which was in Jerusalem. They sent out Barnabas to go as far as Antioch 11.26. When he had found him, he brought him to Antioch. It happened, that even for a whole year they were gathered together with the assembly, and taught many people. The disciples were first called Christians in Antioch. 12.1. Now about that time, Herod the king stretched out his hands to oppress some of the assembly. 12.5. Peter therefore was kept in the prison, but constant prayer was made by the assembly to God for him. 13.1. Now in the assembly that was at Antioch there were some prophets and teachers: Barnabas, Simeon who was called Niger, Lucius of Cyrene, Manaen the foster-brother of Herod the tetrarch, and Saul. 14.23. When they had appointed elders for them in every assembly, and had prayed with fasting, they commended them to the Lord, on whom they had believed. 15.3. They, being sent on their way by the assembly, passed through both Phoenicia and Samaria, declaring the conversion of the Gentiles. They caused great joy to all the brothers. 15.4. When they had come to Jerusalem, they were received by the assembly and the apostles and the elders, and they reported all things that God had done with them. 15.22. Then it seemed good to the apostles and the elders, with the whole assembly, to choose men out of their company, and send them to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas: Judas called Barsabbas, and Silas, chief men among the brothers. 19.32. Some therefore cried one thing, and some another, for the assembly was in confusion. Most of them didn't know why they had come together. 19.39. But if you seek anything about other matters, it will be settled in the regular assembly. 19.40. For indeed we are in danger of being accused concerning this day's riot, there being no cause. Concerning it, we wouldn't be able to give an account of this commotion. 20.28. Take heed, therefore, to yourselves, and to all the flock, in which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the assembly of the Lord and God which he purchased with his own blood.
38. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.1, 1.3-1.19, 2.1, 2.7-2.9, 2.11, 2.14, 2.17-2.18, 2.20, 2.23, 2.26-2.28, 3.1, 3.5, 3.8-3.9, 3.12, 3.14-3.16, 3.21, 4.1-4.11, 5.9-5.14, 7.9-7.17, 10.1, 10.4-10.5, 10.7-10.11, 11.4, 11.15-11.19, 12.10-12.12, 13.8-13.10, 14.1-14.5, 14.8, 15.2-15.4, 16.15, 18.3, 18.9-18.19, 18.21-18.24, 19.1-19.8, 19.10-19.11, 19.13, 19.16, 20.4-20.6, 21.3, 21.5-21.8, 22.2, 22.5, 22.7, 22.9, 22.12-22.14, 22.18-22.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. This is the Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show to his servants the things which must happen soon, which he sent and made known by his angel to his servant, John 1.3. Blessed is he who reads and those who hear the words of the prophecy, and keep the things that are written in it, for the time is at hand. 1.4. John, to the seven assemblies that are in Asia: Grace to you and peace, from God, who is and who was and who is to come; and from the seven Spirits who are before his throne; 1.5. and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To him who loves us, and washed us from our sins by his blood; 1.6. and he made us to be a kingdom, priests to his God and Father; to him be the glory and the dominion forever and ever. Amen. 1.7. Behold, he is coming with the clouds, and every eye will see him, including those who pierced him. All the tribes of the earth will mourn over him. Even so, Amen. 1.8. I am the Alpha and the Omega," says the Lord God, "who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty. 1.9. I John, your brother and partner with you in oppression, kingdom, and perseverance in Christ Jesus, was on the isle that is called Patmos because of God's Word and the testimony of Jesus Christ. 1.10. I was in the Spirit on the Lord's day, and I heard behind me a loud voice, as of a trumpet 1.11. saying, "What you see, write in a book and send to the seven assemblies: to Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and to Laodicea. 1.12. I turned to see the voice that spoke with me. Having turned, I saw seven golden lampstands. 1.13. And in the midst of the lampstands was one like a son of man, clothed with a robe reaching down to his feet, and with a golden sash around his chest. 1.14. His head and his hair were white as white wool, like snow. His eyes were like a flame of fire. 1.15. His feet were like burnished brass, as if it had been refined in a furnace. His voice was like the voice of many waters. 1.16. He had seven stars in his right hand. Out of his mouth proceeded a sharp two-edged sword. His face was like the sun shining at its brightest. 1.17. When I saw him, I fell at his feet like a dead man. He laid his right hand on me, saying, "Don't be afraid. I am the first and the last 1.18. and the Living one. I was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore. Amen. I have the keys of Death and of Hades. 1.19. Write therefore the things which you have seen, and the things which are, and the things which will happen hereafter; 2.1. To the angel of the assembly in Ephesus write: "He who holds the seven stars in his right hand, he who walks in the midst of the seven golden lampstands says these things: 2.7. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the assemblies. To him who overcomes I will give to eat of the tree of life, which is in the Paradise of my God. 2.8. To the angel of the assembly in Smyrna write: "The first and the last, who was dead, and has come to life says these things: 2.9. I know your works, oppression, and your poverty (but you are rich), and the blasphemy of those who say they are Jews, and they are not, but are a synagogue of Satan. 2.11. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the assemblies. He who overcomes won't be harmed by the second death. 2.14. But I have a few things against you, because you have there some who hold the teaching of Balaam, who taught Balak to throw a stumbling block before the children of Israel , to eat things sacrificed to idols, and to commit sexual immorality. 2.17. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the assemblies. To him who overcomes, to him I will give of the hidden manna, and I will give him a white stone, and on the stone a new name written, which no one knows but he who receives it. 2.18. To the angel of the assembly in Thyatira write: "The Son of God, who has his eyes like a flame of fire, and his feet are like burnished brass, says these things: 2.20. But I have this against you, that you tolerate your woman, Jezebel, who calls herself a prophetess. She teaches and seduces my servants to commit sexual immorality, and to eat things sacrificed to idols. 2.23. I will kill her children with Death, and all the assemblies will know that I am he who searches the minds and hearts. I will give to each one of you according to your deeds. 2.26. He who overcomes, and he who keeps my works to the end, to him I will give authority over the nations. 2.27. He will rule them with a rod of iron, shattering them like clay pots; as I also have received of my Father: 2.28. and I will give him the morning star. 3.1. And to the angel of the assembly in Sardis write: He who has the seven Spirits of God, and the seven stars says these things: "I know your works, that you have a reputation of being alive, but you are dead. 3.5. He who overcomes will be arrayed in white garments, and I will in no way blot his name out of the book of life, and I will confess his name before my Father, and before his angels. 3.8. I know your works (behold, I have set before you an open door, which no one can shut), that you have a little power, and kept my word, and didn't deny my name. 3.9. Behold, I give of the synagogue of Satan, of those who say they are Jews, and they are not, but lie. Behold, I will make them to come and worship before your feet, and to know that I have loved you. 3.12. He who overcomes, I will make him a pillar in the temple of my God, and he will go out from there no more. I will write on him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, the new Jerusalem, which comes down out of heaven from my God, and my own new name. 3.14. To the angel of the assembly in Laodicea write: "The Amen, the Faithful and True Witness, the Head of God's creation, says these things: 3.15. I know your works, that you are neither cold nor hot. I wish you were cold or hot. 3.16. So, because you are lukewarm, and neither hot nor cold, I will vomit you out of my mouth. 3.21. He who overcomes, I will give to him to sit down with me on my throne, as I also overcame, and sat down with my Father on his throne. 4.1. After these things I looked and saw a door opened in heaven, and the first voice that I heard, like a trumpet speaking with me, was one saying, "Come up here, and I will show you the things which must happen after this. 4.2. Immediately I was in the Spirit. Behold, there was a throne set in heaven, and one sitting on the throne 4.3. that looked like a jasper stone and a sardius. There was a rainbow around the throne, like an emerald to look at. 4.4. Around the throne were twenty-four thrones. On the thrones were twenty-four elders sitting, dressed in white garments, with crowns of gold on their heads. 4.5. Out of the throne proceed lightnings, sounds, and thunders. There were seven lamps of fire burning before his throne, which are the seven Spirits of God. 4.6. Before the throne was something like a sea of glass, like a crystal. In the midst of the throne, and around the throne were four living creatures full of eyes before and behind. 4.7. The first creature was like a lion, and the second creature like a calf, and the third creature had a face like a man, and the fourth was like a flying eagle. 4.8. The four living creatures, having each one of them six wings, are full of eyes around about and within. They have no rest day and night, saying, "Holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy is the Lord God, the Almighty, who was and who is and who is to come! 4.9. When the living creatures give glory, honor, and thanks to him who sits on the throne, to him who lives forever and ever 4.10. the twenty-four elders fall down before him who sits on the throne, and worship him who lives forever and ever, and throw their crowns before the throne, saying 4.11. Worthy are you, our Lord and our God, the Holy One, to receive the glory, the honor, and the power, for you created all things, and because of your desire they existed, and were created! 5.9. They sang a new song, saying, "You are worthy to take the book, And to open its seals: For you were killed, And bought us for God with your blood, Out of every tribe, language, people, and nation 5.10. And made them kings and priests to our God, And they reign on earth. 5.11. I saw, and I heard something like a voice of many angels around the throne, the living creatures, and the elders; and the number of them was ten thousands of ten thousands, and thousands of thousands; 5.12. saying with a loud voice, "Worthy is the Lamb who has been killed to receive the power, riches, wisdom, might, honor, glory, and blessing! 5.13. I heard every created thing which is in heaven, on the earth, under the earth, on the sea, and everything in them, saying, "To him who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb be the blessing, the honor, the glory, and the dominion, forever and ever! Amen. 5.14. The four living creatures said, "Amen!" The elders fell down and worshiped. 7.9. After these things I looked, and behold, a great multitude, which no man could number, out of every nation and of all tribes, peoples, and languages, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, dressed in white robes, with palm branches in their hands. 7.10. They cried with a loud voice, saying, "Salvation be to our God, who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb! 7.11. All the angels were standing around the throne, the elders, and the four living creatures; and they fell before his throne on their faces, and worshiped God 7.12. saying, "Amen! Blessing, glory, wisdom, thanksgiving, honor, power, and might, be to our God forever and ever! Amen. 7.13. One of the elders answered, saying to me, "These who are arrayed in white robes, who are they, and where did they come from? 7.14. I told him, "My lord, you know."He said to me, "These are those who came out of the great tribulation. They washed their robes, and made them white in the Lamb's blood. 7.15. Therefore they are before the throne of God, they serve him day and night in his temple. He who sits on the throne will spread his tent over them. 7.16. They will never be hungry, neither thirsty any more; neither will the sun beat on them, nor any heat; 7.17. for the Lamb who is in the midst of the throne shepherds them, and leads them to living springs of waters. God will wipe away every tear from their eyes. 10.1. I saw a mighty angel coming down out of the sky, clothed with a cloud. A rainbow was on his head. His face was like the sun, and his feet like pillars of fire. 10.4. When the seven thunders sounded, I was about to write; but I heard a voice from the sky saying, "Seal up the things which the seven thunders said, and don't write them. 10.7. but in the days of the voice of the seventh angel, when he is about to sound, then the mystery of God is finished, as he declared to his servants, the prophets. 10.8. The voice which I heard from heaven, again speaking with me, said, "Go, take the book which is open in the hand of the angel who stands on the sea and on the land. 10.9. I went to the angel, telling him to give me the little book. He said to me, "Take it, and eat it up. It will make your belly bitter, but in your mouth it will be as sweet as honey. 10.10. I took the little book out of the angel's hand, and ate it up. It was as sweet as honey in my mouth. When I had eaten it, my belly was made bitter. 10.11. They told me, "You must prophesy again over many peoples, nations, languages, and kings. 11.4. These are the two olive trees and the two lampstands, standing before the Lord of the earth. 11.15. The seventh angel sounded, and great voices in heaven followed, saying, "The kingdom of the world has become the Kingdom of our Lord, and of his Christ. He will reign forever and ever! 11.16. The twenty-four elders, who sit before God's throne on their thrones, fell on their faces and worshiped God 11.17. saying: "We give you thanks, Lord God, the Almighty, the one who is and who was; because you have taken your great power, and reigned. 11.18. The nations were angry, and your wrath came, as did the time for the dead to be judged, and to give your servants the prophets, their reward, as well as the saints, and those who fear your name, the small and the great; and to destroy those who destroy the earth. 11.19. God's temple that is in heaven was opened, and the ark of the Lord's covet was seen in his temple. Lightnings, sounds, thunders, an earthquake, and great hail followed. 12.10. I heard a loud voice in heaven, saying, "Now is come the salvation, the power, and the Kingdom of our God, and the authority of his Christ; for the accuser of our brothers has been thrown down, who accuses them before our God day and night. 12.11. They overcame him because of the Lamb's blood, and because of the word of their testimony. They didn't love their life, even to death. 12.12. Therefore rejoice, heavens, and you who dwell in them. Woe to the earth and to the sea, because the devil has gone down to you, having great wrath, knowing that he has but a short time. 13.8. All who dwell on the earth will worship him, everyone whose name has not been written from the foundation of the world in the book of life of the Lamb who has been killed. 13.9. If anyone has an ear, let him hear. 13.10. If anyone has captivity, he goes away. If anyone is with the sword, he must be killed. Here is the endurance and the faith of the saints. 14.1. I saw, and behold, the Lamb standing on Mount Zion, and with him a number, one hundred forty-four thousand, having his name, and the name of his Father, written on their foreheads. 14.2. I heard a sound from heaven, like the sound of many waters, and like the sound of a great thunder. The sound which I heard was like that of harpers playing on their harps. 14.3. They sing a new song before the throne, and before the four living creatures and the elders. No one could learn the song except the one hundred forty-four thousand, those who had been redeemed out of the earth. 14.4. These are those who were not defiled with women, for they are virgins. These are those who follow the Lamb wherever he goes. These were redeemed by Jesus from among men, the first fruits to God and to the Lamb. 14.5. In their mouth was found no lie, for they are blameless. 14.8. Another, a second angel, followed, saying, "Babylon the great has fallen, which has made all the nations to drink of the wine of the wrath of her sexual immorality. 15.2. I saw something like a sea of glass mixed with fire, and those who overcame the beast, and his image, and the number of his name, standing on the sea of glass, having harps of God. 15.3. They sang the song of Moses, the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb, saying, "Great and marvelous are your works, Lord God, the Almighty; Righteous and true are your ways, you King of the nations. 15.4. Who wouldn't fear you, Lord, And glorify your name? For you only are holy. For all the nations will come and worship before you. For your righteous acts have been revealed. 16.15. Behold, I come like a thief. Blessed is he who watches, and keeps his clothes, so that he doesn't walk naked, and they see his shame. 18.3. For all the nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her sexual immorality, the kings of the earth committed sexual immorality with her, and the merchants of the earth grew rich from the abundance of her luxury. 18.9. The kings of the earth, who committed sexual immorality and lived wantonly with her, will weep and wail over her, when they look at the smoke of her burning 18.10. standing far away for the fear of her torment, saying, 'Woe, woe, the great city, Babylon, the strong city! For your judgment has come in one hour.' 18.11. The merchants of the earth weep and mourn over her, for no one buys their merchandise any more; 18.12. merchandise of gold, silver, precious stones, pearls, fine linen, purple, silk, scarlet, all expensive wood, every vessel of ivory, every vessel made of most precious wood, and of brass, and iron, and marble; 18.13. and cinnamon, incense, perfume, frankincense, wine, olive oil, fine flour, wheat, sheep, horses, chariots, bodies, and people's souls. 18.14. The fruits which your soul lusted after have been lost to you, and all things that were dainty and sumptuous have perished from you, and you will find them no more at all. 18.15. The merchants of these things, who were made rich by her, will stand far away for the fear of her torment, weeping and mourning; 18.16. saying, 'Woe, woe, the great city, she who was dressed in fine linen, purple, and scarlet, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls! 18.17. For in an hour such great riches are made desolate.' Every shipmaster, and everyone who sails anywhere, and mariners, and as many as gain their living by sea, stood far away 18.18. and cried out as they looked at the smoke of her burning, saying, 'What is like the great city?' 18.19. They cast dust on their heads, and cried, weeping and mourning, saying, 'Woe, woe, the great city, in which all who had their ships in the sea were made rich by reason of her great wealth!' For in one hour is she made desolate. 18.21. A mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone and cast it into the sea, saying, "Thus with violence will Babylon, the great city, be thrown down, and will be found no more at all. 18.22. The voice of harpers and minstrels and flute players and trumpeters will be heard no more at all in you. No craftsman, of whatever craft, will be found any more at all in you. The sound of a mill will be heard no more at all in you. 18.23. The light of a lamp will shine no more at all in you. The voice of the bridegroom and of the bride will be heard no more at all in you; for your merchants were the princes of the earth; for with your sorcery all the nations were deceived. 18.24. In her was found the blood of prophets and of saints, and of all who have been slain on the earth. 19.1. After these things I heard something like a loud voice of a great multitude in heaven, saying, "Hallelujah! Salvation, power, and glory belong to our God: 19.2. for true and righteous are his judgments. For he has judged the great prostitute, her who corrupted the earth with her sexual immorality, and he has avenged the blood of his servants at her hand. 19.3. A second said, "Hallelujah! Her smoke goes up forever and ever. 19.4. The twenty-four elders and the four living creatures fell down and worshiped God who sits on the throne, saying, "Amen! Hallelujah! 19.5. A voice came forth from the throne, saying, "Give praise to our God, all you his servants, you who fear him, the small and the great! 19.6. I heard something like the voice of a great multitude, and like the voice of many waters, and like the voice of mighty thunders, saying, "Hallelujah! For the Lord our God, the Almighty, reigns! 19.7. Let us rejoice and be exceedingly glad, and let us give the glory to him. For the marriage of the Lamb has come, and his wife has made herself ready. 19.8. It was given to her that she would array herself in bright, pure, fine linen: for the fine linen is the righteous acts of the saints. 19.10. I fell down before his feet to worship him. He said to me, "Look! Don't do it! I am a fellow bondservant with you and with your brothers who hold the testimony of Jesus. Worship God, for the testimony of Jesus is the Spirit of Prophecy. 19.11. I saw the heaven opened, and behold, a white horse, and he who sat on it is called Faithful and True. In righteousness he judges and makes war. 19.13. He is clothed in a garment sprinkled with blood. His name is called "The Word of God. 19.16. He has on his garment and on his thigh a name written, "KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS. 20.4. I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was given to them. I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded for the testimony of Jesus, and for the word of God, and such as didn't worship the beast nor his image, and didn't receive the mark on their forehead and on their hand. They lived, and reigned with Christ for the thousand years. 20.5. The rest of the dead didn't live until the thousand years were finished. This is the first resurrection. 20.6. Blessed and holy is he who has part in the first resurrection. Over these, the second death has no power, but they will be priests of God and of Christ, and will reign with him one thousand years. 21.3. I heard a loud voice out of heaven saying, "Behold, God's dwelling is with men, and he will dwell with them, and they will be his people, and God himself will be with them as their God. 21.5. He who sits on the throne said, "Behold, I am making all things new." He said, "Write, for these words of God are faithful and true. 21.6. He said to me, "It is done! I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End. I will give freely to him who is thirsty from the spring of the water of life. 21.7. He who overcomes, I will give him these things. I will be his God, and he will be my son. 21.8. But for the cowardly, unbelieving, sinners, abominable, murderers, sexually immoral, sorcerers, idolaters, and all liars, their part is in the lake that burns with fire and sulfur, which is the second death. 22.2. in the midst of its street. On this side of the river and on that was the tree of life, bearing twelve kinds of fruits, yielding its fruit every month. The leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations. 22.5. There will be no night, and they need no lamp light; for the Lord God will illuminate them. They will reign forever and ever. 22.7. Behold, I come quickly. Blessed is he who keeps the words of the prophecy of this book. 22.9. He said to me, "See you don't do it! I am a fellow bondservant with you and with your brothers, the prophets, and with those who keep the words of this book. Worship God. 22.12. Behold, I come quickly. My reward is with me, to repay to each man according to his work. 22.13. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End. 22.14. Blessed are those who do his commandments, that they may have the right to the tree of life, and may enter in by the gates into the city. 22.18. I testify to everyone who hears the words of the prophecy of this book, if anyone adds to them, may God add to him the plagues which are written in this book. 22.19. If anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, may God take away his part from the tree of life, and out of the holy city, which are written in this book. 22.20. He who testifies these things says, "Yes, I come quickly."Amen! Yes, come, Lord Jesus.
39. New Testament, James, 5.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.14. Is any among you sick? Let him call for the elders of the assembly, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord
40. New Testament, Colossians, 1.18, 1.24, 1.26, 4.15-4.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. He is the head of the body, the assembly, who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence. 1.24. Now I rejoice in my sufferings for your sake, and fill up on my part that which is lacking of the afflictions of Christ in my flesh for his body's sake, which is the assembly; 1.26. the mystery which has been hidden for ages and generations. But now it has been revealed to his saints 4.15. Greet the brothers who are in Laodicea, and Nymphas, and the assembly that is in his house. 4.16. When this letter has been read among you, cause it to be read also in the assembly of the Laodiceans; and that you also read the letter from Laodicea.
41. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.9, 1.22, 3.3, 3.10, 3.21, 5.23-5.25, 5.27, 5.29, 5.32 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. making known to us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he purposed in him 1.22. He put all things in subjection under his feet, and gave him to be head over all things for the assembly 3.3. how that by revelation the mystery was made known to me, as I wrote before in few words 3.10. to the intent that now through the assembly the manifold wisdom of God might be made known to the principalities and the powers in the heavenly places 3.21. to him be the glory in the assembly and in Christ Jesus to all generations forever and ever. Amen. 5.23. For the husband is the head of the wife, and Christ also is the head of the assembly, being himself the savior of the body. 5.24. But as the assembly is subject to Christ, so let the wives also be to their own husbands in everything. 5.25. Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the assembly, and gave himself up for it; 5.27. that he might present the assembly to himself gloriously, not having spot or wrinkle or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish. 5.29. For no man ever hated his own flesh; but nourishes and cherishes it, even as the Lord also does the assembly; 5.32. This mystery is great, but I speak concerning Christ and of the assembly.
42. New Testament, Galatians, 1.2, 1.13, 1.22, 3.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. and all the brothers who are with me, to the assemblies of Galatia: 1.13. For you have heard of my way ofliving in time past in the Jews' religion, how that beyond measure Ipersecuted the assembly of God, and ravaged it. 1.22. Iwas still unknown by face to the assemblies of Judea which were inChrist 3.13. Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become acurse for us. For it is written, "Cursed is everyone who hangs on atree
43. New Testament, Hebrews, 2.12, 12.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.12. saying, "I will declare your name to my brothers. In the midst of the congregation I will sing your praise. 12.23. to the general assembly and assembly of the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven, to God the Judge of all, to the spirits of just men made perfect
44. New Testament, Philippians, 3.6, 3.17, 4.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.6. concerning zeal, persecuting the assembly; concerning the righteousness which is in the law, found blameless. 3.17. Brothers, be imitators together of me, and note those who walk this way, even as you have us for an example. 4.15. You yourselves also know, you Philippians, that in the beginning of the gospel, when I departed from Macedonia, no assembly had fellowship with me in the matter of giving and receiving but you only.
45. New Testament, Romans, 11.25, 16.1, 16.4-16.5, 16.16, 16.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.25. For I don't desire, brothers, to have you ignorant of this mystery, so that you won't be wise in your own conceits, that a partial hardening has happened to Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in 16.1. I commend to you Phoebe, our sister, who is a servant of the assembly that is at Cenchreae 16.4. who for my life, laid down their own necks; to whom not only I give thanks, but also all the assemblies of the Gentiles. 16.5. Greet the assembly that is in their house. Greet Epaenetus, my beloved, who is the first fruits of Achaia to Christ. 16.16. Greet one another with a holy kiss. The assemblies of Christ greet you. 16.23. Gaius, my host and host of the whole assembly, greets you. Erastus, the treasurer of the city, greets you, as does Quartus, the brother.
46. New Testament, John, 4.10, 6.51, 6.57 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.10. Jesus answered her, "If you knew the gift of God, and who it is who says to you, 'Give me a drink,' you would have asked him, and he would have given you living water. 6.51. I am the living bread which came down out of heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. Yes, the bread which I will give for the life of the world is my flesh. 6.57. As the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father; so he who feeds on me, he will also live because of me.
47. New Testament, Luke, 23.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

23.31. For if they do these things in the green tree, what will be done in the dry?
48. New Testament, Mark, 4.10-4.12, 9.2-9.8, 13.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.10. When he was alone, those who were around him with the twelve asked him about the parables. 4.11. He said to them, "To you is given the mystery of the Kingdom of God, but to those who are outside, all things are done in parables 4.12. that 'seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest perhaps they should turn again, and their sins should be forgiven them.' 9.2. After six days Jesus took with him Peter, James, and John, and brought them up onto a high mountain privately by themselves, and he was changed into another form in front of them. 9.3. His clothing became glistening, exceedingly white, like snow, such as no launderer on earth can whiten them. 9.4. Elijah and Moses appeared to them, and they were talking with Jesus. 9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah. 9.6. For he didn't know what to say, for they were very afraid. 9.7. A cloud came, overshadowing them, and a voice came out of the cloud, "This is my beloved Son. Listen to him. 9.8. Suddenly looking around, they saw no one with them any more, except Jesus only. 13.14. But when you see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing where it ought not (let the reader understand), then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains
49. New Testament, Matthew, 16.18, 18.17, 18.21, 24.15, 28.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

16.18. I also tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my assembly, and the gates of Hades will not prevail against it. 18.17. If he refuses to listen to them, tell it to the assembly. If he refuses to hear the assembly also, let him be to you as a Gentile or a tax collector. 18.21. Then Peter came and said to him, "Lord, how often shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? Until seven times? 24.15. When, therefore, you see the abomination of desolation, which was spoken of through Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place (let the reader understand) 28.20. teaching them to observe all things which I commanded you. Behold, I am with you always, even to the end of the age." Amen.
50. Babylonian Talmud, Arakhin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

15b. {שמות טז } אל תצאו ויצאו אל תותירו ויותירו,שנים בשליו ראשון ובשליו שני בשליו ראשון {שמות ט״ז:ג׳ } בשבתכם על סיר הבשר,בשליו שני (במדבר יא, ד) והאספסוף אשר בקרבו,בעגל כדאיתיה במדבר פארן כדאיתיה,אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי יוסי בן זימרא מאי דכתיב (תהלים קכ, ג) מה יתן לך ומה יוסיף לך לשון רמיה אמר לו הקב"ה ללשון כל אבריו של אדם זקופים ואתה מוטל כל אבריו של אדם מבחוץ ואתה מבפנים ולא עוד אלא שהקפתי לך שתי חומות אחת של עצם ואחת של בשר מה יתן לך ומה יוסיף לך לשון רמיה,אמר ר' יוחנן משום ר' יוסי בן זימרא כל המספר לשון הרע כאילו כפר בעיקר שנאמר (תהלים יב, ה) אשר אמרו ללשוננו נגביר שפתינו אתנו מי אדון לנו,ואמר ר' יוסי בן זימרא כל המספר לשון הרע נגעים באים עליו שנאמר (תהלים קא, ה) מלשני בסתר רעהו אותו אצמית וכתיב התם {ויקרא כה } לצמיתות ומתרגמינן לחלוטין,ותנן אין בין מצורע מוסגר למצורע מוחלט אלא פריעה ופרימה,אמר ריש לקיש מאי דכתיב (ויקרא יד, ב) זאת תהיה תורת המצורע זאת תהיה תורתו של מוציא שם רע,ואמר ריש לקיש מאי דכתיב (קהלת י, יא) אם ישוך הנחש בלא לחש ואין יתרון לבעל הלשון לעתיד לבא מתקבצות כל החיות ובאות אצל נחש ואומרות ארי דורס ואוכל זאב טורף ואוכל אתה מה הנאה יש לך אומר להם וכי מה יתרון לבעל הלשון,ואמר ריש לקיש כל המספר לשון הרע מגדיל עונות עד לשמים שנאמר (תהלים עג, ט) שתו בשמים פיהם ולשונם תהלך בארץ,אמר רב חסדא אמר מר עוקבא כל המספר לשון הרע ראוי לסוקלו באבן כתיב הכא אותו אצמית וכתיב התם (איכה ג, נג) צמתו בבור חיי וידו אבן בי,ואמר רב חסדא אמר מר עוקבא כל המספר לשון הרע אמר הקב"ה אין אני והוא יכולין לדור בעולם שנאמר תהלים קא, ה) מלשני בסתר רעהו אותו אצמית גבה עינים ורחב לבב אותו לא אוכל אל תיקרי אותו לא אוכל אלא אתו לא אוכל ואיכא דמתני לה על גסי הרוח,אמר רב חסדא אמר מר עוקבא כל המספר לשון הרע אומר הקב"ה [לשר של] גיהנם אני עליו מלמעלה ואתה עליו מלמטה נדוננו שנאמר (תהלים קכ, ד) חצי גבור שנונים עם גחלי רתמים אין חץ אלא לשון שנאמר (ירמיהו ט, ז) חץ שחוט לשונם מרמה דבר,ואין גבור אלא הקב"ה שנאמר (ישעיהו מב, יג) ה' כגבור יצא גחלי רתמים היינו גיהנם,אמר רבי חמא בר' חנינא מה תקנתו של מספרי לשון הרע אם תלמיד חכם הוא יעסוק בתורה שנא' (משלי טו, ד) מרפא לשון עץ חיים ואין לשון אלא לשון הרע שנאמר חץ שחוט לשונם ואין עץ אלא תורה שנאמר (משלי ג, יח) עץ חיים היא למחזיקים בה ואם עם הארץ הוא ישפיל דעתו שנאמר (משלי טו, ד) וסלף בה שבר רוח,רבי אחא ברבי חנינא אומר סיפר אין לו תקנה שכבר כרתו דוד ברוח הקדש שנאמר (תהלים יב, ד) יכרת ה' כל שפתי חלקות לשון מדברת גדולות אלא מה תקנתו שלא יבא לידי לשון הרע אם תלמיד חכם הוא יעסוק בתורה ואם ע"ה הוא ישפיל דעתו שנאמר וסלף בה שבר רוח,תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל כל המספר לשון הרע מגדיל עונות כנגד שלש עבירות עבודת כוכבים וגילוי עריות ושפיכות דמים כתיב הכא לשון מדברת גדולות וכתיב בעבודת כוכבים (שמות לב, לא) אנא חטא העם הזה חטאה גדולה,בגילוי עריות כתיב (בראשית לט, ט) ואיך אעשה הרעה הגדולה הזאת בשפיכות דמים כתיב (בראשית ד, יג) גדול עוני מנשוא,גדולות אימא תרתי הי מינייהו מפקא,במערבא אמרי לשון תליתאי קטיל תליתאי הורג למספרו ולמקבלו ולאומרו,א"ר חמא ברבי חנינא מאי דכתיב (משלי יח, כא) מות וחיים ביד לשון וכי יש יד ללשון לומר לך מה יד ממיתה אף לשון ממיתה אי מה יד אינה ממיתה אלא בסמוך לה אף לשון אינה ממיתה אלא בסמוך לה ת"ל חץ שחוט לשונם,אי מה חץ עד ארבעים וחמשים אמה אף לשון עד ארבעים וחמשים אמה תלמוד לומר שתו בשמים פיהם ולשונם תהלך בארץ,וכי מאחר דכתיב שתו בשמים פיהם חץ שחוט לשונם למה לי הא קמשמע לן דקטיל כחץ,וכי מאחר דכתיב חץ שחוט לשונם מות וחיים ביד לשון למה לי לכדרבא דאמר רבא בעי חיים בלישניה דבעי מיתה בלישניה,היכי דמי לישנא בישא (רבא אמר) כגון דאמר איכא נורא בי פלניא אמר ליה אביי מאי קא עביד גלויי מילתא בעלמא הוא אלא דמפיק בלישנא בישא דאמר היכא משתכח נורא אלא בי פלניא [דאיכא בשרא וכוורי],אמר רבה כל מילתא דמיתאמרא באפי מרה לית בה משום לישנא בישא אמר ליה כל שכן חוצפא ולישנא בישא אמר ליה אנא כרבי יוסי סבירא לי דאמר רבי יוסי מימי לא אמרתי דבר וחזרתי לאחורי אמר 15b. bDo not go out,as indicated in the verse: “And Moses said: Eat that today; for today is a Sabbath for the Lord; today you will not find it in the field” (Exodus 16:25). bButnevertheless there were people who bwent outto look for manna, as it is written: “And it came to pass on the seventh day that some of the people went out to gather, and they found none” (Exodus 16:27). The verse also states: “And Moses said to them: Let bnoman bleave any of ituntil the morning” (Exodus 16:19), bandthere were people who bleft ituntil morning, as it states: “But they did not listen to Moses; and some of them left of it until the morning, and it bred worms, and rotted; and Moses was angry with them” (Exodus 16:20).,The Gemara continues its elucidation of the ibaraita /i: There were btwotrials relating to the quail, one was bon the firstoccasion when the bquailappeared, bandthe other bon the secondoccasion the bquailappeared. The Gemara clarifies: The trial bof the first quailis described in the verse: “And the children of Israel said to them: Would that we had died by the hand of the Lord in the land of Egypt, bwhen we sat by the meat pots,when we ate bread to the full; for you have brought us into this wilderness, to kill this whole assembly with hunger” (Exodus 16:3). Immediately afterward the quail arrived, as the verse states: “And it came to pass in the evening, that the quail came up, and covered the camp; and in the morning there was a layer of dew round about the camp” (Exodus 16:13).,The bsecondtrial of the bquailis described in the verse: b“And the mixed multitude that was among themdesired; and the children of Israel also wept on their part, and said: Would that we were given meat to eat” (Numbers 11:4). Later the verse states: “And there went forth a wind from the Lord, and brought across quails from the sea and let them fall by the camp, about a day’s journey on this side and a day’s journey on the other side, round about the camp, and about two cubits above the face of the earth” (Numbers 11:31).,The Gemara concludes its detailing of the Jewish people’s ten trials of God: The trial of bthegolden bcalfis bas it isdescribed in the Torah (Exodus, chapter 32), and the trial in bthe wilderness of Paranis bas it isdescribed in the Torah (Numbers, chapter 13).,§ The Gemara returns to the topic of malicious speech. bRabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “What shall be given to you, and what more shall be done for you, you deceitful tongue”(Psalms 120:3)? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He said to the tongue: All theother blimbs of a person are upright, but you are lyinghorizontally. bAll theother blimbs of a person are external, but you are internal. And moreover, I have surrounded you with two walls, one of bone,i.e., the teeth, band one of flesh,the lips. bWhat shall be given to you and what more shall be done for you,to prevent byoufrom speaking in ba deceitfulmanner, btongue? /b,Furthermore, bRabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra: Anyone who speaks malicious speechis considered bas though he denied the fundamentalbelief in God. bAs it is stated: “Who have said: We will make our tongue mighty; our lips are with us: Who is lord over us”(Psalms 12:5)., bAnd Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra says: Anyone who speaks malicious speechwill be afflicted by bleprous marks coming upon him, as it is stated: “Whoever defames his neighbor in secret, I will destroy him [ iatzmit /i];whoever is haughty of eye and proud of heart, I will not suffer him” (Psalms 101:5). bAnd it is written there:“And the land shall not be sold bin perpetuity [ iletzmitut /i];for the land is Mine; for you are strangers and settlers with Me” (Leviticus 25:23). bAnd we translatethis term iletzmitutas ilaḥalutin /i,in perpetuity or confirmed.,Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra continues: bAnd we learnedin a mishna ( iMegilla8b): bThe difference between a quarantined leper,i.e., one examined by a priest who found his symptoms inconclusive, and who must therefore remain in isolation for a period of up to two weeks to see if conclusive symptoms develop, band a confirmed [ imuḥlat /i] leper,one whose symptoms were conclusive and the priest declared him a definite leper, bis onlywith regard to blettingthe hair on one’s head grow bwild and rendingone’s garments. A confirmed leper is obligated to let the hair on his head grow wild and rend his garments; a quarantined leper is not. The similarity in the terms teaches that one who speaks malicious speech will be afflicted with leprous marks., bReish Lakish says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “This shall be the law of the leper [ imetzora /i]in the day of his cleansing: He shall be brought to the priest” (Leviticus 14:2)? This means that bthis shall be the law of a defamer [ imotzi shem ra /i]. /b, bAnd Reish Lakish says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “If the serpent bites before it is charmed, then what advantage is there to the master of the tongue”(Ecclesiastes 10:11). What is the connection between the serpent and the master of the tongue? bIn the future, all the animalswill bgather and come to the serpent andwill bsayto it: bA lion trampleswith its paws to kill its prey band eats; a wolf tearswith its teeth to kill its prey band eats.But byou, what benefit do you havewhen you bite, as you cannot eat every animal that you kill? The serpent will bsay to them: And what is the benefit to the master of the tonguethat speaks malicious speech?, bAnd Reish Lakish says: Anyone who speaks malicious speech increaseshis bsins until the heavens, as it is stated: “They have set their mouth against the heavens, and their tongue walks through the earth”(Psalms 73:9). In other words, while his tongue walks on the earth, his sin reaches the heavens., bRav Ḥisda saysthat bMar Ukva says: Anyone who speaks malicious speech,it is bappropriate to stone him with stones. It is written here:“Whoever defames his neighbor in secret, bI will destroy him [ iatzmit /i]”(Psalms 101:5), band it is written there: “They have destroyed [ itzamtu /i] my life in the dungeon, and have cast stones upon me”(Lamentations 3:53)., bAnd Rav Ḥisda saysthat bMar Ukva says:With regard to banyone who speaks malicious speech, the Holy One, Blessed be He saysabout him: bHe and I cannot dwelltogether bin the world. As it is statedin the verse: b“Whoever slanders his neighbor in secret, I will destroy him; whoever is haughty of eye and proud of heart, I will not suffer him”(Psalms 101:5). bDo not readthe phrase as: b“I will not suffer him [iotob],” butas: bWith him [ iito /i] I cannotbear to dwell. God is saying that He cannot bear having this person in the world with Him. bAnd there arethose bwho teach thisnotion of God’s not being able to tolerate a certain type of person in reference bto the arrogant,i.e., they apply it to the last part of the verse: Proud of heart., bRav Ḥisdafurther bsaysthat bMar Ukva says:With regard to banyone who speaks malicious speech, the Holy One Blessed be He saysabout him bto Gehenna: Iwill be bon him from above, and youwill be bon him from below,and together bwe will judge himand punish him. bAs it is stated: “Sharp arrows of the mighty, with coals of broom”(Psalms 120:4), bandthe word b“arrow”means bnothing other than the tongue, as it is stated: “Their tongue is a sharpened arrow; it speaks deceit.One speaks peaceably to his neighbor with his mouth, but in his heart he lies in wait for him” (Jeremiah 9:7).,Mar Ukva continued: bAndthe word b“mighty” inPsalms 120:4 means bnothing other than the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “The Lord will go forth as a mighty man,He will stir up jealousy like a man of war; He will cry; He will shout aloud, He will prove Himself mighty against His enemies” (Isaiah 42:13). And as for the bcoals ofthe bbroomtree [igaḥalei retamim/b] that burn for a long time, bthis isan allusion to bGehenna. /b, bRabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina says: What is the remedy for those who speak malicious speech? If he is a Torah scholar,let him bstudy Torah, as it is stated: “A soothing tongue is a tree of life,but its perverseness is a broken spirit” (Proverbs 15:4). bAndthe word b“tongue”means bnothing other than malicious speech, as it is stated: “Their tongue is a sharpened arrow;it speaks deceit” (Jeremiah 9:7). bAndthe word b“tree”means bnothing other than Torah, as it is stated: “It is a tree of life to them that lay hold of it”(Proverbs 3:18). bAnd if he is an ignoramus,let him bhumble his mind, as it is stated: “Its perverseness is a broken spirit”(Proverbs 15:4). In other words, one who perverts his tongue with malicious speech should remedy his behavior by cultivating a broken and humble spirit., bRabbi Aḥa, son of Rabbi Ḥanina says:If one has already bspokenmalicious speech, bhe has no remedy, asKing bDavid,inspired bby Divine Spirit, has alreadycut him off with the punishment of ikaret /i, as it is stated: “May the Lord cut off [ iyakhret /i] all flattering lips, the tongue that speaks great things”(Psalms 12:4). bRather, what is his remedybeforehand, bso that he does not come tospeak bmalicious speech? If he is a Torah scholar,let him bstudy Torah; and if he is an ignoramuslet him bhumble his mind, as it is stated:“A soothing tongue is a tree of life, bbut its perverseness is a broken spirit”(Proverbs 15:4). One who is humble will not come to speak badly about another., bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Anyone who speaks malicious speech increaseshis bsinsto the degree that they bcorrespondto the bthreecardinal btransgressions: Idol worship, and forbidden sexual relations, and bloodshed.This can be derived from a verbal analogy based on the word “great.” bIt is written here:“May the Lord cut off all flattering lips, bthe tongue that speaks great things”(Psalms 12:4). bAnd it is written with regard to idol worship:“And Moses returned to the Lord, and said: bOh, this people have sinned a great sin,and have made for themselves a god of gold” (Exodus 32:31)., bWith regard to forbidden sexual relations it is writtenthat when Potiphar’s wife attempted to seduce Joseph he responded: b“How can I do this great wickedness,and sin against God” (Genesis 39:9). bWith regard to bloodshed it is written,after Cain murdered his brother: “And Cain said to the Lord: bMy punishment is greater than I can bear”(Genesis 4:13). The Torah describes each of these three cardinal sins with the word “great” in the singular, whereas malicious speech is described with the plural term “great things,” indicating that it is equivalent to all three of the other transgressions together.,The Gemara asks: Granted that with regard to malicious speech the verse uses the plural: b“Great things,”but the plural indicates a minimum of two. If so, one can only bsaythat malicious speech is equivalent to btwoof the cardinal transgressions. The Gemara responds: bWhich of themcould be btaken outas less than the other two? All three are equal. Therefore malicious speech must be equivalent to all three., bIn the West,Eretz Yisrael, bthey say: Third speech,i.e., malicious speech about a third party, bkills threepeople. bIt kills the one who speaksmalicious speech, band the one who acceptsthe malicious speech when he hears it, bandthe one baboutwhom the malicious speech is bsaid. /b, bRabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Death and life are in the hand ofthe btongue”(Proverbs 18:21). bDoes the tongue have a hand?Rather the verse comes bto tell youthat bjust as a hand can kill, so too a tongue can kill. Ifyou were to claim that bjust as the hand kills only from close by, so too the tongue kills only from close by,therefore bthe verse states: “Their tongue is a sharpened arrow”(Jeremiah 9:7). The tongue kills like an arrow that is fired from a bow, at a great distance., bIfyou say that bjust as an arrowcan kill only within the distance it can be shot, which is bup toabout bforty or fifty cubits, so too a tonguecan kill only from bup to forty or fifty cubits,therefore bthe verse teaches: “They have set their mouth against the heavens, and their tongue walks through the earth”(Psalms 73:9). This teaches that malicious speech can reach great distances, even the distance between heaven and earth.,The Gemara asks: bBut since it is written: “They have set their mouth against the heavens,and their tongue walks through the earth” (Psalms 73:9), which teaches that malicious speech reaches between heaven and earth, bwhy do Ineed that which we derived from the verse: b“Their tongue is a sharpened arrow”(Jeremiah 9:7), i.e. that a tongue can kill from the distance an arrow flies? The Gemara answers: bThis teaches us thata tongue bkillsin the bsamemanner that ban arrowkills.,The Gemara further asks: bBut since it is written: “Their tongue is a sharpened arrow”(Jeremiah 9:7), bwhy do Ineed the verse: b“Death and life are in the hand of the tongue”(Proverbs 18:21), which merely teaches that a tongue can kill? The Gemara answers: This verse is necessary bfora statement bof Rava, as Rava says: One who wants lifecan attain it bbymeans of bhis tongue,which he can use for speaking appropriately and studying Torah. bOne who wants deathcan also attain it bbymeans of bhis tongue,by using it for inappropriate and malicious speech.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is considered malicious speech?In other words, how is malicious speech defined and what are the limits of the prohibition? bRava said: For example, if one says: There isalways bfire at so-and-so’s home,indicating that they are always cooking food there. bAbaye said toRava: bWhat didthis person bdowrong by saying that there is always fire in that home? His statement bis merely revealingthe true bfacts,and is not malicious speech. bRather,it is considered malicious speech if he bexpressedthis bin a slanderousmanner. For example, bif he says: Whereelse can one bfind fire except at so-and-so’s home,because they are always cooking food there., bRabba says: Any statement that is said in the presence of its master,i.e., if the subject of the statement was there, bdoes not haveany prohibition bdue to malicious speech.Abaye bsaid to him: All the more soit is proscribed speech, as it is both bimpudence and malicious speech.Rabba bsaid toAbaye: bI hold in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, as Rabbi Yosei says: In all my days I never said something and then turned aroundto see if the person I was speaking about was standing behind me listening, as I would say it even to the person involved. He bsays, /b
51. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

32b. אמר ר' אלעזר גדולה תפלה יותר ממעשים טובים שאין לך גדול במעשים טובים יותר ממשה רבינו אעפ"כ לא נענה אלא בתפלה שנאמר (דברים ג, כו) אל תוסף דבר אלי וסמיך ליה עלה ראש הפסגה:,וא"ר אלעזר גדולה תענית יותר מן הצדקה מאי טעמא זה בגופו וזה בממונו:,וא"ר אלעזר גדולה תפלה יותר מן הקרבנות שנא' (ישעיהו א, יא) למה לי רוב זבחיכם וכתיב ובפרשכם כפיכם,א"ר יוחנן כל כהן שהרג את הנפש לא ישא את כפיו שנא' (ישעיהו א, טו) ידיכם דמים מלאו:,וא"ר אלעזר מיום שחרב בית המקדש ננעלו שערי תפלה שנאמר (איכה ג, ח) גם כי אזעק ואשוע שתם תפלתי ואע"פ ששערי תפלה ננעלו שערי דמעה לא ננעלו שנאמר (תהלים לט, יג) שמעה תפלתי ה' ושועתי האזינה אל דמעתי אל תחרש,רבא לא גזר תעניתא ביומא דעיבא משום שנא' (איכה ג, מד) סכותה בענן לך מעבור תפלה:,וא"ר אלעזר מיום שחרב בית המקדש נפסקה חומת ברזל בין ישראל לאביהם שבשמים שנא' (יחזקאל ד, ג) ואתה קח לך מחבת ברזל ונתתה אותה קיר ברזל בינך ובין העיר:,א"ר חנין א"ר חנינא כל המאריך בתפלתו אין תפלתו חוזרת ריקם מנא לן ממשה רבינו שנא' (דברים ט, כו) ואתפלל אל ה' וכתיב בתריה וישמע ה' אלי גם בפעם ההיא,איני והא א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן כל המאריך בתפלתו ומעיין בה סוף בא לידי כאב לב שנא' (משלי יג, יב) תוחלת ממושכה מחלה לב מאי תקנתיה יעסוק בתורה שנא' (משלי יג, יב) ועץ חיים תאוה באה ואין עץ חיים אלא תורה שנאמר (משלי ג, יח) עץ חיים היא למחזיקים בה לא קשיא הא דמאריך ומעיין בה הא דמאריך ולא מעיין בה,א"ר חמא בר' חנינא אם ראה אדם שהתפלל ולא נענה יחזור ויתפלל שנאמר (תהלים כז, יד) קוה אל ה' חזק ויאמץ לבך וקוה אל ה':,ת"ר ארבעה צריכין חזוק ואלו הן תורה ומעשים טובים תפלה ודרך ארץ,תורה ומעשים טובים מנין שנא' (יהושע א, ז) רק חזק ואמץ מאד לשמור ולעשות ככל התורה חזק בתורה ואמץ במעשים טובים,תפלה מנין שנא' קוה אל ה' חזק ויאמץ לבך וקוה אל ה',דרך ארץ מנין שנא' (שמואל ב י, יב) חזק ונתחזק בעד עמנו וגו':,(ישעיהו מט, יד) ותאמר ציון עזבני ה' וה' שכחני היינו עזובה היינו שכוחה אמר ר"ל אמרה כנסת ישראל לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע אדם נושא אשה על אשתו ראשונה זוכר מעשה הראשונה אתה עזבתני ושכחתני,אמר לה הקב"ה בתי י"ב מזלות בראתי ברקיע ועל כל מזל ומזל בראתי לו שלשים חיל ועל כל חיל וחיל בראתי לו שלשים לגיון ועל כל לגיון ולגיון בראתי לו שלשים רהטון ועל כל רהטון ורהטון בראתי לו שלשים קרטון ועל כל קרטון וקרטון בראתי לו שלשים גסטרא ועל כל גסטרא וגסטרא תליתי בו שלש מאות וששים וחמשה אלפי רבוא כוכבים כנגד ימות החמה וכולן לא בראתי אלא בשבילך ואת אמרת עזבתני ושכחתני,(ישעיהו מט, טו) התשכח אשה עולה אמר הקב"ה כלום אשכח עולות אילים ופטרי רחמים שהקרבת לפני במדבר אמרה לפניו רבש"ע הואיל ואין שכחה לפני כסא כבודך שמא לא תשכח לי מעשה העגל אמר לה (ישעיהו מט, טו) גם אלה תשכחנה,אמרה לפניו רבש"ע הואיל ויש שכחה לפני כסא כבודך שמא תשכח לי מעשה סיני אמר לה (ישעיהו מט, טו) ואנכי לא אשכחך,והיינו דא"ר אלעזר א"ר אושעיא מאי דכתיב גם אלה תשכחנה זה מעשה העגל ואנכי לא אשכחך זה מעשה סיני:,חסידים הראשונים היו שוהין שעה אחת:,מנא הני מילי א"ר יהושע ב"ל אמר קרא (תהלים פד, ה) אשרי יושבי ביתך,ואמר ר' יהושע ב"ל המתפלל צריך לשהות שעה אחת אחר תפלתו שנא' (תהלים קמ, יד) אך צדיקים יודו לשמך ישבו ישרים את פניך,תניא נמי הכי המתפלל צריך שישהא שעה אחת קודם תפלתו ושעה אחת אחר תפלתו קודם תפלתו מנין שנא' אשרי יושבי ביתך לאחר תפלתו מנין דכתיב אך צדיקים יודו לשמך ישבו ישרים את פניך,תנו רבנן חסידים הראשונים היו שוהין שעה אחת ומתפללין שעה אחת וחוזרין ושוהין שעה אחת וכי מאחר ששוהין תשע שעות ביום בתפלה תורתן היאך משתמרת ומלאכתן היאך נעשית,אלא מתוך שחסידים הם תורתם משתמרת ומלאכתן מתברכת:,אפילו המלך שואל בשלומו לא ישיבנו:,אמר רב יוסף לא שנו אלא למלכי ישראל אבל למלכי עכו"ם פוסק,מיתיבי המתפלל וראה אנס בא כנגדו ראה קרון בא כנגדו לא יהא מפסיק אלא מקצר ועולה,לא קשיא הא דאפשר לקצר (יקצר ואם לאו פוסק),ת"ר מעשה בחסיד אחד שהיה מתפלל בדרך בא שר אחד ונתן לו שלום ולא החזיר לו שלום המתין לו עד שסיים תפלתו לאחר שסיים תפלתו א"ל ריקא והלא כתוב בתורתכם (דברים ד, ט) רק השמר לך ושמור נפשך וכתיב (דברים ד, טו) ונשמרתם מאד לנפשותיכם כשנתתי לך שלום למה לא החזרת לי שלום אם הייתי חותך ראשך בסייף מי היה תובע את דמך מידי,א"ל המתן לי עד שאפייסך בדברים א"ל אילו היית עומד לפני מלך בשר ודם ובא חברך ונתן לך שלום היית 32b. bRabbi Elazar said:This story proves that bprayer is greater than good deedswithout prayer ( iTosafot /i), as bthere was none greater inthe performance of bgood deeds than Moses our teacher; nevertheless, his request was granted,albeit in a limited manner, in his request to enter Eretz Yisrael, bonly through prayer,when God permitted him to climb the mountain and look out over the land. bAs,initially bit is stated: “Speak no more to Me,” juxtaposed to which is: “Go up to the summit of the mountain.” /b,After comparing and contrasting prayer and good deeds, the Gemara explores another comparison. bRabbi Elazar said: A fast is greater than charity. What is the reasonthat fasting is greater? Because a fast bisa mitzva performed bwith one’s bodyas he afflicts himself, bwhilecharity bisperformed only bwith one’s money. /b,In another comparison, bRabbi Elazar said: Prayer is greater than sacrifices, as it is stated: “To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices to Me,says the Lord. I am full of the burnt-offerings of rams and the fat of fed beasts; I do not desire the blood of bulls and sheep and goats” (Isaiah 1:11). bAndseveral verses later bit is written: “And when you spread forth your handsI will hide My eyes from you, and even if you increase your prayer, I will not hear; your hands are full of blood” (Isaiah 1:15). Not only Israel’s sacrifices, but even their prayers, which are on a higher spiritual level, will not be accepted.,Speaking of that verse in Isaiah, the Gemara cites that bRabbi Yoḥa said: Any priest who killed a person may not lift his handsin the Priestly Blessing bas it is stated:“And when you spread forth your hands I will hide My eyes from you… byour hands are full of blood.”Here we see that the Priestly Blessing, performed with hands spread forth, is not accepted when performed by priests whose “hands are full of blood.”,On the subject of prayer, bRabbi Elazar also said: Since the day the Temple was destroyed the gates of prayer were lockedand prayer is not accepted as it once was, bas it is saidin lamentation of the Temple’s destruction: b“Though I plead and call out, He shuts out my prayer”(Lamentations 3:8). Yet, bdespitethe fact bthat the gates of prayer were lockedwith the destruction of the Temple, bthe gates of tears were not locked,and one who cries before God may rest assured that his prayers will be answered, bas it is stated: “Hear my prayer, Lord, and give ear to my pleading, keep not silence at my tears”(Psalms 39:13). Since this prayer is a request that God should pay heed to the tears of one who is praying, he is certain that at least the gates of tears are not locked.,With regard to the locking of the gates of prayer, the Gemara relates that bRava did not decree a fast on a cloudy day because it is stated: “You have covered Yourself in a cloud, through which prayer cannot pass”(Lamentations 3:44). The verse indicates that clouds are a bad omen, indicating that God has averted His face (Rav Hai Gaon)., bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: Since the day the Temple was destroyed an iron wall separates Israel from their Father in heaven, as it is statedto the prophet Ezekiel, instructing him to symbolize that separation: b“And take for yourself an iron griddle, and set it as an iron wall between yourself and the city… /bit will be a sign for the house of Israel” (Ezekiel 4:3).,The Gemara cites other statements in praise of prayer: bRabbi Ḥanin saidthat bRabbi Ḥanina said: Anyone who prolongs his prayer isassured that bhis prayer does not return uswered;it will surely be accepted. bFrom where do wederive this? bFrom Moses our teacher, as it is statedthat Moses said: “So I fell down before the Lord the forty days and forty nights that I fell down; band I prayed to the Lord”(Deuteronomy 9:26–27), band it is written thereafter: “And the Lord heard me that time as well,the Lord would not destroy you” (Deuteronomy 10:10).,The Gemara raises an objection: bIs that so? Didn’t Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saythat bRabbi Yoḥa said: Anyone who prolongs his prayer and expects it to be answered, will ultimately come to heartache,as it will not be answered. bAs it is stated: “Hope deferred makes the heart sick”(Proverbs 13:12). bAnd what is the remedyfor one afflicted with that illness? He should bengage in Torahstudy, bas it is stated: “But desire fulfilled is the tree of life”(Proverbs 13:12), band tree of life is nothing other than Torah, as it is stated: “It is a tree of life to those who hold fast to it,and those who support it are joyous” (Proverbs 3:18). This is bnot difficult. This,Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba’s statement that one will suffer heartache refers to one bwho prolongshis prayer band expects it to be answered; that,Rabbi Ḥanin’s statement that one who prolongs his prayer is praiseworthy refers to bone who prolongs his prayer anddoes bnot expect it to be answered. /b,On a similar note, bRabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: A person who prayed and saw that he was not answered,should bpray again, as it is stated: “Hope in the Lord, strengthen yourself, let your heart take courage, and hope in the Lord”(Psalms 27:14). One should turn to God with hope, and if necessary turn to God again with hope.,Connected to the emphasis on the need to bolster one’s effort in prayer, the Gemara notes that bthe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bFourthings brequire bolstering,constant effort to improve, band they are: Torah, good deeds, prayer, and occupation. /b,For each of these, a biblical proof is cited: bFrom whereis it derived that bTorah and good deedsrequire bolstering? bAs it is statedin the instruction to Joshua: b“Only be strong and be extremely courageous, observe and do all of the Torahthat Moses My servant commanded you; do not deviate to the right or to the left, that you may succeed wherever you go” (Joshua 1:7). In this verse, observe refers to Torah study and do refers to good deeds (Maharsha); the apparently repetitive language is not extraneous. The Gemara derives: bBe strong in Torah and be courageous in good deeds. /b, bFrom whereis it derived that bprayerrequires bolstering? bAs it is said: “Hope in the Lord, strengthen yourself, let your heart take courage, and hope in the Lord.” /b, bFrom whereis it derived that boccupationrequires bolstering? bAs it is stated: “Be strong and we will be strong for the sake of our nationand for the cities of our God” (II Samuel 10:12). All of one’s labor requires bolstering.,The Gemara cites a midrash on the following verse from Isaiah, relating to the sin of the Golden Calf and Moses’ supplication for forgiveness: b“But Zion said: The Lord has forsaken me and the Lord has forgotten me.Can a woman forget her suckling baby, that she would not have compassion for the child of her womb? These may forget, but you I will not forget” (Isaiah 49:14–15). The Gemara seeks to clarify: bForsaken is the same as forgotten.They are synonymous; why repeat the same idea twice? bReish Lakish said: The community of Israel said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe,even when ba man marriesa second bwife after his first wife, hecertainly brecalls the deeds of his firstwife. Yet bYou havenot only bforsaken me,but You have bforgotten meas well., bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said toIsrael: bMy daughter, I created twelve constellations in the firmament, and for each and every constellation I have created thirty armies, and for each and every army I have created thirty legions [ iligyon /i], and for each and every legion I have created thirty infantry division leaders [ irahaton /i], and for each and every infantry division leader I have created thirty military camp leaders [ ikarton /i], and for each and every military camp leader I have created thirty leaders of forts [ igastera /i], and on each and every leader of a fort I have hung three hundred and sixty-five thousand stars corresponding to the days of the solar year. And all of them I have created only for your sake; and you saidthe Lord bhas forsaken me andthe Lord bhas forgotten me? /b,The verse goes on to say: b“Can a woman forget her suckling baby,that she would not have compassion for the child of her womb? These may forget, but you I will not forget.” The meaning of this verse is that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, saidto the community of Israel: bHave I forgotten the ram offerings and firstborn animals that you offered before Me in the desert?The community of Israel breplied to Him: Master of the Universe, since there is no forgetfulness before the Throne of Your Glory, perhaps you will not forget my sin of the Golden Calf?God bresponded toIsrael: b“These [ ielu /i] too shall be forgotten.” “ /bThese” is a reference to the sin of the Golden Calf, regarding which Israel said: “These [ ielu /i] are your gods.”,The community of Israel bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, since there is forgetfulness before the Throne of Your Glory, perhaps You willalso bforget the eventsrevolving around the revelation at bSinai?God bsaid toIsrael: bI [ ianokhi /i] will not forget youthe revelation at Sinai, which began with: “I [ ianokhi /i] am the Lord your God.”,The Gemara notes: bThatis what bRabbi Elazar saidthat bRav Oshaya said: What isthe meaning of that which is bwritten: “These too will be forgotten”? That is the sin of the Golden Calf.And what is the meaning of bI will not forget you? Those are the eventsthat transpired at bSinai. /b,We learned in the mishna that bthe earlygenerations of bpiousmen bwould wait one hourin order to achieve the solemn frame of mind appropriate for prayer.,The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said:This is alluded to when bthe verse states: “Happy are those who dwell in Your House”(Psalms 84:5), immediately after which it is said: “They will yet praise You, Selah.”, bAnd Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One who prays mustalso bwait one hour after his prayer, as it is stated: “Surely the righteous will give thanks unto Your name, the upright will sit before You”(Psalms 140:14), meaning that after thanking God through prayer, one should stay and sit before Him., bThatopinion bwas also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who prays must wait one hour before his prayer and one hour after his prayer. From whereis it derived that one must wait one hour bbefore his prayer? As it is stated: “Happy are those who dwell in Your House.” And from whereis it derived that one must stay one hour bafter his prayer? As it is written: “Surely the righteous will give thanks unto Your name, the upright will sit before You.” /b, bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to waiting before and after prayer: bThe earlygenerations of bpiousmen bwould wait one hour, pray one hour, then wait one hour again.This raises the question: bSincethe early pious men bwould spend nine hours per dayengaged either bin prayeror the requisite waiting periods before and after prayer, three hours each for the morning, afternoon, and evening prayers, bhow is their Torah preserved?There was little time remaining to review their studies. bAnd how was their work accomplished? /b,The Gemara answers: bRather, because they were piousthey merited that btheir Torah is preserved and their work is blessed. /b,Additionally, we learned in the mishna: bEvenif bthe king greets himwhile he is praying, bhe should not respond to himas one may not interrupt his prayer.,In limiting application of this principle, bRav Yosef said: They only taughtthis mishna bwith regard to kings of Israel,as a Jewish king would understand that the individual did not fail to respond to his greeting due to disrespect for the king. bHowever, with regard to kings of the nations of the world, he interruptshis prayer and responds to their greeting due to the potential danger.,The Gemara braised an objectionto Rav Yosef’s statement: bOne who is praying and saw a violent person,feared by all, bcoming toward him,or ba carriage coming toward himand he is in the way, bhe should not stophis prayer bbut rather abridge it and moveout of the way.,The Gemara responds: This is bnot difficult.Rather, bthisthat teaches to abridge one’s prayer rather than stopping, refers to a case bwhere it is possible to abridgehis prayer and complete it in time, in which case he bshould abridgeit. bAnd ifit is bnota situation where he can abridge his prayer, bhe interruptshis prayer., bThe Sages taught:There was barelated bincident, involving a particular pious man who was prayingwhile traveling balong his pathwhen ban officer [ ihegmon /i] came and greeted him.The pious man did not pause from his prayer band did not respond with a greeting.The officer bwaited for him until he finished his prayer.br bAfter he finished his prayer,the officer bsaid to him:You bgood for nothing.You endangered yourself; I could have killed you. br bIsn’t it written in your Torah: “Take utmost care and guard yourself diligently”(Deuteronomy 4:9)? br bAnd it isalso bwritten: “Take therefore good heed unto yourselves”(Deuteronomy 4:15)? Why did you ignore the danger to your life? br bWhen I greeted you, why did you not respond with a greeting? br bWere I to sever your head with a sword, who would hold me accountable for yourspilled bblood? /b,The pious man bsaid to him: Wait for me until I will appease you withmy bwords. br bHe said to him: Had you been standing before a flesh and blood king and your friend came and greeted you,would byoubr breturn hisgreeting?
52. Origen, Against Celsus, 6.20-6.21, 6.31, 6.33 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.20. Now, to those who are capable of understanding him, the apostle manifestly presents to view things which are the objects of perception, calling them things seen; while he terms unseen, things which are the object of the understanding, and cognisable by it alone. He knows, also, that things seen and visible are temporal, but that things cognisable by the mind, and not seen, are eternal; and desiring to remain in the contemplation of these, and being assisted by his earnest longing for them, he deemed all affliction as light and as nothing, and during the season of afflictions and troubles was not at all bowed down by them, but by his contemplation of (divine) things deemed every calamity a light thing, seeing we also have a great High Priest, who by the greatness of His power and understanding has passed through the heavens, even Jesus the Son of God, who has promised to all that have truly learned divine things, and have lived lives in harmony with them, to go before them to the things that are supra-mundane; for His words are: That where I go, you may be also. And therefore we hope, after the troubles and struggles which we suffer here, to reach the highest heavens, and receiving, agreeably to the teaching of Jesus, the fountains of water that spring up unto eternal life, and being filled with the rivers of knowledge, shall be united with those waters that are said to be above the heavens, and which praise His name. And as many of us as praise Him shall not be carried about by the revolution of the heaven, but shall be ever engaged in the contemplation of the invisible things of God, which are no longer understood by us through the things which He has made from the creation of the world, but seeing, as it was expressed by the true disciple of Jesus in these words, then face to face; and in these, When that which is perfect has come, then that which is in part will be done away. 6.21. The Scriptures which are current in the Churches of God do not speak of seven heavens, or of any definite number at all, but they do appear to teach the existence of heavens, whether that means the spheres of those bodies which the Greeks call planets, or something more mysterious. Celsus, too, agreeably to the opinion of Plato, asserts that souls can make their way to and from the earth through the planets; while Moses, our most ancient prophet, says that a divine vision was presented to the view of our prophet Jacob, - a ladder stretching to heaven, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon it, and the Lord supported upon its top - obscurely pointing, by this matter of the ladder, either to the same truths which Plato had in view, or to something greater than these. On this subject Philo has composed a treatise which deserves the thoughtful and intelligent investigation of all lovers of truth. 6.31. Moreover, if any one would wish to become acquainted with the artifices of those sorcerers, through which they desire to lead men away by their teaching (as if they possessed the knowledge of certain secret rites), but are not at all successful in so doing, let him listen to the instruction which they receive after passing through what is termed the fence of wickedness, - gates which are subjected to the world of ruling spirits. (The following, then, is the manner in which they proceed): I salute the one-formed king, the bond of blindness, complete oblivion, the first power, preserved by the spirit of providence and by wisdom, from whom I am sent forth pure, being already part of the light of the son and of the father: grace be with me; yea, O father, let it be with me. They say also that the beginnings of the Ogdoad are derived from this. In the next place, they are taught to say as follows, while passing through what they call Ialdabaoth: You, O first and seventh, who art born to command with confidence, you, O Ialdabaoth, who art the rational ruler of a pure mind, and a perfect work to son and father, bearing the symbol of life in the character of a type, and opening to the world the gate which you closed against your kingdom, I pass again in freedom through your realm. Let grace be with me; yea, O father, let it be with me. They say, moreover, that the star Ph non is in sympathy with the lion-like ruler. They next imagine that he who has passed through Ialdabaoth and arrived at Iao ought thus to speak: You, O second Iao, who shines by night, who art the ruler of the secret mysteries of son and father, first prince of death, and portion of the innocent, bearing now my own beard as symbol, I am ready to pass through your realm, having strengthened him who is born of you by the living word. Grace be with me; father, let it be with me. They next come to Sabaoth, to whom they think the following should be addressed: O governor of the fifth realm, powerful Sabaoth, defender of the law of your creatures, who are liberated by your grace through the help of a more powerful Pentad, admit me, seeing the faultless symbol of their art, preserved by the stamp of an image, a body liberated by a Pentad. Let grace be with me, O father, let grace be with me. And after Sabaoth they come to Astaph us, to whom they believe the following prayer should be offered: O Astaph us, ruler of the third gate, overseer of the first principle of water, look upon me as one of your initiated, admit me who am purified with the spirit of a virgin, you who sees the essence of the world. Let grace be with me, O father, let grace be with me. After him comes Alo us, who is to be thus addressed: O Alo us, governor of the second gate, let me pass, seeing I bring to you the symbol of your mother, a grace which is hidden by the powers of the realms. Let grace be with me, O father, let it be with me. And last of all they name Hor us, and think that the following prayer ought to be offered to him: You who fearlessly leaped over the rampart of fire, O Hor us, who obtained the government of the first gate, let me pass, seeing you behold the symbol of your own power, sculptured on the figure of the tree of life, and formed after this image, in the likeness of innocence. Let grace be with me, O father, let grace be with me. 6.33. Celsus next relates other fables, to the effect that certain persons return to the shapes of the archontics, so that some are called lions, others bulls, others dragons, or eagles, or bears, or dogs. We found also in the diagram which we possessed, and which Celsus called the square pattern, the statements made by these unhappy beings concerning the gates of Paradise. The flaming sword was depicted as the diameter of a flaming circle, and as if mounting guard over the tree of knowledge and of life. Celsus, however, either would not or could not repeat the harangues which, according to the fables of these impious individuals, are represented as spoken at each of the gates by those who pass through them; but this we have done in order to show to Celsus and those who read his treatise, that we know the depth of these unhallowed mysteries, and that they are far removed from the worship which Christians offer up to God.
53. Anon., 2 Enoch, 22

54. Anon., 3 Enoch, 4, 3

55. Anon., 4 Ezra, 12.36-12.38, 14.5, 14.45-14.47

12.36. And you alone were worthy to learn this secret of the Most High. 12.37. Therefore write all these things that you have seen in a book, and put it in a hidden place; 12.38. and you shall teach them to the wise among your people, whose hearts you know are able to comprehend and keep these secrets. 14.5. and I told him many wondrous things, and showed him the secrets of the times and declared to him the end of the times. Then I commanded him, saying 14.45. And when the forty days were ended, the Most High spoke to me, saying, "Make public the twenty-four books that you wrote first and let the worthy and the unworthy read them; 14.46. but keep the seventy that were written last, in order to give them to the wise among your people. 14.47. For in them is the spring of understanding, the fountain of wisdom, and the river of knowledge.
56. Anon., 4 Baruch, 3.7, 3.9, 7.13, 9.13, 9.16-9.18

3.7. And the Lord said: Speak, my chosen one Jeremiah. 7.13. And he kept silent until Jeremiah came along, for he and some of thepeople were coming out to bury a corpse outside the city. 9.13. And when they heard the voice they did not bury him, but stayedaround his tabernacle for three days saying, "when will he arise? 9.16. And the tree of life planted in the midst of paradise will cause all the unfruitful trees to bear fruit, and will grow and sprout forth. 9.17. And the trees that had sprouted and became haughty and said:"We have supplied our power (?) to the air," he will cause them to wither, with the grandeur of their branches, and he will cause them to be judged -- that firmly rooted tree! 9.18. And what is crimson will become white as wool -- the snow will be blackened -- the sweet waters will become salty, and the salty sweet, in the intense light of the joy of God.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
agency (of prophets) Lester (2018), Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5. 34
allegory,figurative Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 206, 207
allusion Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 206
allusions Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 137
angel Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
angels,angel worship Huttner (2013), Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley, 154
angels Lester (2018), Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5. 34
angle Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 193, 206, 207
anxiety dreams and nightmares,voices Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 206
apocalypse/apocalyptic Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 449
apocalypse Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 193, 206, 207
apocalypse of john,letter to laodicea Huttner (2013), Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley, 154
apocalypse of john,letter to philadelphia Huttner (2013), Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley, 154
apocalypse of john Huttner (2013), Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley, 154
apocalyptic(ism) (see also dualism) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 486
apocalyptic Lester (2018), Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5. 35
apollo Luck (2006), Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts, 37
aramaic Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 486
archangels Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
archon Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
artemidorus Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 193
authorization Lester (2018), Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5. 35
babylon Lester (2018), Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5. 34, 36
beast (of revelation) Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 137
benjamin,walter Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 193
birth Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 72
blood Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 72
bodies,revelation and Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 120
book Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 72
bread,of life Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 207
bread Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 72
call narrative Lester (2018), Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5. 35, 36
canon Lester (2018), Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5. 35
canon (scriptural),canonical Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 486
celebrate Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 137
celsus Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
celtic religion Luck (2006), Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts, 37
cherubs Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
christ assembly (see also synagogue) Keith (2020), The Gospel as Manuscript: An Early History of the Jesus Tradition as Material Artifact, 214
church Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 181
colossians (epistle) Huttner (2013), Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley, 154
community Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 72
confessors (μάρτυρες,confessor) Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 137
covenant,people of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 137
covenant Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 72
creator Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 72
critical apparatus Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 137
cross,as tree of life Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 207
cross Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 207; Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 72
danielic (see also enochic) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 486
death,of christ,as salvific Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 137
death of christ Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 181
delphi,sanctuary and oracle at Luck (2006), Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts, 37
demons Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
devil Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
divination,incubation Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 206
divine voices,jewish Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 206
dreams and visions,dream figures,invisible (voice only) Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 206
dreams and visions,form criticism/classification,prophetic symbolic dreams Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 206
dreams and visions,incubation,oracular Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 206
earth mother Luck (2006), Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts, 37
egypt Lester (2018), Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5. 34
ekphrasis Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 193
encounter Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 72
ennoia Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
enochic tradition Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 486
eschatology Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 137; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 181; Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 72
exile Lester (2018), Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5. 36
ezekiel Lester (2018), Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5. 35
faithful Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 137
floodwaters,focus,point of Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 193
followers,of jesus Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 137
four living beings Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
fruit Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 207
gate,heavenly/paradisiacal Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
gate Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
glossolalia (speaking in tongues) Luck (2006), Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts, 37
gnosis,knowledge,tree of Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
god,people dwelling with Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 193
heaven,worship in Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 137
hiddenness Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 181
ialdabaoth Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
ignatius of antioch Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 22
imagination Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 207
imperial edicts Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 146
jeremiah Lester (2018), Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5. 35, 36
jerusalem church Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 486
jesus,soul Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
jesus Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 193, 207
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 486
jews Huttner (2013), Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley, 154
john,author of revelation Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 137
john,gospel of Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 181
judgment,eschatological Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 137
just Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 72
killing Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 72
kingdom (βασιλεία) Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 137
lamb,of god Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 137
lamb Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 72
lamb of god Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 207
lampstand Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 193, 206, 207
law Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 72
life,tree of Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
light Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
lion Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
lords day Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 72
love Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 72
lumber Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 207
magic,definitions of Luck (2006), Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts, 37
magic vs. religion Luck (2006), Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts, 37
manuscripts,codex alexandrinus Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 137
manuscripts,codex sinaiticus Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 137
mary Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 72
mediation Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 146
menorah Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 206, 207
messiah Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 207
messianism Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 181
michael,archangel Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
michael,devil Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
middle Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 207
mona lisa Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 193
moses Lester (2018), Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5. 35
multistability Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 193, 206, 207
narrative Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 193
nebuchadnezzar/king of the chaldeans Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 449
necker cube Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 193
ner tamid Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 206
ophites,the diagram Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
pan Luck (2006), Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts, 37
paradise,pardes,entered pardes Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 181
paradise Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
parousia Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 181
password Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
paul,seer of revelation compared Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 22
paul Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 181
paul (saul) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 486
peter Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 72
philadelphia Huttner (2013), Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley, 154
planets Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
polyvalency Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 193, 206, 207
power Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 72
priests,eschatological Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 137
prophecy,prophetic dreams and visions Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 206
prophecy,revelation as Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 137
prophetic,messenger Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 146
prophets Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 72
pythia Luck (2006), Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts, 37
qumran documents Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 486
rabbis Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 72
raphael ,demon Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
reading,variant Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 137
reception history Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 137
revelation,the apocalypse of jesus christ Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 181
rhetoric Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 193
robes Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 137
rome Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 72
royal edicts Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 146
sacrament Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 207
saints Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 206
salvation Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 72
satan Huttner (2013), Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley, 154
saturn Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
seer of revelation,,christs voice/witness of jesus,functioning as Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 22
seer of revelation,,communities and churches of asia,relationship to Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 18, 22
seer of revelation,,ignatius of antioch compared Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 22
seer of revelation,,paul compared Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 22
seer of revelation,,prophet detached from world,self-description as Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 18
seer of revelation Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 18, 22
seraphim Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
serpent,raphael Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
sethians,sethianism Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
setting,scene Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 193
seven churches Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 137
sign Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 206, 207
sins Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 72
smyrna Huttner (2013), Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley, 154
son of god Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 449
son of man Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 137; Lester (2018), Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5. 35
soul,individual Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
speech,prophetic Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 146
speech in dreams,incidental/overheard Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 206
spirit,holy spirit Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 181
stoning Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 449
symbol Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 206, 207
synagogue Huttner (2013), Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley, 154
synoptic,gospels Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 486
synoptic,tradition Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 486
tabernacle Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 206
the victor Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 120
throne,to enthrone Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111
throne Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 207
torah/torah Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 206
tradition,prophetic Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 146
translation Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 120
tree,in the symbolic sense Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 206, 207
twelve Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 72
union with the divine Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 181
valentinians Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 72
victory Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 137
virgins Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 137
vision Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 193, 206; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 181
visions Huttner (2013), Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley, 154
visual texture Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 193
voice Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 137
voice portents,hierophantic (voices in temples) Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 206
voice portents,kledonomantic (random voices) Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 206
water,of life Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 207
wisdom Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 206
women' Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 72
worship,heavenly Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 137
yhwh/yahweh Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 111