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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8244
New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.1


ΑΠΟΚΑΛΥΨΙΣ ΙΗΣΟΥ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΥ, ἥν ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ ὁ θεὸς δεῖξαι τοῖς δούλοις αὐτοῦ,ἃ δεῖ γενέσθαιἐν τάχει, καὶ ἐσήμανεν ἀποστείλας διὰ τοῦ ἀγγέλου αὐτοῦ τῷ δούλῳ αὐτοῦ ἸωάνειThis is the Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show to his servants the things which must happen soon, which he sent and made known by his angel to his servant, John


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

73 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 12.12 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.12. And so, when you and your daughter-in-law Sarah prayed, I brought a reminder of your prayer before the Holy One; and when you buried the dead, I was likewise present with you.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.2. וְאֶתְכֶם לָקַח יְהוָה וַיּוֹצִא אֶתְכֶם מִכּוּר הַבַּרְזֶל מִמִּצְרָיִם לִהְיוֹת לוֹ לְעַם נַחֲלָה כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 4.2. לֹא תֹסִפוּ עַל־הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם וְלֹא תִגְרְעוּ מִמֶּנּוּ לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם׃ 4.2. Ye shall not add unto the word which I command you, neither shall ye diminish from it, that ye may keep the commandments of the LORD your God which I command you."
3. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 2.28-2.29 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 5.17, 24.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.17. וְאִם־נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶחֱטָא וְעָשְׂתָה אַחַת מִכָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵעָשֶׂינָה וְלֹא־יָדַע וְאָשֵׁם וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃ 24.16. וְנֹקֵב שֵׁם־יְהוָה מוֹת יוּמָת רָגוֹם יִרְגְּמוּ־בוֹ כָּל־הָעֵדָה כַּגֵּר כָּאֶזְרָח בְּנָקְבוֹ־שֵׁם יוּמָת׃ 5.17. And if any one sin, and do any of the things which the LORD hath commanded not to be done, though he know it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity." 24.16. And he that blasphemeth the name of the LORD, he shall surely be put to death; all the congregation shall certainly stone him; as well the stranger, as the home-born, when he blasphemeth the Name, shall be put to death."
5. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 3.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.8. וְאוּלָם אָנֹכִי מָלֵאתִי כֹחַ אֶת־רוּחַ יְהוָה וּמִשְׁפָּט וּגְבוּרָה לְהַגִּיד לְיַעֲקֹב פִּשְׁעוֹ וּלְיִשְׂרָאֵל חַטָּאתוֹ׃ 3.8. But I truly am full of power by the spirit of the LORD, and of justice, and of might, to declare unto Jacob his transgression, and to Israel his sin."
6. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 53.1, 59.21, 61.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

53.1. וַיהוָה חָפֵץ דַּכְּאוֹ הֶחֱלִי אִם־תָּשִׂים אָשָׁם נַפְשׁוֹ יִרְאֶה זֶרַע יַאֲרִיךְ יָמִים וְחֵפֶץ יְהוָה בְּיָדוֹ יִצְלָח׃ 53.1. מִי הֶאֱמִין לִשְׁמֻעָתֵנוּ וּזְרוֹעַ יְהוָה עַל־מִי נִגְלָתָה׃ 59.21. וַאֲנִי זֹאת בְּרִיתִי אוֹתָם אָמַר יְהוָה רוּחִי אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיךָ וּדְבָרַי אֲשֶׁר־שַׂמְתִּי בְּפִיךָ לֹא־יָמוּשׁוּ מִפִּיךָ וּמִפִּי זַרְעֲךָ וּמִפִּי זֶרַע זַרְעֲךָ אָמַר יְהוָה מֵעַתָּה וְעַד־עוֹלָם׃ 61.1. שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ בַּיהוָה תָּגֵל נַפְשִׁי בֵּאלֹהַי כִּי הִלְבִּישַׁנִי בִּגְדֵי־יֶשַׁע מְעִיל צְדָקָה יְעָטָנִי כֶּחָתָן יְכַהֵן פְּאֵר וְכַכַּלָּה תַּעְדֶּה כֵלֶיהָ׃ 61.1. רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח יְהוָה אֹתִי לְבַשֵּׂר עֲנָוִים שְׁלָחַנִי לַחֲבֹשׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב לִקְרֹא לִשְׁבוּיִם דְּרוֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִים פְּקַח־קוֹחַ׃ 53.1. 'Who would have believed our report? And to whom hath the arm of the LORD been revealed?" 59.21. And as for Me, this is My covet with them, saith the LORD; My spirit that is upon thee, and My words which I have put in thy mouth, shall not depart out of thy mouth, nor out of the mouth of thy seed, nor out of the mouth of thy seed’s seed, saith the LORD, from henceforth and for ever." 61.1. The spirit of the Lord God is upon me; Because the LORD hath anointed me To bring good tidings unto the humble; He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the eyes to them that are bound;"
7. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 24.30 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

24.30. And they buried him in the border of his inheritance in Timnath-serah, which is in the hill-country of Ephraim, on the north of the mountain of Gaash."
8. Septuagint, Jeremiah, 7.25 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

9. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 40.2 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

40.2. בְּמַרְאוֹת אֱלֹהִים הֱבִיאַנִי אֶל־אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיְנִיחֵנִי אֶל־הַר גָּבֹהַּ מְאֹד וְעָלָיו כְּמִבְנֵה־עִיר מִנֶּגֶב׃ 40.2. וְהַשַּׁעַר אֲשֶׁר פָּנָיו דֶּרֶךְ הַצָּפוֹן לֶחָצֵר הַחִיצוֹנָה מָדַד אָרְכּוֹ וְרָחְבּוֹ׃ 40.2. In the visions of God brought He me into the land of Israel, and set me down upon a very high mountain, whereon was as it were the frame of a city on the south."
10. Septuagint, Tobit, 12.12 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.12. And so, when you and your daughter-in-law Sarah prayed, I brought a reminder of your prayer before the Holy One; and when you buried the dead, I was likewise present with you.
11. Anon., 1 Enoch, 1.2, 14.8, 17.1-17.2, 17.4, 21.1, 21.7, 22.1, 23.1, 26.1, 32.2-32.3, 33.1, 36.1, 82.1-82.20, 83.1, 85.1, 89.73, 90.42, 91.1-91.9, 91.18, 93.1-93.2, 94.1, 108.1 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.2. living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which i 14.8. written. And the vision was shown to me thus: Behold, in the vision clouds invited me and a mist summoned me, and the course of the stars and the lightnings sped and hastened me, and the winds in 17.1. And they took and brought me to a place in which those who were there were like flaming fire 17.2. and, when they wished, they appeared as men. And they brought me to the place of darkness, and to a mountain the point of whose summit reached to heaven. And I saw the places of the luminaries and the treasuries of the stars and of the thunder and in the uttermost depths, where were 17.4. a fiery bow and arrows and their quiver, and a fiery sword and all the lightnings. And they took 21.1. I answered: 'Because of this fearful place, and because of the spectacle of the pain.' And he said unto me: 'This place is the prison of the angels, and here they will be imprisoned for ever.' 21.7. the time entailed by their sins, are consummated.' And from thence I went to another place, which was still more horrible than the former, and I saw a horrible thing: a great fire there which burnt and blazed, and the place was cleft as far as the abyss, being full of great descending columns of 22.1. And thence I went to another place, and he mountain [and] of hard rock. 22.1. water. And such has been made for sinners when they die and are buried in the earth and judgement has not been executed on them in their 26.1. And I went from thence to the middle of the earth, and I saw a blessed place in which there were 32.2. And thence I went over the summits of all these mountains, far towards the east of the earth, and passed above the Erythraean sea and went far from it, and passed over the angel Zotiel. And I came to the Garden of Righteousness 32.3. I and from afar off trees more numerous than I these trees and great-two trees there, very great, beautiful, and glorious, and magnificent, and the tree of knowledge, whose holy fruit they eat and know great wisdom. 33.1. And from thence I went to the ends of the earth and saw there great beasts, and each differed from the other; and (I saw) birds also differing in appearance and beauty and voice, the one differing from the other. And to the east of those beasts I saw the ends of the earth whereon the heaven 36.1. And from thence I went to the south to the ends of the earth, and saw there three open portal 82.1. And now, my son Methuselah, all these things I am recounting to thee and writing down for thee! and I have revealed to thee everything, and given thee books concerning all these: so preserve, my son Methuselah, the books from thy father's hand, and (see) that thou deliver them to the generations of the world. 82.1. And these are the names of those who lead them, who watch that they enter at their times, in their orders, in their seasons, in their months, in their periods of dominion, and in their positions. Their four leaders who divide the four parts of the year enter first; and after them the twelve leaders of the orders who divide the months; and for the three hundred and sixty (days) there are heads over thousands who divide the days; and for the four intercalary days there are the leaders which sunder 82.2. I have given Wisdom to thee and to thy children, [And thy children that shall be to thee], That they may give it to their children for generations, This wisdom (namely) that passeth their thought. 82.2. in the fields, and the winepress: these things take place in the days of his dominion. These are the names, and the orders, and the leaders of those heads of thousands: Gida'ljal, Ke'el, and He'el, and the name of the head of a thousand which is added to them, Asfa'el: and the days of his dominion are at an end.Section IV. Chapters LXXXIII-XC. The Dream-Visions. 82.3. And those who understand it shall not sleep, But shall listen with the ear that they may learn this wisdom, And it shall please those that eat thereof better than good food. 82.4. Blessed are all the righteous, blessed are all those who walk In the way of righteousness and sin not as the sinners, in the reckoning of all their days in which the sun traverses the heaven, entering into and departing from the portals for thirty days with the heads of thousands of the order of the stars, together with the four which are intercalated which divide the four portions of the year, which 82.5. lead them and enter with them four days. Owing to them men shall be at fault and not reckon them in the whole reckoning of the year: yea, men shall be at fault, and not recognize them 82.6. accurately. For they belong to the reckoning of the year and are truly recorded (thereon) for ever, one in the first portal and one in the third, and one in the fourth and one in the sixth, and the year is completed in three hundred and sixty-four days. 82.7. And the account thereof is accurate and the recorded reckoning thereof exact; for the luminaries, and months and festivals, and years and days, has Uriel shown and revealed to me, to whom the 82.8. Lord of the whole creation of the world hath subjected the host of heaven. And he has power over night and day in the heaven to cause the light to give light to men -sun, moon, and stars 82.9. and all the powers of the heaven which revolve in their circular chariots. And these are the orders of the stars, which set in their places, and in their seasons and festivals and months. 82.12. the four parts of the year. And these heads over thousands are intercalated between 82.13. leader and leader, each behind a station, but their leaders make the division. And these are the names of the leaders who divide the four parts of the year which are ordained: Milki'el, Hel'emmelek, and Mel'ejal 82.14. and Narel. And the names of those who lead them: Adnar'el, and Ijasusa'el, and 'Elome'el- these three follow the leaders of the orders, and there is one that follows the three leaders of the orders which follow those leaders of stations that divide the four parts of the year. In the beginning of the year Melkejal rises first and rules, who is named Tam'aini and sun, and 82.16. all the days of his dominion whilst he bears rule are ninety-one days. And these are the signs of the days which are to be seen on earth in the days of his dominion: sweat, and heat, and calms; and all the trees bear fruit, and leaves are produced on all the trees, and the harvest of wheat, and the rose-flowers, and all the flowers which come forth in the field, but the trees of the winter season become withered. And these are the names of the leaders which are under them: Berka'el, Zelebs'el, and another who is added a head of a thousand, called Hilujaseph: and the days of the dominion of this (leader) are at an end. 82.18. The next leader after him is Hel'emmelek, whom one names the shining sun, and all the day 82.19. of his light are ninety-one days. And these are the signs of (his) days on the earth: glowing heat and dryness, and the trees ripen their fruits and produce all their fruits ripe and ready, and the sheep pair and become pregt, and all the fruits of the earth are gathered in, and everything that i 83.1. And now, my son Methuselah, I will show thee all my visions which I have seen, recounting 83.1. destruction. After that I arose and prayed and implored and besought, and wrote down my prayer for the generations of the world, and I will show everything to thee, my son Methuselah. And when I had gone forth below and seen the heaven, and the sun rising in the east, and the moon setting in the west, and a few stars, and the whole earth, and everything as He had known it in the beginning, then I blessed the Lord of judgement and extolled Him because He had made the sun to go forth from the windows of the east, and he ascended and rose on the face of the heaven, and set out and kept traversing the path shown unto him. 89.73. house; but the wild boars tried to hinder them, but they were not able. And they began again to build as before, and they reared up that tower, and it was named the high tower; and they began again to place a table before the tower, but all the bread on it was polluted and not pure. 90.42. be fulfilled, and all the deeds of men in their order were shown to me. On that night I remembered the first dream, and because of it I wept and was troubled-because I had seen that vision.Section V. XCI-CIV (i.e. XCII, XCI. 91.1. And now, my son Methuselah, call to me all thy brothers And gather together to me all the sons of thy mother; For the word calls me, And the spirit is poured out upon me, That I may show you everything That shall befall you for ever.' 91.1. And the righteous shall arise from their sleep, And wisdom shall arise and be given unto them. 91.2. And there upon Methuselah went and summoned to him all his brothers and assembled his relatives. 91.3. And he spake unto all the children of righteousness and said: 91.4. Love uprightness and walk therein. And draw not nigh to uprightness with a double heart, And associate not with those of a double heart,But walk in righteousness, my sons. And it shall guide you on good paths, And righteousness shall be your companion. 91.5. For I know that violence must increase on the earth, And a great chastisement be executed on the earth, And all unrighteousness come to an end:Yea, it shall be cut off from its roots, And its whole structure be destroyed. 91.6. And unrighteousness shall again be consummated on the earth, And all the deeds of unrighteousness and of violence And transgression shall prevail in a twofold degree. 91.7. And when sin and unrighteousness and blasphemy And violence in all kinds of deeds increase, And apostasy and transgression and uncleanness increase,A great chastisement shall come from heaven upon all these, And the holy Lord will come forth with wrath and chastisement To execute judgement on earth. 91.8. In those days violence shall be cut off from its roots, And the roots of unrighteousness together with deceit, And they shall be destroyed from under heaven. 91.9. And all the idols of the heathen shall be abandoned, And the temples burned with fire, And they shall remove them from the whole earth,And they (i.e. the heathen) shall be cast into the judgement of fire, And shall perish in wrath and in grievous judgement for ever. 91.18. And now I tell you, my sons, and show you The paths of righteousness and the paths of violence. Yea, I will show them to you again That ye may know what will come to pass. 93.1. And at its close shall be elected The elect righteous of the eternal plant of righteousness, To receive sevenfold instruction concerning all His creation. 94.1. And now I say unto you, my sons, love righteousness and walk therein; For the paths of righteousness are worthy of acceptation, But the paths of unrighteousness shall suddenly be destroyed and vanish. 94.1. Thus I speak and declare unto you: He who hath created you will overthrow you, And for your fall there shall be no compassion, And your Creator will rejoice at your destruction. 108.1. Another book which Enoch wrote for his son Methuselah and for those who will come after him 108.1. found pure so that they should bless His name. And all the blessings destined for them I have recounted in the books. And he hath assigned them their recompense, because they have been found to be such as loved heaven more than their life in the world, and though they were trodden under foot of wicked men, and experienced abuse and reviling from them and were put to shame
12. Anon., Jubilees, 4.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.23. And he was the first to write a testimony, and he testified to the sons of men among the generations of the earth, and recounted the weeks of the jubilees, and made known to them the days of the years, and set in order the months and recounted the Sabbaths of the years as we made (them) known to him.
13. Cicero, On Divination, 1.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.6. Sed cum Stoici omnia fere illa defenderent, quod et Zeno in suis commentariis quasi semina quaedam sparsisset et ea Cleanthes paulo uberiora fecisset, accessit acerrumo vir ingenio, Chrysippus, qui totam de divinatione duobus libris explicavit sententiam, uno praeterea de oraclis, uno de somniis; quem subsequens unum librum Babylonius Diogenes edidit, eius auditor, duo Antipater, quinque noster Posidonius. Sed a Stoicis vel princeps eius disciplinae, Posidonii doctor, discipulus Antipatri, degeneravit, Panaetius, nec tamen ausus est negare vim esse dividi, sed dubitare se dixit. Quod illi in aliqua re invitissumis Stoicis Stoico facere licuit, id nos ut in reliquis rebus faciamus, a Stoicis non concedetur? praesertim cum id, de quo Panaetio non liquet, reliquis eiusdem disciplinae solis luce videatur clarius. 1.6. The Stoics, on the other hand (for Zeno in his writings had, as it were, scattered certain seed which Cleanthes had fertilized somewhat), defended nearly every sort of divination. Then came Chrysippus, a man of the keenest intellect, who exhaustively discussed the whole theory of divination in two books, and, besides, wrote one book on oracles and another on dreams. And following him, his pupil, Diogenes of Babylon, published one book, Antipater two, and my friend, Posidonius, five. But Panaetius, the teacher of Posidonius, a pupil, too, of Antipater, and, even a pillar of the Stoic school, wandered off from the Stoics, and, though he dared not say that there was no efficacy in divination, yet he did say that he was in doubt. Then, since the Stoics — much against their will I grant you — permitted this famous Stoic to doubt on one point will they not grant to us Academicians the right to do the same on all other points, especially since that about which Panaetius is not clear is clearer than the light of day to the other members of the Stoic school? 1.6. Ah, it is objected, but many dreams are untrustworthy. Rather, perhaps, their meaning is hidden from us. But grant that some are untrustworthy, why do we declaim against those that trustworthy? The fact is the latter would be much more frequent if we went to our rest in proper condition. But when we are burdened with food and drink our dreams are troubled and confused. Observe what Socrates says in Platos Republic:When a man goes to sleep, having the thinking and reasoning portion of his soul languid and inert, but having that other portion, which has in it a certain brutishness and wild savagery, immoderately gorged with drink and food, then does that latter portion leap up and hurl itself about in sleep without check. In such a case every vision presented to the mind is so devoid of thought and reason that the sleeper dreams that he is committing incest with his mother, or that he is having unlawful commerce indiscriminately with gods and men, and frequently too, with beasts; or even that he is killing someone and staining his hands with impious bloodshed; and that he is doing many vile and hideous things recklessly and without shame.
14. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 2.28-2.29, 2.45, 7.9-7.14, 7.16, 7.18, 7.22, 7.27, 12.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.28. בְּרַם אִיתַי אֱלָהּ בִּשְׁמַיָּא גָּלֵא רָזִין וְהוֹדַע לְמַלְכָּא נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מָה דִּי לֶהֱוֵא בְּאַחֲרִית יוֹמַיָּא חֶלְמָךְ וְחֶזְוֵי רֵאשָׁךְ עַל־מִשְׁכְּבָךְ דְּנָה הוּא׃ 2.29. אַנְתְּה מַלְכָּא רַעְיוֹנָךְ עַל־מִשְׁכְּבָךְ סְלִקוּ מָה דִּי לֶהֱוֵא אַחֲרֵי דְנָה וְגָלֵא רָזַיָּא הוֹדְעָךְ מָה־דִי לֶהֱוֵא׃ 2.45. כָּל־קֳבֵל דִּי־חֲזַיְתָ דִּי מִטּוּרָא אִתְגְּזֶרֶת אֶבֶן דִּי־לָא בִידַיִן וְהַדֶּקֶת פַּרְזְלָא נְחָשָׁא חַסְפָּא כַּסְפָּא וְדַהֲבָא אֱלָהּ רַב הוֹדַע לְמַלְכָּא מָה דִּי לֶהֱוֵא אַחֲרֵי דְנָה וְיַצִּיב חֶלְמָא וּמְהֵימַן פִּשְׁרֵהּ׃ 7.9. חָזֵה הֲוֵית עַד דִּי כָרְסָוָן רְמִיו וְעַתִּיק יוֹמִין יְתִב לְבוּשֵׁהּ כִּתְלַג חִוָּר וּשְׂעַר רֵאשֵׁהּ כַּעֲמַר נְקֵא כָּרְסְיֵהּ שְׁבִיבִין דִּי־נוּר גַּלְגִּלּוֹהִי נוּר דָּלִק׃ 7.11. חָזֵה הֲוֵית בֵּאדַיִן מִן־קָל מִלַּיָּא רַבְרְבָתָא דִּי קַרְנָא מְמַלֱּלָה חָזֵה הֲוֵית עַד דִּי קְטִילַת חֵיוְתָא וְהוּבַד גִּשְׁמַהּ וִיהִיבַת לִיקֵדַת אֶשָּׁא׃ 7.12. וּשְׁאָר חֵיוָתָא הֶעְדִּיו שָׁלְטָנְהוֹן וְאַרְכָה בְחַיִּין יְהִיבַת לְהוֹן עַד־זְמַן וְעִדָּן׃ 7.13. חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוֵי לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ עִם־עֲנָנֵי שְׁמַיָּא כְּבַר אֱנָשׁ אָתֵה הֲוָה וְעַד־עַתִּיק יוֹמַיָּא מְטָה וּקְדָמוֹהִי הַקְרְבוּהִי׃ 7.14. וְלֵהּ יְהִיב שָׁלְטָן וִיקָר וּמַלְכוּ וְכֹל עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא לֵהּ יִפְלְחוּן שָׁלְטָנֵהּ שָׁלְטָן עָלַם דִּי־לָא יֶעְדֵּה וּמַלְכוּתֵהּ דִּי־לָא תִתְחַבַּל׃ 7.16. קִרְבֵת עַל־חַד מִן־קָאֲמַיָּא וְיַצִּיבָא אֶבְעֵא־מִנֵּהּ עַל־כָּל־דְּנָה וַאֲמַר־לִי וּפְשַׁר מִלַּיָּא יְהוֹדְעִנַּנִי׃ 7.18. וִיקַבְּלוּן מַלְכוּתָא קַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין וְיַחְסְנוּן מַלְכוּתָא עַד־עָלְמָא וְעַד עָלַם עָלְמַיָּא׃ 7.22. עַד דִּי־אֲתָה עַתִּיק יוֹמַיָּא וְדִינָא יְהִב לְקַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין וְזִמְנָא מְטָה וּמַלְכוּתָא הֶחֱסִנוּ קַדִּישִׁין׃ 7.27. וּמַלְכוּתָה וְשָׁלְטָנָא וּרְבוּתָא דִּי מַלְכְוָת תְּחוֹת כָּל־שְׁמַיָּא יְהִיבַת לְעַם קַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין מַלְכוּתֵהּ מַלְכוּת עָלַם וְכֹל שָׁלְטָנַיָּא לֵהּ יִפְלְחוּן וְיִשְׁתַּמְּעוּן׃ 12.1. יִתְבָּרֲרוּ וְיִתְלַבְּנוּ וְיִצָּרְפוּ רַבִּים וְהִרְשִׁיעוּ רְשָׁעִים וְלֹא יָבִינוּ כָּל־רְשָׁעִים וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יָבִינוּ׃ 12.1. וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יַעֲמֹד מִיכָאֵל הַשַּׂר הַגָּדוֹל הָעֹמֵד עַל־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְהָיְתָה עֵת צָרָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נִהְיְתָה מִהְיוֹת גּוֹי עַד הָעֵת הַהִיא וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יִמָּלֵט עַמְּךָ כָּל־הַנִּמְצָא כָּתוּב בַּסֵּפֶר׃ 2.28. but there is a God in heaven that revealeth secrets, and He hath made known to the king Nebuchadnezzar what shall be in the end of days. Thy dream, and the visions of thy head upon thy bed, are these:" 2.29. as for thee, O king, thy thoughts came [into thy mind] upon thy bed, what should come to pass hereafter; and He that revealeth secrets hath made known to thee what shall come to pass." 2.45. Forasmuch as thou sawest that a stone was cut out of the mountain without hands, and that it broke in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold; the great God hath made known to the king what shall come to pass hereafter; and the dream is certain, and the interpretation thereof sure.’" 7.9. I beheld Till thrones were placed, And one that was ancient of days did sit: His raiment was as white snow, And the hair of his head like pure wool; His throne was fiery flames, and the wheels thereof burning fire." 7.10. A fiery stream issued And came forth from before him; thousand thousands ministered unto him, And ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him; The judgment was set, And the books were opened." 7.11. I beheld at that time because of the voice of the great words which the horn spoke, I beheld even till the beast was slain, and its body destroyed, and it was given to be burned with fire." 7.12. And as for the rest of the beasts, their dominion was taken away; yet their lives were prolonged for a season and a time." 7.13. I saw in the night visions, And, behold, there came with the clouds of heaven One like unto a son of man, And he came even to the Ancient of days, And he was brought near before Him." 7.14. And there was given him dominion, And glory, and a kingdom, That all the peoples, nations, and languages Should serve him; His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, And his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed." 7.16. I came near unto one of them that stood by, and asked him the truth concerning all this. So he told me, and made me know the interpretation of the things:" 7.18. But the saints of the Most High shall receive the kingdom, and possess the kingdom for ever, even for ever and ever.’" 7.22. until the Ancient of days came, and judgment was given for the saints of the Most High; and the time came, and the saints possessed the kingdom." 7.27. And the kingdom and the dominion, and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High; their kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey them.’" 12.1. And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince who standeth for the children of thy people; and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time; and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book."
15. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 11.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

11.18. I have informed the king of everything that needed to be brought before him, and he has agreed to what was possible.'
16. Demetrius, Style, 52 (1st cent. BCE

17. Strabo, Geography, 3.2.9 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.2.9. Posidonius, in praising the amount and excellence of the metals, cannot refrain from his accustomed rhetoric, and becomes quite enthusiastic in exaggeration. He tells us we are not to disbelieve the fable, that formerly the forests having been set on fire, the earth, which was loaded with silver and gold, melted, and threw up these metals to the surface, forasmuch as every mountain and wooded hill seemed to be heaped up with money by a lavish fortune. Altogether (he remarks) any one seeing these places, could only describe them as the inexhaustible treasuries of nature, or the unfailing exchequer of some potentate; for not only, he tells us, is this land rich itself, but riches abound beneath it. So that amongst these people the subterraneous regions should not be regarded as the realms of Pluto, but of Plutus. Such is the flourished style in which he speaks on this subject, that you would fancy his turgid language had been dug from a mine itself. Discoursing on the diligence of the miners, he applies to them the remark [of Demetrius] of Phalaris, who, speaking of the silver mines of Attica, said that the men there dug with as much energy as if they thought they could grub up Plutus himself. He compares with these the activity and diligence of the Turdetani, who are in the habit of cutting tortuous and deep tunnels, and draining the streams which they frequently encounter by means of Egyptian screws. As for the rest, they are quite different from the Attic miners, whose mining (he remarks) may be justly compared to that enigma, What I have taken up I have not kept, and what I have got I have thrown away. Whereas the Turdetanians make a good profit, since a fourth part of the ore which they extract from the copper mines is [pure] copper, while from the silver mines one person has taken as much as a Euboean talent. He says that tin is not found upon the surface, as authors commonly relate, but that it is dug up; and that it is produced both in places among the barbarians who dwell beyond the Lusitanians and in the islands Cassiterides; and that from the Britannic Islands it is carried to Marseilles. Amongst the Artabri, who are the last of the Lusitanians towards the north and west, he tells us that the earth is powdered with silver, tin, and white gold, that is, mixed with silver, the earth having been brought down by the rivers: this the women scrape up with spades, and wash in sieves, woven after the fashion of baskets. Such is the substance of what [Posidonius] tells us concerning the mines [of Iberia].
18. Anon., Didache, 14.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Anon., Testament of Abraham, 11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Artemidorus, Oneirocritica, 1.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

21. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 45.7, 60.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

45.7. ἢ Ἀνανίας καὶ Ἀζαρίας καὶ Μισαὴλ ὑπὸ τῶν θρησκευόντων τὴν μεγαλοπρεπῆ καὶ ἔνδοξον θρησκείαν τοῦ ὑψίστου κατείρχθησαν εἰς κάμινον πυρός; μηθαμῶς τοῦτο γένοιτο. τίνες οὖν οἱ ταῦτα δράσαντες; οἱ στυγητοὶ καὶ πάσης κακίας πλήρεις εἰς τοσοῦτο ἐξήρισαν θυμοῦ, ὥστε τοὺς ἐν ὁσίᾳ καὶ ἀμώμῳ προθέσει δουλεύοντας τῷ θεῷ εἰς αἰκίαν περιβαλεῖν, μὴ εἰδότες ὅτι ὁ ὕψιστος ὑπέρμαχος καὶ ὑπερασπιστής ἐστιν τῶν ἐν καθαρᾷ συνειδήσει λατρευόντων τῷ παναρέτῳ ὀνόματι αὐτοῦ: ᾧ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων. ἀμήν. 60.2. μὴ λογίσῃ πᾶσαν ἁμαρτίαν δούλων σου καὶ παιδισκῶν, ἀλλὰ καθάρισον ἡμᾶς τὸν καθαρισμὸν τῆς σῆς ἀληθείας, καὶ Pss. 40, 2; 119, 133 κατεύθυνον τὰ διαβήματα ἡμῶν ἐν ὁσιότητι καρδίας I Kings 9, 4 πορεύεσθαι καὶ ποιεῖν τὰ καλὰ καὶ εὐάρεστα Deut. 12, 25, 26; 13, 16; 21, 9 ἐνώπιόν σου καὶ ἐνώπιον τῶν ἀρχόντων ἡμῶν.
22. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 7.1-7.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.1. For even though certain persons desired to deceive me after the flesh, yet the spirit is not deceived, being from God; for it knoweth whence it cometh and where it goeth, and it searcheth out the hidden things. I cried out, when I was among you; I spake with a loud voice, with God's own voice, Give ye heed to the bishop and the presbytery and deacons. 7.2. Howbeit there were those who suspected me of saying this, because I knew beforehand of the division of certain persons. But He in whom I am bound is my witness that I learned it not from flesh of man; it was the preaching of the Spirit who spake on this wise; Do nothing without the bishop; keep your flesh as a temple of God; cherish union; shun divisions; be imitators of Jesus Christ, as He Himself also was of His Father.
23. Ignatius, To The Ephesians, 3.1-3.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.1. I do not command you, as though I were somewhat. For even though I am in bonds for the Name's sake, I am not yet perfected in Jesus Christ. [For] now am I beginning to be a disciple; and I speak to you as to my school-fellows. For I ought to be trained by you for the contest in faith, in admonition, in endurance, in long-suffering. 3.2. But, since love doth not suffer me to be silent concerning you, therefore was I forward to exhort you, that ye run in harmony with the mind of God: for Jesus Christ also, our inseparable life, is the mind of the Father, even as the bishops that are settled in the farthest parts of the earth are in the mind of Jesus Christ.
24. Ignatius, To The Magnesians, 6.1, 9.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.1. Seeing then that in the aforementioned persons I beheld your whole people in faith and embraced them, I advise you, be ye zealous to do all things in godly concord, the bishop presiding after the likeness of God and the presbyters after the likeness of the council of the Apostles, with the deacons also who are most dear to me, having been entrusted with the diaconate of Jesus Christ, who was with the Father before the worlds and appeared at the end of time. 9.1. If then those who had walked in ancient practices attained unto newness of hope, no longer observing sabbaths but fashioning their lives after the Lord's day, on which our life also arose through Him and through His death which some men deny -- a mystery whereby we attained unto belief, and for this cause we endure patiently, that we may be found disciples of Jesus Christ our only teacher --
25. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 7.1-7.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.1. For even though certain persons desired to deceive me after the flesh, yet the spirit is not deceived, being from God; for it knoweth whence it cometh and where it goeth, and it searcheth out the hidden things. I cried out, when I was among you; I spake with a loud voice, with God's own voice, Give ye heed to the bishop and the presbytery and deacons. 7.2. Howbeit there were those who suspected me of saying this, because I knew beforehand of the division of certain persons. But He in whom I am bound is my witness that I learned it not from flesh of man; it was the preaching of the Spirit who spake on this wise; Do nothing without the bishop; keep your flesh as a temple of God; cherish union; shun divisions; be imitators of Jesus Christ, as He Himself also was of His Father.
26. Ignatius, To The Romans, 9.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. Ignatius, To The Smyrnaeans, 4.2, 5.1, 9.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

28. Ignatius, To The Trallians, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.1. In like manner let all men respect the deacons as Jesus Christ, even as they should respect the bishop as being a type of the Father and the presbyters as the council of God and as the college of Apostles. Apart from these there is not even the name of a church.
29. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

30. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.7, 1.11-1.12, 2.16, 4.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. that the proof of your faith, which is more precious than gold that perishes even though it is tested by fire, may be found to result in praise, glory, and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ -- 1.11. searching for who or what kind of time the Spirit of Christ, which was in them, pointed to, when he predicted the sufferings of Christ, and the glories that would follow them. 1.12. To them it was revealed, that not to themselves, but to you, did they minister these things, which now have been announced to you through those who preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent out from heaven; which things angels desire to look into. 2.16. as free, and not using your freedom for a cloak of wickedness, but as bondservants of God. 4.13. But because you are partakers of Christ's sufferings, rejoice; that at the revelation of his glory also you may rejoice with exceeding joy.
31. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.7, 4.1, 4.6, 7.22, 11.2, 11.20-11.21, 15.25, 15.53, 16.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. o that you come behindin no gift; waiting for the revelation of our Lord Jesus Christ; 4.1. So let a man think of us as Christ's servants, and stewards ofGod's mysteries. 4.6. Now these things, brothers, I have in a figure transferred tomyself and Apollos for your sakes, that in us you might learn not tothink beyond the things which are written, that none of you be puffedup against one another. 7.22. For he who was called in theLord being a bondservant is the Lord's free man. Likewise he who wascalled being free is Christ's bondservant. 11.2. Now Ipraise you, brothers, that you remember me in all things, and hold firmthe traditions, even as I delivered them to you. 11.20. When therefore you assemble yourselves together, itis not possible to eat the Lord's supper. 11.21. For in your eatingeach one takes his own supper before others. One is hungry, and anotheris drunken. 15.25. For he mustreign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. 15.53. For thiscorruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put onimmortality. 16.2. On the first day ofthe week, let each one of you save, as he may prosper, that nocollections be made when I come.
32. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. For they themselves report concerning us what kind of a reception we had from you; and how you turned to God from idols, to serve a living and true God
33. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 1.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. This charge I commit to you, my child Timothy, according to the prophecies which led the way to you, that by them you may wage the good warfare;
34. New Testament, 2 Peter, 1.1, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Simon Peter, a servant and apostle of Jesus Christ, to those who have obtained a like precious faith with us in the righteousness of our God and Savior, Jesus Christ: 2.1. But there also arose false prophets among the people, as among you also there will be false teachers, who will secretly bring in destructive heresies, denying even the Master who bought them, bringing on themselves swift destruction.
35. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.8, 1.14, 4.5, 6.4, 11.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

36. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 1.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. and to give relief to you that are afflicted with us, when the Lord Jesus is revealed from heaven with his mighty angels in flaming fire
37. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 2.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.24. The Lord's servant must not quarrel, but be gentle towards all, able to teach, patient
38. New Testament, Acts, 1.26, 2.16-2.21, 3.21, 4.29, 7.3, 7.40, 9.12, 10.28, 11.26, 16.9, 16.17, 19.21, 20.7, 20.19, 23.11, 25.10, 26.16, 27.24, 27.26 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.26. They drew lots for them, and the lot fell on Matthias, and he was numbered with the eleven apostles. 2.16. But this is what has been spoken through the prophet Joel: 2.17. 'It will be in the last days, says God, I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh. Your sons and your daughters will prophesy. Your young men will see visions. Your old men will dream dreams. 2.18. Yes, and on my servants and on my handmaidens in those days, I will pour out my Spirit, and they will prophesy. 2.19. I will show wonders in the the sky above, And signs on the earth beneath; Blood, and fire, and billows of smoke. 2.20. The sun will be turned into darkness, And the moon into blood, Before the great and glorious day of the Lord comes. 2.21. It will be, that whoever will call on the name of the Lord will be saved.' 3.21. whom the heaven must receive until the times of restoration of all things, whereof God spoke by the mouth of his holy prophets that have been from ancient times. 4.29. Now, Lord, look at their threats, and grant to your servants to speak your word with all boldness 7.3. and said to him, 'Get out of your land, and from your relatives, and come into a land which I will show you.' 7.40. saying to Aaron, 'Make us gods that will go before us, for as for this Moses, who led us out of the land of Egypt , we don't know what has become of him.' 9.12. and in a vision he has seen a man named Aias coming in, and laying his hands on him, that he might receive his sight. 10.28. He said to them, "You yourselves know how it is an unlawful thing for a man who is a Jew to join himself or come to one of another nation, but God has shown me that I shouldn't call any man unholy or unclean. 11.26. When he had found him, he brought him to Antioch. It happened, that even for a whole year they were gathered together with the assembly, and taught many people. The disciples were first called Christians in Antioch. 16.9. A vision appeared to Paul in the night. There was a man of Macedonia standing, begging him, and saying, "Come over into Macedonia and help us. 16.17. The same, following after Paul and us, cried out, "These men are servants of the Most High God, who proclaim to us the way of salvation! 19.21. Now after these things had ended, Paul determined in the spirit, when he had passed through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jerusalem, saying, "After I have been there, I must also see Rome. 20.7. On the first day of the week, when the disciples were gathered together to break bread, Paul talked with them, intending to depart on the next day, and continued his speech until midnight. 20.19. serving the Lord with all humility, with many tears, and with trials which happened to me by the plots of the Jews; 23.11. The following night, the Lord stood by him, and said, "Cheer up, Paul, for as you have testified about me at Jerusalem, so you must testify also at Rome. 25.10. But Paul said, "I am standing before Caesar's judgment seat, where I ought to be tried. I have done no wrong to the Jews, as you also know very well. 26.16. But arise, and stand on your feet, for to this end have I appeared to you, to appoint you a servant and a witness both of the things which you have seen, and of the things which I will reveal to you; 27.24. saying, 'Don't be afraid, Paul. You must stand before Caesar. Behold, God has granted you all those who sail with you.' 27.26. But we must run aground on a certain island.
39. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.9-3.22, 1.10, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.14, 1.15, 1.16, 1.17, 1.18, 1.19, 1.20, 2, 2.9, 2.13, 2.14, 2.17, 2.18, 2.20, 3, 3.9, 3.12, 4, 4.1, 4.2, 5, 5.1, 5.2, 5.5, 5.6, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5.12, 5.13, 5.14, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 7.3, 7.9, 7.10, 10, 10.1, 10.2, 10.7, 10.11, 11.4, 11.5, 11.7, 11.18, 12, 12.7, 13.1, 13.8, 14.3, 15, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 16.13, 17, 17.1, 17.3, 17.8, 17.10, 18, 18.24, 19, 19.2, 19.3, 19.4, 19.5, 19.9, 19.10, 19.20, 20, 20.3, 20.4, 20.5, 20.6, 20.7, 20.8, 20.9, 20.10, 21.1, 21.2, 21.5, 21.6, 21.10, 22.1, 22.3, 22.4, 22.5, 22.6, 22.7, 22.8, 22.9, 22.10, 22.11, 22.12, 22.13, 22.14, 22.15, 22.16, 22.17, 22.18, 22.19, 22.20, 22.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. I was in the Spirit on the Lord's day, and I heard behind me a loud voice, as of a trumpet
40. New Testament, James, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, to the twelve tribes which are in the Dispersion: Greetings.
41. New Testament, Jude, 1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

42. New Testament, Colossians, 1.7, 1.25-1.26, 3.24, 4.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. even as you learned of Epaphras our beloved fellow servant, who is a faithful minister of Christ on our behalf 1.25. of which I was made a servant, according to the stewardship of God which was given me toward you, to fulfill the word of God 1.26. the mystery which has been hidden for ages and generations. But now it has been revealed to his saints 3.24. knowing that from the Lord you will receive the reward of the inheritance; for you serve the Lord Christ. 4.12. Epaphras, who is one of you, a servant of Christ, salutes you, always striving for you in his prayers, that you may stand perfect and complete in all the will of God.
43. New Testament, Ephesians, 3.3, 6.6-6.7, 6.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.3. how that by revelation the mystery was made known to me, as I wrote before in few words 6.6. not in the way of service only when eyes are on you, as men-pleasers; but as servants of Christ, doing the will of God from the heart; 6.7. with good will doing service, as to the Lord, and not to men; 6.20. for which I am an ambassador in chains; that in it I may speak boldly, as I ought to speak.
44. New Testament, Galatians, 1.10, 1.12-1.13, 1.16, 1.19, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. For am I now seeking thefavor of men, or of God? Or am I striving to please men? For if I werestill pleasing men, I wouldn't be a servant of Christ. 1.12. For neither did Ireceive it from man, nor was I taught it, but it came to me throughrevelation of Jesus Christ. 1.13. For you have heard of my way ofliving in time past in the Jews' religion, how that beyond measure Ipersecuted the assembly of God, and ravaged it. 1.16. to reveal his Son in me,that I might preach him among the Gentiles, I didn't immediately conferwith flesh and blood 1.19. But of the otherapostles I saw no one, except James, the Lord's brother. 2.2. I went up byrevelation, and I laid before them the gospel which I preach among theGentiles, but privately before those who were respected, for fear thatI might be running, or had run, in vain.
45. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.4-1.14, 8.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. having become so much better than the angels, as he has inherited a more excellent name than they have. 1.5. For to which of the angels did he say at any time, "You are my Son, Today have I become your father?"and again, "I will be to him a Father, And he will be to me a Son? 1.6. Again, when he brings in the firstborn into the world he says, "Let all the angels of God worship him. 1.7. of the angels he says, "Who makes his angels winds, And his servants a flame of fire. 1.8. but of the Son he says, "Your throne, O God, is forever and ever; The scepter of uprightness is the scepter of your kingdom. 1.9. You have loved righteousness, and hated iniquity; Therefore God, your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness above your fellows. 1.10. And, "You, Lord, in the beginning, laid the foundation of the earth. The heavens are the works of your hands. 1.11. They will perish, but you continue. They all will grow old like a garment does. 1.12. As a mantle you will roll them up, And they will be changed; But you are the same. Your years will not fail. 1.13. But of which of the angels has he said at any time, "Sit at my right hand, Until I make your enemies the footstool of your feet? 1.14. Aren't they all ministering spirits, sent out to do service for the sake of those who will inherit salvation? 8.5. who serve a copy and shadow of the heavenly things, even as Moses was warned by God when he was about to make the tabernacle, for he said, "See, you shall make everything according to the pattern that was shown to you on the mountain.
46. New Testament, Philippians, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul and Timothy, servants of Jesus Christ; To all the saints in Christ Jesus who are at Philippi, with the overseers and deacons:
47. New Testament, Romans, 1.1, 3.21, 7.6, 13.4, 14.18, 16.18, 16.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God 3.21. But now apart from the law, a righteousness of God has been revealed, being testified by the law and the prophets; 7.6. But now we have been discharged from the law, having died to that in which we were held; so that we serve in newness of the spirit, and not in oldness of the letter. 13.4. for he is a servant of God to you for good. But if you do that which is evil, be afraid, for he doesn't bear the sword in vain; for he is a minister of God, an avenger for wrath to him who does evil. 14.18. For he who serves Christ in these things is acceptable to God and approved by men. 16.18. For those who are such don't serve our Lord, Jesus Christ, but their own belly; and by their smooth and flattering speech, they deceive the hearts of the innocent.
48. New Testament, Titus, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, a servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus Christ, according to the faith of God's elect, and the knowledge of the truth which is according to godliness
49. New Testament, John, 5.20, 12.38, 14.9, 18.36, 20.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.20. For the Father has affection for the Son, and shows him all things that he himself does. He will show him greater works than these, that you may marvel. 12.38. that the word of Isaiah the prophet might be fulfilled, which he spoke, "Lord, who has believed our report? To whom has the arm of the Lord been revealed? 14.9. Jesus said to him, "Have I been with you such a long time, and do you not know me, Philip? He who has seen me has seen the Father. How do you say, 'Show us the Father?' 18.36. Jesus answered, "My kingdom is not of this world. If my kingdom were of this world, then my servants would fight, that I wouldn't be delivered to the Jews. But now my kingdom is not from here. 20.20. When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his side. The disciples therefore were glad when they saw the Lord.
50. New Testament, Luke, 1.1-1.2, 2.13, 2.29, 2.32, 2.35, 4.5, 6.12, 10.20-10.21, 12.2, 20.24, 22.7, 23.54, 24.26, 24.40 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Since many have undertaken to set in order a narrative concerning those matters which have been fulfilled among us 1.2. even as those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word delivered them to us 2.13. Suddenly, there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and saying 2.29. Now you are releasing your servant, Master, According to your word, in peace; 2.32. A light for revelation to the Gentiles, And the glory of your people Israel. 2.35. Yes, a sword will pierce through your own soul, that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed. 4.5. The devil, leading him up on a high mountain, showed him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. 6.12. It happened in these days, that he went out to the mountain to pray, and he continued all night in prayer to God. 10.20. Nevertheless, don't rejoice in this, that the spirits are subject to you, but rejoice that your names are written in heaven. 10.21. In that same hour Jesus rejoiced in the Holy Spirit, and said, "I thank you, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that you have hidden these things from the wise and understanding, and revealed them to little children. Yes, Father, for so it was well-pleasing in your sight. 12.2. But there is nothing covered up, that will not be revealed, nor hidden, that will not be known. 20.24. Show me a denarius. Whose image and inscription are on it?"They answered, "Caesar's. 22.7. The day of unleavened bread came, on which the Passover must be sacrificed. 23.54. It was the day of the Preparation, and the Sabbath was drawing near. 24.26. Didn't the Christ have to suffer these things and to enter into his glory? 24.40. When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet.
51. New Testament, Mark, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God.
52. New Testament, Matthew, 1.1, 1.20, 2.13, 2.19, 4.8, 11.25, 13.35, 16.17, 16.21, 18.10, 21.16, 26.64, 27.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham. 1.20. But when he thought about these things, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream, saying, "Joseph, son of David, don't be afraid to take to yourself Mary, your wife, for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Spirit. 2.13. Now when they had departed, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream, saying, "Arise and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and stay there until I tell you, for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him. 2.19. But when Herod was dead, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared in a dream to Joseph in Egypt, saying 4.8. Again, the devil took him to an exceedingly high mountain, and showed him all the kingdoms of the world, and their glory. 11.25. At that time, Jesus answered, "I thank you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that you hid these things from the wise and understanding, and revealed them to infants. 13.35. that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through the prophet, saying, "I will open my mouth in parables; I will utter things hidden from the foundation of the world. 16.17. Jesus answered him, "Blessed are you, Simon Bar Jonah, for flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my Father who is in heaven. 16.21. From that time, Jesus began to show his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem and suffer many things from the elders, chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and the third day be raised up. 18.10. See that you don't despise one of these little ones, for I tell you that in heaven their angels always see the face of my Father who is in heaven. 21.16. and said to him, "Do you hear what these are saying?"Jesus said to them, "Yes. Did you never read, 'Out of the mouth of babes and nursing babies you have perfected praise?' 26.64. Jesus said to him, "You have said it. Nevertheless, I tell you, henceforth you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming on the clouds of the sky. 27.19. While he was sitting on the judgment seat, his wife sent to him, saying, "Have nothing to do with that righteous man, for I have suffered many things this day in a dream because of him.
53. Polycarp of Smyrna, Letter To The Philippians, 6.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

54. Anon., The Acts of John, 45, 75, 43 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

43. But John spread forth his hands, and being uplifted in soul, said unto the Lord: Glory be to thee, my Jesus, the only God of truth, for that thou dost gain (receive) thy servants by divers devices. And having so said, he said to the people: Rise up from the floor, ye men of Ephesus, and pray to my God, and recognize the invisible power that cometh to manifestation, and the wonderful works which are wrought before your eyes. Artemis ought to have succoured herself: her servant ought to have been helped of her and not to have died. Where is the power of the evil spirit? where are her sacrifices? where her birthdays? where her festivals? where are the garlands? where is all that sorcery and the poisoning (witchcraft) that is sister thereto?
55. Anon., Marytrdom of Polycarp, 17 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

56. Anon., Acts of John, 45, 75, 43 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

43. But John spread forth his hands, and being uplifted in soul, said unto the Lord: Glory be to thee, my Jesus, the only God of truth, for that thou dost gain (receive) thy servants by divers devices. And having so said, he said to the people: Rise up from the floor, ye men of Ephesus, and pray to my God, and recognize the invisible power that cometh to manifestation, and the wonderful works which are wrought before your eyes. Artemis ought to have succoured herself: her servant ought to have been helped of her and not to have died. Where is the power of the evil spirit? where are her sacrifices? where her birthdays? where her festivals? where are the garlands? where is all that sorcery and the poisoning (witchcraft) that is sister thereto?
57. Anon., Acts of Peter, 41, 30 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

58. Anon., Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, None (2nd cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)

59. Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies, 8.12 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

60. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 3.3.3, 3.11.8-3.11.9 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

61. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 10.96.7 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

62. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 10.96.7 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

63. Tertullian, On The Crown, 3.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

64. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14a. קודם שנברא העולם ולא נבראו עמד הקב"ה ושתלן בכל דור ודור והן הן עזי פנים שבדור,ורב נחמן בר יצחק אמר אשר קומטו לברכה הוא דכתיב אלו תלמידי חכמים שמקמטין עצמן על דברי תורה בעולם הזה הקב"ה מגלה להם סוד לעולם הבא שנאמר (איוב כב, טז) נהר יוצק יסודם,אמר ליה שמואל לחייא בר רב בר אריא תא אימא לך מילתא מהני מילי מעליותא דהוה אמר אבוך כל יומא ויומא נבראין מלאכי השרת מנהר דינור ואמרי שירה ובטלי שנאמר (איכה ג, כג) חדשים לבקרים רבה אמונתך ופליגא דר' שמואל בר נחמני דאמר ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר' יונתן כל דיבור ודיבור שיוצא מפי הקב"ה נברא ממנו מלאך אחד שנאמר (תהלים לג, ו) בדבר ה' שמים נעשו וברוח פיו כל צבאם,כתוב אחד אומר (דניאל ז, ט) לבושיה כתלג חיור ושער (רישיה) כעמר נקא וכתיב (שיר השירים ה, יא) קוצותיו תלתלים שחורות כעורב לא קשיא כאן בישיבה כאן במלחמה דאמר מר אין לך נאה בישיבה אלא זקן ואין לך נאה במלחמה אלא בחור,כתוב אחד אומר (דניאל ז, ט) כרסיה שביבין דינור וכתוב אחד אומר (דניאל ז, ט) עד די כרסון רמיו ועתיק יומין יתיב לא קשיא אחד לו ואחד לדוד כדתניא אחד לו ואחד לדוד דברי ר' עקיבא אמר לו ר' יוסי הגלילי עקיבא עד מתי אתה עושה שכינה חול אלא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה,קיבלה מיניה או לא קיבלה מיניה ת"ש אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה דברי רבי עקיבא אמר לו ר"א בן עזריה עקיבא מה לך אצל הגדה כלך מדברותיך אצל נגעים ואהלות אלא אחד לכסא ואחד לשרפרף כסא לישב עליו שרפרף להדום רגליו שנאמר (ישעיהו סו, א) השמים כסאי והארץ הדום רגלי,כי אתא רב דימי אמר שמונה עשרה קללות קילל ישעיה את ישראל ולא נתקררה דעתו עד שאמר להם המקרא הזה (ישעיהו ג, ה) ירהבו הנער בזקן והנקלה בנכבד,שמונה עשרה קללות מאי נינהו דכתיב (ישעיהו ג, א) כי הנה האדון ה' צבאות מסיר מירושלם ומיהודה משען ומשענה כל משען לחם וכל משען מים גבור ואיש מלחמה שופט ונביא וקוסם וזקן שר חמשים ונשוא פנים ויועץ וחכם חרשים ונבון לחש ונתתי נערים שריהם ותעלולים ימשלו בם וגו',משען אלו בעלי מקרא משענה אלו בעלי משנה כגון ר"י בן תימא וחביריו פליגו בה רב פפא ורבנן חד אמר שש מאות סדרי משנה וחד אמר שבע מאות סדרי משנה,כל משען לחם אלו בעלי תלמוד שנאמר (משלי ט, ה) לכו לחמו בלחמי ושתו ביין מסכתי וכל משען מים אלו בעלי אגדה שמושכין לבו של אדם כמים באגדה גבור זה בעל שמועות ואיש מלחמה זה שיודע לישא וליתן במלחמתה של תורה שופט זה דיין שדן דין אמת לאמיתו נביא כמשמעו קוסם זה מלך שנאמר (משלי טז, י) קסם על שפתי מלך זקן זה שראוי לישיבה,שר חמשים אל תקרי שר חמשים אלא שר חומשין זה שיודע לישא וליתן בחמשה חומשי תורה דבר אחר שר חמשים כדרבי אבהו דאמר רבי אבהו מכאן שאין מעמידין מתורגמן על הצבור פחות מחמשים שנה ונשוא פנים זה שנושאין פנים לדורו בעבורו למעלה כגון רבי חנינא בן דוסא למטה כגון רבי אבהו בי קיסר,יועץ שיודע לעבר שנים ולקבוע חדשים וחכם זה תלמיד המחכים את רבותיו חרשים בשעה שפותח בדברי תורה הכל נעשין כחרשין ונבון זה המבין דבר מתוך דבר לחש זה שראוי למסור לו דברי תורה שניתנה בלחש,ונתתי נערים שריהם מאי ונתתי נערים שריהם א"ר אלעזר אלו בני אדם שמנוערין מן המצות,ותעלולים ימשלו בם אמר רב (פפא) בר יעקב תעלי בני תעלי ולא נתקררה דעתו עד שאמר להם ירהבו הנער בזקן (והנקלה בנכבד) אלו בני אדם שמנוערין מן המצות ירהבו במי שממולא במצות כרמון והנקלה בנכבד יבא מי שחמורות דומות עליו כקלות וירהבו במי שקלות דומות עליו כחמורות,אמר רב קטינא אפי' בשעת כשלונה של ירושלים לא פסקו מהם בעלי אמנה שנא' (ישעיהו ג, ו) כי יתפש איש באחיו בית אביו (לאמר) שמלה לך קצין תהיה לנו דברים שבני אדם מתכסין כשמלה ישנן תחת ידך,(ישעיהו ג, ו) והמכשלה הזאת מאי והמכשלה הזאת דברים שאין בני אדם עומדין עליהן אא"כ נכשל בהן ישנן תחת ידך (ישעיהו ג, ז) ישא ביום ההוא לאמר לא אהיה חובש ובביתי אין לחם ואין שמלה לא תשימוני קצין עם ישא אין ישא אלא לשון שבועה שנאמר (שמות כ, ו) לא תשא את שם ה' אלהיך לא אהיה חובש לא הייתי מחובשי בית המדרש ובביתי אין לחם ואין שמלה שאין בידי לא מקרא ולא משנה ולא גמרא,ודלמא שאני התם דאי אמר להו גמירנא אמרי ליה אימא לן הוה ליה למימר גמר ושכח מאי לא אהיה חובש לא אהיה חובש כלל,איני והאמר רבא לא חרבה ירושלים עד שפסקו ממנה בעלי אמנה שנאמר (ירמיהו ה, א) שוטטו בחוצות ירושלם וראו נא ודעו ובקשו ברחובותיה אם תמצאו איש אם יש עושה משפט מבקש אמונה ואסלח לה לא קשיא 14a. bbefore the creation of the world, but they were not created.The Torah was supposed to have been given a thousand generations after the world was created, as it is written: “He commanded His word for a thousand generations” (Psalms 105:8), but God gave it earlier, after only twenty-six generations, so that nine-hundred and seventy-four generations should have been created but were not. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, acted by plantinga few of bthem in each and every generation, and they are the insolent ones of the generation,as they belonged to generations that should not have been created at all., bAnd Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak saidthat the verse: b“Who were snatched [ ikumtu /i]”(Job 22:16), bis written for a blessing,as the verse is not referring to lowly, cursed people, but to the blessed. bThese are Torah scholars, who shrivel [ imekamtin /i],i.e., humble, bthemselves over the words of Torah in this world. The Holy One, Blessed be He, reveals a secret to them in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “Whose foundation [ iyesodam /i] was poured out as a stream”(Job 22:16), implying that He will provide them with an abundant knowledge of secret matters [ isod /i]., bShmuel said to Ḥiyya bar Rav: Son of great ones, come and I will tell you something of the great things that your father would say: Each and every day, ministering angels are created from the River Dinur, and they recite songto God bandthen immediately bceaseto exist, bas it is stated: “They are new every morning; great is Your faithfulness”(Lamentations 3:23), indicating that new angels praise God each morning. The Gemara comments: bAndthis opinion bdisagrees withthat bof Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, as Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said:With beach and every word that emerges from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, an angel is created, as it is stated: “By the word of the Lord the heavens were made, and by the breath of His mouth all their hosts”(Psalms 33:6). The hosts of heaven are the angels, who, he claims, are created from the mouth of God, rather than from the River Dinur.,§ The Gemara continues to reconcile verses that seem to contradict each other: bOne verse states: “His raiment was as white snow, and the hair of his head like purewhite bwool”(Daniel 7:9), band it is written: “His locks are curled, black as a raven”(Song of Songs 5:11). The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Herethe verse in Daniel is referring to when He is bin theheavenly bacademy,while btherethe verse in Song of Songs speaks of when He is bat war, for the Master said: There is no finerindividual to study Torah bin an academy than an old man, and there is no finerindividual to wage war bthan a youth.A different metaphor is therefore used to describe God on each occasion.,The Gemara poses another question: bOne verse states: “His throne was fiery flames”(Daniel 7:9), bandanother phrase in the same bverse states: “Till thrones were placed, and one who was ancient of days sat,”implying the existence of two thrones. The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Onethrone is bfor Him and oneis bfor David, as it is taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to this issue: bOnethrone bfor Him and one for David;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yosei HaGelili said to him: Akiva, how long shall you make the Divine Presence profane,by presenting it as though one could sit next to Him? bRather,the two thrones are designated for different purposes: bOne for judgment and one for righteousness. /b,The Gemara asks: Did Rabbi Akiva bacceptthis rebuff bfrom him, or did he not acceptit bfrom him?The Gemara offers a proof: bComeand bhearthe following teaching of a different ibaraita /i: bOnethrone is bfor judgment and oneis bfor righteousness;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said to him: Akiva, what are you doingoccupying yourself bwiththe study of iaggada /i?This is not your field of expertise. bTake [ ikelakh /i] your words tothe topics of bplagues and tents.Meaning, it is preferable that you teach the ihalakhotof the impurity of leprosy and the impurity of the dead, which are within your field of expertise. bRather,with regard to the two thrones: bOnethrone is bfor a seat and oneis bfor a small seat.The bseatis bto sit on,and the bsmall seatis bfor His footstool, as it is stated: “The heavens are My seat, and the earth My footstool”(Isaiah 66:1).,§ The Gemara stated earlier that one who studies the secrets of Torah must be “a captain of fifty and a man of favor” (Isaiah 3:3), but it did not explain the meaning of these requirements. It now returns to analyze that verse in detail. bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Israel to Babylonia, bhe said: Isaiah cursed Israel with eighteen curses, and his mind was not calmed,i.e., he was not satisfied, buntil he said to them thegreat curse of the bfollowing verse: “The child shall behave insolently against the aged, and the base against the honorable”(Isaiah 3:5).,The Gemara asks: bWhat are these eighteen curses?The Gemara answers: bAs it is written: “For behold, the Master, the Lord of hosts, shall take away from Jerusalem and from Judah support and staff, every support of bread, and every support of water; the mighty man, and the man of war; the judge, and the prophet, and the diviner, and the elder; the captain of fifty, and the man of favor, and the counselor, and the cunning charmer, and the skillful enchanter. And I will make children their princes, and babes shall rule over them”(Isaiah 3:1–4). The eighteen items listed in these verses shall be removed from Israel.,The Gemara proceeds to clarify the homiletical meaning of these terms: b“Support”; these are masters of the Bible. “Staff”; these are masters of Mishna, such as Rabbi Yehuda ben Teima and his colleagues.The Gemara interjects: bRav Pappa and the Rabbis disagreed with regard to this. Oneof them bsaid:They were proficient in bsix hundred orders of Mishna, andthe other bone said:In bseven hundred orders of Mishna,only six of which remain today., b“Every support of bread”; these are masters of Talmud, as it is stated: “Come, eat of my bread, and drink of the wine that I have mingled”(Proverbs 9:5). b“And every support of water”; these are the masters of iaggada /i, who draw people’s hearts like water bymeans of iaggada /i. “The mighty man”; this is the master of halakhic tradition,one who masters the ihalakhottransmitted to him from his rabbis. b“And the man of war”; this is one who knows how to engage in the discourse of Torah,generating novel teachings bin the war of Torah. “A judge”; this is a judge who judges a true judgment truthfully. “A prophet”; as it literally indicates. “A diviner”; this is a king.Why is he called a diviner? bFor it is stated: “A divine sentence is on the lips of the king”(Proverbs 16:10). b“An elder”; this is one fit forthe position of head of ban academy. /b, b“A captain of fifty,” do not readit as b“ isar ḥamishim /i,” ratherread it as b“ isar ḥumashin /i”; this is one who knows how to engage in discoursewith regard to bthe five books of [ iḥamisha ḥumshei /i] the Torah. Alternatively, “a captain of fifty”should be understood binaccordance with bRabbi Abbahu, for Rabbi Abbahu said: From herewe learn bthat one may not appoint a disseminator over the publicto transmit words of Torah or teachings of the Sages if he is bless than fifty yearsof age. b“And the man of favor”; this isone bfor whose sake favor is shown to his generation.The Gemara provides different examples of this: Some garner favor babove, such as Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa,whose prayers for his generation would invariably be answered. Others gain favor bbelow, for example: Rabbi Abbahu,who would plead Israel’s case bin the house ofthe bemperor. /b, b“The counselor”;this is referring to one bwho knows how to intercalate years and determine months,due to his expertise in the phases of the moon and the calculation of the yearly cycle. b“The cunning”; this is a student who makes his rabbis wisethrough his questions. b“Charmer [ iḥarashim /i]”;this is referring to one so wise bthat when he begins speaking matters of Torah, allthose listening bare as though deaf [ iḥershin /i],as they are unable to comprehend the profundity of his comments. b“The skillful”; this is one who understands somethingnew bfrom something elsehe has learned. b“Enchanter [ ilaḥash /i]”; thisis referring to one bwho is worthy of having words of the Torah that were given in whispers [ ilaḥash /i],i.e., the secrets of the Torah, btransmitted to him. /b,The Gemara continues to interpret this verse: b“And I will make children their princes”(Isaiah 3:4). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of b“And I will make children [ ine’arim /i] their princes”? Rabbi Elazar said: These are people who are devoid [ imenu’arin /i] of mitzvot;such people will become the leaders of the nation., b“And babes [ ita’alulim /i] shall rule over them”; Rav Pappa bar Ya’akov said: iTa’alulimmeans bfoxes [ ita’alei /i], sons of foxes.In other words, inferior people both in terms of deeds and in terms of lineage. bAndthe prophet Isaiah’s bmind was not calmed until he said to them: “The child shall behave insolently against the aged, and the base against the honorable”(Isaiah 3:5). “The child” [ ina’ar /i]; bthese are people who are devoid of mitzvot,who bwill behave insolently toward one who is as filled with mitzvot as a pomegranate. “And the base [ inikleh /i] against the honorable [ inikhbad /i]”;this means that bone for whom major [ ikaved /i]transgressions bare like minor ones [ ikalot /i] in his mind will come and behave insolently with one for whomeven bminortransgressions bare like major ones in his mind. /b,§ The Gemara continues its explanation of the chapter in Isaiah. bRav Ketina said: Even at the time of Jerusalem’s downfall, trustworthy men did not cease to existamong its people, bas it is stated: “For a man shall take hold of his brother of the house of his father,and say: bYou have a cloak, be our ruler”(Isaiah 3:6). The Gemara explains that they would approach someone and say to him: bThings that peopleare careful to keep bcovered as with a cloak,i.e., words of Torah that are covered and concealed, bare under your hand,as you are an expert with regard to them., bWhat isthe meaning of the end of that verse: b“And this stumbling block”(Isaiah 3:6)? bThings that people cannot grasp unless they have stumbled over them,as they can be understood only with much effort, bare under your hand. Althoughthey will approach an individual with these statements, he b“shall swear that day, saying: I will not be a healer, for in my house there is neither bread nor a cloak; you shall not make me ruler of a people”(Isaiah 3:7). When the verse states: b“Shall swear [ iyissa /i],” iyissais noneother bthan an expression of an oath, as it is stated: “You shall not take [ itissa /i] the name of the Lord your Godin vain” (Exodus 20:6). Therefore, the inhabitant of Jerusalem swears: b“I will not be a healer [ iḥovesh /i]”(Isaiah 3:7), which means: bI was neverone bof those who sit [ imeḥovshei /i] in the study hall; “for in my house there is neither bread nor a cloak,” as I possessknowledge of bneitherthe bBible, nor Mishna, nor Gemara.This shows that even at Jerusalem’s lowest spiritual ebb, its inhabitants would admit the truth and own up to their complete ignorance.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: bBut perhaps it is different there, for if he had said: I have learned, they would have said to him: Tell us,and people do not lie about things that can be easily verified. The Gemara rejects this claim: If he were a liar, bhe would have saidthat bhe learned and forgot,thereby avoiding shame. bWhat isthe meaning of b“I will not be a healer,”which seems to imply that he had learned in the past? It means: bI will not be a healer at all,as I have never learned. Consequently, there were trustworthy men in Jerusalem after all.,The Gemara raises another difficulty: bIs that so? But didn’t Rava say: Jerusalem was not destroyed until trustworthy men ceased to exist in it, as it is stated: “Run to and fro through the streets of Jerusalem, and see now and know, and seek in its broad places, if you can find a man, if there is any that acts justly, that seeks truth, and I will pardon her”(Jeremiah 5:1), implying there were no trustworthy people at that time? The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult: /b
65. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

38b. גופו מבבל וראשו מארץ ישראל ואבריו משאר ארצות עגבותיו א"ר אחא מאקרא דאגמא,א"ר יוחנן בר חנינא שתים עשרה שעות הוי היום שעה ראשונה הוצבר עפרו שניה נעשה גולם שלישית נמתחו אבריו רביעית נזרקה בו נשמה חמישית עמד על רגליו ששית קרא שמות שביעית נזדווגה לו חוה שמינית עלו למטה שנים וירדו ארבעה תשיעית נצטווה שלא לאכול מן האילן עשירית סרח אחת עשרה נידון שתים עשרה נטרד והלך לו שנאמר (תהלים מט, יג) אדם ביקר בל ילין,אמר רמי בר חמא אין חיה רעה שולטת באדם אלא אם כן נדמה לו כבהמה שנאמר (תהלים מט, יג) נמשל כבהמות נדמו:,(שע"ה בסו"ף ארמ"י סימן) אמר רב יהודה א"ר בשעה שבקש הקב"ה לבראות את האדם ברא כת אחת של מלאכי השרת אמר להם רצונכם נעשה אדם בצלמנו אמרו לפניו רבש"ע מה מעשיו אמר להן כך וכך מעשיו,אמרו לפניו רבש"ע (תהלים ח, ה) מה אנוש כי תזכרנו ובן אדם כי תפקדנו הושיט אצבעו קטנה ביניהן ושרפם וכן כת שניה כת שלישית אמרו לפניו רבש"ע ראשונים שאמרו לפניך מה הועילו כל העולם כולו שלך הוא כל מה שאתה רוצה לעשות בעולמך עשה,כיון שהגיע לאנשי דור המבול ואנשי דור הפלגה שמעשיהן מקולקלין אמרו לפניו רבש"ע לא יפה אמרו ראשונים לפניך אמר להן (ישעיהו מו, ד) ועד זקנה אני הוא ועד שיבה אני אסבול וגו',אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון מסוף העולם ועד סופו היה שנאמר (דברים ד, לב) למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ ולמקצה השמים ועד קצה השמים כיון שסרח הניח הקדוש ברוך הוא ידו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר (תהלים קלט, ה) אחור וקדם צרתני ותשת עלי כפכה,אמר ר"א אדם הראשון מן הארץ עד לרקיע היה שנאמר למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ ולמקצה השמים (עד קצה השמים) כיון שסרח הניח הקב"ה ידו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר אחור וקדם צרתני וגו' קשו קראי אהדדי אידי ואידי חדא מידה היא,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון בלשון ארמי ספר שנאמר (תהלים קלט, יז) ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל,והיינו דאמר ריש לקיש מאי דכתיב (בראשית ה, א) זה ספר תולדות אדם מלמד שהראהו הקב"ה דור דור ודורשיו דור דור וחכמיו כיון שהגיע לדורו של רבי עקיבא שמח בתורתו ונתעצב במיתתו אמר ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון מין היה שנאמר (בראשית ג, ט) ויקרא ה' אלהים אל האדם ויאמר לו איכה אן נטה לבך רבי יצחק אמר מושך בערלתו היה כתיב הכא (הושע ו, ז) והמה כאדם עברו ברית וכתיב התם (בראשית ט, ט) את בריתי הפר,רב נחמן אמר כופר בעיקר היה כתיב הכא עברו ברית וכתיב התם (את בריתי הפר) (ירמיהו כב, ט) ואמרו על אשר עזבו (את) ברית ה' (אלהי אבותם),תנן התם ר"א אומר הוי שקוד ללמוד תורה ודע מה שתשיב לאפיקורוס אמר ר' יוחנן ל"ש אלא אפיקורוס (של) עובדי כוכבים אבל אפיקורוס ישראל כ"ש דפקר טפי,א"ר יוחנן כ"מ שפקרו המינים תשובתן בצידן (בראשית א, כו) נעשה אדם בצלמנו (ואומר) (בראשית א, כז) ויברא אלהים את האדם בצלמו (בראשית יא, ז) הבה נרדה ונבלה שם שפתם (בראשית יא, ה) וירד ה' לראות את העיר ואת המגדל (בראשית לה, ז) כי שם נגלו אליו האלהים (בראשית לה, ג) לאל העונה אותי ביום צרתי,(דברים ד, ז) כי מי גוי גדול אשר לו אלהים קרובים אליו כה' אלהינו בכל קראנו אליו (שמואל ב ז, כג) ומי כעמך כישראל גוי אחד בארץ אשר הלכו אלהים לפדות לו לעם (דניאל ז, ט) עד די כרסוון רמיו ועתיק יומין יתיב,הנך למה לי כדרבי יוחנן דא"ר יוחנן אין הקב"ה עושה דבר אא"כ נמלך בפמליא של מעלה שנאמר (דניאל ד, יד) בגזירת עירין פתגמא ובמאמר קדישין שאילתא,התינח כולהי עד די כרסוון רמיו מאי איכא למימר אחד לו ואחד לדוד דתניא אחד לו ואחד לדוד דברי ר"ע א"ל ר' יוסי עקיבא עד מתי אתה עושה שכינה חול אלא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה,קבלה מיניה או לא קבלה מיניה ת"ש דתניא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה דברי ר"ע א"ל ר' אלעזר בן עזריא עקיבא מה לך אצל הגדה כלך אצל נגעים ואהלות אלא אחד לכסא ואחד לשרפרף כסא לישב עליו שרפרף להדום רגליו,אמר רב נחמן האי מאן דידע לאהדורי למינים כרב אידית ליהדר ואי לא לא ליהדר אמר ההוא מינא לרב אידית כתיב (שמות כד, א) ואל משה אמר עלה אל ה' עלה אלי מיבעי ליה א"ל זהו מטטרון ששמו כשם רבו דכתיב (שמות כג, כא) כי שמי בקרבו,אי הכי ניפלחו ליה כתיב (שמות כג, כא) אל תמר בו אל תמירני בו אם כן לא ישא לפשעכם למה לי א"ל הימנותא בידן דאפילו בפרוונקא נמי לא קבילניה דכתיב (שמות לג, טו) ויאמר אליו אם אין פניך הולכים וגו',אמר ליה ההוא מינא לר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי כתיב (בראשית יט, כד) וה' המטיר על סדום ועל עמורה גפרית ואש מאת ה' מאתו מיבעי ליה א"ל ההוא כובס שבקיה אנא מהדרנא ליה דכתיב (בראשית ד, כג) ויאמר למך לנשיו עדה וצלה שמען קולי נשי למך נשיי מיבעי ליה אלא משתעי קרא הכי הכא נמי משתעי קרא הכי א"ל מנא לך הא מפירקיה דר"מ שמיע לי,דא"ר יוחנן כי הוה דריש ר' מאיר בפירקיה הוה דריש תילתא שמעתא תילתא אגדתא תילתא מתלי ואמר ר' יוחנן ג' מאות משלות שועלים היו לו לרבי מאיר ואנו אין לנו אלא שלש 38b. bhis torsowas fashioned from dust taken bfrom Babylonia, and his headwas fashioned from dust taken bfrom Eretz Yisrael,the most important land, band his limbswere fashioned from dust taken bfrom the rest of the landsin the world. With regard to bhis buttocks, Rav Aḥa says:They were fashioned from dust taken bfrom Akra De’agma,on the outskirts of Babylonia., bRabbi Yoḥa bar Ḥanina says: Daytime is twelve hourslong, and the day Adam the first man was created was divided as follows: In the bfirst hourof the day, bhis dust was gathered.In the bsecond,an undefined bfigure was fashioned.In the bthird, his limbs were extended.In the bfourth, a soul was cast into him.In the bfifth, he stood on his legs.In the bsixth, he calledthe creatures by the bnameshe gave them. In the bseventh, Eve was paired with him.In the beighth, they arose to the bed two, and descended four,i.e., Cain and Abel were immediately born. In the bninth, he was commanded not to eat of the Treeof Knowledge. In the btenth, he sinned.In the beleventh, he was judged.In the btwelfth, he was expelled and leftthe Garden of Eden, bas it is stated: “But man abides not in honor;he is like the beasts that perish” (Psalms 49:13). Adam did not abide, i.e., sleep, in a place of honor for even one night., bRami bar Ḥama saysin explanation of the end of that verse: bA wild animal does not have power over a person unlessthat person bseems tothe wild animal blike an animal, as it is stated: “He is like the beasts that perish.” /b,The Gemara presents ba mnemonicfor the statements that follow: bAt the time, to the end, Aramaic. Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: At the time that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to create a person, He created one group of ministering angels. He said to them:If byou agree, let us fashion a person in our image.The angels bsaid before him: Master of the Universe, what are the actions ofthis person You suggest to create? God bsaid to them: His actions are such and such,according to human nature.,The angels bsaid before him: Master of the Universe: “What is man that You are mindful of him? And the son of man that You think of him?”(Psalms 8:5), i.e., a creature such as this is not worth creating. God boutstretched His small finger among them and burned themwith fire. bAnd the sameoccurred with ba second groupof angels. The bthird groupof angels that He asked bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, the firsttwo groups bwho spoketheir mind bbefore You, what did they accomplish? The entire world is Yours; whatever You wish to do in Your world, do.God then created the first person., bWhenhistory barrived atthe time of bthe people of the generation of the flood and the people of the generation of the dispersion,i.e., the Tower of Babel, bwhose actions were ruinous,the angels bsaid before God: Master of the Universe, didn’t thefirst set of angels bspeak appropriately before You,that human beings are not worthy of having been created? God bsaid to themconcerning humanity: b“Even to your old age I am the same; and even to hoar hairs will I suffer you;I have made and I will bear; and I will carry, and I will deliver you” (Isaiah 46:4), i.e., having created people, I will even suffer their flaws., bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Adam the firstman spanned bfrom one end of the world until the other, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other”(Deuteronomy 4:32), meaning that on the day Adam was created he spanned from one end of the heavens until the other. bOnceAdam bsinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand on him and diminished him, as it is stated: “Behind and before You have created me and laid Your hand upon me”(Psalms 139:5), that at first Adam spanned “behind and before,” meaning everywhere, and then God laid His hand on him and diminished him., bRabbi Elazar says:The height of bAdam the firstman bwas from the ground until the firmament, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other.”Adam stood “upon the earth” and rose to the end of the heavens. bOnceAdam bsinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand on him and diminished him, as it is stated: “Behind and before You have created meand laid Your hand upon me.” The Gemara asks: The interpretations of bthe verses contradict each other.The first interpretation is that his size was from one end of the world to the other, and the second interpretation is that it was from the earth until the heavens. The Gemara answers: bThis and that,from one end of the world to another and from the earth until the heavens, bare one measure,i.e., the same distance., bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Adam the firstman bspoke in the language of Aramaic, as it is statedin the chapter of Psalms speaking in the voice of Adam: b“How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God”(Psalms 139:17)., bAnd this,i.e., that the verse in Psalms is stated by Adam, is what bReish Lakish says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “This is the book of the generations of Adam”(Genesis 5:1)? This verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, showedAdam bevery generation and itsTorah binterpreters, every generation and its wise ones. When he arrived athis vision of bthe generation of Rabbi Akiva,Adam bwas gladdened by his Torah, and saddened by hismanner of bdeath. He said: “How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God,”i.e., how it weighs upon me that a man as great as Rabbi Akiva should suffer., bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Adam the firstman bwas a heretic, as it is stated: “And the Lord called to the man and said to him: Where are you”?(Genesis 3:9), meaning, to bwhere has your heart turned,indicating that Adam turned from the path of truth. bRabbi Yitzḥak says: He wasone who bdrew his foreskinforward, so as to remove any indication that he was circumcised. It bis written here: “And they like men [ iadam /i] have transgressed the covet”(Hosea 6:7), bandit bis written there:“And the uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his people; bhe has broken My covet”(Genesis 17:14)., bRav Naḥman says: He was a denier of the fundamental principleof belief in God. It bis written here:“And they like men [ iadam /i] bhave transgressed the covet,” andit bis written there: “He has broken My covet,”and it is written in a third verse: b“And then they shall answer: Because they have forsaken the covet of the Lord their Godand worshipped other gods and served them” (Jeremiah 22:9).,§ bWe learnedin a mishna bthere(Avot 2:14): bRabbi Eliezer says: Be persistent to learn Torah, and know what to respond to the heretic [ ila’apikoros /i]. Rabbi Yoḥa says:This was btaught onlywith regard to ba gentile heretic, butnot with regard to ba Jewish heretic,as one should not respond to him. bAll the more so,if one does respond bhe will become more heretical.His heresy is assumed to be intentional, and any attempt to rebut it will only cause him to reinforce his position., bRabbi Yoḥa says: Any placein the Bible from bwhere the hereticsattempt to bprove their heresy,i.e., that there is more than one god, bthe response to theirclaim is balongside them,i.e., in the immediate vicinity of the verses they cite. The verse states that God said: b“Let us make man in our image”(Genesis 1:26), employing the plural, bbut itthen bstates: “And God created man in His image”(Genesis 1:27), employing the singular. The verse states that God said: b“Come, let us go down and there confound their language”(Genesis 11:7), but it also states: b“And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower”(Genesis 11:5). The verse states in the plural: b“There God was revealed [ iniglu /i] to himwhen he fled from the face of his brother” (Genesis 35:7), but it also states in the singular: b“To God Who answers [ ihaoneh /i] me in the day of my distress”(Genesis 35:3).,Rabbi Yoḥa cites several examples where the counterclaim is in the same verse as the claim of the heretics. The verse states: b“For what nation is there so great that has God so near to them as the Lord our God is whenever we call upon Him?”(Deuteronomy 4:7), where the term “near” is written in plural, ikerovim /i, but the term “upon Him” is written in singular. Another verse states: b“And who is like Your people, like Israel, a nation one in the earth, whom God went to redeem unto Himself for a people?”(II Samuel 7:23), where the term “went” is written in plural, ihalekhu /i, but the term “Himself” is written in singular. Another verse states: “I beheld btill thrones were placed, and one that was ancient of days did sit”(Daniel 7:9); where the term “thrones” is written in plural, ikharsavan /i, but the term “sit” is written in singular.,The Gemara asks: bWhy do Ineed btheseinstances of plural words? Why does the verse employ the plural at all when referring to God? The Gemara explains: This is bin accordance withthe statement bof Rabbi Yoḥa, as Rabbi Yoḥa says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, does not act unless He consults with the entourage of Above,i.e., the angels, bas it is stated: “The matter is by the decree of the watchers, and the sentence by the word of the holy ones”(Daniel 4:14).,The Gemara clarifies: This bworks out well foralmost ballthe verses, as they describe an action taken by God, but bwhat is there to sayconcerning the verse: “I beheld btill thrones were placed”?The Gemara answers: bOnethrone is bfor Him and onethrone is bfor David,i.e., the messiah, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOnethrone is bfor Him and onethrone is bfor David;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yosei said to him: Akiva! Until when will you desacralize the Divine Presenceby equating God with a person? bRather,the correct interpretation is that both thrones are for God, as bonethrone is bfor judgment and onethrone is bfor righteousness. /b,The Gemara asks: Did Rabbi Akiva bacceptthis explanation bfromRabbi Yosei bordid he bnot accept it from him?The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof to the matter from what was taught in another ibaraita /i, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOnethrone is bfor judgment and onethrone is bfor righteousness;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said to him: Akiva! What are you doing near,i.e., discussing, matters of iaggada /i? Go neartractates iNega’imand iOholot /i,which examine the complex ihalakhotof ritual purity, where your knowledge is unparalleled. bRather,the correct interpretation is that while both thrones are for God, boneis bfor a throne and oneis bfor a stool.There is ba throne for God to sit upon, and a stoolthat serves bas His footstool. /b, bRav Naḥman says: This one,i.e., any person, bwho knowshow bto respond to the hereticsas effectively bas Rav Idit should respondto them, bbut ifhe does bnotknow, he bshould not respondto them. The Gemara relates: bA certain heretic said to Rav Idit:It bis writtenin the verse concerning God: b“And to Moses He said: Come up to the Lord”(Exodus 24:1). The heretic raised a question: bIt should havestated: bCome up to Me.Rav Idit bsaid to him: Thisterm, “the Lord,” in that verse bisreferring to the angel bMetatron, whose name is like the name of his Master, as it is written:“Behold I send an angel before you to keep you in the way and to bring you to the place that I have prepared. Take heed of him and obey his voice; do not defy him; for he will not pardon your transgression, bfor My name is in him”(Exodus 23:20–21).,The heretic said to him: bIf so,if this angel is equated with God, bwe should worship himas we worship God. Rav Idit said to him: It bis written: “Do not defy [ itammer /i] him,”which alludes to: bDo not replace Me [ itemireni /i] with him.The heretic said to him: bIf so, why do Ineed the clause b“For he will not pardon your transgression”?Rav Idit bsaid to him: We believe that we did not acceptthe angel beven as a guide [ ibefarvanka /i]for the journey, bas it is written: “And he said to him: If Your Presence go not with meraise us not up from here” (Exodus 33:15). Moses told God that if God Himself does not accompany the Jewish people they do not want to travel to Eretz Yisrael.,The Gemara relates: bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei:It bis written: “And the Lord rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lordout of heaven” (Genesis 19:24). The heretic raised the question: bIt should havestated: bFrom Himout of heaven. bA certain launderer said toRabbi Yishmael: bLeave him be; I will respond to him.This is bas it is written: “And Lemech said to his wives: Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; wives of Lemech,hearken to my speech” (Genesis 4:23). One can raise the question: bIt should havebeen written: bMy wives,and not: “Wives of Lemech.” bRather, it isthe style of bthe verseto bspeak in thismanner. bHere too, it isthe style of bthe verseto bspeak in thismanner. Rabbi Yishmael bsaid tothe launderer: bFrom where did youhear bthisinterpretation? The launderer bsaid to him: I heard it at the lecture of Rabbi Meir. /b,The Gemara comments: This is bas Rabbi Yoḥa said: When Rabbi Meir would teach his lecture he would expound one-third ihalakha /i, one-third iaggada /i,and bone-third parables. And Rabbi Yoḥa says: Rabbi Meir had,i.e., taught, bthree hundred parables of foxes, and we have only three. /b
66. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 3.25.1-3.25.7, 3.28.2, 5.14-5.16, 5.18-5.19 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

3.25.1. Since we are dealing with this subject it is proper to sum up the writings of the New Testament which have been already mentioned. First then must be put the holy quaternion of the Gospels; following them the Acts of the Apostles. 3.25.2. After this must be reckoned the epistles of Paul; next in order the extant former epistle of John, and likewise the epistle of Peter, must be maintained. After them is to be placed, if it really seem proper, the Apocalypse of John, concerning which we shall give the different opinions at the proper time. These then belong among the accepted writings. 3.25.3. Among the disputed writings, which are nevertheless recognized by many, are extant the so-called epistle of James and that of Jude, also the second epistle of Peter, and those that are called the whether they belong to the evangelist or to another person of the same name. 3.25.4. Among the rejected writings must be reckoned also the Acts of Paul, and the so-called Shepherd, and the Apocalypse of Peter, and in addition to these the extant epistle of Barnabas, and the so-called Teachings of the Apostles; and besides, as I said, the Apocalypse of John, if it seem proper, which some, as I said, reject, but which others class with the accepted books. 3.25.5. And among these some have placed also the Gospel according to the Hebrews, with which those of the Hebrews that have accepted Christ are especially delighted. And all these may be reckoned among the disputed books. 3.25.6. But we have nevertheless felt compelled to give a catalogue of these also, distinguishing those works which according to ecclesiastical tradition are true and genuine and commonly accepted, from those others which, although not canonical but disputed, are yet at the same time known to most ecclesiastical writers — we have felt compelled to give this catalogue in order that we might be able to know both these works and those that are cited by the heretics under the name of the apostles, including, for instance, such books as the Gospels of Peter, of Thomas, of Matthias, or of any others besides them, and the Acts of Andrew and John and the other apostles, which no one belonging to the succession of ecclesiastical writers has deemed worthy of mention in his writings. 3.25.7. And further, the character of the style is at variance with apostolic usage, and both the thoughts and the purpose of the things that are related in them are so completely out of accord with true orthodoxy that they clearly show themselves to be the fictions of heretics. Wherefore they are not to be placed even among the rejected writings, but are all of them to be cast aside as absurd and impious.Let us now proceed with our history. 3.28.2. But Cerinthus also, by means of revelations which he pretends were written by a great apostle, brings before us marvelous things which he falsely claims were shown him by angels; and he says that after the resurrection the kingdom of Christ will be set up on earth, and that the flesh dwelling in Jerusalem will again be subject to desires and pleasures. And being an enemy of the Scriptures of God, he asserts, with the purpose of deceiving men, that there is to be a period of a thousand years for marriage festivals.
67. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Thomas, 27, 37, 26 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

68. Origen, Against Celsus, 2.9 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.9. The Jew continues his discourse thus: How should we deem him to be a God, who not only in other respects, as was currently reported, performed none of his promises, but who also, after we had convicted him, and condemned him as deserving of punishment, was found attempting to conceal himself, and endeavouring to escape in a most disgraceful manner, and who was betrayed by those whom he called disciples? And yet, he continues, he who was a God could neither flee nor be led away a prisoner; and least of all could he be deserted and delivered up by those who had been his associates, and had shared all things in common, and had had him for their teacher, who was deemed to be a Saviour, and a son of the greatest God, and an angel. To which we reply, that even we do not suppose the body of Jesus, which was then an object of sight and perception, to have been God. And why do I say His body? Nay, not even His soul, of which it is related, My soul is exceeding sorrowful, even unto death. But as, according to the Jewish manner of speaking, I am the Lord, the God of all flesh, and, Before Me there was no God formed, neither shall there be after Me, God is believed to be He who employs the soul and body of the prophet as an instrument; and as, according to the Greeks, he who says, I know both the number of the sand, and the measures of the sea, And I understand a dumb man, and hear him who does not speak, is considered to be a god when speaking, and making himself heard through the Pythian priestess; so, according to our view, it was the Logos God, and Son of the God of all things, who spoke in Jesus these words, I am the way, and the truth, and the life; and these, I am the door; and these, I am the living bread that came down from heaven; and other expressions similar to these. We therefore charge the Jews with not acknowledging Him to be God, to whom testimony was borne in many passages by the prophets, to the effect that He was a mighty power, and a God next to the God and Father of all things. For we assert that it was to Him the Father gave the command, when in the Mosaic account of the creation He uttered the words, Let there be light, and Let there be a firmament, and gave the injunctions with regard to those other creative acts which were performed; and that to Him also were addressed the words, Let Us make man in Our own image and likeness; and that the Logos, when commanded, obeyed all the Father's will. And we make these statements not from our own conjectures, but because we believe the prophecies circulated among the Jews, in which it is said of God, and of the works of creation, in express words, as follows: He spoke, and they were made; He commanded, and they were created. Now if God gave the command, and the creatures were formed, who, according to the view of the spirit of prophecy, could He be that was able to carry out such commands of the Father, save Him who, so to speak, is the living Logos and the Truth? And that the Gospels do not consider him who in Jesus said these words, I am the way, and the truth, and the life, to have been of so circumscribed a nature as to have an existence nowhere out of the soul and body of Jesus, is evident both from many considerations, and from a few instances of the following kind which we shall quote. John the Baptist, when predicting that the Son of God was to appear immediately, not in that body and soul, but as manifesting Himself everywhere, says regarding Him: There stands in the midst of you One whom you know not, who comes after me. For if he had thought that the Son of God was only there, where was the visible body of Jesus, how could he have said, There stands in the midst of you One whom you know not? And Jesus Himself, in raising the minds of His disciples to higher thoughts of the Son of God, says: Where two or three are gathered together in My name, there am I in the midst of you. And of the same nature is His promise to His disciples: Lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the world. And we quote these passages, making no distinction between the Son of God and Jesus. For the soul and body of Jesus formed, after the οἰκονομία, one being with the Logos of God. Now if, according to Paul's teaching, he that is joined unto the Lord is one spirit, every one who understands what being joined to the Lord is, and who has been actually joined to Him, is one spirit with the Lord; how should not that being be one in a far greater and more divine degree, which was once united with the Logos of God? He, indeed, manifested Himself among the Jews as the power of God, by the miracles which He performed, which Celsus suspected were accomplished by sorcery, but which by the Jews of that time were attributed I know not why, to Beelzebub, in the words: He casts out devils through Beelzebub, the prince of the devils. But these our Saviour convicted of uttering the greatest absurdities, from the fact that the kingdom of evil was not yet come to an end. And this will be evident to all intelligent readers of the Gospel narrative, which it is not now the time to explain.
69. Anon., 3 Baruch, 12-15, 11

70. Anon., 3 Enoch, 16, 12

71. Anon., 4 Ezra, 12-13, 11

72. Anon., Apocalypse of Abraham, 17-18, 10

73. Pseudo-Tertullian, Martyrdom of Perpetua And Felicitas, 18.9



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acta martyrum, acts of the martyrs Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 242, 244
akiva Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 110
allusions Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 126, 134, 138
angel Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 211
angels, angelus interpres interpreting angel Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
angels, interaction of enoch with Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
angels, mediators of revelation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
angels, speaking to humans Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 139
angels Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 13, 94, 95, 110
angle Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 183
apocalypse Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 183, 189
apocalypse of peter Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 9
apocalyptic Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 161
apocalyptic literature Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 9
apocalypticism, apocalypse Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 13
apocalypticism, christian Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 338
apokalypto/apokalypsis Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 13
apostles Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 67
apparition Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 189
aristotle, clement on faith and Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 12
artemidorus Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 189
ascension of isaiah Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 148
ascent to heaven Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 94, 95
audience Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 138, 144
aune, david e. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 148; Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 145
authority Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 126
babylon Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 138, 139
beast, the beast Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 183
birth Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 72
blood, of animal sacrifices Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 144
blood Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 72
body Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 211
book Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 72, 202
book motif, seer of revelations use of Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 12, 13
books, heavenly Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
boring, m. eugene Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 148
bowl Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 183
brakke, david Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 148
bread Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 72, 202
bride, bridegroom Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 139
canon, canonization, and prophecy Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 149
celebrate Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 126
celebrations Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 144
chiasm Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 139
children/offspring, as addressees Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
children Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 13
christian/ity, and prophecy Bremmer, Magic and Martyrs in Early Christianity: Collected Essays (2017) 87
church Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 95
community Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 72, 202
confessors (μάρτυρες, confessor) Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 134
contact Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 211
coptic language Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 180
covenant Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 72
creation, creator Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 94
creator Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 72
cross Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 72
cult Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 244
daniel, book of Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 95
death, of children Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 144
death Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 183; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 211
destruction Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 211
devotion Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 244
didache, and prophets Bremmer, Magic and Martyrs in Early Christianity: Collected Essays (2017) 87
didache Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 180
dissonance (δυσφωνία), cognitive Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 134
divine being, angel Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 161
divine being, cupid, eros Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 161
divine being, psyche Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 161
divine being, the beast Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 161
drama Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 138
dream, stressful Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 189
dream Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 189
dreams Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 161
dualism Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 94
education, absence of Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 180
education, coptic Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 180
education, jesus and Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 180
education, late ancient christianity and Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 180
egypt, in exodus Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 144
eighth day Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 202
ekphrasis Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 189
elisha ben avuya (aher) Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 110
emperors Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 145
encounter Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 72
endurance (ὑπομονή) Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 134
enoch Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 211
enoch xviii, xix Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 95, 110
epistolary address Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 134
eschatology Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 134, 139; Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 189; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 13; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 72, 202
eucharist Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 202
evil, destruction of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 139
evil, forces and powers Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 139
experience Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 242
ezekiel Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 95
faithful Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 134
false prophecy Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 94
family Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
ferguson, everett Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 149
fire Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 211
floodwaters, focus, point of Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 183
followers, of jesus Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 134
four who entered pardes, the story of the Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 110
frankfurter, david Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 148
from cave Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 95
fruit Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 183
gatekeepers, heavenly Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 95
genre Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 189
glory Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 242
gnosticism, gnosis Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 94
gospel of thomas, obscurity in Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 180
gospel of thomas, omissions in Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 180
gospel of thomas Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 180
gospels, new testament Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 13, 110
greece, greek Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 242
greek language Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 180
greetings Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 126
harlot Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 139
heaven, descending from Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 134, 139
heaven, new Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 183
heaven, war in Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 183
heaven, worship in Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 138
heaven Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 211
heavenly hierarchy divine beings Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 115
hebrew Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 244
hekhalot Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 211; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 95
heresy Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 110
herod antipas Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 134
hiddenness Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 13
history, historians, revelatory Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 138
hope Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 202
hurtado, larry w. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 149
identity, christian Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 126
identity, exodus-related Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 134
ignatius of antioch Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 23
imagery, cultic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 126
imagery, danielic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 134
imagery, exodus-related Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 126, 138
imagery, revelation Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 126
imagination Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 183
imperial edicts Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 145
in the morning Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 42
instruction/teaching, by enoch Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
instruction/teaching, ethical Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
isaiah, book of Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 95
israel, israelites Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 144
jerusalem, new/heavenly Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 139
jesus Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 180
john, author of revelation Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 126, 134, 138, 139, 144
judgment, eschatological Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 138, 139, 144
just Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 72, 202
killing Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 72
kingdom (βασιλεία) Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 134
knowledge Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 13
koester, craig r. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 148, 149
lamb, of god Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 138, 139
lamb, paschal Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 144
lamb Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 110; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 72
law Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 72
letter form, seer of revelations use of Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 12, 20
liturgical Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 126
lord Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 242
lords day Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 72, 202
lords supper Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 202
love Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 72
luz, ulrich Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 148, 149
magistrates Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 145
marjanen, antti Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 149
martha, as second peter Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 67
martyr heavenly hierarchy Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 115
martyrdom Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 134
martyrs, martyrdom Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 242, 244
mary Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 72
mastema, prince Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 144
mcdonald, lee martin Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 149
memory Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 183
merkava xiii–xvi, xix Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 95
messiah, royal attendants Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 806
metatron Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 211; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 110
methuselah Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
millennium, and exodus Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 138, 139, 144
millennium Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 138, 139, 144
mimesis Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 211
montanism Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 148, 149
moses Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 211
multistability Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 183, 189
mystery Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 13, 95
mysticism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 242
narrative, overarching Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 139
narrative, structure Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 138, 139
narrative Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 183, 189
necessity, δεῖ Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 161
necessity Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 161
new song Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 149
new testament Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 180
novelty, viii-ix, christian embrace of, viii-ix Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 149
oppressed ones Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
oracle Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 189
oracles, salvation-judgement Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 145
pagan, paganism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 244
paradise, pardes, entered pardes Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 110
parousia Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 202
passover Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 144
pastoral epistles Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 13
paul, pauline, paulinism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 242, 244
paul, seer of revelation compared Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 20
paul Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 806; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 13
perfect, jerusalem Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 139
persecution Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 134
peter Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 72
plagues Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 138, 144
polyvalency Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 183, 189
poor Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
power, power of god, powers Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 94, 110
power Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 72
priests, eschatological Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 138
progymnasmata Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 189
prophecy, and canon Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 149
prophecy, cessation of Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 149
prophecy, christian Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 161
prophecy, early christian Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 148, 149
prophecy, revelation as Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 126, 139
prophecy Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 189; Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 145; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 94
prophetic, formula Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 145
prophetic, messages Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 145
prophets, christian Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 145
prophets Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 72
quotations Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 126
rabbinic literature xiii, xvi Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 94
rabbis Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 72
reading, aloud (ἀναγνώσις) Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 126
reading of apocalypses Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 170
red sea Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 144
religion passim, temple, shrine Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 161
repentance Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 138
revelation, the apocalypse of jesus christ Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 13, 94, 95, 110
revelation (apocalypse of john), as apocalypse and prophecy Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 338
revelation (apocalypse of john) Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 338
revelation dialogue Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 67
revelations Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 42
rhetoric, allegory, symbolism Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 161
rhetoric, narrative Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 161
rhetoric Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 161; Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 183, 189
rhetorical devices Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 238
rome, roman Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 244
rome Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 139; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 72
rowland, christopher Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 148; Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 115
royal edicts Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 145
sabbath Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 42; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 202
sacrifice Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 202
salvation Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 134, 138, 144; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 72
satan Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 144
schneemelcher, wilhem Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 149
scroll Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 161
sea of glass Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 94
seal (σφραγίς), in revelation Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 138
secrecy Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 13
seer of revelation, apocalyptic literature, view of Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 9
seer of revelation, as intellectual Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 9, 12, 13, 23
seer of revelation, book motif, use of Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 12, 13
seer of revelation, christs voice/witness of jesus, functioning as Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 20, 23
seer of revelation, communities and churches of asia, relationship to Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 18, 20, 23
seer of revelation, greek style and grammar of Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 13
seer of revelation, identity and authorship issues Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 9
seer of revelation, ignatius of antioch compared Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 23
seer of revelation, letter form in Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 12, 20
seer of revelation, paul compared Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 20
seer of revelation, prophet detached from world, self-description as Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 18, 20
seer of revelation Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 9, 12, 13, 18, 20, 23
septuagint Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 134; Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 244
serapis Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 244
servants, isaianic Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
servants Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 139
seven churches Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 144
seven messages Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 145
singing, liturgical Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 126
sins Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 72
slaves Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 806
son of man Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 134
spirits, inspiration Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
spirits, of god Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
stephen Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 94
style Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 126
suffering Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 161
sunday Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 42; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 202
symbol Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 183
tablets, heavenly Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
temple, heavenly Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 138
temple Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 244; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 13, 94
testamentary Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
theodotion Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 134
thought, rhetorical figures of speech, use of Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 300
throne, enthroned Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 110
throne Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 138
traditions, exodus-related Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 138
traditions, jewish Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 126
translation, errors Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 180
translation, obscurities Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 180
translation, omissions' Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 180
translation Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 180; Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 244
trial of jesus Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 110