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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8244
New Testament, Apocalypse, 1


nannan, This is the Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show to his servants the things which must happen soon, which he sent and made known by his angel to his servant, John,, who testified to God's word, and of the testimony of Jesus Christ, about everything that he saw., Blessed is he who reads and those who hear the words of the prophecy, and keep the things that are written in it, for the time is at hand., John, to the seven assemblies that are in Asia: Grace to you and peace, from God, who is and who was and who is to come; and from the seven Spirits who are before his throne;, and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To him who loves us, and washed us from our sins by his blood;, and he made us to be a kingdom, priests to his God and Father; to him be the glory and the dominion forever and ever. Amen., Behold, he is coming with the clouds, and every eye will see him, including those who pierced him. All the tribes of the earth will mourn over him. Even so, Amen., "I am the Alpha and the Omega," says the Lord God, "who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty.", I John, your brother and partner with you in oppression, kingdom, and perseverance in Christ Jesus, was on the isle that is called Patmos because of God's Word and the testimony of Jesus Christ., I was in the Spirit on the Lord's day, and I heard behind me a loud voice, as of a trumpet, saying, "What you see, write in a book and send to the seven assemblies: to Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and to Laodicea.", I turned to see the voice that spoke with me. Having turned, I saw seven golden lampstands., And in the midst of the lampstands was one like a son of man, clothed with a robe reaching down to his feet, and with a golden sash around his chest., His head and his hair were white as white wool, like snow. His eyes were like a flame of fire., His feet were like burnished brass, as if it had been refined in a furnace. His voice was like the voice of many waters., He had seven stars in his right hand. Out of his mouth proceeded a sharp two-edged sword. His face was like the sun shining at its brightest. , When I saw him, I fell at his feet like a dead man. He laid his right hand on me, saying, "Don't be afraid. I am the first and the last,, and the Living one. I was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore. Amen. I have the keys of Death and of Hades., Write therefore the things which you have seen, and the things which are, and the things which will happen hereafter;, the mystery of the seven stars which you saw in my right hand, and the seven golden lampstands. The seven stars are the angels of the seven assemblies. The seven lampstands are seven assemblies.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

30 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 1.2, 1.8, 2.2, 2.7, 2.14, 3.5, 4.8-4.12, 5.1-5.8, 6.10, 7.12, 8.4, 8.6-8.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. יִשָּׁקֵנִי מִנְּשִׁיקוֹת פִּיהוּ כִּי־טוֹבִים דֹּדֶיךָ מִיָּיִן׃ 1.8. אִם־לֹא תֵדְעִי לָךְ הַיָּפָה בַּנָּשִׁים צְאִי־לָךְ בְּעִקְבֵי הַצֹּאן וּרְעִי אֶת־גְּדִיֹּתַיִךְ עַל מִשְׁכְּנוֹת הָרֹעִים׃ 2.2. כְּשׁוֹשַׁנָּה בֵּין הַחוֹחִים כֵּן רַעְיָתִי בֵּין הַבָּנוֹת׃ 2.7. הִשְׁבַּעְתִּי אֶתְכֶם בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַם בִּצְבָאוֹת אוֹ בְּאַיְלוֹת הַשָּׂדֶה אִם־תָּעִירוּ וְאִם־תְּעוֹרְרוּ אֶת־הָאַהֲבָה עַד שֶׁתֶּחְפָּץ׃ 2.14. יוֹנָתִי בְּחַגְוֵי הַסֶּלַע בְּסֵתֶר הַמַּדְרֵגָה הַרְאִינִי אֶתּ־מַרְאַיִךְ הַשְׁמִיעִינִי אֶת־קוֹלֵךְ כִּי־קוֹלֵךְ עָרֵב וּמַרְאֵיךְ נָאוֶה׃ 3.5. הִשְׁבַּעְתִּי אֶתְכֶם בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַם בִּצְבָאוֹת אוֹ בְּאַיְלוֹת הַשָּׂדֶה אִם־תָּעִירוּ וְאִם־תְּעוֹרְרוּ אֶת־הָאַהֲבָה עַד שֶׁתֶּחְפָּץ׃ 4.8. אִתִּי מִלְּבָנוֹן כַּלָּה אִתִּי מִלְּבָנוֹן תָּבוֹאִי תָּשׁוּרִי מֵרֹאשׁ אֲמָנָה מֵרֹאשׁ שְׂנִיר וְחֶרְמוֹן מִמְּעֹנוֹת אֲרָיוֹת מֵהַרְרֵי נְמֵרִים׃ 4.9. לִבַּבְתִּנִי אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה לִבַּבְתִּינִי באחד [בְּאַחַת] מֵעֵינַיִךְ בְּאַחַד עֲנָק מִצַּוְּרֹנָיִךְ׃ 4.11. נֹפֶת תִּטֹּפְנָה שִׂפְתוֹתַיִךְ כַּלָּה דְּבַשׁ וְחָלָב תַּחַת לְשׁוֹנֵךְ וְרֵיחַ שַׂלְמֹתַיִךְ כְּרֵיחַ לְבָנוֹן׃ 4.12. גַּן נָעוּל אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה גַּל נָעוּל מַעְיָן חָתוּם׃ 5.1. דּוֹדִי צַח וְאָדוֹם דָּגוּל מֵרְבָבָה׃ 5.1. בָּאתִי לְגַנִּי אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה אָרִיתִי מוֹרִי עִם־בְּשָׂמִי אָכַלְתִּי יַעְרִי עִם־דִּבְשִׁי שָׁתִיתִי יֵינִי עִם־חֲלָבִי אִכְלוּ רֵעִים שְׁתוּ וְשִׁכְרוּ דּוֹדִים׃ 5.2. אֲנִי יְשֵׁנָה וְלִבִּי עֵר קוֹל דּוֹדִי דוֹפֵק פִּתְחִי־לִי אֲחֹתִי רַעְיָתִי יוֹנָתִי תַמָּתִי שֶׁרֹּאשִׁי נִמְלָא־טָל קְוֻּצּוֹתַי רְסִיסֵי לָיְלָה׃ 5.3. פָּשַׁטְתִּי אֶת־כֻּתָּנְתִּי אֵיכָכָה אֶלְבָּשֶׁנָּה רָחַצְתִּי אֶת־רַגְלַי אֵיכָכָה אֲטַנְּפֵם׃ 5.4. דּוֹדִי שָׁלַח יָדוֹ מִן־הַחֹר וּמֵעַי הָמוּ עָלָיו׃ 5.5. קַמְתִּי אֲנִי לִפְתֹּחַ לְדוֹדִי וְיָדַי נָטְפוּ־מוֹר וְאֶצְבְּעֹתַי מוֹר עֹבֵר עַל כַּפּוֹת הַמַּנְעוּל׃ 5.6. פָּתַחְתִּי אֲנִי לְדוֹדִי וְדוֹדִי חָמַק עָבָר נַפְשִׁי יָצְאָה בְדַבְּרוֹ בִּקַּשְׁתִּיהוּ וְלֹא מְצָאתִיהוּ קְרָאתִיו וְלֹא עָנָנִי׃ 5.7. מְצָאֻנִי הַשֹּׁמְרִים הַסֹּבְבִים בָּעִיר הִכּוּנִי פְצָעוּנִי נָשְׂאוּ אֶת־רְדִידִי מֵעָלַי שֹׁמְרֵי הַחֹמוֹת׃ 5.8. הִשְׁבַּעְתִּי אֶתְכֶם בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם אִם־תִּמְצְאוּ אֶת־דּוֹדִי מַה־תַּגִּידוּ לוֹ שֶׁחוֹלַת אַהֲבָה אָנִי׃ 7.12. לְכָה דוֹדִי נֵצֵא הַשָּׂדֶה נָלִינָה בַּכְּפָרִים׃ 8.4. הִשְׁבַּעְתִּי אֶתְכֶם בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם מַה־תָּעִירוּ וּמַה־תְּעֹרְרוּ אֶת־הָאַהֲבָה עַד שֶׁתֶּחְפָּץ׃ 8.6. שִׂימֵנִי כַחוֹתָם עַל־לִבֶּךָ כַּחוֹתָם עַל־זְרוֹעֶךָ כִּי־עַזָּה כַמָּוֶת אַהֲבָה קָשָׁה כִשְׁאוֹל קִנְאָה רְשָׁפֶיהָ רִשְׁפֵּי אֵשׁ שַׁלְהֶבֶתְיָה׃ 8.7. מַיִם רַבִּים לֹא יוּכְלוּ לְכַבּוֹת אֶת־הָאַהֲבָה וּנְהָרוֹת לֹא יִשְׁטְפוּהָ אִם־יִתֵּן אִישׁ אֶת־כָּל־הוֹן בֵּיתוֹ בָּאַהֲבָה בּוֹז יָבוּזוּ לוֹ׃ 1.2. Let him kiss me with the kisses of his mouth— For thy love is better than wine. 1.8. If thou know not, O thou fairest among women, Go thy way forth by the footsteps of the flock And feed thy kids, beside the shepherds’tents. 2.2. As a lily among thorns, So is my love among the daughters. 2.7. ’I adjure you, O daughters of Jerusalem, By the gazelles, and by the hinds of the field, That ye awaken not, nor stir up love, until it please.’ 2.14. O my dove, that art in the clefts of the rock, in the covert of the cliff, Let me see thy countece, let me hear thy voice; For sweet is thy voice, and thy countece is comely.’ 3.5. ’I adjure you, O daughters of Jerusalem, By the gazelles, and by the hinds of the field, That ye awaken not, nor stir up love, Until it please.’ 4.8. Come with me from Lebanon, my bride, With me from Lebanon; Look from the top of Amana, From the top of Senir and Hermon, From the lions’dens, From the mountains of the leopards. 4.9. Thou hast ravished my heart, my sister, my bride; Thou hast ravished my heart with one of thine eyes, With one bead of thy necklace. 4.10. How fair is thy love, my sister, my bride! How much better is thy love than wine! And the smell of thine ointments than all manner of spices! 4.11. Thy lips, O my bride, drop honey— Honey and milk are under thy tongue; And the smell of thy garments is like the smell of Lebanon. 4.12. A garden shut up is my sister, my bride; A spring shut up, a fountain sealed. 5.1. I am come into my garden, my sister, my bride; I have gathered my myrrh with my spice; I have eaten my honeycomb with my honey; I have drunk my wine with my milk. Eat, O friends; Drink, yea, drink abundantly, O beloved. 5.2. I sleep, but my heart waketh; Hark! my beloved knocketh: ‘Open to me, my sister, my love, my dove, my undefiled; For my head is filled with dew, My locks with the drops of the night.’ 5.3. I have put off my coat; How shall I put it on? I have washed my feet; How shall I defile them? 5.4. My beloved put in his hand by the hole of the door, And my heart was moved for him. 5.5. I rose up to open to my beloved; And my hands dropped with myrrh, And my fingers with flowing myrrh, Upon the handles of the bar. 5.6. I opened to my beloved; But my beloved had turned away, and was gone. My soul failed me when he spoke. I sought him, but I could not find him; I called him, but he gave me no answer. 5.7. The watchmen that go about the city found me, They smote me, they wounded me; The keepers of the walls took away my mantle from me. 5.8. ’I adjure you, O daughters of Jerusalem, If ye find my beloved, what will ye tell him? That I am love-sick.’ 6.10. Who is she that looketh forth as the dawn, Fair as the moon, Clear as the sun, Terrible as an army with banners? 7.12. Come, my beloved, let us go forth into the field; let us lodge in the villages. 8.4. ’I adjure you, O daughters of Jerusalem: Why should ye awaken, or stir up love, Until it please?’ 8.6. Set me as a seal upon thy heart, As a seal upon thine arm; For love is strong as death, Jealousy is cruel as the grave; The flashes thereof are flashes of fire, A very flame of the LORD. 8.7. Many waters cannot quench love, Neither can the floods drown it; If a man would give all the substance of his house for love, He would utterly be contemned.
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.26-1.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them."
3. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 3.19, 8.22-8.23, 8.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.19. יְהוָה בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד־אָרֶץ כּוֹנֵן שָׁמַיִם בִּתְבוּנָה׃ 8.22. יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃ 8.23. מֵעוֹלָם נִסַּכְתִּי מֵרֹאשׁ מִקַּדְמֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 8.27. בַּהֲכִינוֹ שָׁמַיִם שָׁם אָנִי בְּחוּקוֹ חוּג עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם׃ 3.19. The LORD by wisdom founded the earth; By understanding He established the heavens." 8.22. The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old." 8.23. I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, Or ever the earth was." 8.27. When He established the heavens, I was there; When He set a circle upon the face of the deep,"
4. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 4 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

5. Anon., Testament of Levi, 2.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.6. And behold the heavens were opened and an angel of God said to me, Levi enter
6. Dead Sea Scrolls, Pesher On Habakkuk, 7.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 10.1-10.6, 10.8-10.14, 10.16-10.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10.1. וְהִנֵּה־יָד נָגְעָה בִּי וַתְּנִיעֵנִי עַל־בִּרְכַּי וְכַפּוֹת יָדָי׃ 10.1. בִּשְׁנַת שָׁלוֹשׁ לְכוֹרֶשׁ מֶלֶךְ פָּרַס דָּבָר נִגְלָה לְדָנִיֵּאל אֲשֶׁר־נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּר וֶאֱמֶת הַדָּבָר וְצָבָא גָדוֹל וּבִין אֶת־הַדָּבָר וּבִינָה לוֹ בַּמַּרְאֶה׃ 10.2. וַיֹּאמֶר הֲיָדַעְתָּ לָמָּה־בָּאתִי אֵלֶיךָ וְעַתָּה אָשׁוּב לְהִלָּחֵם עִם־שַׂר פָּרָס וַאֲנִי יוֹצֵא וְהִנֵּה שַׂר־יָוָן בָּא׃ 10.2. בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם אֲנִי דָנִיֵּאל הָיִיתִי מִתְאַבֵּל שְׁלֹשָׁה שָׁבֻעִים יָמִים׃ 10.3. לֶחֶם חֲמֻדוֹת לֹא אָכַלְתִּי וּבָשָׂר וָיַיִן לֹא־בָא אֶל־פִּי וְסוֹךְ לֹא־סָכְתִּי עַד־מְלֹאת שְׁלֹשֶׁת שָׁבֻעִים יָמִים׃ 10.4. וּבְיוֹם עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה לַחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן וַאֲנִי הָיִיתִי עַל יַד הַנָּהָר הַגָּדוֹל הוּא חִדָּקֶל׃ 10.5. וָאֶשָּׂא אֶת־עֵינַי וָאֵרֶא וְהִנֵּה אִישׁ־אֶחָד לָבוּשׁ בַּדִּים וּמָתְנָיו חֲגֻרִים בְּכֶתֶם אוּפָז׃ 10.6. וּגְוִיָּתוֹ כְתַרְשִׁישׁ וּפָנָיו כְּמַרְאֵה בָרָק וְעֵינָיו כְּלַפִּידֵי אֵשׁ וּזְרֹעֹתָיו וּמַרְגְּלֹתָיו כְּעֵין נְחֹשֶׁת קָלָל וְקוֹל דְּבָרָיו כְּקוֹל הָמוֹן׃ 10.8. וַאֲנִי נִשְׁאַרְתִּי לְבַדִּי וָאֶרְאֶה אֶת־הַמַּרְאָה הַגְּדֹלָה הַזֹּאת וְלֹא נִשְׁאַר־בִּי כֹּח וְהוֹדִי נֶהְפַּךְ עָלַי לְמַשְׁחִית וְלֹא עָצַרְתִּי כֹּחַ׃ 10.9. וָאֶשְׁמַע אֶת־קוֹל דְּבָרָיו וּכְשָׁמְעִי אֶת־קוֹל דְּבָרָיו וַאֲנִי הָיִיתִי נִרְדָּם עַל־פָּנַי וּפָנַי אָרְצָה׃ 10.11. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי דָּנִיֵּאל אִישׁ־חֲמֻדוֹת הָבֵן בַּדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי דֹבֵר אֵלֶיךָ וַעֲמֹד עַל־עָמְדֶךָ כִּי עַתָּה שֻׁלַּחְתִּי אֵלֶיךָ וּבְדַבְּרוֹ עִמִּי אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה עָמַדְתִּי מַרְעִיד׃ 10.12. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי אַל־תִּירָא דָנִיֵּאל כִּי מִן־הַיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן אֲשֶׁר נָתַתָּ אֶת־לִבְּךָ לְהָבִין וּלְהִתְעַנּוֹת לִפְנֵי אֱלֹהֶיךָ נִשְׁמְעוּ דְבָרֶיךָ וַאֲנִי־בָאתִי בִּדְבָרֶיךָ׃ 10.13. וְשַׂר מַלְכוּת פָּרַס עֹמֵד לְנֶגְדִּי עֶשְׂרִים וְאֶחָד יוֹם וְהִנֵּה מִיכָאֵל אַחַד הַשָּׂרִים הָרִאשֹׁנִים בָּא לְעָזְרֵנִי וַאֲנִי נוֹתַרְתִּי שָׁם אֵצֶל מַלְכֵי פָרָס׃ 10.14. וּבָאתִי לַהֲבִינְךָ אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יִקְרָה לְעַמְּךָ בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים כִּי־עוֹד חָזוֹן לַיָּמִים׃ 10.16. וְהִנֵּה כִּדְמוּת בְּנֵי אָדָם נֹגֵעַ עַל־שְׂפָתָי וָאֶפְתַּח־פִּי וָאֲדַבְּרָה וָאֹמְרָה אֶל־הָעֹמֵד לְנֶגְדִּי אֲדֹנִי בַּמַּרְאָה נֶהֶפְכוּ צִירַי עָלַי וְלֹא עָצַרְתִּי כֹּחַ׃ 10.17. וְהֵיךְ יוּכַל עֶבֶד אֲדֹנִי זֶה לְדַבֵּר עִם־אֲדֹנִי זֶה וַאֲנִי מֵעַתָּה לֹא־יַעֲמָד־בִּי כֹחַ וּנְשָׁמָה לֹא נִשְׁאֲרָה־בִי׃ 10.18. וַיֹּסֶף וַיִּגַּע־בִּי כְּמַרְאֵה אָדָם וַיְחַזְּקֵנִי׃ 10.19. וַיֹּאמֶר אַל־תִּירָא אִישׁ־חֲמֻדוֹת שָׁלוֹם לָךְ חֲזַק וַחֲזָק וּבְדַבְּרוֹ עִמִּי הִתְחַזַּקְתִּי וָאֹמְרָה יְדַבֵּר אֲדֹנִי כִּי חִזַּקְתָּנִי׃ 10.21. אֲבָל אַגִּיד לְךָ אֶת־הָרָשׁוּם בִּכְתָב אֱמֶת וְאֵין אֶחָד מִתְחַזֵּק עִמִּי עַל־אֵלֶּה כִּי אִם־מִיכָאֵל שַׂרְכֶם׃ 10.1. In the third year of Cyrus king of Persia a word was revealed unto Daniel, whose name was called Belteshazzar; and the word was true, even a great warfare; and he gave heed to the word, and had understanding of the vision." 10.2. In those days I Daniel was mourning three whole weeks." 10.3. I ate no pleasant bread, neither came flesh nor wine in my mouth, neither did I anoint myself at all, till three whole weeks were fulfilled." 10.4. And in the four and twentieth day of the first month, as I was by the side of the great river, which is Tigris," 10.5. I lifted up mine eyes, and looked, and behold a man clothed in linen, whose loins were girded with fine gold of Uphaz;" 10.6. his body also was like the beryl, and his face as the appearance of lightning, and his eyes as torches of fire, and his arms and his feet like in colour to burnished brass, and the voice of his words like the voice of a multitude." 10.8. So that I was left alone, and saw this great vision, and there remained no strength in me; for my comeliness was turned in me into corruption, and I retained no strength." 10.9. Yet heard I the voice of his words; and when I heard the voice of his words, then was I fallen into a deep sleep on my face, with my face toward the ground." 10.10. And, behold, a hand touched me, which set me tottering upon my knees and upon the palms of my hands." 10.11. And he said unto me: ‘O Daniel, thou man greatly beloved, give heed unto the words that I speak unto thee, and stand upright; for now am I sent unto thee’; and when he had spoken this word unto me, I stood trembling." 10.12. Then said he unto me: ‘Fear not, Daniel; for from the first day that thou didst set thy heart to understand, and to humble thyself before thy God, thy words were heard; and I am come because of thy words." 10.13. But the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me one and twenty days; but, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me; and I was left over there beside the kings of Persia." 10.14. Now I am come to make thee understand what shall befall thy people in the end of days; for there is yet a vision for the days.’" 10.16. And, behold, one like the similitude of the sons of men touched my lips; then I opened my mouth, and spoke and said unto him that stood before me: ‘O my lord, by reason of the vision my pains are come upon me, and I retain no strength." 10.17. For how can this servant of my lord talk with this my lord? for as for me, straightway there remained no strength in me, neither was there breath left in me.’" 10.18. Then there touched me again one like the appearance of a man, and he strengthened me." 10.19. And he said: ‘O man greatly beloved, fear not! peace be unto thee, be strong, yea, be strong.’ And when he had spoken unto me, I was strengthened, and said: ‘Let my lord speak; for thou hast strengthened me.’" 10.20. Then said he: Knowest thou wherefore I come unto thee? and now will I return to fight with the prince of Persia; and when I go forth, lo, the prince of Greece shall come." 10.21. Howbeit I will declare unto thee that which is inscribed in the writing of truth; and there is none that holdeth with me against these, except Michael your prince."
8. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 7.22, 7.26-7.27, 8.4-8.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7.22. for wisdom, the fashioner of all things, taught me. For in her there is a spirit that is intelligent, holy,unique, manifold, subtle,mobile, clear, unpolluted,distinct, invulnerable, loving the good, keen,irresistible 7.26. For she is a reflection of eternal light,a spotless mirror of the working of God,and an image of his goodness. 7.27. Though she is but one, she can do all things,and while remaining in herself, she renews all things;in every generation she passes into holy souls and makes them friends of God, and prophets; 8.4. For she is an initiate in the knowledge of God,and an associate in his works. 8.5. If riches are a desirable possession in life,what is richer than wisdom who effects all things? 8.6. And if understanding is effective,who more than she is fashioner of what exists?
9. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 4.4-4.7 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

4.6. And further falsified by calling seer; 4.7. But of the mighty God, whom hands of men
10. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 127 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

127. And for what reason is it built, except to serve as a shelter and protection? This is the object. Now passing on from these particular buildings, consider the greatest house or city, namely, this world, for you will find that God is the cause of it, by whom it was made. That the materials are the four elements, of which it is composed; that the instrument is the word of God, by means of which it was made; and the object of the building you will find to be the display of the goodness of the Creator. This is the discriminating opinion of men fond of truth, who desire to attain to true and sound knowledge; but they who say that they have gotten anything by means of God, conceive that the cause is the instrument, the Creator namely, and the instrument the cause, namely, the human mind. 127. And if their connections and families are very numerous, then by reason of their intermarriages and the mutual connections formed with different houses the iniquity and injury will proceed and infect the whole city all around.
11. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 62-63, 146 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

146. And even if there be not as yet any one who is worthy to be called a son of God, nevertheless let him labour earnestly to be adorned according to his first-born word, the eldest of his angels, as the great archangel of many names; for he is called, the authority, and the name of God, and the Word, and man according to God's image, and he who sees Israel.
12. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 94-95, 100 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

100. These, then, are the six cities which Moses calls cities of refuge, five of which have had their figures set forth in the sacred scriptures, and their images are there likewise. The images of the cities of command and prohibition are the laws in the ark; that of the merciful power of God is the covering of the ark, and he calls it the mercy-seat. The images of the creative power and of the kingly power are the winged cherubim which are placed upon it.
13. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 20 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. As therefore the city, when previously shadowed out in the mind of the man of architectural skill had no external place, but was stamped solely in the mind of the workman, so in the same manner neither can the world which existed in ideas have had any other local position except the divine reason which made them; for what other place could there be for his powers which should be able to receive and contain, I do not say all, but even any single one of them whatever, in its simple form?
14. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 8 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

8. There is also another proof that the mind is immortal, which is of this nature:--There are some persons whom God, advancing to higher degrees of improvement, has enabled to soar above all species and genera, having placed them near himself; as he says to Moses, "But stand thou here with Me." When, therefore, Moses is about to die, he is not added to one class, nor does he forsake another, as the men before him had done; nor is he connected with "addition" or "subtraction," but "by means of the word of the Cause of all things, by whom the whole world was Made." He departs to another abode, that you may understand from this that God accounts a wise man as entitled to equal honour with the world itself, having both created the universe, and raised the perfect man from the things of earth up to himself by the same word.
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.81 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.81. For if it was necessary to examine the mortal body of the priest that it ought not be imperfect through any misfortune, much more was it necessary to look into his immortal soul, which they say is fashioned in the form of the living God. Now the image of God is the Word, by which all the world was made.
16. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.43, 3.96 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.43. And God planted a paradise in Eden, in the east: and there he placed the man whom he had Formed:" for he called that divine and heavenly wisdom by many names; and he made it manifest that it had many appellations; for he called it the beginning, and the image, and the sight of God. And now he exhibits the wisdom which is conversant about the things of the earth (as being an imitation of this archetypal wisdom), in the plantation of this Paradise. For let not such impiety ever occupy our thoughts as for us to suppose that God cultivates the land and plants paradises, since if we were to do so, we should be presently raising the question of why he does so: for it could not be that he might provide himself with pleasant places of recreation and pastime, or with amusement.
17. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 57 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

57. For what are we to say? Shall we say, if he is possessed of the different organic parts, that he has feet for the sake of walking? But where is he to walk who fills all places at once with his presence? And to whom is he to go, when there is no one of equal honour with himself? And why is he to walk? It cannot be out of any regard for his health as we do. Again, are we to say that he has hands for the purpose of giving and taking? he never receivers anything from any one. For in addition to the fact of his wanting nothing he actually has everything; and when he gives, he employs reason as the minister of his gifts, by whose agency also he created the world.
18. Artemidorus, Oneirocritica, 1.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. New Testament, Acts, 1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.9-1.20, 2.20, 3.5, 3.20, 4.1-4.11, 5.1-5.2, 5.4-5.9, 5.12-5.13, 7.12, 10.1-10.11, 11.1-11.13, 12.1, 12.11, 12.15-12.16, 19.1, 19.7, 21.2, 21.9, 22.4, 22.9, 22.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. I John, your brother and partner with you in oppression, kingdom, and perseverance in Christ Jesus, was on the isle that is called Patmos because of God's Word and the testimony of Jesus Christ. 1.10. I was in the Spirit on the Lord's day, and I heard behind me a loud voice, as of a trumpet 1.11. saying, "What you see, write in a book and send to the seven assemblies: to Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and to Laodicea. 1.12. I turned to see the voice that spoke with me. Having turned, I saw seven golden lampstands. 1.13. And in the midst of the lampstands was one like a son of man, clothed with a robe reaching down to his feet, and with a golden sash around his chest. 1.14. His head and his hair were white as white wool, like snow. His eyes were like a flame of fire. 1.15. His feet were like burnished brass, as if it had been refined in a furnace. His voice was like the voice of many waters. 1.16. He had seven stars in his right hand. Out of his mouth proceeded a sharp two-edged sword. His face was like the sun shining at its brightest. 1.17. When I saw him, I fell at his feet like a dead man. He laid his right hand on me, saying, "Don't be afraid. I am the first and the last 1.18. and the Living one. I was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore. Amen. I have the keys of Death and of Hades. 1.19. Write therefore the things which you have seen, and the things which are, and the things which will happen hereafter; 1.20. the mystery of the seven stars which you saw in my right hand, and the seven golden lampstands. The seven stars are the angels of the seven assemblies. The seven lampstands are seven assemblies. 2.20. But I have this against you, that you tolerate your woman, Jezebel, who calls herself a prophetess. She teaches and seduces my servants to commit sexual immorality, and to eat things sacrificed to idols. 3.5. He who overcomes will be arrayed in white garments, and I will in no way blot his name out of the book of life, and I will confess his name before my Father, and before his angels. 3.20. Behold, I stand at the door and knock. If anyone hears my voice and opens the door, then I will come in to him, and will dine with him, and he with me. 4.1. After these things I looked and saw a door opened in heaven, and the first voice that I heard, like a trumpet speaking with me, was one saying, "Come up here, and I will show you the things which must happen after this. 4.2. Immediately I was in the Spirit. Behold, there was a throne set in heaven, and one sitting on the throne 4.3. that looked like a jasper stone and a sardius. There was a rainbow around the throne, like an emerald to look at. 4.4. Around the throne were twenty-four thrones. On the thrones were twenty-four elders sitting, dressed in white garments, with crowns of gold on their heads. 4.5. Out of the throne proceed lightnings, sounds, and thunders. There were seven lamps of fire burning before his throne, which are the seven Spirits of God. 4.6. Before the throne was something like a sea of glass, like a crystal. In the midst of the throne, and around the throne were four living creatures full of eyes before and behind. 4.7. The first creature was like a lion, and the second creature like a calf, and the third creature had a face like a man, and the fourth was like a flying eagle. 4.8. The four living creatures, having each one of them six wings, are full of eyes around about and within. They have no rest day and night, saying, "Holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy is the Lord God, the Almighty, who was and who is and who is to come! 4.9. When the living creatures give glory, honor, and thanks to him who sits on the throne, to him who lives forever and ever 4.10. the twenty-four elders fall down before him who sits on the throne, and worship him who lives forever and ever, and throw their crowns before the throne, saying 4.11. Worthy are you, our Lord and our God, the Holy One, to receive the glory, the honor, and the power, for you created all things, and because of your desire they existed, and were created! 5.1. I saw, in the right hand of him who sat on the throne, a book written inside and outside, sealed shut with seven seals. 5.2. I saw a mighty angel proclaiming with a loud voice, "Who is worthy to open the book, and to break its seals? 5.4. And I wept much, because no one was found worthy to open the book, or to look in it. 5.5. One of the elders said to me, "Don't weep. Behold, the Lion who is of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, has overcome; he who opens the book and its seven seals. 5.6. I saw in the midst of the throne and of the four living creatures, and in the midst of the elders, a Lamb standing, as though it had been slain, having seven horns, and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God, sent out into all the earth. 5.7. Then he came, and he took it out of the right hand of him who sat on the throne. 5.8. Now when he had taken the book, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell down before the Lamb, each one having a harp, and golden bowls full of incense, which are the prayers of the saints. 5.9. They sang a new song, saying, "You are worthy to take the book, And to open its seals: For you were killed, And bought us for God with your blood, Out of every tribe, language, people, and nation 5.12. saying with a loud voice, "Worthy is the Lamb who has been killed to receive the power, riches, wisdom, might, honor, glory, and blessing! 5.13. I heard every created thing which is in heaven, on the earth, under the earth, on the sea, and everything in them, saying, "To him who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb be the blessing, the honor, the glory, and the dominion, forever and ever! Amen. 7.12. saying, "Amen! Blessing, glory, wisdom, thanksgiving, honor, power, and might, be to our God forever and ever! Amen. 10.1. I saw a mighty angel coming down out of the sky, clothed with a cloud. A rainbow was on his head. His face was like the sun, and his feet like pillars of fire. 10.2. He had in his hand a little book open. He set his right foot on the sea, and his left on the land. 10.4. When the seven thunders sounded, I was about to write; but I heard a voice from the sky saying, "Seal up the things which the seven thunders said, and don't write them. 10.6. and swore by him who lives forever and ever, who created heaven and the things that are in it, the earth and the things that are in it, and the sea and the things that are in it, that there will no longer be delay 10.7. but in the days of the voice of the seventh angel, when he is about to sound, then the mystery of God is finished, as he declared to his servants, the prophets. 10.8. The voice which I heard from heaven, again speaking with me, said, "Go, take the book which is open in the hand of the angel who stands on the sea and on the land. 10.9. I went to the angel, telling him to give me the little book. He said to me, "Take it, and eat it up. It will make your belly bitter, but in your mouth it will be as sweet as honey. 10.10. I took the little book out of the angel's hand, and ate it up. It was as sweet as honey in my mouth. When I had eaten it, my belly was made bitter. 10.11. They told me, "You must prophesy again over many peoples, nations, languages, and kings. 11.1. A reed like a rod was given to me. Someone said, "Rise, and measure God's temple, and the altar, and those who worship in it. 11.2. Leave out the court which is outside of the temple, and don't measure it, for it has been given to the gentiles. They will tread the holy city under foot for forty-two months. 11.3. I will give power to my two witnesses, and they will prophesy one thousand two hundred sixty days, clothed in sackcloth. 11.4. These are the two olive trees and the two lampstands, standing before the Lord of the earth. 11.5. If anyone desires to harm them, fire proceeds out of their mouth and devours their enemies. If anyone desires to harm them, he must be killed in this way. 11.6. These have the power to shut up the sky, that it may not rain during the days of their prophecy. They have power over the waters, to turn them into blood, and to strike the earth with every plague, as often as they desire. 11.7. When they have finished their testimony, the beast that comes up out of the abyss will make war with them, and overcome them, and kill them. 11.8. Their dead bodies will be in the street of the great city, which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt , where also their Lord was crucified. 11.9. From among the peoples, tribes, languages, and nations people will look at their dead bodies for three and a half days, and will not allow their dead bodies to be laid in a tomb. 11.10. Those who dwell on the earth rejoice over them, and they will be glad. They will give gifts to one another, because these two prophets tormented those who dwell on the earth. 11.11. After the three and a half days, the breath of life from God entered into them, and they stood on their feet. Great fear fell on those who saw them. 11.12. I heard a loud voice from heaven saying to them, "Come up here!" They went up into heaven in the cloud, and their enemies saw them. 11.13. In that day there was a great earthquake, and a tenth of the city fell. Seven thousand people were killed in the earthquake, and the rest were terrified, and gave glory to the God of heaven. 12.1. A great sign was seen in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars. 12.11. They overcame him because of the Lamb's blood, and because of the word of their testimony. They didn't love their life, even to death. 12.15. The serpent spewed water out of his mouth after the woman like a river, that he might cause her to be carried away by the stream. 12.16. The earth helped the woman, and the earth opened its mouth and swallowed up the river which the dragon spewed out of his mouth. 19.1. After these things I heard something like a loud voice of a great multitude in heaven, saying, "Hallelujah! Salvation, power, and glory belong to our God: 19.7. Let us rejoice and be exceedingly glad, and let us give the glory to him. For the marriage of the Lamb has come, and his wife has made herself ready. 21.2. I saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, made ready like a bride adorned for her husband. 21.9. One of the seven angels who had the seven bowls, who were laden with the seven last plagues came, and he spoke with me, saying, "Come here. I will show you the wife, the Lamb's bride. 22.4. They will see his face, and his name will be on their foreheads. 22.9. He said to me, "See you don't do it! I am a fellow bondservant with you and with your brothers, the prophets, and with those who keep the words of this book. Worship God. 22.17. The Spirit and the bride say, "Come!" He who hears, let him say, "Come!" He who is thirsty, let him come. He who desires, let him take the water of life freely.
21. New Testament, Colossians, 1.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.15. who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation.
22. New Testament, Romans, 15.19, 15.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.19. in the power of signs and wonders, in the power of God's Spirit; so that from Jerusalem, and around as far as to Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Christ; 15.23. but now, no longer having any place in these regions, and having these many years a longing to come to you
23. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 126 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

126. The various names of Christ according to both natures. It is shown that He is God, and appeared to the patriarchs Justin: But if you knew, Trypho, who He is that is called at one time the Angel of great counsel, and a Man by Ezekiel, and like the Son of man by Daniel, and a Child by Isaiah, and Christ and God to be worshipped by David, and Christ and a Stone by many, and Wisdom by Solomon, and Joseph and Judah and a Star by Moses, and the East by Zechariah, and the Suffering One and Jacob and Israel by Isaiah again, and a Rod, and Flower, and Corner-Stone, and Son of God, you would not have blasphemed Him who has now come, and been born, and suffered, and ascended to heaven; who shall also come again, and then your twelve tribes shall mourn. For if you had understood what has been written by the prophets, you would not have denied that He was God, Son of the only, unbegotten, unutterable God. For Moses says somewhere in Exodus the following: 'The Lord spoke to Moses, and said to him, I am the Lord, and I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, being their God; and my name I revealed not to them, and I established my covet with them.' And thus again he says, 'A man wrestled with Jacob,' and asserts it was God; narrating that Jacob said, 'I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved.' And it is recorded that he called the place where He wrestled with him, appeared to and blessed him, the Face of God (Peniel). And Moses says that God appeared also to Abraham near the oak in Mamre, when he was sitting at the door of his tent at mid-day. Then he goes on to say: 'And he lifted up his eyes and looked, and, behold, three men stood before him; and when he saw them, he ran to meet them.' Genesis 18:2 After a little, one of them promises a son to Abraham: 'Wherefore did Sarah laugh, saying, Shall I of a surety bear a child, and I am old? Is anything impossible with God? At the time appointed I will return, according to the time of life, and Sarah shall have a son. And they went away from Abraham.' Again he speaks of them thus: 'And the men rose up from thence, and looked toward Sodom.' Genesis 18:16 Then to Abraham He who was and is again speaks: 'I will not hide from Abraham, my servant, what I intend to do.' Genesis 18:17 And what follows in the writings of Moses I quoted and explained: From which I have demonstrated that He who is described as God appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, and the other patriarchs, was appointed under the authority of the Father and Lord, and ministers to His will. Then I went on to say what I had not said before: And so, when the people desired to eat flesh, and Moses had lost faith in Him, who also there is called the Angel, and who promised that God would give them to satiety, He who is both God and the Angel, sent by the Father, is described as saying and doing these things. For thus the Scripture says: 'And the Lord said to Moses, Will the Lord's hand not be sufficient? You shall know now whether my word shall conceal you or not.' Numbers 11:23 And again, in other words, it thus says: 'But the Lord spoke unto me, You shall not go over this Jordan: the Lord your God, who goes before your face, He shall cut off the nations.'
24. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

58a. למדורה וקדרות מקיפות אותה,מטה של תלמידי חכמים כיצד כל שאין תחתיה אלא סנדלין בימות החמה ומנעלין בימות הגשמים ושל עם הארץ דומה לאוצר בלוס:,ר' בנאה הוה קא מציין מערתא כי מטא למערתא דאברהם אשכחיה לאליעזר עבד אברהם דקאי קמי בבא א"ל מאי קא עביד אברהם א"ל גאני בכנפה דשרה וקא מעיינא ליה ברישיה,א"ל זיל אימא ליה בנאה קאי אבבא א"ל ליעול מידע ידיע דיצר בהאי עלמא ליכא עייל עיין ונפק,כי מטא למערתא דאדם הראשון יצתה בת קול ואמרה נסתכלת בדמות דיוקני בדיוקני עצמה אל תסתכל הא בעינא לציוני מערתא כמדת החיצונה כך מדת הפנימית ולמ"ד שני בתים זו למעלה מזו כמדת עליונה כך מדת התחתונה,א"ר בנאה נסתכלתי בשני עקיביו ודומים לשני גלגלי חמה הכל בפני שרה כקוף בפני אדם שרה בפני חוה כקוף בפני אדם חוה בפני אדם כקוף בפני אדם אדם בפני שכינה כקוף בפני אדם,שופריה דרב כהנא (מעין שופריה דרב שופריה דרב) מעין שופריה דרבי אבהו שופריה דר' אבהו מעין שופריה דיעקב אבינו שופריה דיעקב אבינו מעין שופריה דאדם הראשון,ההוא אמגושא דהוה חטיט שכבי כי מטא אמערתא דרב טובי בר מתנה תפשיה בדיקניה אתא אביי א"ל במטותא מינך שבקיה לשנה אחריתי הדר אתא תפשיה בדיקניה אתא אביי לא שבקיה עד דאייתי מספרא וגזיא לדיקניה,ההוא דאמר להו חביתא דעפרא לחד בראי חביתא דגרמי לחד בראי חביתא דאודרא לחד בראי לא הוו ידעי מאי קאמר להו אתו לקמיה דרבי בנאה אמר להו אית לכו ארעא אמרו ליה אין אית לכו חיותא אין אית לכו בסתרקי אין אי הכי הכי קאמר לכו,ההוא גברא דשמעה לדביתהו דקא אמרה לברתה אמאי לא צניעת באיסורא הך איתתא עשרה בני אית לה ולית לי מאבוך אלא חד כי שכיב אמר להו כל נכסי לחד ברא,לא ידעי להי מינייהו אתו לקמיה דרבי בנאה אמר להו זילו חבוטו קברא דאבוכון עד דקאי ומגלי לכו להי מינייכו שבקא אזלו כולהו ההוא דבריה הוה לא אזל אמר להו כולהו נכסי דהאי אזלו אכלו קורצא בי מלכא אמרי איכא גברא חד ביהודאי דקא מפיק ממונא מאנשי בלא סהדי ובלא מידי אתיוהו חבשוהו,אזלא דביתהו אמרה להו עבדא חד הוה לי פסקו לרישיה ופשטו למשכיה ואכלו בישריה וקא מלו ביה מיא ומשקו ביה לחברייא ולא קא יהבי לי דמי ולא אגריה,לא ידעי מאי קא אמרה להו אמרי ניתו לחכימא דיהודאי ולימא קריוהו לר' בנאה אמר להו זרנוקא אמרה לכו אמרי הואיל וחכים כולי האי ליתיב אבבא ונידון דינא,חזא דהוה כתיב באבולא כל דיין דמתקרי לדין לא שמיה דיין אמר להו אלא מעתה אתא איניש מעלמא 58a. bto a bonfire,where the fire is in the center band pots surround it.Similarly, the table of an ignoramus is arranged with the food in the center and is surrounded by plates.,Rabbi Yoḥa asked: bHowshould bthe bed of Torah scholarsbe kept? He replied: It is acceptable bas long as thereis bnothing except sandals beneath it during the summer, and shoesbeneath it bduring the rainy season,i.e., winter. bAndthe bed bof an ignoramusis bsimilar to a cluttered [ ibalus /i] storehouse,as he keeps a wide array of items beneath it.,§ Having mentioned Rabbi Bena’a, the Gemara relates an incident in which he was involved. bRabbi Bena’a was markingburial bcavesfor the purpose of helping to prevent the contracting of ritual impurity. bWhen he arrived at the cave of Abraham,i.e., the Cave of Machpelah, bhe encountered Eliezer,the bservantof bAbraham, who was standing before the entrance.Rabbi Bena’a bsaid to him: What is Abraham doingat this moment? Eliezer bsaid to him:He is blying in the arms of Sarah, and she is examining his head. /b,Rabbi Bena’a bsaid to him: Go tell himthat bBena’a is standing at the entrance,so that he should assume an appropriate position to receive a visitor. Eliezer bsaid to him: Lethim, i.e., Rabbi Bena’a, benter,since bit is known that there is noevil binclination in thishigher bworld,so it is not inappropriate for Rabbi Bena’a to see Abraham and Sarah in this position. He bentered, examinedthe cave in order to measure it, band exited. /b, bWhen he arrived at the cave of Adam the firstman, who is buried in the same area, ba Divine Voice emerged and said: You gazed upon the likeness of My image,i.e., Abraham, who is similar to the image of Adam the first man. bDo not gaze upon My image itself,i.e., Adam the first man, about whom the verse states that he was formed in the image of God (see Genesis 1:27). Rabbi Bena’a said: bBut I need to mark the cave.The voice said to him: bAsthe measurements of the bdimensions of the outercave where Abraham is buried, bsoare the measurements of the bdimensions of the innercave, where Adam is buried. The Gemara notes: bAnd according to the one who saysthat the Cave of Machpelah consists of btwo chambers, thisone babove thatone, not two adjacent chambers, the voice said: bAsthe measurements of the bdimensions of the uppercave where Abraham is buried, bsoare the measurements of the bdimensions of the lowercave. Therefore, there is no need to measure it., bRabbi Bena’a says: I gazed at his,Adam’s, btwo heels, andthey shone so brightly that bthey are similar to two suns.Along these lines, the Gemara states that ballpeople bcompared to Sarahare blike a monkey compared to a human,as Sarah was exceedingly beautiful; bSarah compared to Eveis blike a monkey compared to a human; Eve compared to Adamis blike a monkey compared to a human;and bAdam compared to the Divine Presenceis blike a monkey compared to a human. /b,It was also stated that bthe beauty of Rav Kahana is a semblance of the beauty of Rav. The beauty of Rav is a semblance of the beauty of Rabbi Abbahu. The beauty of Rabbi Abbahu is a semblance of the beauty of Jacob our forefather. The beauty of Jacob our forefather is a semblance of the beauty of Adam the firstman.,On the topic of burial caves, the Gemara relates that there was ba certain magus [ iamgusha /i] who was rummagingthrough the graves of the bdead. Whenhe barrived at theburial bcave of Rav Tovi bar Mattana,Rav Tovi bgrabbed him by his beardand would not release him. bAbaye came and said toRav Tovi: bI beg of youto brelease him.The magus bcame again in another year,and Rav Tovi bgrabbed him by his beard. Abaye cameand requested that he release him, but Rav Tovi bdid not release him, untilAbaye bbrought a scissors and cut his beard. /b,§ The Gemara relates additional incidents involving Rabbi Bena’a: There was ba certainindividual bwho said tohis family before he died: bA barrel of earth to one of my sons, a barrel of bones to one of my sons,and ba barrel of wadsof wool bto one of my sons. They did not know what he was saying to them. They came before Rabbi Bena’afor guidance. Rabbi Bena’a bsaid to them: Do you have landthat your father left as an inheritance? bThey said to him: Yes.He asked: bDo you have livestockthat your father left as an inheritance? They said: bYes.He asked: bDo you have quilts [ ibistarkei /i]that your father left as an inheritance? They said: bYes.He said to them: bIf so, this is what he said to you,i.e., he meant that he is bequeathing land to one son, livestock to the second, and quilts to the third.,There was ba certain man who heard his wife saying to her daughter: Why do you not act clandestinelywhen you engage bin forbiddensexual intercourse? bThat woman has,i.e., I have, bten sons, and I have only one from your father,and no one knows. So too, you must be careful so that no one will discover your illicit behavior. Having overheard that only one son was his, bwhenthat man bwas dying he said tohis family: bAll of my propertyis left bto one son. /b, bThey did not knowto bwhich of themhe intended to leave his property. bThey came before Rabbi Bena’afor guidance, and bhe said tothe sons: bGo strike your father’s grave, until he rises and reveals to you to which of you he lefthis property. bThey all went,but bthatone bwho was his son did not go.Rabbi Bena’a bsaid to them: All ofthe bproperty belongs to thisson who did not go. The other brothers were angry. bThey went and slandered [ iakhlu kuretza /i]Rabbi Bena’a in bthe king’s house. They said: There is one man among the Jews who removes money from people without witnesses and without anyevidence. The king’s guards bbroughtRabbi Bena’a band imprisoned him. /b, bThe wife ofRabbi Bena’a bwentand bsaid tothe guards: bI had one servant. They cut off his head, and skinned him and ate his flesh, and they fill him with water andgive their bfriends to drink from him, and they have not paid mehis bvalue nor have they rented him. /b, bThey did not know what she was saying to them. They said: Let us bring the wiseman bof the Jews, and let him saywhat she meant. bThey called Rabbi Bena’a,and bhe said to them: She spoke to you of a water skin [ izarnuka /i].In other words, she was referring to a goat she owned that was slaughtered, its meat eaten, and its skin made into a water skin that could be filled with drinking water. bThey said: Sincehe is bso wise, lethim bsit at the gatewhere the judges congregate band render judgment. /b,Rabbi Bena’a bsaw that it was written upon the gate [ ibe’abbula /i]: Any judge who is summoned to judgment is not considered a judge,as judges must be above reproach. bHe said to them: If that is so,then if ba person comes from elsewhere /b
25. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

91b. הנה הוא זורה את גורן השעורים,רבי אבהו אמר מהכא (בראשית כב, ג) וישכם אברהם בבקר ויחבוש את וגו',ורבנן אמרי מהכא (בראשית לז, יד) לך נא ראה את שלום אחיך ואת שלום וגו',רב אמר מהכא (בראשית לב, לב) ויזרח לו השמש,אמר ר' עקיבא שאלתי את רבן גמליאל ואת רבי יהושע באיטליז של אימאום שהלכו ליקח בהמה למשתה בנו של רבן גמליאל כתיב ויזרח לו השמש וכי שמש לו לבד זרחה והלא לכל העולם זרחה,אמר ר' יצחק שמש הבאה בעבורו זרחה בעבורו דכתיב (בראשית כח, י) ויצא יעקב מבאר שבע וילך חרנה וכתיב ויפגע במקום כי מטא לחרן אמר אפשר עברתי על מקום שהתפללו אבותי ואני לא התפללתי כד יהיב דעתיה למיהדר קפצה ליה ארעא מיד ויפגע במקום,כד צלי בעי למיהדר אמר הקב"ה צדיק זה בא לבית מלוני ויפטר בלא לינה מיד בא השמש,כתיב (בראשית כח, יא) ויקח מאבני המקום וכתיב ויקח את האבן אמר רבי יצחק מלמד שנתקבצו כל אותן אבנים למקום אחד וכל אחת ואחת אומרת עלי יניח צדיק זה ראשו תנא וכולן נבלעו באחד,(בראשית כח, יב) ויחלום והנה סולם מוצב ארצה תנא כמה רחבו של סולם שמונת אלפים פרסאות דכתיב (בראשית כח, יב) והנה מלאכי אלהים עולים ויורדים בו עולים שנים ויורדים שנים וכי פגעו בהדי הדדי הוו להו ארבעה,וכתיב ביה במלאך (דניאל י, ו) וגויתו כתרשיש וגמירי דתרשיש תרי אלפי פרסי הוו,תנא עולין ומסתכלין בדיוקנו של מעלה ויורדין ומסתכלין בדיוקנו של מטה בעו לסכוניה מיד (בראשית כח, יג) והנה ה' נצב עליו אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש אלמלא מקרא כתוב אי אפשר לאמרו כאדם שמניף על בנו,(בראשית כח, יג) הארץ אשר אתה שוכב עליה וגו' מאי רבותיה אמר רבי יצחק מלמד שקפלה הקב"ה לכל ארץ ישראל והניחה תחת יעקב אבינו שתהא נוחה ליכבש לבניו,(בראשית כח, א) ויאמר שלחני כי עלה השחר אמר לו גנב אתה או קוביוסטוס אתה שמתיירא מן השחר אמר לו מלאך אני ומיום שנבראתי לא הגיע זמני לומר שירה עד עכשיו,מסייע ליה לרב חננאל אמר רב דאמר רב חננאל אמר רב שלש כתות של מלאכי השרת אומרות שירה בכל יום אחת אומרת קדוש ואחת אומרת קדוש ואחת אומרת קדוש ה' צבאות,מיתיבי חביבין ישראל לפני הקב"ה יותר ממלאכי השרת שישראל אומרים שירה בכל שעה ומלאכי השרת אין אומרים שירה אלא פעם אחת ביום ואמרי לה פעם אחת בשבת ואמרי לה פעם אחת בחודש ואמרי לה פעם אחת בשנה ואמרי לה פעם אחת בשבוע ואמרי לה פעם אחת ביובל ואמרי לה פעם אחת בעולם,וישראל מזכירין את השם אחר שתי תיבות שנאמר (דברים ו, ד) שמע ישראל ה' וגו' ומלאכי השרת אין מזכירין את השם אלא לאחר ג' תיבות כדכתיב (ישעיהו ו, ג) קדוש קדוש קדוש ה' צבאות,ואין מה"ש אומרים שירה למעלה עד שיאמרו ישראל למטה שנאמר (איוב לח, ז) ברן יחד כוכבי בקר והדר ויריעו כל בני אלהים,אלא אחת אומרת קדוש ואחת אומרת קדוש קדוש ואחת אומרת קדוש קדוש קדוש ה' צבאות והאיכא ברוך 91b. “And now is there not Boaz our kinsman, whose maidens you were with? bBehold, he winnows barley tonight in the threshing floor /b…and it shall be, when he lies down, that you shall mark the place where he shall lie” (Ruth 3:2–3). This teaches that the reason Boaz did not return home from the threshing floor was that a Torah scholar should not go out alone at night., bRabbi Abbahu saidthat the source is bfrom here: “And Abraham rose early in the morning, and saddledhis donkey, and took two of his young men with him and Isaac his son; and he split the wood for the burnt offering, and rose up, and went to the place that God had told him” (Genesis 22:3). The fact that Abraham waited until morning and did not set off at night, even though others were traveling with him, indicates that a Torah scholar should not go out at night at all, and certainly not alone., bAnd the Rabbis saythat the source is bfrom here,the verse that describes when Jacob sent Joseph to his brothers: “And he said to him: bGo now, see whether it is well with you brothers and wellwith the flock; and bring me back word. So he sent him out of the valley of Hebron, and he came to Shechem” (Genesis 37:14). The verse indicates that Jacob sent Joseph at a time when he could see his brothers, i.e., during the day. This shows that a Torah scholar should not go out alone at night., bRav saidthat the source is bfrom here: “And the sun rose for himas he passed over Peniel, and he limped upon his thigh” (Genesis 32:32). This indicates that Jacob remained where he was all night and left in the morning, because a Torah scholar should not go out alone at night.,The Gemara cites an incident involving the final verse cited above. bRabbi Akiva says: I askedthe following question of bRabban Gamliel and Rabbi Yehoshua in the meat market [ ibe’itliz /i] ofthe town bEmmaus, where they went to purchase an animal for thewedding bfeast of Rabban Gamliel’s son: It is writtenin the verse: b“And the sun shone for himwhen he passed Peniel, and he limped upon his thigh” (Genesis 32:32). bBut did the sun shine only for him? Didn’t it shine for the entire world? /b, bRabbi Yitzḥak says:The verse means that bthe sun, which setearly exclusively bfor him,also bshoneearly exclusively bfor himin order to rectify the disparity created by the premature sunset. The Gemara explains when the sun set early for him: bAs it is written: “And Jacob went out from Beersheba and went toward Haran”(Genesis 28:10). bAnd it is writtenthereafter: b“And he encountered the place,and he slept there, because the sun had set” (Genesis 28:11). bWhenJacob barrived at Haran, he said:Is it bpossiblethat bI passed a place where my fathers prayed and I did not praythere? bWhen he set his mind to return, the land contracted for him. Immediatelythe verse states: b“And he encountered the place,”indicating that he arrived there miraculously., bWhen hehad finished bprayingand bhe wanted to returnto Haran, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: This righteous man came to my lodging place and he will depart without remaining overnight? Immediately, the sun setbefore its proper time so that Jacob would stay overnight in that place.,The Gemara cites another exposition of Rabbi Yitzḥak to explain an apparent contradiction between two verses pertaining to this incident. bIt is written: “And he took of the stones of the place,and placed them under his head, and lay down in that place to sleep” (Genesis 28:11). bAnd it is written:“And Jacob rose up early in the morning, band he took the stonethat he had placed under his head, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it” (Genesis 28:18). The first verse indicates that Jacob took several stones, whereas the latter verse indicates that he took only one stone. bRabbi Yitzḥak says:This bteaches that all those stones gathered to one place and each one said:Let bthis righteous man place his head upon me.And it was btaught: And all of them were absorbed into onelarge rock.,The Gemara expounds other verses pertaining to the same incident. The verse states: b“And he dreamed, and behold a ladder set up on the earth,and the top of it reached to heaven; and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it” (Genesis 28:12). It was btaught: How wide was the ladder?It was beight thousand parasangs [ iparsaot /i], as it is written: “And behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it.”The word b“ascending [ iolim /i],”written in plural, indicates that there were btwoangels ascending simultaneously. Likewise, the term b“and descending [ iveyordim /i],”also in the plural, indicates that btwoangels were descending simultaneously. bAnd when they met one another they werea total of bfourin one place, so the ladder must have been wide enough to accommodate four angels., bAnd it is writtenin a verse bwith regard to an angel: “His body was like Tarshish”(Daniel 10:6). bAndit bis learnedas a tradition bthatthe city of bTarshish was two thousand parasangs.Consequently, in order to accommodate four angels, the ladder must have been eight thousands parasangs wide.,It was btaughtthat the angels were bascending and gazing at the image of [ ibidyokeno /i]Jacob babove,engraved on the Throne of Glory, band descending and gazing at his image below.The angels subsequently became jealous of Jacob, and bwanted to endangerhis life. bImmediatelyJacob received divine protection, as the verse states: b“And behold, the Lord stood over him”(Genesis 28:13). bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: Were it not writtenin a bverse it would be impossible to utter it,in deference to God, since it describes God as standing over Jacob to protect him from the angels blike a man who wavesa fan bover his sonto cool him down.,The Gemara explains another verse from Jacob’s dream. “And behold, the Lord stood over him and said: I am the Lord, the God of Abraham your father and the God of Isaac. bThe land upon which you lie,to you will I give it, and to your seed” (Genesis 28:13). The Gemara asks: bWhat is the greatnessof this promise, i.e., why is it expressed in this way despite the fact that in a literal sense Jacob was lying on a very small amount of land? bRabbi Yitzḥak says:This bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, foldedup bthe entirety of Eretz Yisrael and placed it under Jacob, our patriarch, so that it would be easy for his children to conquer. /b,The Gemara returns to the verses that describe Jacob wrestling with the angel. b“And he said: Let me go, for the dawn has risen.And he said: I will not let you go until you bless me” (Genesis 32:27). Jacob bsaid tothe angel: bAre you a thief, or are you a gambler [ ikuveyustus /i], who is afraid of dawn?The angel bsaid to him: I am an angel, and from the day I was created my time to recite a songbefore God bhas not arrived, until now.Now I must ascend so that I can sing songs of praise to God.,The Gemara comments: This bsupportsthe opinion bof Rav Ḥaelwhen he related what bRav said. As Rav Ḥael saidthat bRav said: Three groups of ministering angels recite a song every dayfrom the verse “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord”; bone says: “Holy,” andanother bone says: “Holy,” andanother bone says: “Holy is the Lord of hosts;the whole earth is full of His glory” (Isaiah 6:3).,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom the following ibaraita /i: bThe Jewish people are more dear to the Holy One, Blessed be He, than the ministering angels, as the Jewish peoplemay brecite a songof praise to God bat any time, but ministering angels recite a songof praise bonly one time per day. And some saythat the ministering angels recite a song of praise bone time per week. And some saythat they recite a song of praise bone time per month. And some saythat they recite a song of praise bone time per year. And some saythat they recite a song of praise bone time inevery bseven years. And some saythat they recite a song of praise bone time per Jubilee. And some saythat they recite a song of praise bone time inthe entire history of bthe world. /b, bAndfurthermore, bthe Jewish people mention the nameof God bafter two words, as it is stated: “Hear, Israel: The Lordour God, the Lord is one” (Deuteronomy 6:4). bBut the ministering angels mention the nameof God bonly after three words, as it is written:“And one called unto another, and said: b“Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts;the whole earth is full of His glory” (Isaiah 6:3)., bAnd the ministering angels do not recitetheir bsong above until the Jewish people recitetheir song bbelow,on earth, bas it is stated: “When the morning stars sang together”(Job 38:7), referring to the Jewish people, who are compared to stars; bandonly bthendoes the verse state: b“And all the sons of God shouted for joy,”which is a reference to the angels. This ibaraitateaches that the angels mention the name of God only after three words, i.e., after saying the word “holy” three times, whereas according to what Rav Ḥael stated that Rav said, the third group of angels says the word “holy” once and then immediately mentions the name of God.,The Gemara emends Rav Ḥael’s statement citing Rav: bRather,Rav said that bonegroup of ministering angels bsays: “Holy,” andanother bone says: “Holy, holy,” andanother bone says: “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts.”The Gemara challenges the statement of the ibaraitathat the angels mention the name of God only after three words: bBut there isthe verse: “Then a spirit lifted me up, and I heard behind me the voice of a great rushing: bBlessed bethe glory of the Lord from His place” (Ezekiel 3:12). In this praise, “Blessed be the glory of the Lord,” the word “Lord” appears as the third Hebrew word, apparently uttered by the ministering angels.
26. Babylonian Talmud, Moed Qatan, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

15b. דמות דיוקני נתתי בהן ובעונותיהם הפכתיה כפו מטותיהן עליה מנודה ומצורע מה הן בכפיית המטה תיקו,אבל אסור בעשיית מלאכה דכתיב (עמוס ח, י) והפכתי חגיכם לאבל מה חג אסור במלאכה אף אבל אסור במלאכה,מנודה מהו בעשיית מלאכה אמר רב יוסף ת"ש כשאמרו אסור בעשיית מלאכה לא אמרו אלא ביום אבל בלילה מותר וכן אתה מוצא במנודה ובאבל מאי לאו אכולהו לא אשארא,ת"ש מנודה שונה ושונין לו נשכר ונשכרין לו שמע מינה מצורע מהו בעשיית מלאכה תיקו,אבל אסור ברחיצה דכתיב (שמואל ב יד, ב) ואל תסוכי שמן ורחיצה בכלל סיכה,מנודה מהו ברחיצה אמר רב יוסף ת"ש כשאמרו אסור ברחיצה לא אמרו אלא כל גופו אבל פניו ידיו ורגליו מותר וכן אתה מוצא במנודה ובאבל מאי לאו אכולהו לא אשארא מצורע מהו ברחיצה תיקו,אבל אסור בנעילת הסנדל מדקאמר ליה רחמנא ליחזקאל (יחזקאל כד, יז) ונעליך תשים ברגליך מכלל דכולי עלמא אסור,מנודה מהו בנעילת הסנדל אמר רב יוסף תא שמע כשאמרו אסור בנעילת הסנדל לא אמרו אלא בעיר אבל בדרך מותר הא כיצד יצא לדרך נועל נכנס לעיר חולץ וכן אתה מוצא במנודה ובאבל מאי לאו אכולהו לא אשארא,מצורע מהו בנעילת הסנדל תיקו,אבל אסור בתשמיש המטה דכתיב (שמואל ב יב, כד) וינחם דוד את בת שבע אשתו ויבא אליה מכלל דמעיקרא אסור,מנודה מהו בתשמיש המטה אמר רב יוסף ת"ש כל אותן שנים שהיו ישראל במדבר מנודין היו ושימשו מטותיהן א"ל אביי ודלמא מנודה לשמים שאני דקיל,קיל והא אמרת חמיר ספוקי מספקא ליה זיל הכא קמדחי ליה וזיל הכא קמדחי ליה,מצורע מהו בתשמיש המטה ת"ש דתניא (ויקרא יד, ח) וישב מחוץ לאהלו שיהא כמנודה וכאבל ואסור בתשמיש המטה ואין אהלו אלא אשתו שנא' (דברים ה, ל) לך אמור להם שובו לכם לאהליכם שמע מינה,וניפשוט נמי למנודה אמר רב הונא בריה דרב פנחס משמיה דרב יוסף מי קתני שאסור שיהא כמנודה וכאבל במילי אחרנייתא ואסור נמי בתשמיש המטה,אבל אינו משלח קרבנותיו דתניא ר"ש אומר שלמים בזמן שהוא שלם ולא בזמן שהוא אונן,מנודה מהו שישלח קרבנותיו אמר רב יוסף ת"ש כל אותן שנים שהיו ישראל במדבר מנודין היו ושלחו קרבנותיהן א"ל אביי ודלמא מנודה לשמים שאני דקיל,קיל והאמרת חמיר ספוקי מספקא ליה ומדחי ליה,מצורע מהו שישלח קרבנותיו ת"ש דתניא (יחזקאל מד, כו) ואחרי טהרתו אחר פרישתו מן המת שבעת ימים יספרו לו אלו ז' ימי ספירו (יחזקאל מד, כז) וביום באו אל הקודש אל החצר הפנימית לשרת בקודש יקריב חטאתו 15b. God stated: bI have placed the likeness of My image [ ideyokan /i] withinhumans, as they were created in My image, band owing to their sins I have overturned it,as when this person died the Divine image in him was removed. Therefore, you must also boverturn your beds on account of this.The Gemara asks: bWhatis the ihalakhagoverning bone who was ostracized or a leper,with regard to boverturning the bed?The Gemara has no answer, and the question bshall standunresolved.,§ The Gemara proceeds to the next topic: bA mourner is prohibited from performing work, as it is written: “And I will turn your Festivals into mourning”(Amos 8:10). The Gemara infers: bJust as a Festivalis a time when it is bprohibited to work, so too, a mourner is prohibited from performing work. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe ihalakhaconcerning bone who was ostracizedwith regard to bthe performance of work? Rav Yosef said: Comeand bhearthat which is taught in the following ibaraita /i: bWhenthe Sages bsaid that the performance of work is prohibitedon a communal fast due to lack of rain, bthey meant onlythat work is prohibited bduring the dayof the fast, bbut during the nightof the fast bit is permitted. And you find a similar ihalakha bwith regard to a personwho was bostracized andwith regard to ba mourner. What, is it not with regard to allof the prohibitions stated that the ibaraitasays that they apply to one who was ostracized as well, including the prohibition to engage in work? The Gemara rejects this argument: bNo,this bis referring to the restof the prohibitions, but not to work.,The Gemara offers a different proof: bComeand bhear that whichwas taught in the following ibaraita /i: bOne who is ostracized may teach Torahto others, bandothers bmay teach himTorah. Similarly, bhe may be hiredfor work by others, bandothers bmay be hired by him.The Gemara concludes: bLearn from herethat it is permitted for one who is ostracized to engage in work. The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe ihalakhaconcerning ba leper,with regard to bthe performance of work?An answer is not found, and the question bshall standunresolved.,§ The Gemara discusses a different prohibition: bA mourner is prohibited from bathing, as it is written: “And do not anoint yourself with oil,but be as a woman that had for a long time mourned for the dead” (II Samuel 14:2). bAnd bathing is included inthe category of banointing,as both activities have a similar goal, i.e., cleanliness.,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe ihalakhaconcerning bone who is ostracizedwith regard to bbathing? Rav Yosef said: Comeand bhear that whichwas taught in the following ibaraita /i: bWhenthe Sages bsaid that bathing is prohibitedon a communal fast, bthey meant onlythat a person may not wash bhis entire body, butwashing bhis face, his hands, and his feet is permitted. And you find a similar ihalakha bwith regard to a person who was ostracized andwith regard to ba mourner. What, is it not with regard to allthe prohibitions stated in the ibaraita /i, including the prohibition against bathing, that they apply also to one who is ostracized? The Gemara rejects this argument: bNo,this bis referring to the restof the prohibitions, but not to bathing. The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe ihalakhaconcerning ba leperwith regard to bbathing?An answer is not found, and the question bshall standunresolved.,§ The Gemara moves to the next topic: bA mourner is prohibited from wearing shoes. Since the Merciful One says toEzekiel with regard to how his mourning rites should differ from the accepted custom: b“And put your shoes upon your feet”(Ezekiel 24:17), which shows bby inference that everyoneelse, i.e., all other mourners, bis prohibitedfrom wearing shoes.,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe ihalakhaconcerning bone who is ostracizedwith regard to bwearing shoes? Rav Yosef said: Comeand bhear that whichis taught in the following ibaraita /i: bWhenthe Sages bsaidthat bwearing shoes is prohibitedon a communal fast, bthey meant onlythat one may not wear shoes when he is walking about bin the city, butif he set out to travel bon the road,wearing shoes bis permitted. How so?When bhe sets out on the road, he may put onhis shoes. But as soon as bhe enters the cityonce again, bhe must take offhis shoes and continue barefoot. bAnd you find a similar ihalakha bwith regard to a personwho was bostracized andwith regard to ba mourner. What, is it not with regard to allof the prohibitions stated in the ibaraita /i, including the prohibition against wearing shoes, that they apply also to one who was ostracized? The Gemara rejects this argument: bNo,this bis referring to the restof the prohibitions, but not to wearing shoes.,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe ihalakhaconcerning ba leperwith regard to bwearing shoes?No answer is found, and the question bshall standunresolved.,§ The Gemara considers another issue: bA mourner is prohibited from engaging in sexual relations, as it is written: “And David comforted Bath-Sheba his wife, and went into her,and lay with her” (II Samuel 12:24), after their son had died. This proves bby inference that initially,during the period of mourning, sexual relations bwere forbidden. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe ihalakhaconcerning bone who is ostracizedwith regard to bsexual relations? Rav Yosef said: Comeand bhear that whichis taught in a ibaraita /i: bAll those years that the Jewish people were in the wilderness they were ostracized, andyet bthey engaged in sexual relations,as there were children born to them during that period. It follows that it is permitted for one who is ostracized to engage in sexual relations. bAbaye said to him: Perhaps one who is ostracized by Heaven is different,as bthat is less seriousthan being ostracized by an earthly court.,The Gemara asks in astonishment: Is it bless serious? But didn’t you,Abaye, bsayelsewhere that a decree of ostracism imposed by Heaven is bmore seriousthan one issued by an earthly court? For this reason, Abaye rejected several proofs of Rav Yosef from the previously cited ibaraita /i. The Gemara answers: Abaye bis uncertainwhether a decree of ostracism imposed by Heaven is more or less serious than one imposed by an earthly court. Therefore, when bhe goes in thisdirection bhe rejectsthe argument, bandwhen bhe goes in thatdirection bhe rejectsthe argument. Abaye asserts that since the issue is in doubt, no proof can be derived from ostracism issued by Heaven.,The Gemara continues: bWhat isthe ihalakhaconcerning ba leperwith regard to bsexual relations? Comeand bheara proof, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse concerning a leper states: b“But he shall remain outside his tentseven days” (Leviticus 14:8), from which it is derived bthata leper bshould be like one who is ostracized and like a mourner, and he is prohibitedfrom engaging bin sexual relations.How is this derived? The bonlymeaning of the term b“his tent”is bhis wife, as is statedafter the giving of the Torah: b“Go say to them, return again to your tents”(Deuteronomy 5:27). This statement rendered it permitted for the men to once again engage in sexual relations with their wives after they had previously been prohibited to do so in anticipation of the giving of the Torah, as expressed in the verse: “Come not near a woman” (Exodus 19:15). The Gemara concludes: Indeed, blearn from thisthat it is prohibited for a leper to engage in sexual relations.,The Gemara asks: If this is the case, then bcan wealso bresolvethe question raised above with regard to bone who is ostracized,by saying that it is prohibited for such a person to engage in sexual relations? bRav Huna, son of Rav Pineḥas, said in the name of Rav Yosef: Is it taughtthat a leper bis prohibitedfrom engaging in sexual relations like one who is ostracized? bIt statesonly that bhe should betreated blike one who is ostracized and like a mourner,i.e., he should be like them bwith regard to other things, and in addition he is prohibitedfrom engaging in bsexual relations.Therefore, no proof can be derived from here with regard to one who is ostracized that he, too, is prohibited from engaging in sexual relations.,§ The Gemara continues: bA mourner may not send his offeringsto the Temple, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Shimon says: A peace /b-offering b[ ishelamim /i]is given this name also to teach us that one may sacrifice it only bat a time when he is whole [ ishalem /i]and his mind is settled, bbut not at a time when he is an acute mourner,i.e., on the first day of his bereavement, when he is distressed.,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe ihalakhaconcerning bone who is ostracizedwith regard to bsending his offeringsto the Temple? bRav Yosef said: Comeand bheara proof from that which is taught in a ibaraita /i: bAll those years that the Jewish people were in the wilderness they were ostracized, andyet bthey sent their offerings. Abaye said to him: Perhaps one who is ostracized by Heaven is different, as that is less seriousthan being ostracized by an earthly court.,The Gemara asks in astonishment: Is it bless serious? But certainly you,Abaye, bsaidelsewhere that being ostracized by Heaven is bmore seriousthan being ostracized by an earthly court. The Gemara offers a resolution: Abaye bis uncertainwhether being ostracized by Heaven is more or less serious than being ostracized by an earthly court, and therefore bhe rejectsRav Yosef’s arguments in both directions.,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe ihalakhawith regard to ba leper sending his offeringsto the Temple? The Gemara answers: bComeand bheara proof, bas it is taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to a priest who became ritually impure: “And after he is purified, they shall count for him seven days” (Ezekiel 44:26). The verse should be understood as follows: b“And after he is purified”; after he has separated fromhis bdeceasedrelative. b“They shall count for him seven days”; these are the seven days of his countingbefore he may purify himself. b“And on the day that he goes into the Sanctuary, into the inner court, to minister in the Sanctuary, he shall sacrifice his sin /b-offering, says the Lord God” (Ezekiel 44:27);
27. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

54a. ואיש תבונה ידלנה מים עמוקים עצה בלב איש זה עולא ואיש תבונה ידלנה זה רבה בר בר חנה ואינהו כמאן סברוה כי הא דאמר ר' בנימן בר יפת אמר רבי יוחנן מברכין על האור בין במוצאי שבת בין במוצאי יום הכפורים וכן עמא דבר,מיתיבי אין מברכין על האור אלא במוצאי שבת הואיל ותחילת ברייתו הוא וכיון שרואה מברך מיד רבי יהודה אומר סודרן על הכוס ואמר רבי יוחנן הלכה כרבי יהודה,לא קשיא כאן באור ששבת כאן באור היוצא מן העצים ומן האבנים,תני חדא אור היוצא מן העצים ומן האבנים מברכין עליו ותני חדא אין מברכין עליו לא קשיא כאן במוצאי שבת כאן במוצאי יום הכפורים,רבי מפזרן רבי חייא מכנסן אמר רבי יצחק בר אבדימי אע"פ שרבי מפזרן חוזר וסודרן על הכוס כדי להוציא בניו ובני ביתו,ואור במוצאי שבת איברי והא תניא עשרה דברים נבראו בערב שבת בין השמשות אלו הן באר והמן וקשת כתב ומכתב והלוחות וקברו של משה ומערה שעמד בו משה ואליהו פתיחת פי האתון ופתיחת פי הארץ לבלוע את הרשעים,רבי נחמיה אומר משום אביו אף האור והפרד ר' יאשיה אומר משום אביו אף האיל והשמיר רבי יהודה אומר אף הצבת הוא היה אומר צבתא בצבתא מתעבדא וצבתא קמייתא מאן עבד הא לאי בריה בידי שמים היא אמר ליה אפשר יעשנה בדפוס ויקבענה כיון הא לאי בריה בידי אדם היא,לא קשיא הא באור דידן הא באור דגיהנם אור דידן במוצאי שבת אור דגיהנם בערב שבת ואור דגיהנם בערב שבת איברי והא תניא *שבעה דברים נבראו קודם שנברא העולם ואלו הן תורה ותשובה וגן עדן וגיהנם וכסא הכבוד ובית המקדש ושמו של משיח,תורה דכתיב (משלי ח, כב) ה' קנני ראשית דרכו תשובה דכתיב (תהלים צ, ב) בטרם הרים יולדו וכתיב (תהלים צ, ג) תשב אנוש עד דכא ותאמר שובו בני אדם,גן עדן דכתיב (בראשית ב, ח) ויטע ה' אלהים גן בעדן מקדם גיהנם דכתיב (ישעיהו ל, לג) כי ערוך מאתמול תפתה,כסא הכבוד ובית המקדש דכתיב (ירמיהו יז, יב) כסא כבוד מרום מראשון מקום מקדשנו שמו של משיח דכתיב (תהלים עב, יז) יהי שמו לעולם לפני שמש ינון שמו,אמרי חללה הוא דנברא קודם שנברא העולם ואור דידיה בערב שבת,ואור דידיה בערב שבת איברי והתניא רבי יוסי אומר אור שברא הקב"ה בשני בשבת אין לו כבייה לעולם שנאמר (ישעיהו סו, כד) ויצאו וראו בפגרי האנשים הפושעים בי כי תולעתם לא תמות ואשם לא תכבה ואמר רבי בנאה בריה דרבי עולא מפני מה לא נאמר כי טוב בשני בשבת מפני שנברא בו אור של גיהנם ואמר רבי אלעזר אע"פ שלא נאמר בו כי טוב חזר וכללו בששי שנאמר (בראשית א, לא) וירא אלהים את כל אשר עשה והנה טוב מאד,אלא חללה קודם שנברא העולם ואור דידיה בשני בשבת ואור דידן במחשבה עלה ליבראות בערב שבת ולא נברא עד מוצאי שבת דתניא ר' יוסי אומר שני דברים עלו במחשבה ליבראות בערב שבת ולא נבראו עד מוצאי שבת ובמוצאי שבת נתן הקב"ה דיעה באדם הראשון מעין דוגמא של מעלה והביא שני אבנים וטחנן זו בזו ויצא מהן אור והביא שתי בהמות והרכיב זו בזו ויצא מהן פרד רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר פרד בימי ענה היה שנאמר (בראשית לו, כד) הוא ענה אשר מצא את הימים במדבר,דורשי חמורות היו אומרים ענה פסול היה לפיכך הביא פסול לעולם שנאמר (בראשית לו, כ) אלה בני שעיר החורי וכתיב אלה בני צבעון ואיה וענה אלא מלמד שבא צבעון על אמו והוליד ממנה ענה,ודילמא תרי ענה הוו אמר רבא אמינא מילתא דשבור מלכא לא אמרה ומנו שמואל איכא דאמרי אמר ר"פ אמינא מילתא דשבור מלכא לא אמרה ומנו רבא אמר קרא הוא ענה הוא ענה דמעיקרא,תנו רבנן עשרה דברים נבראו בערב שבת בין השמשות ואלו הן באר ומן וקשת הכתב והמכתב והלוחות קברו של משה ומערה שעמד בה משה ואליהו פתיחת פי האתון ופתיחת פי הארץ לבלוע את הרשעים ויש אומרים אף מקלו של אהרן שקדיה ופרחיה ויש אומרים אף המזיקין ויש אומרים אף 54a. bbut a man of understanding will draw it out”(Proverbs 20:5). bCounsel in the heart of man is like deep water; that isa reference to bUlla,who had a thought but did not articulate it. bBut a man of understanding will draw it out; that isa reference to bRabba bar bar Ḥana,who understood the allusion even though it was not articulated. The Gemara asks: bAnd in accordance with whoseopinion bdoUlla and Rabba bar bar Ḥana bhold,leading them to reject Rabbi Abba’s statement of Rabbi Yoḥa’s opinion? The Gemara answers: They hold bin accordance with thatwhich bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: One recites the blessing over fire both at the conclusion of Shabbat and at the conclusion of Yom Kippur. And that ishow bthe people act. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom that which was previously taught: bOne recites a blessing over fire only at the conclusion of Shabbatand not at the conclusion of Festivals or Yom Kippur, bsincethe conclusion of Shabbat bisthe time of bits original creation.And once bhe sees it, he recites the blessing immediately. Rabbi Yehuda says:One does not recite the blessing immediately; rather, he waits and barrangesand recites the blessings over fire and spices bover the cupof wine that accompanies the recitation of havdala. bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda.How does Rabbi Yoḥa explain the baraita?,The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Here,where Rabbi Yoḥa said that one recites the blessing at the conclusion of Yom Kippur, it is referring to bfire that restedon Yom Kippur, i.e., fire for which no prohibition was involved in its kindling, either because it was kindled before Yom Kippur or because it was kindled in a permitted manner, e.g., for a dangerously ill person. bThere,where Rabbi Yoḥa said that the blessing is recited only at the conclusion of Shabbat, it is referring to fire bgenerated from wood and from stonesafter Shabbat, similar to the primordial fire, which was created at the conclusion of Shabbat.,It was btaughtin bone ibaraita /i: With regard to bfire generated from wood and stones, one recites a blessing over it; andit was btaughtin boneother ibaraita /i: bOne does not recite a blessing over it.This apparent contradiction is bnot difficult. Here,where the ibaraitastates that one recites a blessing, it is referring bto the conclusion of Shabbat. There,where the ibaraitastates that one does not recite a blessing, it is referring bto the conclusion of Yom Kippur. /b, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi would bdistributethe blessings over the fire and the spices, reciting each when the opportunity arose. bRabbi Ḥiyyawould bcollect them,reciting all the blessings at the same time in the framework of ihavdala /i. bRabbi Yitzḥak bar Avdimi said: Even though RabbiYehuda HaNasi bdistributes themand recites each blessing at his first opportunity, bhe repeatsthe blessings band arrangesand recites bthem over the cupof wine bin order to discharge the obligation of his children and the members of his household. /b,The Gemara stated that fire was originally created at the conclusion of Shabbat. The Gemara asks: bWas fire created at the conclusion of Shabbat? Wasn’tit btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bTenmiraculous bphenomena were createdin heaven bon Shabbat eve during twilight,and were revealed in the world only later? bThey were:Miriam’s bwell, and the mannathat fell in the desert, band the rainbow, writing [ iketav/b], bandthe bwriting instrument [ imikhtav /i], and the tabletsof the Ten Commandments, band the grave of Moses, and the cave in which Moses and Elijah stood, the opening of the mouth ofBalaam’s bdonkey, and the opening of the earth’s mouth to swallow the wickedin the incident involving Korah., bRabbi Neḥemya said in the name of his father: Even the fire and the mule,which is a product of crossbreeding, were created at that time. bRabbi Yoshiya said in the name of his father: Even the ramslaughtered by Abraham in place of Isaac, band the ishamir /iworm used to shape the stones for the altar, were created at that time. bRabbi Yehuda says: Even the tongswere created at this time. bHe would say: Tongscan be bfashionedonly bwithother btongs, but who fashioned the first tongs? Indeed,the first pair of tongs bwas fashioned at the hand of Heaven.An anonymous questioner bsaid to him: It is possible to fashiontongs bwith a mold and align itwithout the need for other tongs. bIndeed,the first tongs bwere a creation of man.In any event, fire was originally created before Shabbat, not at the conclusion of Shabbat.,The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. This ibaraitais referring bto our fire, and that ibaraitais referring bto the fireof bGehenna.The Gemara explains: bOur firewas created bat the conclusion of Shabbat,but bthe fire of Gehenna was created on Shabbat eve.The Gemara proceeds to ask: bWas the fire of Gehenna created on Shabbat eve? Wasn’tit btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bSeven phenomena were created before the world was created, and they are: Torah, and repentance, and the Garden of Eden, and Gehenna, and the Throne of Glory, and the Temple, and the name of Messiah. /b,The Gemara provides sources for the notion that each of these phenomena was created before the world was. bTorahwas created before the world was created, bas it is written: “The Lord made me as the beginning of His way,the first of His works of old” (Proverbs 8:22), which, based on the subsequent verses, is referring to the Torah. bRepentancewas created before the world was created, bas it is written: “Before the mountains were brought forth,or ever You had formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting, You are God,” band it is writtenimmediately afterward: b“You return man to contrition; and You say: Repent, children of man”(Psalms 90:2–3)., bThe Garden of Edenwas created before the world was created, bas it is written: “And God planted the Garden of Eden in the east [ imikedem /i]”(Genesis 2:8). The term: In the east [ imikedem /i] is interpreted in the sense of: Before [ imikodem /i], i.e., before the world was created. bGehennawas created before the world was created, bas it is written: “For its hearth is ordained of old”(Isaiah 30:33). The hearth, i.e., Gehenna, was created before the world was created., bThe Throne of Glory and the Templewere created before the world was created, bas it is written: “Your Throne of Glory on high from the beginning, in the place of our Sanctuary”(Jeremiah 17:12). bThe name of Messiahwas created before the world was created, bas it is writtenin the chapter discussing the Messiah: b“May his name endure forever; his name existed before the sun”(Psalms 72:17). The name of Messiah already existed before the creation of the sun and the rest of the world. This ibaraitastates that Gehenna was created before the world was created and not during twilight before the first Shabbat., bThey sayin answer: The bvoidof Gehenna bwas created before the world, but its fire was created on Shabbat eve. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd was its fire created on Shabbat eve? Wasn’tit btaughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei says: The fire that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created on the second day of the week will never be extinguished, as it is stated: “And they shall go forth, and look upon the carcasses of the men who have rebelled against Me; for their worm shall not die, nor will their fire be extinguished;and they shall be an abhorrence to all flesh” (Isaiah 66:24)? bAnd Rabbi Bana’a, sonof bRabbi Ulla, said: Why doesn’t the verse state: That it was good,at the end of the bsecond day of the weekof Creation, as it does on the other days? It is bbecause onthat day bthe fire of Gehenna was created. And Rabbi Elazar saidthat beven though: That it was good, was not stated with regard tothe creations of the second day, bHe later included iton the bsixth day, as it is stated: “And God saw all that He had done and behold, it was very good”(Genesis 1:31)., bRather, the voidof Gehenna was created bbefore the world was created, and its firewas created only bon the second day of the week. Andthe thought barosein God’s bmind to create our fire on Shabbat eve;however, bit was notactually bcreated until the conclusion of Shabbat, as it was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei says:The thoughts of btwo phenomena arose inGod’s bmind on Shabbat eve, but were notactually bcreated until the conclusion of Shabbat. At the conclusion of Shabbat, the Holy One, Blessed be He, granted Adam, the firstman, creative bknowledge similar to divineknowledge, band he brought two rocks and rubbed them against each other, andthe first bfire emerged from them. Adamalso bbrought two animals,a female horse and a male donkey, band mated them with each other, andthe resultant offspring that bemerged from themwas ba mule. Rabban Shimon ben Gamlieldisagrees and bsaysthat the first bmule was in the days of Anah, as it is stated:“And these are the children of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah; bthis is Anah who found the mules in the wilderness,as he fed the donkeys of Zibeon his father” (Genesis 36:24)., bThe interpretersof Torah bsymbolism [ iḥamurot /i] would say: Anah wasthe product of an incestuous relationship, and as a result he was spiritually bunfitto produce offspring. bTherefore,he bbroughtan example of bunfitness,i.e., an animal physically unfit to produce offspring, binto the world, as it is stated: “These are the sons of Seir the Horite,the inhabitants of the land: Lotan, and Shoval, and Zibeon, and Anah” (Genesis 36:20). bAnd it isalso bstated: “And these are the sons of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah”(Genesis 36:24). One verse describes both Anah and Zibeon as sons of Seir, meaning that they are brothers, while the other verse describes Anah as Zibeon’s son. bRather, this teaches that Zibeon cohabited with his mother,the wife of Seir, band fathered Anah from her.He is called Seir’s son although in fact he was the offspring of Seir’s son and Seir’s wife.,The Gemara asks: bAnd perhaps there were twopeople named bAnah,one the son of Zibeon and the other the son of Seir? bRava said: I will state a matterthat even bKing Shapur did not state. And who isthis King Shapur? This cannot be a reference to Shapur, king of Persia; rather, it must be an epithet for someone else. He is bShmuel,whose legal rulings were accepted by the public like the edicts of a king by his subjects. bSome saya different version, that it was bRav Pappawho bsaid: I will state a matterthat even bKing Shapur did not state. And who is hethat Rav Pappa is referring to by the epithet King Shapur? He is bRava. The verse said: “This is Anahwho found the mules,” indicating that bhe isthe same bAnahmentioned binitiallyin the earlier verse., bThe Sages taught: Ten phenomena were created on Shabbat eve during twilight, and they were:Miriam’s bwell, and manna, andthe brainbow, writing, and the writing instrument, and the tablets, the grave of Moses, and the cave in which Moses and Elijah stood, the opening of the mouth ofBalaam’s bdonkey, and the opening of the mouth of the earth to swallow the wickedin the time of Korah. bAnd some saythat beven Aaron’s staffwas created then with bits almonds and its blossoms. Some saythat beven the demonswere created at this time. bAnd some saythat beven /b
28. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 3.25.1-3.25.7 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

3.25.1. Since we are dealing with this subject it is proper to sum up the writings of the New Testament which have been already mentioned. First then must be put the holy quaternion of the Gospels; following them the Acts of the Apostles. 3.25.2. After this must be reckoned the epistles of Paul; next in order the extant former epistle of John, and likewise the epistle of Peter, must be maintained. After them is to be placed, if it really seem proper, the Apocalypse of John, concerning which we shall give the different opinions at the proper time. These then belong among the accepted writings. 3.25.3. Among the disputed writings, which are nevertheless recognized by many, are extant the so-called epistle of James and that of Jude, also the second epistle of Peter, and those that are called the whether they belong to the evangelist or to another person of the same name. 3.25.4. Among the rejected writings must be reckoned also the Acts of Paul, and the so-called Shepherd, and the Apocalypse of Peter, and in addition to these the extant epistle of Barnabas, and the so-called Teachings of the Apostles; and besides, as I said, the Apocalypse of John, if it seem proper, which some, as I said, reject, but which others class with the accepted books. 3.25.5. And among these some have placed also the Gospel according to the Hebrews, with which those of the Hebrews that have accepted Christ are especially delighted. And all these may be reckoned among the disputed books. 3.25.6. But we have nevertheless felt compelled to give a catalogue of these also, distinguishing those works which according to ecclesiastical tradition are true and genuine and commonly accepted, from those others which, although not canonical but disputed, are yet at the same time known to most ecclesiastical writers — we have felt compelled to give this catalogue in order that we might be able to know both these works and those that are cited by the heretics under the name of the apostles, including, for instance, such books as the Gospels of Peter, of Thomas, of Matthias, or of any others besides them, and the Acts of Andrew and John and the other apostles, which no one belonging to the succession of ecclesiastical writers has deemed worthy of mention in his writings. 3.25.7. And further, the character of the style is at variance with apostolic usage, and both the thoughts and the purpose of the things that are related in them are so completely out of accord with true orthodoxy that they clearly show themselves to be the fictions of heretics. Wherefore they are not to be placed even among the rejected writings, but are all of them to be cast aside as absurd and impious.Let us now proceed with our history.
29. Anon., 2 Enoch, 30.8

30. Anon., 4 Ezra, 4.36-4.37, 5.24, 5.26

4.36. And Jeremiel the archangel answered them and said, `When the number of those like yourselves is completed; for he has weighed the age in the balance 4.37. and measured the times by measure, and numbered the times by number; and he will not move or arouse them until that measure is fulfilled.' 5.24. and from all the lands of the world thou hast chosen for thyself one region, and from all the flowers of the world thou hast chosen for thyself one lily 5.26. and from all the birds that have been created thou hast named for thyself one dove, and from all the flocks that have been made thou hast provided for thyself one sheep


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
afterlife\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 66
angels Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 164
antioch, christian beginnings Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 240
apocalypse Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 192
apocalypse\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 66
apocalyptic Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 35; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 151
apollo Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 1
apostles Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 37
artemidorus Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 192
ascension Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 151
asia minor Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 240
authorization Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 35, 37
bardesanes Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 240
beale, g. k. Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 27
beast, the beast Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 192
book, of life Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 192
book Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 192
bowl Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 192
burial Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 151
call narrative Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 35, 37
canon Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 35
catacombs Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 240
christianity, geographic spread Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 240
colossians, letter to Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 164
cosmology Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 192
creation, creator Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 164
crucifixion Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 151
daughters of jerusalem Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 186
death Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 151
delphi Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 1
divine being, angel Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 151
divine being, the beast Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 151
eating, books Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 192
edessa, early christianity Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 240
egypt Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 151
eschatology, resurrection Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 151
eternal life Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 192
ezekiel Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 35
false prophecy Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 1
fate Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 151
fear Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 151
genesis, book of Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 164
gentile Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 151
heaven, war in Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 192
heaven\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 66
holiness Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 151
idolatry Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 1
image xvi Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 164
interconnectivity\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 66
jacob Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 164
jeremiah Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 35
jerusalem temple Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 1
jesus Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 1, 37
john, gospel of Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 164
journey, journey to heaven Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 66
justin martyr Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 164
literal reading Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 192
logos Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 164
menippean literature\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 66
merkava xiii–xvi, xix Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 164
metaphor Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 192
moses Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 35, 37
multistability Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 192
mystery Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 164
narrative Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 192
nature, natural phenomena, cloud Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 151
nature, natural phenomena, earth, land Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 151
nature, natural phenomena, heaven, sky Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 151
paul Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 164
philo of alexandria Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 164
polyvalency Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 192
pre-existence Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 164
prophecy, christian Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 151
pythia (see priestesses) Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 1
religion passim, altar Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 151
religion passim, temple, shrine Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 151
revelation\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 66
rhetoric, allusion Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 151
rhetoric, narrative Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 151
rhetoric, pleonasmus Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 151
rivalry Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 1
rome, christian beginnings Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 240
rome Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 1
scripture, christian, development of canon Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 240
scroll Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 151
secrecy Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 164
sibyls, jewish/christian sibyls Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 1
sodom Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 151
son of man Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 35
song of songs, origins of interpretation Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 186
spirit Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 37
stone, michael e. Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 186
sunday Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 45
symbol Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 192
tannaitic midrashim, relationship with amoraic midrashim Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 186
targumim Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 164
tefillin, temple, destruction of Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 186
temporal horizon' Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 186
thaddaeus Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 240
throne, enthroned Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 164
vision Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 192
visual texture Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 192
war in heaven Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 192
wisdom Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 164
worship\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 66