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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8243
New Testament, Acts, 6.14


ἀκηκόαμεν γὰρ αὐτοῦ λέγοντος ὅτι Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναζωραῖος οὗτος καταλύσει τὸν τόπον τοῦτον καὶ ἀλλάξει τὰ ἔθη ἃ παρέδωκεν ἡμῖν Μωυσῆς.For we have heard him say that this Jesus of Nazareth will destroy this place, and will change the customs which Moses delivered to us.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

55 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 14.5 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

14.5. But God will again have mercy on them, and bring them back into their land; and they will rebuild the house of God, though it will not be like the former one until the times of the age are completed. After this they will return from the places of their captivity, and will rebuild Jerusalem in splendor. And the house of God will be rebuilt there with a glorious building for all generations for ever, just as the prophets said of it.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 22.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

22.11. לֹא תִלְבַּשׁ שַׁעַטְנֵז צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים יַחְדָּו׃ 22.11. Thou shalt not wear a mingled stuff, wool and linen together. ."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 31.35 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

31.35. וַתֹּאמֶר אֶל־אָבִיהָ אַל־יִחַר בְּעֵינֵי אֲדֹנִי כִּי לוֹא אוּכַל לָקוּם מִפָּנֶיךָ כִּי־דֶרֶךְ נָשִׁים לִי וַיְחַפֵּשׂ וְלֹא מָצָא אֶת־הַתְּרָפִים׃ 31.35. And she said to her father: ‘Let not my lord be angry that I cannot rise up before thee; for the manner of women is upon me.’ And he searched, but found not the teraphim."
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.19. אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ בְּהֶמְתְּךָ לֹא־תַרְבִּיעַ כִּלְאַיִם שָׂדְךָ לֹא־תִזְרַע כִּלְאָיִם וּבֶגֶד כִּלְאַיִם שַׁעַטְנֵז לֹא יַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ׃ 19.19. Ye shall keep My statutes. Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind; thou shalt not sow thy field with two kinds of seed; neither shall there come upon thee a garment of two kinds of stuff mingled together."
5. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 3.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.12. לָכֵן בִּגְלַלְכֶם צִיּוֹן שָׂדֶה תֵחָרֵשׁ וִירוּשָׁלִַם עִיִּין תִּהְיֶה וְהַר הַבַּיִת לְבָמוֹת יָעַר׃ 3.12. Therefore shall Zion for your sake be plowed as a field, and Jerusalem shall become heaps, and the mountain of the house as the high places of a forest."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 95 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 6.13, 8.10-8.13, 8.27, 14.24, 17.17-17.24, 18.28, 21.8-21.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.13. וְשָׁכַנְתִּי בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלֹא אֶעֱזֹב אֶת־עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 8.11. וְלֹא־יָכְלוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים לַעֲמֹד לְשָׁרֵת מִפְּנֵי הֶעָנָן כִּי־מָלֵא כְבוֹד־יְהוָה אֶת־בֵּית יְהוָה׃ 8.12. אָז אָמַר שְׁלֹמֹה יְהוָה אָמַר לִשְׁכֹּן בָּעֲרָפֶל׃ 8.13. בָּנֹה בָנִיתִי בֵּית זְבֻל לָךְ מָכוֹן לְשִׁבְתְּךָ עוֹלָמִים׃ 8.27. כִּי הַאֻמְנָם יֵשֵׁב אֱלֹהִים עַל־הָאָרֶץ הִנֵּה הַשָּׁמַיִם וּשְׁמֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם לֹא יְכַלְכְּלוּךָ אַף כִּי־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר בָּנִיתִי׃ 14.24. וְגַם־קָדֵשׁ הָיָה בָאָרֶץ עָשׂוּ כְּכֹל הַתּוֹעֲבֹת הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר הוֹרִישׁ יְהוָה מִפְּנֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 17.17. וַיְהִי אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה חָלָה בֶּן־הָאִשָּׁה בַּעֲלַת הַבָּיִת וַיְהִי חָלְיוֹ חָזָק מְאֹד עַד אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נוֹתְרָה־בּוֹ נְשָׁמָה׃ 17.18. וַתֹּאמֶר אֶל־אֵלִיָּהוּ מַה־לִּי וָלָךְ אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים בָּאתָ אֵלַי לְהַזְכִּיר אֶת־עֲוֺנִי וּלְהָמִית אֶת־בְּנִי׃ 17.19. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ תְּנִי־לִי אֶת־בְּנֵךְ וַיִּקָּחֵהוּ מֵחֵיקָהּ וַיַּעֲלֵהוּ אֶל־הָעֲלִיָּה אֲשֶׁר־הוּא יֹשֵׁב שָׁם וַיַּשְׁכִּבֵהוּ עַל־מִטָּתוֹ׃ 17.21. וַיִּתְמֹדֵד עַל־הַיֶּלֶד שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים וַיִּקְרָא אֶל־יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי תָּשָׁב נָא נֶפֶשׁ־הַיֶּלֶד הַזֶּה עַל־קִרְבּוֹ׃ 17.22. וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה בְּקוֹל אֵלִיָּהוּ וַתָּשָׁב נֶפֶשׁ־הַיֶּלֶד עַל־קִרְבּוֹ וַיֶּחִי׃ 17.23. וַיִּקַּח אֵלִיָּהוּ אֶת־הַיֶּלֶד וַיֹּרִדֵהוּ מִן־הָעֲלִיָּה הַבַּיְתָה וַיִּתְּנֵהוּ לְאִמּוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלִיָּהוּ רְאִי חַי בְּנֵךְ׃ 17.24. וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־אֵלִיָּהוּ עַתָּה זֶה יָדַעְתִּי כִּי אִישׁ אֱלֹהִים אָתָּה וּדְבַר־יְהוָה בְּפִיךָ אֱמֶת׃ 18.28. וַיִּקְרְאוּ בְּקוֹל גָּדוֹל וַיִּתְגֹּדְדוּ כְּמִשְׁפָּטָם בַּחֲרָבוֹת וּבָרְמָחִים עַד־שְׁפָךְ־דָּם עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 21.8. וַתִּכְתֹּב סְפָרִים בְּשֵׁם אַחְאָב וַתַּחְתֹּם בְּחֹתָמוֹ וַתִּשְׁלַח הספרים [סְפָרִים] אֶל־הַזְקֵנִים וְאֶל־הַחֹרִים אֲשֶׁר בְּעִירוֹ הַיֹּשְׁבִים אֶת־נָבוֹת׃ 21.9. וַתִּכְתֹּב בַּסְּפָרִים לֵאמֹר קִרְאוּ־צוֹם וְהוֹשִׁיבוּ אֶת־נָבוֹת בְּרֹאשׁ הָעָם׃ 21.11. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ אַנְשֵׁי עִירוֹ הַזְּקֵנִים וְהַחֹרִים אֲשֶׁר הַיֹּשְׁבִים בְּעִירוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר שָׁלְחָה אֲלֵיהֶם אִיזָבֶל כַּאֲשֶׁר כָּתוּב בַּסְּפָרִים אֲשֶׁר שָׁלְחָה אֲלֵיהֶם׃ 21.12. קָרְאוּ צוֹם וְהֹשִׁיבוּ אֶת־נָבוֹת בְּרֹאשׁ הָעָם׃ 21.13. וַיָּבֹאוּ שְׁנֵי הָאֲנָשִׁים בְּנֵי־בְלִיַּעַל וַיֵּשְׁבוּ נֶגְדּוֹ וַיְעִדֻהוּ אַנְשֵׁי הַבְּלִיַּעַל אֶת־נָבוֹת נֶגֶד הָעָם לֵאמֹר בֵּרַךְ נָבוֹת אֱלֹהִים וָמֶלֶךְ וַיֹּצִאֻהוּ מִחוּץ לָעִיר וַיִּסְקְלֻהוּ בָאֲבָנִים וַיָּמֹת׃ 6.13. in that I will dwell therein among the children of Israel, and will not forsake My people Israel.’" 8.10. And it came to pass, when the priests were come out of the holy place, that the cloud filled the house of the LORD," 8.11. so that the priests could not stand to minister by reason of the cloud; for the glory of the LORD filled the house of the LORD." 8.12. Then spoke Solomon: The LORD hath said that He would dwell in the thick darkness." 8.13. I have surely built Thee a house of habitation, A place for Thee to dwell in for ever." 8.27. But will God in very truth dwell on the earth? behold, heaven and the heaven of heavens cannot contain Thee; how much less this house that I have builded!" 14.24. and there were also sodomites in the land; they did according to all the abominations of the nations which the LORD drove out before the children of Israel. ." 17.17. And it came to pass after these things, that the son of the woman, the mistress of the house, fell sick; and his sickness was so sore, that there was no breath left in him." 17.18. And she said unto Elijah: ‘What have I to do with thee, O thou man of God? art thou come unto me to bring my sin to remembrance, and to slay my son?’" 17.19. And he said unto her: ‘Give me thy son.’ And he took him out of her bosom, and carried him up into the upper chamber, where he abode, and laid him upon his own bed." 17.20. And he cried unto the LORD, and said: ‘O LORD my God, hast Thou also brought evil upon the widow with whom I sojourn, by slaying her son?’" 17.21. And he stretched himself upon the child three times, and cried unto the LORD, and said: ‘O LORD my God, I pray thee, let this child’s soul come back into him.’" 17.22. And the LORD hearkened unto the voice of Elijah; and the soul of the child came back into him, and he revived." 17.23. And Elijah took the child, and brought him down out of the upper chamber into the house, and delivered him unto his mother; and Elijah said: ‘See, thy son liveth.’" 17.24. And the woman said to Elijah: ‘Now I know that thou art a man of God, and that the word of the LORD in thy mouth is truth.’" 18.28. And they cried aloud, and cut themselves after their manner with swords and lances, till the blood gushed out upon them." 21.8. So she wrote letters in Ahab’s name, and sealed them with his seal, and sent the letters unto the elders and to the nobles that were in his city, and that dwelt with Naboth." 21.9. And she wrote in the letters, saying: ‘Proclaim a fast, and set Naboth at the head of the people;" 21.10. and set two men, base fellows, before him, and let them bear witness against him, saying: Thou didst curse God and the king. And then carry him out, and stone him, that he die.’" 21.11. And the men of his city, even the elders and the nobles who dwelt in his city, did as Jezebel had sent unto them, according as it was written in the letters which she had sent unto them." 21.12. They proclaimed a fast, and set Naboth at the head of the people." 21.13. And the two men, the base fellows, came in and sat before him; and the base fellows bore witness against him, even against Naboth, in the presence of the people, saying: ‘Naboth did curse God and the king.’ Then they carried him forth out of the city, and stoned him with stones, that he died."
8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 4.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.9. וַתֹּאמֶר אֶל־אִישָׁהּ הִנֵּה־נָא יָדַעְתִּי כִּי אִישׁ אֱלֹהִים קָדוֹשׁ הוּא עֹבֵר עָלֵינוּ תָּמִיד׃ 4.9. And she said unto her husband: ‘Behold now, I perceive that this is a holy man of God, that passeth by us continually."
9. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 66.1-66.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

66.1. שִׂמְחוּ אֶת־יְרוּשָׁלִַם וְגִילוּ בָהּ כָּל־אֹהֲבֶיהָ שִׂישׂוּ אִתָּהּ מָשׂוֹשׂ כָּל־הַמִּתְאַבְּלִים עָלֶיהָ׃ 66.1. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה הַשָּׁמַיִם כִּסְאִי וְהָאָרֶץ הֲדֹם רַגְלָי אֵי־זֶה בַיִת אֲשֶׁר תִּבְנוּ־לִי וְאֵי־זֶה מָקוֹם מְנוּחָתִי׃ 66.2. וְהֵבִיאוּ אֶת־כָּל־אֲחֵיכֶם מִכָּל־הַגּוֹיִם מִנְחָה לַיהוָה בַּסּוּסִים וּבָרֶכֶב וּבַצַּבִּים וּבַפְּרָדִים וּבַכִּרְכָּרוֹת עַל הַר קָדְשִׁי יְרוּשָׁלִַם אָמַר יְהוָה כַּאֲשֶׁר יָבִיאוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַמִּנְחָה בִּכְלִי טָהוֹר בֵּית יְהוָה׃ 66.2. וְאֶת־כָּל־אֵלֶּה יָדִי עָשָׂתָה וַיִּהְיוּ כָל־אֵלֶּה נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְאֶל־זֶה אַבִּיט אֶל־עָנִי וּנְכֵה־רוּחַ וְחָרֵד עַל־דְּבָרִי׃ 66.1. Thus saith the LORD: The heaven is My throne, and the earth is My footstool; where is the house that ye may build unto Me? And where is the place that may be My resting-place?" 66.2. For all these things hath My hand made, and so all these things came to be, saith the LORD; but on this man will I look, even on him that is poor and of a contrite spirit, and trembleth at My word."
10. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 11.39, 13.7, 16.17 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.39. וַיְהִי מִקֵּץ שְׁנַיִם חֳדָשִׁים וַתָּשָׁב אֶל־אָבִיהָ וַיַּעַשׂ לָהּ אֶת־נִדְרוֹ אֲשֶׁר נָדָר וְהִיא לֹא־יָדְעָה אִישׁ וַתְּהִי־חֹק בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 13.7. וַיֹּאמֶר לִי הִנָּךְ הָרָה וְיֹלַדְתְּ בֵּן וְעַתָּה אַל־תִּשְׁתִּי יַיִן וְשֵׁכָר וְאַל־תֹּאכְלִי כָּל־טֻמְאָה כִּי־נְזִיר אֱלֹהִים יִהְיֶה הַנַּעַר מִן־הַבֶּטֶן עַד־יוֹם מוֹתוֹ׃ 16.17. וַיַּגֶּד־לָהּ אֶת־כָּל־לִבּוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ מוֹרָה לֹא־עָלָה עַל־רֹאשִׁי כִּי־נְזִיר אֱלֹהִים אֲנִי מִבֶּטֶן אִמִּי אִם־גֻּלַּחְתִּי וְסָר מִמֶּנִּי כֹחִי וְחָלִיתִי וְהָיִיתִי כְּכָל־הָאָדָם׃ 11.39. And it came to pass at the end of two months, that she returned to her father, who did with her according to his vow which he had vowed: and she knew no man. And it was a custom in Yisra᾽el," 13.7. but he said to me, Behold, thou shalt conceive, and bear a son; and now drink no wine nor strong drink, neither eat any unclean thing: for the child shall be a Nazir to God from the womb to the day of his death." 16.17. that he told her all his heart, and said to her, There has not come a razor upon my head; for I have been a Nazir to God from my mother’s womb: if I am shaved, then my strength will go from me, and I shall become weak, and be like any other man."
13. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 35.25 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

35.25. וַיְקוֹנֵן יִרְמְיָהוּ עַל־יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ וַיֹּאמְרוּ כָל־הַשָּׁרִים וְהַשָּׁרוֹת בְּקִינוֹתֵיהֶם עַל־יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ עַד־הַיּוֹם וַיִּתְּנוּם לְחֹק עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהִנָּם כְּתוּבִים עַל־הַקִּינוֹת׃ 35.25. And Jeremiah lamented for Josiah; and all the singing men and singing women spoke of Josiah in their lamentations, unto this day; and they made them an ordice in Israel; and, behold, they are written in the lamentations."
14. Septuagint, Tobit, 14.5 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

14.5. But God will again have mercy on them, and bring them back into their land; and they will rebuild the house of God, though it will not be like the former one until the times of the age are completed. After this they will return from the places of their captivity, and will rebuild Jerusalem in splendor. And the house of God will be rebuilt there with a glorious building for all generations for ever, just as the prophets said of it.
15. Anon., 1 Enoch, 10.9, 10.15, 96.4, 99.2, 99.16, 104.12, 106.14 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10.9. through the works that were taught by Azazel: to him ascribe all sin.' And to Gabriel said the Lord: 'Proceed against the bastards and the reprobates, and against the children of fornication: and destroy [the children of fornication and] the children of the Watchers from amongst men [and cause them to go forth]: send them one against the other that they may destroy each other in 10.15. generations. And destroy all the spirits of the reprobate and the children of the Watchers, because 96.4. Woe unto you, ye sinners, for your riches make you appear like the righteous, But your hearts convict you of being sinners, And this fact shall be a testimony against you for a memorial of (your) evil deeds. 99.2. Woe to them who pervert the words of uprightness, And transgress the eternal law, And transform themselves into what they were not [into sinners]: They shall be trodden under foot upon the earth. 99.16. For He shall cast down your glory, And bring affliction on your hearts, And shall arouse His fierce indignation And destroy you all with the sword; And all the holy and righteous shall remember your sins. 104.12. concerning them. Then, I know another mystery, that books will be given to the righteous and the
16. Anon., Psalms of Solomon, 17.30 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

17. Anon., Testament of Naphtali, 3.1-3.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.1. Be ye, therefore, not eager to corrupt your doings through covetousness or with vain words to beguile your souls; because if ye keep silence in purity of heart, ye shall understand how to hold fast the will of God, and to cast away the will of Beliar. 3.2. Sun and moon and stars change not their order; so do ye also change not the law of God in the disorderliness of your doings. 3.3. The Gentiles went astray, and forsook the Lord, and changed their order, and obeyed stocks and stones, spirits of deceit. 3.4. But ye shall not be so, my children, recognizing in the firmament, in the earth, and in the sea, and in all created things, the Lord who made all things, that ye become not as Sodom, which changed the order of nature. 3.5. In like manner the Watchers also changed the order of their nature, whom the Lord cursed at the flood, on whose account He made the earth without inhabitants and fruitless.
18. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.25. וּמִלִּין לְצַד עליא [עִלָּאָה] יְמַלִּל וּלְקַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין יְבַלֵּא וְיִסְבַּר לְהַשְׁנָיָה זִמְנִין וְדָת וְיִתְיַהֲבוּן בִּידֵהּ עַד־עִדָּן וְעִדָּנִין וּפְלַג עִדָּן׃ 7.25. And he shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High; and he shall think to change the seasons and the law; and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and half a time."
19. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.49, 10.89 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.49. so that they should forget the law and change all the ordices. 10.89. and he sent to him a golden buckle, such as it is the custom to give to the kinsmen of kings. He also gave him Ekron and all its environs as his possession.
20. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 6.9, 11.24-11.25, 13.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.9. and should slay those who did not choose to change over to Greek customs. One could see, therefore, the misery that had come upon them.' 11.24. We have heard that the Jews do not consent to our father's change to Greek customs but prefer their own way of living and ask that their own customs be allowed them. 11.25. Accordingly, since we choose that this nation also be free from disturbance, our decision is that their temple be restored to them and that they live according to the customs of their ancestors.' 13.4. But the King of kings aroused the anger of Antiochus against the scoundrel; and when Lysias informed him that this man was to blame for all the trouble, he ordered them to take him to Beroea and to put him to death by the method which is the custom in that place.'
21. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 7.26, 14.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7.26. For she is a reflection of eternal light,a spotless mirror of the working of God,and an image of his goodness. 14.16. Then the ungodly custom, grown strong with time, was kept as a law,and at the command of monarchs graven images were worshiped.
22. Dionysius of Halycarnassus, Roman Antiquities, 1.89, 1.89.3, 2.15-2.16 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.89. 1.  Such, then, are the facts concerning the origin of the Romans which I have been able to discover a reading very diligently many works written by both Greek and Roman authors. Hence, from now on let the reader forever renounce the views of those who make Rome a retreat of barbarians, fugitives and vagabonds, and let him confidently affirm it to be a Greek city, — which will be easy when he shows that it is at once the most hospitable and friendly of all cities, and when he bears in mind that the Aborigines were Oenotrians, and these in turn Arcadians,,2.  and remembers those who joined with them in their settlement, the Pelasgians who were Argives by descent and came into Italy from Thessaly; and recalls, moreover, the arrival of Evander and the Arcadians, who settled round the Palatine hill, after the Aborigines had granted the place to them; and also the Peloponnesians, who, coming along with Hercules, settled upon the Saturnian hill; and, last of all, those who left the Troad and were intermixed with the earlier settlers. For one will find no nation that is more ancient or more Greek than these.,3.  But the admixtures of the barbarians with the Romans, by which the city forgot many of its ancient institutions, happened at a later time. And it may well seem a cause of wonder to many who reflect on the natural course of events that Rome did not become entirely barbarized after receiving the Opicans, the Marsians, the Samnites, the Tyrrhenians, the Bruttians and many thousands of Umbrians, Ligurians, Iberians and Gauls, besides innumerable other nations, some of whom came from Italy itself and some from other regions and differed from one another both in their language and habits; for their very ways of life, diverse as they were and thrown into turmoil by such dissoce, might have been expected to cause many innovations in the ancient order of the city.,4.  For many others by living among barbarians have in a short time forgotten all their Greek heritage, so that they neither speak the Greek language nor observe the customs of the Greeks nor acknowledge the same gods nor have the same equitable laws (by which most of all the spirit of the Greeks differs from that of the barbarians) nor agree with them in anything else whatever that relates to the ordinary intercourse of life. Those Achaeans who are settled near the Euxine sea are a sufficient proof of my contention; for, though originally Eleans, of a nation the most Greek of any, they are now the most savage of all barbarians. 1.89.3.  But the admixtures of the barbarians with the Romans, by which the city forgot many of its ancient institutions, happened at a later time. And it may well seem a cause of wonder to many who reflect on the natural course of events that Rome did not become entirely barbarized after receiving the Opicans, the Marsians, the Samnites, the Tyrrhenians, the Bruttians and many thousands of Umbrians, Ligurians, Iberians and Gauls, besides innumerable other nations, some of whom came from Italy itself and some from other regions and differed from one another both in their language and habits; for their very ways of life, diverse as they were and thrown into turmoil by such dissoce, might have been expected to cause many innovations in the ancient order of the city.
23. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 198 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

198. But this man, like a priest of sacrifice himself, did himself begin to perform the sacred rite, although he was a most affectionate father of a son who was in all respects most excellent. And, perhaps, according to the usual law and custom of burnt offerings he was intending to solemnise the rite by dividing his son limb by limb. And so he did not divide his feelings and allot one part of his regard to his son and another part to piety to God: but he devoted the whole soul, entire and undivided, to holiness; thinking but little of the kindred blood which flowed in the victim.
24. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 146 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

146. Every man in regard of his intellect is connected with divine reason, being an impression of, or a fragment or a ray of that blessed nature; but in regard of the structure of his body he is connected with the universal world. For he is composed of the same materials as the world, that is of earth, and water, and air and fire, each of the elements having contributed its appropriate part towards the completion of most sufficient materials, which the Creator was to take in order to fashion this visible image.
25. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 198 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

198. But that nobility is placed only in the acquisition of virtue, and that you ought to imagine that he who has that is the only man really noble, and not the man who is born of noble and virtuous parents, is plain from many circumstances." XXXVII.
26. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

27. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 36 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

36. This is the way, beloved, in which we find our Saviour, even Jesus Christ, the High Priest of all our offerings, the defender and helper of our infirmity. By Him we look up to the heights of heaven. By Him we behold, as in a glass, His immaculate and most excellent visage. By Him are the eyes of our hearts opened. By Him our foolish and darkened understanding blossoms up anew towards His marvellous light. By Him the Lord has willed that we should taste of immortal knowledge, who, being the brightness of His majesty, is by so much greater than the angels, as He has by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they. Hebrews 1:3-4 For it is thus written, Who makes His angels spirits, and His ministers a flame of fire. But concerning His Son the Lord spoke thus: You are my Son, today have I begotten You. Ask of me, and I will give You the heathen for Your inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for Your possession. And again He says to Him, Sit at my right hand, until I make Your enemies Your footstool. But who are His enemies? All the wicked, and those who set themselves to oppose the will of God.
28. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 20.123 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20.123. whereupon those that were the most eminent persons at Jerusalem, and that both in regard to the respect that was paid them, and the families they were of, as soon as they saw to what a height things were gone, put on sackcloth, and heaped ashes upon their heads, and by all possible means besought the seditious, and persuaded them that they would set before their eyes the utter subversion of their country, the conflagration of their temple, and the slavery of themselves, their wives, and children, which would be the consequences of what they were doing; and would alter their minds, would cast away their weapons, and for the future be quiet, and return to their own homes. These persuasions of theirs prevailed upon them.
29. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 6.300-6.309 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.301. began on a sudden to cry aloud, “A voice from the east, a voice from the west, a voice from the four winds, a voice against Jerusalem and the holy house, a voice against the bridegrooms and the brides, and a voice against this whole people!” This was his cry, as he went about by day and by night, in all the lanes of the city. 6.302. However, certain of the most eminent among the populace had great indignation at this dire cry of his, and took up the man, and gave him a great number of severe stripes; yet did not he either say anything for himself, or anything peculiar to those that chastised him, but still he went on with the same words which he cried before. 6.303. Hereupon our rulers, supposing, as the case proved to be, that this was a sort of divine fury in the man, brought him to the Roman procurator 6.304. where he was whipped till his bones were laid bare; yet he did not make any supplication for himself, nor shed any tears, but turning his voice to the most lamentable tone possible, at every stroke of the whip his answer was, “Woe, woe to Jerusalem!” 6.305. And when Albinus (for he was then our procurator) asked him, Who he was? and whence he came? and why he uttered such words? he made no manner of reply to what he said, but still did not leave off his melancholy ditty, till Albinus took him to be a madman, and dismissed him. 6.306. Now, during all the time that passed before the war began, this man did not go near any of the citizens, nor was seen by them while he said so; but he every day uttered these lamentable words, as if it were his premeditated vow, “Woe, woe to Jerusalem!” 6.307. Nor did he give ill words to any of those that beat him every day, nor good words to those that gave him food; but this was his reply to all men, and indeed no other than a melancholy presage of what was to come. 6.308. This cry of his was the loudest at the festivals; and he continued this ditty for seven years and five months, without growing hoarse, or being tired therewith, until the very time that he saw his presage in earnest fulfilled in our siege, when it ceased; 6.309. for as he was going round upon the wall, he cried out with his utmost force, “Woe, woe to the city again, and to the people, and to the holy house!” And just as he added at the last, “Woe, woe to myself also!” there came a stone out of one of the engines, and smote him, and killed him immediately; and as he was uttering the very same presages he gave up the ghost.
30. New Testament, 1 John, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. That which was from the beginning, that which we have heard, that which we have seen with our eyes, that which we saw, and our hands touched, concerning the Word of life
31. New Testament, 1 Peter, 2.4-2.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.4. coming to him, a living stone, rejected indeed by men, but chosen by God, precious. 2.5. You also, as living stones, are built up as a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God through Jesus Christ. 2.6. Because it is contained in Scripture, "Behold, I lay in Zion a chief cornerstone, elect, precious: He who believes in him will not be put to shame. 2.7. For you therefore who believe is the honor, but for such as are disobedient, "The stone which the builders rejected, Has become the chief cornerstone 2.8. and, "A stone of stumbling, and a rock of offense."For they stumble at the word, being disobedient, whereunto also they were appointed. 2.9. But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for God's own possession, that you may show forth the excellencies of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light: 2.10. who in time past were no people, but now are God's people, who had not obtained mercy, but now have obtained mercy.
32. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 2.7, 3.9-3.11, 3.15-3.16, 12.3, 12.12-12.13, 12.27, 15.44, 15.47, 15.53-15.54 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.7. But we speak God's wisdom in amystery, the wisdom that has been hidden, which God foreordained beforethe worlds to our glory 3.9. For we are God's fellow workers. Youare God's farming, God's building. 3.10. According to the grace of Godwhich was given to me, as a wise master builder I laid a foundation,and another builds on it. But let each man be careful how he builds onit. 3.11. For no one can lay any other foundation than that which hasbeen laid, which is Jesus Christ. 3.15. If any man's work isburned, he will suffer loss, but he himself will be saved, but asthrough fire. 3.16. Don't you know that you are a temple of God, and that God'sSpirit lives in you? 12.3. Therefore Imake known to you that no man speaking by God's Spirit says, "Jesus isaccursed." No one can say, "Jesus is Lord," but by the Holy Spirit. 12.12. For as the body is one, and has many members, and all themembers of the body, being many, are one body; so also is Christ. 12.13. For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whetherJews or Greeks, whether bond or free; and were all given to drink intoone Spirit. 12.27. Now you are the body of Christ, and members individually. 15.44. It is sown a natural body; it is raised aspiritual body. There is a natural body and there is also a spiritualbody. 15.47. The first man is of the earth, made ofdust. The second man is the Lord from heaven. 15.53. For thiscorruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put onimmortality. 15.54. But when this corruptible will have put onincorruption, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then whatis written will happen: "Death is swallowed up in victory.
33. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 4.4-4.6, 5.1, 5.15-5.17, 12.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

34. New Testament, Acts, 1, 1.1, 1.2, 1.15, 1.16, 1.17, 1.18, 1.19, 1.20, 1.21, 1.22, 1.23, 1.24, 1.25, 1.26, 2.5, 2.22, 2.46, 2.47, 3, 3.6, 3.13, 3.25, 4, 4.10, 4.27, 5, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 6, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 6.15, 7, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.25, 7.26, 7.27, 7.28, 7.29, 7.30, 7.31, 7.32, 7.33, 7.34, 7.35, 7.36, 7.37, 7.38, 7.39, 7.40, 7.41, 7.42, 7.43, 7.44, 7.45, 7.46, 7.47, 7.48, 7.49, 7.50, 7.51, 7.52, 7.53, 7.54, 7.54-8.1, 7.55, 7.56, 7.57, 7.58, 7.58-8.1, 7.59, 7.60, 8.1, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 8.14, 8.15, 8.16, 8.17, 8.18, 8.19, 8.20, 8.21, 8.22, 8.23, 8.24, 8.25, 8.26, 8.27, 8.28, 8.29, 8.30, 8.31, 8.32, 8.33, 8.34, 8.35, 8.36, 8.37, 8.38, 8.39, 8.40, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24, 9.25, 9.26, 9.27, 9.28, 9.29, 9.30, 10.38, 11.19, 11.26, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8, 12.9, 12.10, 12.11, 12.12, 12.13, 12.14, 12.15, 12.16, 12.17, 12.18, 12.19, 12.20, 12.21, 12.22, 12.23, 12.24, 13.43, 14.1, 14.11, 14.12, 14.13, 15, 16.1, 16.20, 16.21, 17, 17.17, 17.18, 17.24, 17.25, 17.31, 18, 18.2, 18.4, 18.8, 18.12, 18.13, 18.14, 18.15, 18.16, 18.17, 19.27, 21.17, 21.18, 21.19, 21.20, 21.21, 21.22, 21.23, 21.24, 21.25, 21.26, 21.28, 21.39, 22.5, 22.8, 22.30, 23.1, 24.5, 26.9, 26.10, 26.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

35. New Testament, Apocalypse, 14.6-14.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.6. I saw an angel flying in mid heaven, having an eternal gospel to proclaim to those who dwell on the earth, and to every nation, tribe, language, and people. 14.7. He said with a loud voice, "Fear the Lord, and give him glory; for the hour of his judgment has come. Worship him who made the heaven, the earth, the sea, and the springs of waters!
36. New Testament, Colossians, 1.16, 2.11-2.12, 3.9-3.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.16. For by him were all things created, in the heavens and on the earth, things visible and things invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers; all things have been created through him, and for him. 2.11. in whom you were also circumcised with a circumcision not made with hands, in the putting off of the body of the sins of the flesh, in the circumcision of Christ; 2.12. having been buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the working of God, who raised him from the dead. 3.9. Don't lie to one another, seeing that you have put off the old man with his doings 3.10. and have put on the new man, that is being renewed in knowledge after the image of his Creator 3.11. where there can't be Greek and Jew, circumcision and uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, bondservant, freeman; but Christ is all, and in all.
37. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.11, 2.13-2.15, 2.20-2.22, 3.9, 4.7-4.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. Therefore remember that once you, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called "uncircumcision" by that which is called "circumcision," (in the flesh, made by hands); 2.13. But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off are made near in the blood of Christ. 2.14. For he is our peace, who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of partition 2.15. having abolished in the flesh the hostility, the law of commandments contained in ordices, that he might create in himself one new man of the two, making peace; 2.20. being built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the chief cornerstone; 2.21. in whom the whole building, fitted together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord; 2.22. in whom you also are built together for a habitation of God in the Spirit. 3.9. and to make all men see what is the administration of the mystery which for ages has been hidden in God, who created all things through Jesus Christ; 4.7. But to each one of us was the grace given according to the measure of the gift of Christ. 4.8. Therefore he says, "When he ascended on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts to men. 4.9. Now this, "He ascended," what is it but that he also first descended into the lower parts of the earth? 4.10. He who descended is the one who also ascended far above all the heavens, that he might fill all things. 4.11. He gave some to be apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, shepherds and teachers; 4.12. for the perfecting of the saints, to the work of serving, to the building up of the body of Christ; 4.13. until we all attain to the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to a full grown man, to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ; 4.14. that we may no longer be children, tossed back and forth and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the trickery of men, in craftiness, after the wiles of error; 4.15. but speaking truth in love, we may grow up in all things into him, who is the head, Christ; 4.16. from whom all the body, being fitted and knit together through that which every joint supplies, according to the working in measure of each individual part, makes the body increase to the building up of itself in love.
38. New Testament, Galatians, 2.10, 2.13, 3.27, 4.22-4.24, 6.14-6.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.10. They only askedus to remember the poor -- which very thing I was also zealous to do. 2.13. And the rest of the Jews joined him in his hypocrisy; so that evenBarnabas was carried away with their hypocrisy. 3.27. For as many of you as werebaptized into Christ have put on Christ. 4.22. For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by thehandmaid, and one by the free woman. 4.23. However, the son by thehandmaid was born according to the flesh, but the son by the free womanwas born through promise. 4.24. These things contain an allegory, forthese are two covets. One is from Mount Sinai, bearing children tobondage, which is Hagar. 6.14. But far be it from me to boast, except inthe cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through which the world has beencrucified to me, and I to the world. 6.15. For in Christ Jesus neitheris circumcision anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation.
39. New Testament, Hebrews, 2.1-2.2, 2.14-2.17, 3.1, 4.14, 8.5, 9.11, 9.23, 10.25, 13.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. Therefore we ought to pay greater attention to the things that were heard, lest perhaps we drift away. 2.2. For if the word spoken through angels proved steadfast, and every transgression and disobedience received a just recompense; 2.14. Since then the children have shared in flesh and blood, he also himself in like manner partook of the same, that through death he might bring to nothing him who had the power of death, that is, the devil 2.15. and might deliver all of them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage. 2.16. For most assuredly, not to angels does he give help, but he gives help to the seed of Abraham. 2.17. Therefore he was obligated in all things to be made like his brothers, that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make atonement for the sins of the people. 3.1. Therefore, holy brothers, partakers of a heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our confession, Jesus; 4.14. Having then a great high priest, who has passed through the heavens, Jesus, the Son of God, let us hold tightly to our confession. 8.5. who serve a copy and shadow of the heavenly things, even as Moses was warned by God when he was about to make the tabernacle, for he said, "See, you shall make everything according to the pattern that was shown to you on the mountain. 9.11. But Christ having come as a high priest of the coming good things, through the greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this creation 9.23. It was necessary therefore that the copies of the things in the heavens should be cleansed with these; but the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these. 10.25. not forsaking our own assembling together, as the custom of some is, but exhorting one another; and so much the more, as you see the Day approaching. 13.19. I strongly urge you to do this, that I may be restored to you sooner.
40. New Testament, Philippians, 3.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.21. who will change the body of our humiliation to be conformed to the body of his glory, according to the working by which he is able even to subject all things to himself.
41. New Testament, Romans, 8.3, 12.5, 13.14, 15.29, 16.3-16.5, 16.25-16.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.3. For what the law couldn't do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God did, sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh; 12.5. so we, who are many, are one body in Christ, and individually members one of another. 13.14. But put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh, for its lusts. 15.29. I know that, when I come to you, I will come in the fullness of the blessing of the gospel of Christ. 16.3. Greet Prisca and Aquila, my fellow workers in Christ Jesus 16.4. who for my life, laid down their own necks; to whom not only I give thanks, but also all the assemblies of the Gentiles. 16.5. Greet the assembly that is in their house. Greet Epaenetus, my beloved, who is the first fruits of Achaia to Christ.
42. New Testament, John, 2.19-2.22, 3.2, 4.21, 6.69, 12.21, 19.40 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.19. Jesus answered them, "Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up. 2.20. The Jews therefore said, "Forty-six years was this temple in building, and will you raise it up in three days? 2.21. But he spoke of the temple of his body. 2.22. When therefore he was raised from the dead, his disciples remembered that he said this, and they believed the Scripture, and the word which Jesus had said. 3.2. The same came to him by night, and said to him, "Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher come from God, for no one can do these signs that you do, unless God is with him. 4.21. Jesus said to her, "Woman, believe me, the hour comes, when neither in this mountain, nor in Jerusalem, will you worship the Father. 6.69. We have come to believe and know that you are the Christ, the Son of the living God. 12.21. These, therefore, came to Philip, who was from Bethsaida of Galilee, and asked him, saying, "Sir, we want to see Jesus. 19.40. So they took Jesus' body, and bound it in linen cloths with the spices, as the custom of the Jews is to bury.
43. New Testament, Luke, 1.9, 1.35, 2.26-2.27, 2.42, 2.49, 4.35, 7.11-7.17, 9.31, 10.23, 18.37, 21.28, 22.6, 22.17-22.21, 22.39, 22.43, 22.66-22.71, 23.34, 23.46, 24.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. according to the custom of the priest's office, his lot was to enter into the temple of the Lord and burn incense. 1.35. The angel answered her, "The Holy Spirit will come on you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. Therefore also the holy one who is born from you will be called the Son of God. 2.26. It had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he should not see death before he had seen the Lord's Christ. 2.27. He came in the Spirit into the temple. When the parents brought in the child, Jesus, that they might do concerning him according to the custom of the law 2.42. When he was twelve years old, they went up to Jerusalem according to the custom of the feast 2.49. He said to them, "Why were you looking for me? Didn't you know that I must be in my Father's house? 4.35. Jesus rebuked him, saying, "Be silent, and come out of him!" When the demon had thrown him down in their midst, he came out of him, having done him no harm. 7.11. It happened soon afterwards, that he went to a city called Nain. Many of his disciples, along with a great multitude, went with him. 7.12. Now when he drew near to the gate of the city, behold, one who was dead was carried out, the only son of his mother, and she was a widow. Many people of the city were with her. 7.13. When the Lord saw her, he had compassion on her, and said to her, "Don't cry. 7.14. He came near and touched the coffin, and the bearers stood still. He said, "Young man, I tell you, arise! 7.15. He who was dead sat up, and began to speak. And he gave him to his mother. 7.16. Fear took hold of all, and they glorified God, saying, "A great prophet has arisen among us!" and, "God has visited his people! 7.17. This report went out concerning him in the whole of Judea, and in all the surrounding region. 9.31. who appeared in glory, and spoke of his departure, which he was about to accomplish at Jerusalem. 10.23. Turning to the disciples, he said privately, "Blessed are the eyes which see the things that you see 18.37. They told him that Jesus of Nazareth was passing by. 21.28. But when these things begin to happen, look up, and lift up your heads, because your redemption is near. 22.6. He consented, and sought an opportunity to deliver him to them in the absence of the multitude. 22.17. He received a cup, and when he had given thanks, he said, "Take this, and share it among yourselves 22.18. for I tell you, I will not drink at all again from the fruit of the vine, until the Kingdom of God comes. 22.19. He took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and gave to them, saying, "This is my body which is given for you. Do this in memory of me. 22.20. Likewise, he took the cup after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood, which is poured out for you. 22.21. But behold, the hand of him who betrays me is with me on the table. 22.39. He came out, and went, as his custom was, to the Mount of Olives. His disciples also followed him. 22.43. An angel from heaven appeared to him, strengthening him. 22.66. As soon as it was day, the assembly of the elders of the people was gathered together, both chief priests and scribes, and they led him away into their council, saying 22.67. If you are the Christ, tell us."But he said to them, "If I tell you, you won't believe 22.68. and if I ask, you will in no way answer me or let me go. 22.69. From now on, the Son of Man will be seated at the right hand of the power of God. 22.70. They all said, "Are you then the Son of God?"He said to them, "You say it, because I AM. 22.71. They said, "Why do we need any more witness? For we ourselves have heard from his own mouth! 23.34. Jesus said, "Father, forgive them, for they don't know what they are doing."Dividing his garments among them, they cast lots. 23.46. Jesus, crying with a loud voice, said, "Father, into your hands I commit my spirit!" Having said this, he breathed his last. 24.29. They urged him, saying, "Stay with us, for it is almost evening, and the day is almost over."He went in to stay with them.
44. New Testament, Mark, 1.24, 13.2, 14.55-14.64, 15.29, 15.38 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.24. saying, "Ha! What do we have to do with you, Jesus, you Nazarene? Have you come to destroy us? I know you who you are: the Holy One of God! 13.2. Jesus said to him, "Do you see these great buildings? There will not be left here one stone on another, which will not be thrown down. 14.55. Now the chief priests and the whole council sought witnesses against Jesus to put him to death, and found none. 14.56. For many gave false testimony against him, and their testimony didn't agree with each other. 14.57. Some stood up, and gave false testimony against him, saying 14.58. We heard him say, 'I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and in three days I will build another made without hands.' 14.59. Even so, their testimony did not agree. 14.60. The high priest stood up in the midst, and asked Jesus, "Have you no answer? What is it which these testify against you? 14.61. But he stayed quiet, and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, "Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed? 14.62. Jesus said, "I AM. You will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of the sky. 14.63. The high priest tore his clothes, and said, "What further need have we of witnesses? 14.64. You have heard the blasphemy! What do you think?" They all condemned him to be worthy of death. 15.29. Those who passed by blasphemed him, wagging their heads, and saying, "Ha! You who destroy the temple, and build it in three days 15.38. The veil of the temple was torn in two from the top to the bottom.
45. New Testament, Matthew, 2.23, 3.13, 4.25, 21.11, 26.59-26.66, 26.71, 27.3-27.10, 27.40-27.43, 27.45-27.46, 27.49-27.51 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.23. and came and lived in a city called Nazareth; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through the prophets: "He will be called a Nazarene. 3.13. Then Jesus came from Galilee to the Jordan to John, to be baptized by him. 4.25. Great multitudes from Galilee, Decapolis, Jerusalem, Judea and from beyond the Jordan followed him. 21.11. The multitudes said, "This is the prophet, Jesus, from Nazareth of Galilee. 26.59. Now the chief priests, the elders, and the whole council sought false testimony against Jesus, that they might put him to death; 26.60. and they found none. Even though many false witnesses came forward, they found none. But at last two false witnesses came forward 26.61. and said, "This man said, 'I am able to destroy the temple of God, and to build it in three days.' 26.62. The high priest stood up, and said to him, "Have you no answer? What is this that these testify against you? 26.63. But Jesus held his peace. The high priest answered him, "I adjure you by the living God, that you tell us whether you are the Christ, the Son of God. 26.64. Jesus said to him, "You have said it. Nevertheless, I tell you, henceforth you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming on the clouds of the sky. 26.65. Then the high priest tore his clothing, saying, "He has spoken blasphemy! Why do we need any more witnesses? Behold, now you have heard his blasphemy. 26.66. What do you think?"They answered, "He is worthy of death! 26.71. When he had gone out onto the porch, someone else saw him, and said to those who were there, "This man also was with Jesus of Nazareth. 27.3. Then Judas, who betrayed him, when he saw that Jesus was condemned, felt remorse, and brought back the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders 27.4. saying, "I have sinned in that I betrayed innocent blood."But they said, "What is that to us? You see to it. 27.5. He threw down the pieces of silver in the sanctuary, and departed. He went away and hanged himself. 27.6. The chief priests took the pieces of silver, and said, "It's not lawful to put them into the treasury, since it is the price of blood. 27.7. They took counsel, and bought the potter's field with them, to bury strangers in. 27.8. Therefore that field was called "The Field of Blood" to this day. 27.9. Then that which was spoken through Jeremiah the prophet was fulfilled, saying, "They took the thirty pieces of silver, The price of him upon whom a price had been set, Whom some of the children of Israel priced 27.10. And they gave them for the potter's field, As the Lord commanded me. 27.40. and saying, "You who destroy the temple, and build it in three days, save yourself! If you are the Son of God, come down from the cross! 27.41. Likewise the chief priests also mocking, with the scribes, the Pharisees, and the elders, said 27.42. He saved others, but he can't save himself. If he is the King of Israel, let him come down from the cross now, and we will believe in him. 27.43. He trusts in God. Let God deliver him now, if he wants him; for he said, 'I am the Son of God.' 27.45. Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land until the ninth hour. 27.46. About the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, "Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?" That is, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me? 27.49. The rest said, "Let him be. Let's see whether Elijah comes to save him. 27.50. Jesus cried again with a loud voice, and yielded up his spirit. 27.51. Behold, the veil of the temple was torn in two from the top to the bottom. The earth quaked and the rocks were split.
46. Polycarp of Smyrna, Letter To The Philippians, 9.1-9.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

47. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 16 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16. Justin: And God himself proclaimed by Moses, speaking thus: 'And circumcise the hardness of your hearts, and no longer stiffen the neck. For the Lord your God is both Lord of lords, and a great, mighty, and terrible God, who regards not persons, and takes not rewards.' And in Leviticus: 'Because they have transgressed against Me, and despised Me, and because they have walked contrary to Me, I also walked contrary to them, and I shall cut them off in the land of their enemies. Then shall their uncircumcised heart be turned. Leviticus 26:40-41 For the circumcision according to the flesh, which is from Abraham, was given for a sign; that you may be separated from other nations, and from us; and that you alone may suffer that which you now justly suffer; and that your land may be desolate, and your cities burned with fire; and that strangers may eat your fruit in your presence, and not one of you may go up to Jerusalem.' For you are not recognised among the rest of men by any other mark than your fleshly circumcision. For none of you, I suppose, will venture to say that God neither did nor does foresee the events, which are future, nor foreordained his deserts for each one. Accordingly, these things have happened to you in fairness and justice, for you have slain the Just One, and His prophets before Him; and now you reject those who hope in Him, and in Him who sent Him- God the Almighty and Maker of all things- cursing in your synagogues those that believe in Christ. For you have not the power to lay hands upon us, on account of those who now have the mastery. But as often as you could, you did so. Wherefore God, by Isaiah, calls to you, saying, 'Behold how the righteous man perished, and no one regards it. For the righteous man is taken away from before iniquity. His grave shall be in peace, he is taken away from the midst. Draw near hither, you lawless children, seed of the adulterers, and children of the whore. Against whom have you sported yourselves, and against whom have you opened the mouth, and against whom have you loosened the tongue?' Isaiah 57:1-4
48. Tertullian, Against Marcion, 4.8 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.8. The Christ of the Creator had to be called a Nazarene according to prophecy; whence the Jews also designate us, on that very account, Nazerenes after Him. For we are they of whom it is written, Her Nazarites were whiter than snow; Lamentations 4:7 even they who were once defiled with the stains of sin, and darkened with the clouds of ignorance. But to Christ the title Nazarene was destined to become a suitable one, from the hiding-place of His infancy, for which He went down and dwelt at Nazareth, to escape from Archelaus the son of Herod. This fact I have not refrained from mentioning on this account, because it behooved Marcion's Christ to have forborne all connection whatever with the domestic localities of the Creator's Christ, when he had so many towns in Jud a which had not been by the prophets thus assigned to the Creator's Christ. But Christ will be (the Christ) of the prophets, wheresoever He is found in accordance with the prophets. And yet even at Nazareth He is not remarked as having preached anything new, Luke 4:23 while in another verse He is said to have been rejected Luke 4:29 by reason of a simple proverb. Luke 4:24 Here at once, when I observe that they laid their hands on Him, I cannot help drawing a conclusion respecting His bodily substance, which cannot be believed to have been a phantom, since it was capable of being touched and even violently handled, when He was seized and taken and led to the very brink of a precipice. For although He escaped through the midst of them, He had already experienced their rough treatment, and afterwards went His way, no doubt because the crowd (as usually happens) gave way, or was even broken through; but not because it was eluded as by an impalpable disguise, which, if there had been such, would not at all have submitted to any touch. Tangere enim et tangi, nisi corpus, nulla potest res, is even a sentence worthy of a place in the world's wisdom. In short, He did himself touch others, upon whom He laid His hands, which were capable of being felt, and conferred the blessings of healing, Luke 4:40 which were not less true, not less unimaginary, than were the hands wherewith He bestowed them. He was therefore the very Christ of Isaiah, the healer of our sicknesses. Surely, says he, He has borne our griefs and carried our sorrows. Now the Greeks are accustomed to use for carry a word which also signifies to take away. A general promise is enough for me in passing. Whatever were the cures which Jesus effected, He is mine. We will come, however, to the kinds of cures. To liberate men, then, from evil spirits, is a cure of sickness. Accordingly, wicked spirits (just in the manner of our former example) used to go forth with a testimony, exclaiming, You are the Son of God, Luke 4:41 - of what God, is clear enough from the case itself. But they were rebuked, and ordered not to speak; precisely because Christ willed Himself to be proclaimed by men, not by unclean spirits, as the Son of God- even that Christ alone to whom this was befitting, because He had sent beforehand men through whom He might become known, and who were assuredly worthier preachers. It was natural to Him to refuse the proclamation of an unclean spirit, at whose command there was an abundance of saints. He, however, who had never been foretold (if, indeed, he wished to be acknowledged; for if he did not wish so much, his coming was in vain), would not have spurned the testimony of an alien or any sort of substance, who did not happen to have a substance of his own, but had descended in an alien one. And now, too, as the destroyer also of the Creator, he would have desired nothing better than to be acknowledged by His spirits, and to be divulged for the sake of being feared: only that Marcion says that his god is not feared; maintaining that a good being is not an object of fear, but only a judicial being, in whom reside the grounds of fear- anger, severity, judgments, vengeance, condemnation. But it was from fear, undoubtedly, that the evil spirits were cowed. Therefore they confessed that (Christ) was the Son of a God who was to be feared, because they would have an occasion of not submitting if there were none for fearing. Besides, He showed that He was to be feared, because He drove them out, not by persuasion like a good being, but by command and reproof. Or else did he reprove them, because they were making him an object of fear, when all the while he did not want to be feared? And in what manner did he wish them to go forth, when they could not do so except with fear? So that he fell into the dilemma of having to conduct himself contrary to his nature, whereas he might in his simple goodness have at once treated them with leniency. He fell, too, into another false position - of prevarication, when he permitted himself to be feared by the demons as the Son of the Creator, that he might drive them out, not indeed by his own power, but by the authority of the Creator. He departed, and went into a desert place. Luke 4:42 This was, indeed, the Creator's customary region. It was proper that the Word should there appear in body, where He had aforetime, wrought in a cloud. To the gospel also was suitable that condition of place which had once been determined on for the law. Let the wilderness and the solitary place, therefore, be glad and rejoice; so had Isaiah promised. Isaiah 35:1 When stayed by the crowds, He said, I must preach the kingdom of God to other cities also. Luke 4:42-43 Had He displayed His God anywhere yet? I suppose as yet nowhere. But was He speaking of those who knew of another god also? I do not believe so. If, therefore, neither He had preached, nor they had known, any other God but the Creator, He was announcing the kingdom of that God whom He knew to be the only God known to those who were listening to Him.
49. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

17b. אין פרץ שלא תהא סיעתנו כסיעתו של דוד שיצא ממנו אחיתופל ואין יוצאת שלא תהא סיעתנו כסיעתו של שאול שיצא ממנו דואג האדומי ואין צוחה שלא תהא סיעתנו כסיעתו של אלישע שיצא ממנו גחזי ברחובותינו שלא יהא לנו בן או תלמיד שמקדיח תבשילו ברבים: (ישעיהו מו, יב),שמעו אלי אבירי לב הרחוקים מצדקה רב ושמואל ואמרי לה רבי יוחנן ורבי אלעזר חד אמר כל העולם כולו נזונין בצדקה והם נזונין בזרוע וחד אמר כל העולם כולו נזונין בזכותם והם אפילו בזכות עצמן אין נזונין כדרב יהודה אמר רב,דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב בכל יום ויום בת קול יוצאת מהר חורב ואומרת כל העולם כולו נזונין בשביל חנינא בני וחנינא בני די לו בקב חרובין מערב שבת לערב שבת,ופליגא דרב יהודה דאמר רב יהודה מאן אבירי לב גובאי טפשאי אמר רב יוסף תדע דהא לא איגייר גיורא מינייהו,אמר רב אשי בני מתא מחסיא אבירי לב נינהו דקא חזו יקרא דאורייתא תרי זמני בשתא ולא קמגייר גיורא מינייהו:,חתן אם רוצה לקרות וכו':,למימרא דרבן שמעון בן גמליאל חייש ליוהרא ורבנן לא חיישי ליוהרא והא איפכא שמעינן להו דתנן מקום שנהגו לעשות מלאכה בתשעה באב עושין מקום שנהגו שלא לעשות אין עושין וכל מקום תלמידי חכמים בטלים רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר לעולם יעשה כל אדם את עצמו כתלמיד חכם,קשיא דרבנן אדרבנן קשיא דרבן שמעון בן גמליאל אדרבן שמעון בן גמליאל,אמר רבי יוחנן מוחלפת השיטה רב שישא בריה דרב אידי אמר לעולם לא תחליף דרבנן אדרבנן לא קשיא ק"ש כיון דכ"ע קא קרו ואיהו נמי קרי לא מיחזי כיוהרא הכא כיון דכולי עלמא עבדי מלאכה ואיהו לא קא עביד מיחזי כיוהרא,דרבן שמעון בן גמליאל אדרבן שמעון בן גמליאל לא קשיא התם בכונה תליא מילתא ואנן סהדי דלא מצי לכווני דעתיה אבל הכא הרואה אומר מלאכה הוא דאין לו פוק חזי כמה בטלני איכא בשוקא:, br br big strongהדרן עלך היה קורא /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongמי /strong /big שמתו מוטל לפניו פטור מק"ש ומן התפלה ומן התפילין ומכל מצות האמורות בתורה,נושאי המטה וחלופיהן וחלופי חלופיהן את שלפני המטה ואת שלאחר המטה את שלפני המטה צורך בהם פטורים ואת שלאחר המטה צורך בהם חייבין ואלו ואלו פטורים מן התפלה,קברו את המת וחזרו אם יכולין להתחיל ולגמור עד שלא יגיעו לשורה יתחילו ואם לאו לא יתחילו,העומדים בשורה הפנימיים פטורים והחיצונים חייבים (נשים ועבדים וקטנים פטורים מק"ש ומן התפילין וחייבין בתפלה ובמזוזה ובברכת המזון):, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מוטל לפניו אין ושאינו מוטל לפניו לא,ורמינהי מי שמתו מוטל לפניו אוכל בבית אחר ואם אין לו בית אחר אוכל בבית חבירו ואם אין לו בית חבירו עושה מחיצה ואוכל ואם אין לו דבר לעשות מחיצה מחזיר פניו ואוכל ואינו מיסב ואוכל ואינו אוכל בשר ואינו שותה יין ואינו מברך ואינו מזמן 17b. b“There is no breach”; that our factionof Sages bshould not be like the faction of David, from which Ahitophel emerged,who caused a breach in the kingdom of David. br b“And no going forth”; that our faction should not be like the faction of Saul, from which Doeg the Edomite emerged,who set forth on an evil path. br b“And no outcry”; that our faction should not be like the faction of Elisha, from which Geihazi emerged. br b“In our open places”; that we should not have a child or student who overcooks his food in public,i.e., who sins in public and causes others to sin, basin the well-known case of bJesus the Nazarene. /b,Having cited a dispute with regard to the interpretation of a verse where we are uncertain whether the dispute is between Rav and Shmuel or Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar, the Gemara cites another verse with regard to which there is a similar dispute. It is said: b“Hear Me, stubborn-hearted who are far from charity”(Isaiah 46:12). While both agree that the verse refers to the righteous, bRav and Shmuel, and some say Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar,disagreed as to how to interpret the verse. bOne said: The entire world is sustained byGod’s bcharity,not because it deserves to exist, bwhilethe righteous who are far from God’s charity bare sustained by force,as due to their own good deeds they have the right to demand their sustece. bAnd one said: The entire world is sustained by the meritof btheirrighteousness, bwhile they are not sustainedat all, bnot even by their own merit, in accordance withthe statement that bRav Yehudasaid that bRav said. /b, bAs Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: Every day a Divine Voice emerges from Mount Horeb and says: The entire world is sustained bythe merit of bḤaninaben Dosa, bmy son, andfor bḤanina, my son, a ikavof carobs is sufficientto sustain him for an entire week, bfromone bShabbat eve tothe next bShabbat eve. /b, bAndthis exegesis bdisagrees withthe opinion of bRav Yehuda, as Rav Yehuda said, who are the stubborn-hearted?They are the bfoolishheathens bof Gova’ei. Rav Yosef said: Knowthat this is so, bas no convert has ever converted from theirranks.,Similarly, bRav Ashi said:The heathen residents bofthe city bMata Meḥasya are the stubborn-hearted, as they witness the glory of the Torah twice a yearat the ikallagatherings in Adar and Elul, when thousands of people congregate and study Torah ien masse /i, byet no convert has ever converted from theirranks.,We learned in our mishna that bif a groom wishes to recite iShemaon the first night of his marriage, he may do so, and Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel prohibited doing so because of the appearance of presumptuousness.,The Gemara asks: bIs that to say that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel is concerned about presumptuousness and the Rabbis are not concerned about presumptuousness? Didn’t we learnthat btheysay bthe opposite? As we learnedin a mishna: bA place where they were accustomed to perform labor on Ninth of Av, onemay bperformlabor. bA place where they were accustomed not to performlabor on Ninth of Av, bonemay bnot performlabor. bAnd everywhere, Torah scholars are idleand do not perform labor. bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says:With regard to performing labor on the Ninth of Av, bone should always conduct himself as a Torah scholar. /b,If so, bthere is a contradiction betweenthe statement of bthe Rabbishere bandthe statement of bthe Rabbisthere. And, bthere is a contradiction betweenthe statement of bRabban Shimon ben Gamlielhere bandthe statement of bRabban Shimon ben Gamlielthere., bRabbi Yoḥa said: The attributionof the opinions bis reversedin one of the sources in the interest of avoiding contradiction. bRav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, said: Actually,you need bnot reversethe opinions, as the contradiction between the statement of bthe Rabbishere bandthe statement of bthe Rabbisthere bis not difficult.In the case of bthe recitation of iShema /ion his wedding night, bsince everyone is reciting iShema band he is also reciting iShema /i, he is not conspicuous and bit does not appear as presumptuousness. Here,in the case of the Ninth of Av, however, bsince everyone is performing labor and he is not performing labor,his idleness is conspicuous and bappears as presumptuousness. /b,So too, the contradiction bbetweenthe statement of bRabban Shimon ben Gamlielhere bandthe statement of bRabban Shimon ben Gamlielthere bis not difficult. There,in the case of the recitation of iShemaon his wedding night, bthe matter is dependent upon hiscapacity to bconcentrate,and bit is clear to allthat bhe is unable to concentrate.Reciting iShemaunder those circumstances is a display of presumptuousness. bBut here,in the case of the Ninth of Av, bone who seeshim idle bsays: It isbecause bhe has no laborto perform. bGo out and see how many idle people there are in the marketplace,even on days when one is permitted to work. Consequently, his idleness is not conspicuous.,, strongMISHNA: /strong bOne whose deceasedrelative bis laid outunburied bbefore him is exempt from the recitation of iShema /i, fromthe iAmida bprayer, and fromthe mitzva to don bphylacteries, as well as allpositive bmitzvot mentioned in the Torah,until the deceased has been buried.,With regard to bthe pallbearers and their replacements and the replacements of their replacements, thoselocated bbefore the bierwho have not yet carried the deceased band thoselocated bafter the bier. Those before the bier who are neededto carry the bier bare exemptfrom reciting iShema /i; bwhile those after the bier,even if bthey arestill bneededto carry it, since they have already carried the deceased, they are bobligatedto recite iShema /i. However, both bthese and those are exempt fromreciting the iAmida bprayer,since they are preoccupied and are unable to focus and pray with the appropriate intent.,After bthey buried the deceased and returned, if theyhave sufficient time to bbeginto recite iShema band conclude before they arrive at the row,formed by those who attended the burial, through which the bereaved family will pass in order to receive consolation, bthey should begin. Ifthey do bnothave sufficient time to conclude reciting the entire iShema /i, then bthey should not begin. /b,And bthose standing in the row, thosein the binteriorrow, directly before whom the mourners will pass and who will console them, bare exemptfrom reciting iShema /i, while bthosein the bexteriorrow, who stand there only to show their respect, bare obligatedto recite iShema /i. bWomen, slaves and minors are exempt from the recitation of iShemaand from phylacteries, but are obligated in prayer, imezuzaand Grace after Meals. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong We learned in the mishna that one whose deceased relative is laid out before him is exempt from the recitation of iShemaand other positive mitzvot. The Gemara deduces: When the corpse is blaid out before him, yes,he is exempt, but when the corpse is bnotphysically blaid out before him, no,he is not exempt from these mitzvot.,The Gemara braises a contradictionfrom a ibaraita /i: bOne whose deceasedrelative bis laid out before him eats in another room. If he does not have another room, he eats in the house of a friend. If he does not have a friend’s houseavailable, bhe makes a partitionbetween him and the deceased band eats. If he does not have materialwith which bto make a partition, he averts his facefrom the dead and beats. Andin any case, bhe does not recline while he eats,as reclining is characteristic of a festive meal. bFurthermore, he neither eats meat nor drinks wine, and does not recitea bblessingbefore eating, band does notrecite the formula to binvitethe participants in the meal to join together in the Grace after Meals [ izimmun /i], i.e., he is exempt from the obligation of Grace after Meals.
50. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

57a. במאי דפסיק אנפשיה כל יומא מכנשי ליה לקיטמיה ודייני ליה וקלו ליה ומבדרו אשב ימי,אזל אסקיה לבלעם בנגידא אמר ליה מאן חשיב בההוא עלמא א"ל ישראל מהו לאידבוקי בהו א"ל (דברים כג, ז) לא תדרוש שלומם וטובתם כל הימים א"ל דיניה דההוא גברא במאי א"ל בשכבת זרע רותחת,אזל אסקיה [ליש"ו] בנגידא (לפושעי ישראל) א"ל מאן חשיב בההוא עלמא א"ל ישראל מהו לאדבוקי בהו א"ל טובתם דרוש רעתם לא תדרוש כל הנוגע בהן כאילו נוגע בבבת עינו,א"ל דיניה דההוא גברא במאי א"ל בצואה רותחת דאמר מר כל המלעיג על דברי חכמים נידון בצואה רותחת תא חזי מה בין פושעי ישראל לנביאי אומות העולם עובדי ע"ז,תניא אמר רבי אלעזר בא וראה כמה גדולה כחה של בושה שהרי סייע הקב"ה את בר קמצא והחריב את ביתו ושרף את היכלו:,אתרנגולא ואתרנגולתא חריב טור מלכא דהוו נהיגי כי הוו מפקי חתנא וכלתא מפקי קמייהו תרנגולא ותרנגולתא כלומר פרו ורבו כתרנגולים,יומא חד הוה קא חליף גונדא דרומאי שקלינהו מינייהו נפלו עלייהו מחונהו אתו אמרו ליה לקיסר מרדו בך יהודאי אתא עלייהו הוה בהו ההוא בר דרומא דהוה קפיץ מילא וקטיל בהו שקליה קיסר לתאגיה ואותביה אארעא אמר ריבוניה דעלמא כוליה אי ניחא לך לא תמסריה לההוא גברא לדידיה ולמלכותיה בידיה דחד גברא,אכשליה פומיה לבר דרומא ואמר (תהלים ס, יב) הלא אתה אלהים זנחתנו ולא תצא אלהים בצבאותינו דוד נמי אמר הכי דוד אתמוהי קא מתמה,על לבית הכסא אתא דרקונא שמטיה לכרכשיה ונח נפשיה אמר הואיל ואיתרחיש לי ניסא הא זימנא אישבקינהו שבקינהו ואזל איזדקור ואכלו ושתו ואדליקו שרגי עד דאיתחזי בליונא דגושפנקא ברחוק מילא אמר מיחדא קא חדו בי יהודאי הדר אתא עלייהו,א"ר אסי תלת מאה אלפי שליפי סייפא עיילו לטור. מלכא וקטלו בה תלתא יומי ותלתא לילוותא ובהך גיסא הלולי וחנגי ולא הוו ידעי הני בהני,(איכה ב, ב) בלע ה' ולא חמל את כל נאות יעקב כי אתא רבין אמר רבי יוחנן אלו ששים רבוא עיירות שהיו לו לינאי המלך בהר המלך דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב אסי ששים רבוא עיירות היו לו לינאי המלך בהר המלך וכל אחת ואחת היו בה כיוצאי מצרים חוץ משלש שהיו בהן כפלים כיוצאי מצרים,אלו הן כפר ביש כפר שיחליים כפר דכריא כפר ביש דלא יהבי ביתא לאושפיזא כפר שיחליים שהיתה פרנסתן מן שחליים כפר דכריא אמר רבי יוחנן שהיו נשותיהן יולדות זכרים תחלה ויולדות נקבה באחרונה ופוסקות,אמר עולא לדידי חזי לי ההוא אתרא ואפילו שיתין ריבוותא קני לא מחזיק אמר ליה ההוא צדוקי לרבי חנינא שקורי משקריתו אמר ליה (ירמיהו ג, יט) ארץ צבי כתיב בה מה צבי זה אין עורו מחזיק את בשרו אף ארץ ישראל בזמן שיושבין עליה רווחא ובזמן שאין יושבין עליה גמדא,רב מניומי בר חלקיה ורב חלקיה בר טוביה ורב הונא בר חייא הוו יתבי גבי הדדי אמרי אי איכא דשמיע ליה מילתא מכפר סכניא של מצרים לימא,פתח חד מינייהו ואמר מעשה בארוס וארוסתו שנשבו לבין העובדי כוכבים והשיאום זה לזה אמרה לו בבקשה ממך אל תגע בי שאין לי כתובה ממך ולא נגע בה עד יום מותו,וכשמת אמרה להן סיפדו לזה שפטפט ביצרו יותר מיוסף דאילו ביוסף לא הוה אלא חדא שעתא והאי כל יומא ויומא ואילו יוסף לאו בחדא מטה והאי בחדא מטה ואילו יוסף לאו אשתו והא אשתו,פתח אידך ואמר מעשה ועמדו ארבעים מודיות בדינר נחסר השער מודיא אחת ובדקו ומצאו אב ובנו שבאו על נערה מאורסה ביום הכפורים והביאום לבית דין וסקלום וחזר השער למקומו,פתח אידך ואמר מעשה באדם אחד שנתן עיניו באשתו לגרשה והיתה כתובתה מרובה מה עשה הלך וזימן את שושביניו והאכילן והשקן שיכרן והשכיבן על מיטה אחת והביא לובן ביצה והטיל ביניהן והעמיד להן עדים ובא לבית דין,היה שם זקן אחד מתלמידי שמאי הזקן ובבא בן בוטא שמו אמר להן כך מקובלני משמאי הזקן לובן ביצה סולד מן האור ושכבת זרע דוחה מן האור בדקו ומצאו כדבריו והביאוהו לב"ד והלקוהו והגבוהו כתובתה ממנו,א"ל אביי לרב יוסף ומאחר דהוו צדיקים כולי האי מאי טעמא איענוש א"ל משום דלא איאבול על ירושלים דכתיב (ישעיהו סו, י) שמחו את ירושלם וגילו בה כל אוהביה שישו אתה משוש כל המתאבלים עליה:,אשקא דריספק חריב ביתר דהוו נהיגי כי הוה מתיליד ינוקא שתלי ארזא ינוקתא שתלי תורניתא וכי הוו מינסבי קייצי להו ועבדו גננא יומא חד הוה קא חלפא ברתיה דקיסר אתבר שקא דריספק קצו ארזא ועיילו לה אתו נפול עלייהו מחונהו אתו אמרו ליה לקיסר מרדו בך יהודאי אתא עלייהו:,(איכה ב, ג) גדע בחרי אף כל קרן ישראל א"ר זירא א"ר אבהו א"ר יוחנן אלו שמונים [אלף] קרני מלחמה שנכנסו לכרך ביתר בשעה שלכדוה והרגו בה אנשים ונשים וטף עד שהלך דמן ונפל לים הגדול שמא תאמר קרובה היתה רחוקה היתה מיל,תניא רבי אליעזר הגדול אומר שני נחלים יש בבקעת ידים אחד מושך אילך ואחד מושך אילך ושיערו חכמים שני חלקים מים ואחד דם במתניתא תנא שבע שנים בצרו עובדי כוכבים את כרמיהן מדמן של ישראל בלא זבל 57a. bThat which he decreed against himself,as he undergoes the following: bEvery day his ashes are gathered, and they judge him, and they burn him, and they scatter him over the seven seas. /b,Onkelos then bwent and raised Balaamfrom the grave bthrough necromancy. He said to him: Who ismost bimportant in that worldwhere you are now? Balaam bsaid to him: The Jewish people.Onkelos asked him: bShould Ithen battachmyself bto themhere in this world? Balaam bsaid to him: You shall not seek their peace or their welfare all the days(see Deuteronomy 23:7). Onkelos bsaid to him: What is the punishment of that man,a euphemism for Balaam himself, in the next world? Balaam bsaid to him:He is cooked bin boiling semen,as he caused Israel to engage in licentious behavior with the daughters of Moab.,Onkelos then bwentand braised Jesus the Nazarenefrom the grave bthrough necromancy.Onkelos bsaid to him: Who ismost bimportant in that worldwhere you are now? Jesus bsaid to him: The Jewish people.Onkelos asked him: bShould Ithen battachmyself bto themin this world? Jesus bsaid to him: Their welfare you shall seek, their misfortune you shall not seek,for banyone who touches them isregarded bas if he were touching the apple of his eye(see Zechariah 2:12).,Onkelos bsaid to him: What is the punishment of that man,a euphemism for Jesus himself, in the next world? Jesus bsaid to him:He is punished bwith boiling excrement. As the Master said: Anyone who mocks the words of the Sages will be sentenced to boiling excrement.And this was his sin, as he mocked the words of the Sages. The Gemara comments: bComeand bsee the difference between the sinners of Israel and the prophets of the nations of the world.As Balaam, who was a prophet, wished Israel harm, whereas Jesus the Nazarene, who was a Jewish sinner, sought their well-being.,To conclude the story of Kamtza and bar Kamtza and the destruction of Jerusalem, the Gemara cites a ibaraita /i. It bis taught: Rabbi Elazar says: Come and see how great is the power of shame, for the Holy One, Blessed be He, assisted bar Kamtza,who had been humiliated, banddue to this humiliation and shame bHe destroyed His Temple and burned His Sanctuary. /b,§ It was previously mentioned (55b) that the place known as bthe King’s Mountain [ iTur Malka /i] was destroyed on account of a rooster and a hen.The details of what happened are as follows: bIt was customaryin that place bthat when they would lead a bride and groomto their wedding, bthey would take out a rooster and a hen before them,as if bto sayin the manner of a good omen: bBe fruitful and multiply like chickens. /b, bOne day a troop [ igunda /i] of Romansoldiers bpassed bythere while a wedding was taking place band tookthe rooster and hen bfrom them.The residents of the city bfell upon them and beat them.The soldiers bcame and said to the emperor: The Jews have rebelled against you.The emperor then bcame against themin war. Among the residents of the King’s Mountain bthere was a certain mannamed bbar Deroma who could jumpthe distance of ba imil /i, and he killedmany of the Romans, who were powerless to stand up against him. bThe emperorthen btook his crown and set it on the groundas a sign of mourning. bHe said: Master of the Universe, if it is pleasing to You, do not give over that man,a euphemism for himself, band his kingdom into the hands ofonly bone man. /b,In the end it was the words issuing from bhisown bmouththat bcaused bar Deroma to stumble, as he utteredthis verse in complaint against God: b“Have You not rejected us, O God, so that You go not forth, O God, with our hosts?”(Psalms 60:12). The Gemara asks: But did not bDavid also say this?The Gemara answers: bDavid utteredthese words bas a question,wondering whether they were true, whereas bar Deroma pronounced them as a statement of fact.,The Gemara recounts what happened to bar Deroma: bHe entered an outhouse, a snake cameand beviscerated him, and he died.The emperor bsaid: Since a miracle was performed for me,as I had no part in bar Deroma’s death, bI will letthe rest of the people bbe this timeand take no further action against them. bHe let them be and wenton his way. bThey leaptabout, bate, drank, and litso many bcandlesin celebration bthat the image [ ibilyona /i]imprinted bon a seal [ igushpanka /i] was visible from a distance of a imil /i.The emperor then bsaid: The Jews are rejoicing over me.So bhe went backand bcame against them. /b, bRav Asi says: Three hundred thousand men with drawn swords entered the King’s Mountain and massacredits inhabitants bfor three days and three nights. Andat the same time bonthe other bsideof the mountain, bweddings andother bfestivitiescontinued to be celebrated, band they did not know about each other,owing to the enormous size of the place.,§ Concerning the verse: b“The Lord has swallowed up without pity all the habitations of Jacob”(Lamentations 2:2), it is related that bwhen Ravin camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia bhesaid that bRabbi Yoḥa says: Thisis referring to the bsix hundred thousand citiesthat bKing Yannai had in the King’s Mountain.As bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav Asi says: King Yannai had six hundred thousand cities in the King’s Mountain, and each of themhad a population as great basthe number of bthose who left Egypt, except for threeof those cities, the population of which bwas doublethe number of bthose who left Egypt. /b, bTheseare bthosethree cities: bKefar Bish, Kefar Shiḥalayim, and Kefar Dikhrayya.The Gemara explains the meaning of these place-names. bKefar Bish,Evil Town, was called by that name because its inhabitants bwould not opentheir bhouses to guests. Kefar Shiḥalayimwas referred to by that name because btheir livelihood wasderived bfromthe cultivation of bcress [ ishaḥalayim /i].As for bKefar Dikhrayya,Town of Males, bRabbi Yoḥa says: Their women would first give birth to boys, and afterward give birth to girls, andthen bthey would stophaving children., bUlla said: I myself saw that place, and it could not hold even six hundred thousand reeds,all the more so that number of people. bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Ḥanina: You liewith your exorbitant exaggerations. Rabbi Ḥanina bsaid to him: With regard toEretz Yisrael bit is written: Land of the deer(see Jeremiah 3:19). bJust as the skin of a deer cannot hold its flesh,for after the animal is skinned, its hide shrinks, bso too,with regard to bEretz Yisrael, when it is settled, it expands, but when it is not settled, it contracts.This explains how a place that is so small today could have been so highly populated prior to the Temple’s destruction.,§ The Gemara relates that bRav Minyumi bar Ḥilkiya, Rav Ḥilkiya bar Toviya, and Rav Huna bar Ḥiyya wereonce bsitting together. They said: If there is someone who has heard anything about Kefar Sekhanya of Egypt,which was in that region, blet him relateit., bOne of them beganthe discussion band said:There was ban incident involving a betrothed man and womanfrom there bwho were taken captive by gentiles andthe latter bmarried them off to each other.The woman bsaid tothe man: bPlease do not touch me, as I do not have a marriage contract from you,and it is prohibited for us to live together without one. bAnd untilthe day of bhis deaththe man bdid not touchthe woman., bAnd when he diedwithout having touched her, the woman bsaid tothe Sages: bEulogize thisman bwho conquered [ ishepitpet /i] his passion [ ibeyitzro /i] more than Joseph. Asin the case of bJoseph it was only for a short timethat he had to overpower his inclination and resist Potiphar’s wife (see Genesis, chapter 39), bwhereas thisman struggled with his passion beach and every day.Furthermore, bJosephwas bnot in one bedwith Potiphar’s wife, bwhereas thisman was bin one bedwith his wife. In addition, with bJosephthe woman was bnot his wife, whereaswith bthisman she was bhis wife,as she was already betrothed to him., bAnotherSage bbeganhis remarks band said: It once happened thatthe market price of bforty ise’a /iof grain bstood at one dinar.And then bthe rate went down one ise’a[ imodeya /i],so that only thirty-nine ise’awere sold for a dinar. bAnd they checkedto see what sin had caused this, band they found a father and son who had engaged in sexual intercourse with a betrothed young woman on Yom Kippur. They broughtthe offenders bto court and stoned them, and the rate returned to itsformer blevel. /b,Yet banotherSage bbeganhis remarks band said:There was ban incidentthere binvolving a man who set his eyes upon his wife to divorce her, but her marriage contract was largeand he wished to avoid having to pay it. bWhat did he do? He went and invited his friends, gave them food and drink, made them drunk, and layhis friends and his wife bin one bed. Hethen bbrought the white of an egg,which has the appearance of semen, band placed iton the sheet bbetween them. Hethen bstood witnesses over themso that they could offer testimony, band went to courtclaiming that his wife had committed adultery., bA certain Elder of the disciples of Shammai the Elder was there, and Bava ben Butawas bhis name. He said to them: This isthe tradition that bI received from Shammai the Elder: Egg whiteon a bedsheet bcontractsand hardens when heated bby fire, whereas semen is absorbedinto the sheet bby the fire. They checkedthe matter band found in accordance with his statementthat the substance on the sheet was not semen but egg white. bTheythen bbroughtthe husband bto court, administered lashes to him, and made him payhis wife’s bmarriage contractin full., bAbaye said to Rav Yosef: But sincethose in the city bwere so righteous, what is the reason that they were punishedand destroyed? Rav Yosef bsaid to him:It is bbecause they did not mourn for Jerusalem, as it is written: “Rejoice with Jerusalem, and be glad with her, all you that love her, rejoice with joy with her, all you that did mourn for her”(Isaiah 66:10). The verse teaches that one who mourns for Jerusalem will rejoice in its rebuilding, and one who fails to mourn for Jerusalem is destroyed.,§ It was stated earlier that the city of bBeitar was destroyed on account of a shaft from a carriage.The Gemara explains that bit was customaryin Beitar that bwhen a boy was born they would plant a cedartree and when ba girlwas born they bwould plant a cypress [ itornita /i]. And when they wouldlater bmarryeach other bthey would cutdown these trees band constructa wedding bcanopyfor them with their branches. bOne day the emperor’s daughter passed bythere and bthe shaft of the carriagein which she was riding bbroke.Her attendants bchopped down a cedarfrom among those trees band brought it to her.Owing to the importance that they attached to their custom, the residents of Beitar bcameand bfell upon them and beat them.The attendants bcameand bsaid to the emperor: The Jews have rebelled against you.The emperor then bcame against themin war.,It was in connection with the war that ensued that the Sages expounded the following verse: b“He has cut off in His fierce anger all the horn of Israel”(Lamentations 2:3). bRabbi Zeira saysthat bRabbi Abbahu saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: These are the eighty thousandofficers bearing bbattle trumpetsin their hands, bwho entered the city of Beitar whenthe enemy btook it and killed men, women, and children until their blood flowed into the Great Sea. Lest you saythat the city bwas closeto the sea, know that bit was a imilaway. /b, bIt issimilarly btaughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer the Great says: There are two rivers in the Yadayim Valleyin that region, bone flowing one way and one flowing the other way. And the Sages estimatedthat in the aftermath of this war these rivers were filled with btwo parts water to one part blood.Likewise, bit was taught in a ibaraita /i: For seven years the gentiles harvested their vineyardsthat had been soaked bwith the blood of Israel withoutrequiring any additional bfertilizer. /b
51. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

103a. בגלל מנשה דלא עבד תשובה,א"ר יוחנן כל האומר מנשה אין לו חלק לעוה"ב מרפה ידיהן של בעלי תשובה דתני תנא קמיה דר' יוחנן מנשה עשה תשובה (ל) שלשים ושלש שנים דכתיב (מלכים ב כא, א) בן שתים עשרה שנה מנשה במלכו וחמשים וחמש שנה מלך בירושלים ויעש (הרע) [אשרה] כאשר עשה אחאב מלך ישראל כמה מלך אחאב עשרין ותרתין שנין מנשה כמה מלך חמשים וחמש דל מינייהו עשרים ותרתין פשו להו תלתין ותלת,א"ר יוחנן משום רשב"י מאי דכתי' (דברי הימים ב לג, יג) וישמע אליו ויחתר לו ויעתר לו מיבעי ליה מלמד שעשה לו הקב"ה כמין מחתרת ברקיע כדי לקבלו בתשובה מפני מדת הדין,וא"ר יוחנן משום רשב"י מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו כו, א) בראשית ממלכות יהויקים בן יאשיהו וכתיב (ירמיהו כח, א) בראשית ממלכת צדקיה וכי עד האידנא לא הוו מלכי,אלא בקש הקב"ה להחזיר את העולם כולו לתוהו ובוהו בשביל יהויקים נסתכל בדורו ונתקררה דעתו,בקש הקב"ה להחזיר את העולם כולו לתוהו ובוהו בשביל דורו של צדקיה נסתכל בצדקיה ונתקררה דעתו בצדקיה נמי כתיב (מלכים ב כד, ט) ויעש הרע בעיני ה' שהיה בידו למחות ולא מיחה,וא"ר יוחנן משום רשב"י מאי דכתיב (משלי כט, ט) איש חכם נשפט את איש אויל ורגז ושחק ואין נחת אמר הקב"ה כעסתי על אחז ונתתיו ביד מלכי דמשק זיבח וקיטר [לאלהיהם] שנאמר (דברי הימים ב כח, כג) ויזבח לאלהי דרמשק המכים בו ויאמר [כי] אלהי מלכי ארם הם מעזרים אותם להם אזבח ויעזרוני והם היו [לו] להכשילו ולכל ישראל,שחקתי עם אמציה ונתתי מלכי אדום בידו הביא אלהיהם והשתחוה להם שנאמר (דברי הימים ב כה, יד) ויהי אחרי (כן) בא אמציה מהכות את אדומים ויבא את אלהי בני שעיר ויעמידם [לו] לאלהים ולפניהם ישתחוה ולהם יקטר אמר רב פפא היינו דאמרי אינשי בכיי ליה למר דלא ידע חייכי למר דלא ידע ווי ליה למר דלא ידע בין טב לביש,(ירמיהו לט, ג) ויבאו כל [שרי] מלך בבל (ויבאו) [וישבו] בשער התוך א"ר יוחנן משום רשב"י מקום שמחתכין בו הלכות אמר רב פפא היינו דאמרי אינשי באתרא דמריה תלא ליה זייניה תמן קולבא רעיא קולתיה תלא,(סימן על שדה בתים לא תאונה),אמר רב חסדא אמר רבי ירמיה בר אבא מאי דכתיב (משלי כד, ל) על שדה איש עצל עברתי ועל כרם אדם חסר לב והנה עלה כולו קמשונים כסו פניו חרולים וגדר אבניו נהרסה על שדה איש עצל עברתי זה אחז ועל כרם אדם חסר לב זה מנשה והנה עלה כולו קמשונים זה אמון כסו פניו חרולים זה יהויקים וגדר אבניו נהרסה זה צדקיהו שנחרב בית המקדש בימיו,ואמר רב חסדא אמר רבי ירמיה בר אבא ארבע כיתות אין מקבלות פני שכינה כת לצים כת שקרנים כת חניפים כת מספרי לשון הרע כת לצים דכתיב (הושע ז, ה) משך ידו את לוצצים כת שקרנים דכתיב (תהלים קא, ז) דובר שקרים לא יכון לנגד עיני כת חניפים דכתיב (איוב יג, טז) כי לא לפניו חנף יבוא כת מספרי לשון הרע דכתיב (תהלים ה, ה) כי לא אל חפץ רשע אתה לא יגורך רע צדיק אתה ולא יהיה במגורך רע,ואמר רב חסדא אמר רבי ירמיה בר אבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים צא, י) לא תאונה אליך רעה ונגע לא יקרב באהלך לא תאונה אליך רעה שלא ישלוט) בהן יצר הרע ונגע לא יקרב באהלך שלא תמצא אשתך ספק נדה בשעה שתבא מן הדרך,דבר אחר לא תאונה אליך רעה שלא יבעתוך חלומות רעים והרהורים רעים ונגע לא יקרב באהלך שלא יהא לך בן או תלמיד שמקדיח תבשילו ברבים [כגון ישו הנוצרי],עד כאן ברכו אביו מכאן ואילך ברכתו אמו (תהלים צא, יא) כי מלאכיו יצוה לך לשמרך בכל דרכיך על כפים ישאונך וגו' על שחל ופתן תדרוך וגו',עד כאן ברכתו אמו מכאן ואילך ברכתו שמים 103a. b“on account of Manasseh”means bbecause he did not repent,and the people followed in his footsteps., bRabbi Yoḥa says: Anyone who saysthat bManasseh has no share in the World-to-Come discourages penitents,as Manasseh repented and according to them is nevertheless excluded from the World-to-Come. bAsthe itannataughta ibaraita bbefore Rabbi Yoḥa: Manasseh repented for thirty-three years, as it is written: “Manasseh was twelve years old when he began to reign, and he reigned fifty-five years in Jerusalem…And he did that which was evil…And he made an iashera /i, as did Ahab king of Israel”(II Kings 21:1–3). bHow manyyears bdid Ahab reign?He reigned btwenty-two years. How manyyears bdid Manasseh reign?He reigned bfifty-fiveyears. bDeduct from themthe btwenty-twoyears during which he performed evil like Ahab, and bthirty-threeyears bremain for himto have repented., bRabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “And he prayed to Him; and He made an opening for him”(II Chronicles 33:13)? Instead: bAnd He received his entreaty, should have beenwritten. Rather, this bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, crafted for him a type of opening in Heaven in order to accept him in repentance.It was necessary for Manasseh to enter the World-to-Come in a clandestine manner, bdue to the attribute of justicethat sought to prevent his entry by claiming that his sentence was irreversible.,§ bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “In the beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim, son of Josiah”(Jeremiah 26:1), band it is written: “In the beginning of the reign of Zedekiah”(Jeremiah 28:1). bBut is it sothat buntil now there were no kings?Why did the prophet use the term “in the beginning” exclusively with regard to these two kings, as opposed to: During the first year of his reign, or a similar formulation?, bRather,the reason for the unusual formulation is that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to restore the entire world to chaos and void,as it was in the beginning before Creation, bon account of Jehoiakimthe wicked; but bHe observedJehoiakim’s bgeneration,which included the righteous who had not yet been exiled to Babylonia, band His mind was set at ease.The term “in the beginning” is used to signify that it is as though the world had been created anew.,Likewise, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to restore the entire world to chaos and void,as it was in the beginning before Creation, bon account of the generation of Zedekiah,as only the wicked remained after the exile of the righteous; but bHe observed Zedekiah and His mind was set at ease.The Gemara asks: bWith regard to Zedekiah it is also written: “And he did evil in the eyes of the Lord”(II Kings 24:19); why was God’s mind set at ease? The Gemara answers: Zedekiah was not wicked; rather, bhe hadit bin his power to rebukethe people of his generation band he did not rebukethem. Therefore, their sins are attributed to him., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “If a wise man contends with a foolish man, whether he is angry or laughs, there is no rest”(Proverbs 29:9)? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I was angry with Ahaz and I delivered him into the hand of the kings of Damascus. Hethen bsacrificedofferings band burnedincense bto their gods, as it is stated: “He sacrificed to the gods of Damascus that smote him; and he said: Because the gods of the kings of Aram help them, I will sacrifice to them, and they will help me. But they were the ruin of him, and of all Israel”(II Chronicles 28:23). When the Holy One, Blessed be He, was angry with Israel and caused them to lose a war to prompt them to repent of their sins, their response was to worship idols., bI smiled upon Amaziah and I delivered the kings of Edom into his hand.In response, bhe brought their gods and bowed to them, as it is stated: “And it came to pass after Amaziah came from striking the Edomites, that he brought the gods of the children of Seir and set them up to be his gods and prostrated himself before them, and burned incense to them”(II Chronicles 25:14). The response to victory in war was the same, idol worship. They are incorrigible. bRav Pappa saysthat bthisis in accordance with the adage bthat people say: I cried for the master and he did not know, I smiled for the master and he did not know; woe unto the master who does not knowthe distinction bbetween good and bad.The Jewish people also resorted to idol worship both when God rewarded them and when He afflicted them.,With regard to the verse: b“And all the princes of the king of Babylonia came in and sat in the middle gate [ isha’ar hattavekh /i]”(Jeremiah 39:3), bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: iSha’ar hattavekhwas bthe place in which theywould bdecide [ imeḥattekhin /i] ihalakhot /i. Rav Pappa saysthat bthisis in accordance with the adage bthat people say: In the place that the masterof the house bhangs his weapons, there the despicable shepherd hangs his jug.In the place where the Sanhedrin convened, Nebuchadnezzar the wicked and his princes now assemble.,§ The Gemara cites ba mnemonicfor the following statements that Rav Ḥisda said that Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba said: bBy the field, houses, shall not befall. /b, bRav Ḥisda saysthat bRabbi Yirmeya bar Abba says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “I passed by the field of an indolent man, and by the vineyard of a man void of understanding; and behold, it was overgrown with thistles, and its surface was covered with nettles, and its stone wall was broken”(Proverbs 24:30–31)? The verse describes the spiritual and political decline of the kings of Judea. b“I passed by the field of an indolent man”; thisis a reference to bAhaz. “And by the vineyard of a man void of understanding”; thisis a reference to bManasseh. “And behold, it was overgrown with thistles”; thisis a reference to bAmon. “And its surface was covered with nettles”; thisis a reference to bJehoiakim. “And its stone wall was broken”; thisis a reference to bZedekiah, in whose days the Temple was destroyed. /b,Apropos the previous statement, the Gemara cites an additional statement. bAnd Rav Ḥisda saysthat bRabbi Yirmeya bar Abba saysthat bfour groups do not receive the Divine Presence:This pertains to bthe group of cynics, the group of liars, the group of flatterers,and bthe group of slanderers.This pertains to bthe group of cynics, as it is written: “He withdrew His hand with cynics”(Hosea 7:5), indicating that God distanced Himself from them. This pertains to bthe group of liars, as it is written: “He that speaks falsehoods shall not be established before My eyes”(Psalms 101:7). This pertains to bthe group of flatterers, as it is written: “That a flatterer shall not come before Him”(Job 13:16). This pertains to bthe group of slanderers, as it is stated: “For You are not a God who desires wickedness; evil shall not dwell with You”(Psalms 5:5), which means: bYou are righteous, and there will be noform of bevil in Your dwelling. /b, bAnd Rav Ḥisda saysthat bRabbi Yirmeya bar Abba says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “No evil shall befall you, nor shall any plague come near your tent”(Psalms 91:10)? b“No evil shall befall you”means bthat the evil inclination shall not dominate them. “Nor shall any plague come near your tent”means bthat you will never find your wifein a state of buncertaintywhether she has the halakhic status of ba menstruating woman when you return from a journey.After a period of separation, when a husband desires his wife, her uncertain status may prove more frustrating than a situation where the prohibition is clear-cut., bAlternatively,the phrase b“no evil shall befall you”means bthat you will be frightened neither by bad dreams nor by evil thoughts. “Nor shall any plague come near your tent”means bthat you will not have a child or student who overcooks his food in public,i.e., sins in public and causes others to sin, bsuch asin the well-known case of bJesus the Nazarene. /b, bUntil this pointin the psalm, Solomon’s bfather,David, bblessed him,as these are blessings appropriate for a father to bless his son. bFrom thispoint bforward, his mother blessed him,as these are blessings appropriate for a mother to bless her son. b“For he shall order His angels to preserve you in all your ways. They shall bear you on their hands,lest they dash your foot against a stone. bYou shall tread upon the lion and the adder;the young lion and the crocodile shall you trample under foot” (Psalms 91:11–13)., bUntil this pointin the psalm, bhis mother blessed him. From thispoint bforward,God in bHeaven blessed him,as the psalm proceeds to refer to God in the first person, as though speaking in His name:
52. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

27b. וחלקום והעמידום על עשרים וארבעה בללום ונתנום בקלפי בא ידעיה ונטל חלקו וחלק חבריו שש בא [חרים] ונטל חלקו וחלק חבריו שש וכן פשחור וכן אימר,וכן התנו נביאים שביניהם שאפי' (יהוידיב) ראש משמרת עולה לא ידחה ידעיה ממקומו אלא ידעיה עיקר (ויהוידיב) טפל לו:,וישראל שבאותו משמר מתכנסין בעריהן וקורין במעשה בראשית: מנהני מילי א"ר יעקב בר אחא אמר רב אסי אלמלא מעמדות לא נתקיימו שמים וארץ שנאמר (בראשית טו, ב) ויאמר ה' אלהים במה אדע כי אירשנה,אמר אברהם רבש"ע שמא ישראל חוטאין לפניך אתה עושה להם כדור המבול וכדור הפלגה א"ל לאו אמר לפניו רבש"ע הודיעני במה אירשנה א"ל (בראשית טו, ט) קחה לי עגלה משולשת ועז משולשת וגו',אמר לפניו רבש"ע תינח בזמן שבית המקדש קיים בזמן שאין בית המקדש קיים מה תהא עליהם אמר לו כבר תקנתי להם סדר קרבנות בזמן שקוראין בהן לפני מעלה אני עליהם כאילו הקריבום לפני ואני מוחל להם על כל עונותיהם,ת"ר אנשי משמר היו מתפללין על קרבן אחיהם שיתקבל ברצון ואנשי מעמד מתכנסין לבית הכנסת ויושבין ד' תעניות בשני בשבת בשלישי ברביעי ובחמישי בשני על יורדי הים בשלישי על הולכי מדברות,ברביעי על אסכרא שלא תיפול על התינוקות בחמישי על עוברות ומיניקות עוברות שלא יפילו מיניקות שיניקו את בניהם ובערב שבת לא היו מתענין מפני כבוד השבת ק"ו בשבת עצמה,באחד בשבת מ"ט לא אמר ר' יוחנן מפני הנוצרים ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר מפני שהוא שלישי ליצירה,ריש לקיש אמר מפני נשמה יתירה דאמר ריש לקיש נשמה יתירה ניתנה בו באדם בע"ש במוצאי שבת נוטלין אותה ממנו שנאמר (שמות לא, יז) שבת וינפש כיון ששבת וי אבדה נפש:,ביום הראשון בראשית ויהי רקיע: תנא בראשית בשנים יהי רקיע באחד בשלמא יהי רקיע באחד תלתא פסוקי הוו אלא בראשית בשנים (מ"ט) ה' פסוקי הויין (ותנן) הקורא בתורה אל יפחות מג' פסוקים,רב אמר דולג ושמואל אמר פוסק ורב דאמר דולג מ"ט לא אמר פוסק קסבר כל פסוקא דלא פסקיה משה אנן לא פסקינן ליה,ושמואל אמר פוסק ומי פסקינן והאמר רבי חנינא קרא צער גדול היה לי אצל ר' חנינא הגדול ולא התיר לי לפסוק אלא לתינוקות של בית רבן הואיל ולהתלמד עשוין ושמואל התם טעמא מאי משום דלא אפשר הכא נמי לא אפשר,ושמואל אמר פוסק מ"ט לא אמר דולג גזירה משום הנכנסין וגזירה משום היוצאין,מיתיבי פרשה של ששה פסוקים קורין אותה בשנים ושל חמשה [ביחיד ואם] הראשון קורא ג' השני קורא שנים מפרשה זו ואחד מפרשה אחרת וי"א ג' לפי שאין מתחילין בפרשה פחות משלשה פסוקין,למ"ד דולג לידלוג ולמאן דאמר פוסק ליפסוק שאני התם 27b. band divided them and established them as twenty-fourwatches. They achieved this by writing the names of these new twenty-four watches on pieces of paper, bmixing them up, and putting them in a receptacle [ ikalfei /i]from which lots were drawn. A representative from the family of bJedaiah came and drew his portion and the lot offive botherwatches, for a total of bsix. Harim came andalso bdrew his portion and the lot offive botherwatches, a total of bsix. And likewise Pashhur, and likewise Immer. /b, bAnd likewise the prophets among them stipulated that evenif the descendants of bJehoiarib, whooriginally bheaded the priestly watches, ascendedto Eretz Yisrael, bJedaiah would not be demoted from its placeas the first of the watches. Rather, the watch of bJedaiahwould retain bprecedence, and Jehoiaribwould be bsubordinate to it. /b,§ The mishna taught: bAnd the Israelites of that priestly watch assembled in their towns and read the act of Creation.The Gemara asks: bFrom where is this matter,that they must read this specific portion, derived? bRabbi Ya’akov bar Aḥa saidthat bRav Asi said: Were it not forthe bnon-priestly watchesand the Temple service, bheaven and earth would not continue to exist, as it is stated: “And he said: Lord God, by what shall I know that I shall inherit it?”(Genesis 15:8).,The Gemara explains this verse. bAbraham said: Master of the Universe, perhaps the Jewswill bsin before You.Will bYou treat them asYou did bthe generation of the flood and the generation of the dispersion,and destroy them? God bsaid to him: No.Abraham bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, tell me, with what shall I inherit it?How can my descendants ensure that You will maintain the world? God bsaid toAbraham: b“Take for Me a three-year-old heifer, and a three-year-old goat,and a three-year-old ram, and a turtledove, and a young pigeon” (Genesis 15:9). God was alluding to the offerings, in whose merit the Jewish people, and through them the entire world, will be spared divine punishment.,Abraham bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe,this bworks out well when the Temple is standing,but bwhen the Temple is not standing, what will become of them?God bsaid to him: I have already enacted for them the order of offerings. When they read them before Me, I will ascribe themcredit bas though they had sacrificed them before Me and I will pardon them for all their transgressions.Since the offerings ensure the continued existence of the Jewish people and the rest of the world, the act of Creation is read in their honor.,§ bThe Sages taught: The members of the priestly watch would pray for the offerings of their brothers,the daily offering, bthat it should be accepted with favor. Andmeanwhile, bthe members ofthe bnon-priestly watchremained in their towns and would bassemble in the synagogue and observe four fasts: On Monday ofthat bweek, on Tuesday, on Wednesday, and on Thursday. On Mondaythey would fast bfor seafarers,that they should be rescued from danger, as the sea was created on Monday. bOn Tuesdaythey would fast bfor those who walk in the desert,as the dry land was created on Tuesday., bOn Wednesdaythey would fast bover croup, that it should not befall the children,as on the fourth day the bodies of light [ ime’orot /i] were created, a textual allusion to curses [ ime’erot /i]. bOn Thursdaythey would fast bfor pregt women and nursing women,as living beings were first created on this day. For bpregt womenthey would fast bthat they should not miscarry,while for bnursing womenthey would fast bthat theyshould be able to bnurse their childrenproperly. bAnd on Shabbat eve they would not fast, in deference to Shabbat,and ia fortiori /ithey would not fast bon Shabbat itself. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat they would bnotfast bon Sunday? Rabbi Yoḥa said: Due to the Christians,as Sunday is their day of rest, and they would claim that even the Jews ascribe significance to their special day. bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: Because it is the third day after the creationof man, who was created on Friday, and the third day of recovery from a wound or sickness, in this case one’s very creation, is considered the most painful., bReish Lakish said:They would not fast on Sunday bdue to the added soul, as Reish Lakish said: An added soul is given to man on Shabbat eve,and bat the conclusion of Shabbat it is removed it from him, as it is stated: “He ceased from work and rested[ivayinafash/b]” (Exodus 31:17), which he expounds as follows: bSince one has restedand Shabbat has passed, bwoe for the soul [ ivai nefesh /i]that is blost,the added soul that each individual relinquishes. Consequently, one is still weak from this loss on Sunday.,The mishna taught that bon Sundaythey would read the portions starting with: b“In the beginning”(Genesis 1:1–5) band “Let there be a firmament”(Genesis 1:6–8). It bis taughtin a ibaraita /i: The section: b“In the beginning”is read bby twopeople, while b“Let there be a firmament”is read bby one.The Gemara asks: bGranted,the passage b“Let there be a firmament”is read bby oneindividual, as bit is three verseslong, and one who is called to the Torah reads at least three verses. bHowever, what is the reasonthat the section b“In the beginning”is read bby twoindividuals? It is five verses long, band it is taughtin a mishna ( iMegilla22a): bOne who reads from the Torahmay bnotread bfewer than three verses.How, then, are five verses read by two individuals?,The Gemara cites two answers. bRav said:The first reader reads the first three verses, and the second reader brepeatsthe last verse read by the first, and continues with the final two verses. bAnd Shmuel said:They bsplitthe middle verse into two, so that each of the pair reads half of it. The Gemara asks: bAndwith regard to bRav, who saidthat one brepeats, what is the reasonthat bhe did not saythey should bsplita verse? The Gemara answers that Rav bmaintainsthat with regard to bany verse that was not divided by Moses, we do not divide it. /b, bAnd Shmuel saidthat one bsplitsthe middle verse into two. The Gemara asks: bAnd may one splita single verse? bBut didn’t Rabbi Ḥanina Kara,the Bible expert, who taught the Bible to schoolchildren, bsay: I had great trouble with Rabbi Ḥanina the Greatwhen I asked him this question, band he permitted me to splitlong verses into two bonly forthe benefit of bschoolchildren, since it is performed tohelp them blearn. And Shmuelcan respond that bwhat is the reason there,in the case of schoolchildren, that it is permitted to split verses? bBecause it is not possibleto proceed in any other way. bHere too, it is not possiblefor two people to read five verses other than by splitting one of them into two.,The Gemara questions this last conclusion. bAnd Shmuel saidthat one bsplitsthe middle verse into two. bWhat is the reasonthat bhe did not saythat he brepeatsone of the verses, in accordance with the opinion of Rav? The Gemara explains: It is a rabbinic bdecree due to those who enterthe synagogue in the middle of the reading, and ba decree due to those who leavein the middle. If someone entered or exited in the middle of the reading and heard three full verses, he might think that one of the readers had read fewer than three full verses, which might lead him to conclude that it is permitted to read fewer than three verses.,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom a ibaraita /i: bA chapterconsisting bof six versesmay bbe read by twoindividuals, banda chapter bof fiveverses must be read bby one. And if the firstindividual breads threeverses from the five-verse chapter, bthe secondone reads the last btwoverses bof that chapter and onemore from banother chapter. And some saythat bthreeverses are read from the next chapter, bas one may not begin to read a chapterfor bfewer than three verses. /b,The Gemara explains the objection: bAccording to the one who saidthat they brepeatthe middle verse, bletthe second reader brepeata verse here as well. bAnd according to the one who saidthat they bsplita verse, here too, bletthem bsplitit. Apparently, the ibaraitacontradicts the opinions of both Rav and Shmuel. The Gemara answers: bIt is different there, /b
53. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 2.23.13-2.23.14 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

2.23.13. And he answered with a loud voice, 'Why do you ask me concerning Jesus, the Son of Man? He himself sits in heaven at the right hand of the great Power, and is about to come upon the clouds of heaven.' 2.23.14. And when many were fully convinced and gloried in the testimony of James, and said, 'Hosanna to the Son of David,' these same Scribes and Pharisees said again to one another, 'We have done badly in supplying such testimony to Jesus. But let us go up and throw him down, in order that they may be afraid to believe him.'
54. Papyri, Papyri Graecae Magicae, 8.8-8.21 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

55. Epigraphy, Cij, 694



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
1, peter Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 34
abraham DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 254
acts, canonical Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 217, 218
acts coherence of Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 18, 19, 74
acts of the apostles Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 103
alexandria Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 130
ananus b. ananus Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 147
angels Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 103
animals Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 666
antioch of pisidia Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 12
antiochene source Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 19
antiphonal psalms Mendez, The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr (2022) 66, 67
apocalypticism, apocalypse Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 103
apokalypto/apokalypsis Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 103
apostasy Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 380
apostles Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 217
apotropaic, incantations Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 103
aquila Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 12, 69
armenian lectionary Mendez, The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr (2022) 66, 67
astray, to lead/go/wander Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 380
attridge, harold w. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 320
avengement/vengeance/vindication/wrath (gods) Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 194
bammel, ernst Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 320
banishment Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 12, 69
barrett, c. k. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 320
bastards giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 666
bauckham, richard Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 320
beasts, fourth beast in daniel Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 380
blood Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 94, 141
body Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 289
body of christ Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 92, 94, 141
books, of noah Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 666
breath, as holy spirit Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 289
breath Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 289
brothers Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 217
children/offspring, as addressees Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 380
children/offspring, of noah Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 666
children Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 103
christianity, and greek/pagan religion, and judaism Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 229
christians, gentile, in the jewish temple Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 229
christology Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 141
church Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 92
church of lazarus (lazarium) Mendez, The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr (2022) 67
city Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 218
claudius, edict of Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 12
community Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 289
conflict Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 12
conzelmann, hans Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 320
corinth Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 12, 69
court Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 130
covenant, disobedience to Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 380, 666
creation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 141
crowds Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 218
crucifixion Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 92, 94
culture, cultural affiliations in galilee Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 163, 175
curse vb. Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 380
cyril of jerusalem Mendez, The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr (2022) 73
d/demonisation Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 103
death, of james Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 218
death, of stephen Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 218
death Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 141
deeds, of god Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 380
demosthenes Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 77
destruction of the second temple Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 147
diaspora, judaism in the diaspora Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 147
dionysiac cult Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 330
divine glory Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 242
divine name Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 242
divine presence Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 242
double dreams and visions, peter and cornelius, apologetic agendas Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 330
double dreams and visions, peter and cornelius, ethnic identities Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 330
double dreams and visions, peter and cornelius Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 330
dupont, jacques Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 320
educated, erudite Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 77
elijah-elisha typology Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 324
ephesians, letter to the Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 103
epiphany vi Mendez, The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr (2022) 67
eschatology Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 103
essenes, name sources and variants Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 172
eudocia Mendez, The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr (2022) 67
eusebius Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 218; Mendez, The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr (2022) 73
exorcisms/exorcise/exorcists/exorcistic Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 103
eyebrows Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 380
faith, christian Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 94
feast of, stephen, celebrated on 26/27 december Mendez, The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr (2022) 67
fiction Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 217
flesh Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 94, 141
flusser, david Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 320
freedpersons (and their descendants), manumission Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 69
fulfilment Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 94
gentile christians Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 69, 77
gentiles Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 380
giants, bastards Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 666
god Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 218
gospels, new testament Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 103
greece Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 12
heaven, christian Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 289
hegesippus Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 217, 218
hellenisation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 380
hellenistic jewish christianity DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 253
hellenists Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 175
herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 172
hesychius, encomium Mendez, The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr (2022) 66, 67
hesychius, homilies of Mendez, The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr (2022) 66, 67
hesychius Mendez, The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr (2022) 66, 67, 73
hiddenness Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 103
high priest, chief priests Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 194
high priests Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 147
historical(ly) Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 217
historicity Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 217
historiography Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 217
history, christian/of the church Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 218
homer Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 217
horsley, richard a. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 320
house Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 92, 94
iconia Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 12
identity, christian Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 217
identity construction, through martyrdoms of stephen and james Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 85
idolatry Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 218
imitatio christi Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 19
imperial(ism) Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 218
inauguration (of the covenant, temple) Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 94
incantations Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 103
italy, italians Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 77
james, in hegesippus Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 217, 218
james, the brother of jesus Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 147
jerusalem, the jerusalem church Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 147
jerusalem Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 12
jesus, as prophet like moses DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 253, 254
jesus, as the anointed one, the messiah Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 194
jesus, rejection Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 194
jesus, silencing by Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 103
jesus, temple incident of Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 242
jesus Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 147; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 194
jesus b. ananias Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 147
jesus christ, in apocryphal acts Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 217, 218
jesus christ, in nt Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 217, 218
jesus christ, james, brother of Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 217
jesus of nazareth, name variations Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 172
jewish, leadership Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 130
jewish-roman wars Mendez, The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr (2022) 73
jewish christians Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 147; Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 12, 69, 77
jewish leaders Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 194
jewish schools Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 77
jews, jewish Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 12, 69, 77
jews (jewish), anti-jewish Mendez, The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr (2022) 73
john ii (bishop of jerusalem) Mendez, The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr (2022) 66
johnson, sherman e. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 320
josephus essenes, name of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 172
judas, death of Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 324
justice Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 130
king/βασιλεύς/kingdom/βασιλεία Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 103
koester, craig r. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 320
kosmos Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 289
lachs, samuel tobias Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 320
law/torah, mosaic Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 666
lazarus Mendez, The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr (2022) 67
lee, pilchan Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 320
liturgy Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 92, 94, 141
luke, gospel of Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 103
lukes hermeneutic, brodie, t.l. Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 324
lukes hermeneutic, elijah-elisha typology Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 324
lysias Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 130
lystra Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 12
maccabean, of peter Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 18
mark, jesus before sanhedrin Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 740
mark, jesuss messianic confession Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 740
mark, trial of jesus Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 740
mark, witnesses against jesus Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 740
mark Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 740
martyr(dom) Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 217, 218
martyrs crown, martyrs, chain of Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 18
martyrs crown Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 19
matthias, selection as apostle Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 324
maximus iii (bishop of jerusalem) Mendez, The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr (2022) 66
merkava xiii–xvi, xix Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 103
messiah Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 740
methods of interpretation, ancient historical criticism Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 18, 19
mob Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 218
montefiore, hugh Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 320
moon Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 380
mystery Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 103
mystery cult Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 330
myth (mythology), homeric Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 217
nativity, narratives in canonical gospels Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 103
new testament, as source Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 229
noah, birth of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 666
noah, book of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 666
noah, contrasted with the giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 666
passion narrative Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 194
paul, pauline corpus Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 92, 94, 141
paul, saint Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 289
paul Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 12; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 103; Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 112
paul conversion of Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 18
paul death of Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 18
paul links to stephen Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 74
pauline correspondence Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 18
paulinus of nola Mendez, The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr (2022) 66
pedagogy Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 217, 218
penner, todd Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 19, 69, 74, 85
pentecost Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 175; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 103
perfection Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 92, 94, 141
peter Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 112; Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 130
pharisee Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 112
philo of alexandria Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 289
philosopher/works Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 217
platonism Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 77
poetics Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 217
priesthood, high priest Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 130
priests/priesthood/priestly Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 666
prisca/priscilla Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 12, 69
prophet persecution Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 74, 85
prophets/prophetic Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 103
proselytes Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 12, 69
punishment Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 194
punishment of wrongdoers Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 380
purity, moral Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 112
quakers Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 172
red heifer Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 147
republic, of plato Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 217
resurrection Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 92, 94, 141
revelation, the apocalypse of jesus christ Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 103
revolts, unrest Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 12
ritual Mendez, The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr (2022) 66, 67
roman empire, judicial procedure Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 740
romans, judaea, invasion and control of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 172
sacrifi ce Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 147
sacrifice, animal, in judaism v, vi Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 229
sadducees Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 130
samaritans/samarians Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 172
samaritans Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 740
sanhedrin Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 740
saul Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 147
scribes Mendez, The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr (2022) 73
sebomenoi Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 69, 77
septuagint, lukes use Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 324
silas Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 12
silence/silencing Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 103
sodom Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 380
solidarity Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 94, 141
son of god, gods chosen, jesus divine sonship, jesus as son of god Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 194
soteriology Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 103
sources (ancient, historical, literary) Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 218
st. marks monastery (jerusalem) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 172
st. stephen Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 740
stars Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 380
stephanos Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 19
stephen' Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 147
stephen, anti-jewish symbol, as first martyr Mendez, The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr (2022) 66, 67
stephen, anti-jewish symbol Mendez, The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr (2022) 73
stephen Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 69; Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 34; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 103; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 194; Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 112; Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 130
stephen (and the temple) Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 229
stephen and cultural memory Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 18, 19
stephen and hegesippus james Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 18, 85
stephen as bridge between jesus and paul Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 74
stephen charges against Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 69, 74
stephen historical existence of Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 18, 19
stephen role in pauls conversion Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 74
stephen speech of Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 69
stern, david Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 320
suffering Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 94, 141
sun, as a heavenly body Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 380
sunedrion Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 130
supersessionism, christian Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 242
supersessionism Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 69
swallow Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 380
sweet, j. p. m. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 320
synagogue Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 130
table-fellowship, jewish and gentile Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 175
talmud Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 172
taylor, n.h. Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 18
temple, as ritually inadequate, in new testament Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 242
temple, sacrificial cult (in jerusalem), destruction Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 194
temple, sacrificial cult (in jerusalem) Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 194
temple/torah charge Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 19, 74
temple Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 740; DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 253, 254; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 103
temple (jewish) in jerusalem, christians and the Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 229
temple (second jewish temple) Mendez, The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr (2022) 73
temple as locus of conflict Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 85
temple critique Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 19, 69
temple sermon DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 254
temples, in jerusalem Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 217, 218
tent Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 92, 94, 141
tentmakers Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 12
testament (biblical), nt Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 217
timothy Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 12, 77
torah Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 218
vision Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 103
watchers/rebellious angels, sons of heaven Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 666
watchers/rebellious angels Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 666
widows, in early jerusalem community Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 175
wisdom (sophia) Horkey, Cosmos in the Ancient World (2019) 289
woman/women Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 380, 666
wright, n. t. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 320
zosimus Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 12