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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8243
New Testament, Acts, 4.32-4.37


Τοῦ δὲ πλήθους τῶν πιστευσάντων ἦν καρδία καὶ ψυχὴ μία, καὶ οὐδὲ εἷς τι τῶν ὑπαρχόντων αὐτῷ ἔλεγεν ἴδιον εἶναι, ἀλλʼ ἦν αὐτοῖς πάντα κοινά.The multitude of those who believed were of one heart and soul. Not one of them claimed that anything of the things which he possessed was his own, but they had all things common.


καὶ δυνάμει μεγάλῃ ἀπεδίδουν τὸ μαρτύριον οἱ ἀπόστολοι τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ τῆς ἀναστάσεως, χάρις τε μεγάλη ἦν ἐπὶ πάντας αὐτούς.With great power, the apostles gave their testimony of the resurrection of the Lord Jesus. Great grace was on them all.


οὐδὲ γὰρ ἐνδεής τις ἦν ἐν αὐτοῖς· ὅσοι γὰρ κτήτορες χωρίων ἢ οἰκιῶν ὑπῆρχον, πωλοῦντες ἔφερον τὰς τιμὰς τῶν πιπρασκομένωνFor neither was there among them any who lacked, for as many as were owners of lands or houses sold them, and brought the prices of the things that were sold


καὶ ἐτίθουν παρὰ τοὺς πόδας τῶν ἀποστόλων· διεδίδετο δὲ ἑκάστῳ καθότι ἄν τις χρείαν εἶχεν.and laid them at the apostles' feet, and distribution was made to each, according as anyone had need.


Ἰωσὴφ δὲ ὁ ἐπικληθεὶς Βαρνάβας ἀπὸ τῶν ἀποστόλων, ὅ ἐστιν μεθερμηνευόμενον Υἱὸς Παρακλήσεως, Λευείτης, Κύπριος τῷ γένειJoses, who by the apostles was surnamed Barnabas (which is, being interpreted, Son of Exhortation), a Levite, a man of Cyprus by race


ὑπάρχοντος αὐτῷ ἀγροῦ πωλήσας ἤνεγκεν τὸ χρῆμα καὶ ἔθηκεν παρὰ τοὺς πόδας τῶν ἀποστόλων.having a field, sold it, and brought the money and laid it at the apostles' feet.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

68 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 21.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.1. וְאֵלֶּה הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר תָּשִׂים לִפְנֵיהֶם׃ 21.1. אִם־אַחֶרֶת יִקַּח־לוֹ שְׁאֵרָהּ כְּסוּתָהּ וְעֹנָתָהּ לֹא יִגְרָע׃ 21.1. Now these are the ordices which thou shalt set before them."
2. Hebrew Bible, Job, 42.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

42.10. And the LORD changed the fortune of Job, when he prayed for his friends; and the LORD gave Job twice as much as he had before."
3. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 1.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 14.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.20. The poor is hated even of his own neighbour; But the rich hath many friends. ."
5. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 2.1-2.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.1. וְעַתָּה מְלָכִים הַשְׂכִּילוּ הִוָּסְרוּ שֹׁפְטֵי אָרֶץ׃ 2.1. לָמָּה רָגְשׁוּ גוֹיִם וּלְאֻמִּים יֶהְגּוּ־רִיק׃ 2.2. יִתְיַצְּבוּ מַלְכֵי־אֶרֶץ וְרוֹזְנִים נוֹסְדוּ־יָחַד עַל־יְהוָה וְעַל־מְשִׁיחוֹ׃ 2.1. Why are the nations in an uproar? And why do the peoples mutter in vain?" 2.2. The kings of the earth stand up, And the rulers take counsel together, Against the LORD, and against His anointed:"
6. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 6.4-6.7 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

6.4. הַשֹּׁכְבִים עַל־מִטּוֹת שֵׁן וּסְרֻחִים עַל־עַרְשׂוֹתָם וְאֹכְלִים כָּרִים מִצֹּאן וַעֲגָלִים מִתּוֹךְ מַרְבֵּק׃ 6.5. הַפֹּרְטִים עַל־פִּי הַנָּבֶל כְּדָוִיד חָשְׁבוּ לָהֶם כְּלֵי־שִׁיר׃ 6.6. הַשֹּׁתִים בְּמִזְרְקֵי יַיִן וְרֵאשִׁית שְׁמָנִים יִמְשָׁחוּ וְלֹא נֶחְלוּ עַל־שֵׁבֶר יוֹסֵף 6.7. לָכֵן עַתָּה יִגְלוּ בְּרֹאשׁ גֹּלִים וְסָר מִרְזַח סְרוּחִים׃ 6.4. That lie upon beds of ivory, And stretch themselves upon their couches, And eat the lambs out of the flock, And the calves out of the midst of the stall;" 6.5. That thrum on the psaltery, That devise for themselves instruments of music, like David;" 6.6. That drink wine in bowls, And anoint themselves with the chief ointments; But they are not grieved for the hurt of Joseph." 6.7. Therefore now shall they go captive at the head of them that go captive, And the revelry of them that stretched themselves shall pass away."
7. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 5.22, 58.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.22. הוֹי גִּבּוֹרִים לִשְׁתּוֹת יָיִן וְאַנְשֵׁי־חַיִל לִמְסֹךְ שֵׁכָר׃ 58.7. הֲלוֹא פָרֹס לָרָעֵב לַחְמֶךָ וַעֲנִיִּים מְרוּדִים תָּבִיא בָיִת כִּי־תִרְאֶה עָרֹם וְכִסִּיתוֹ וּמִבְּשָׂרְךָ לֹא תִתְעַלָּם׃ 5.22. Woe unto them that are mighty to drink wine, And men of strength to mingle strong drink;" 58.7. Is it not to deal thy bread to the hungry, And that thou bring the poor that are cast out to thy house? When thou seest the naked, that thou cover him, And that thou hide not thyself from thine own flesh?"
8. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 13.17 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

13.17. וְאִם לֹא תִשְׁמָעוּהָ בְּמִסְתָּרִים תִּבְכֶּה־נַפְשִׁי מִפְּנֵי גֵוָה וְדָמֹעַ תִּדְמַע וְתֵרַד עֵינִי דִּמְעָה כִּי נִשְׁבָּה עֵדֶר יְהוָה׃ 13.17. But if ye will not hear it, My soul shall weep in secret for your pride; And mine eyes shall weep sore, and run down with tears, Because the LORD’S flock is carried away captive."
9. Euripides, Fragments, 419 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10. Cicero, On Friendship, 16, 21, 64-65, 15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

11. Cicero, On Duties, 1.51 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.51. Ac latissime quidem patens hominibus inter ipsos, omnibus inter omnes societas haec est; in qua omnium rerum, quas ad communem hominum usum natura genuit, est servanda communitas, ut, quae discripta sunt legibus et iure civili, haec ita teneantur, ut sit constitutum legibus ipsis, cetera sic observentur, ut in Graecorum proverbio est, amicorum esse communia omnia. Omnium autem communia hominum videntur ea, quae sunt generis eius, quod ab Ennio positum in una re transferri in permultas potest: Homó, qui erranti cómiter monstrát viam, Quasi lúmen de suo lúmine accendát, facit. Nihiló minus ipsi lúcet, cum illi accénderit. Una ex re satis praecipit, ut, quicquid sine detrimento commodari possit, id tribuatur vel ignoto; 1.51.  This, then, is the most comprehensive bond that unites together men as men and all to all; and under it the common right to all things that Nature has produced for the common use of man is to be maintained, with the understanding that, while everything assigned as private property by the statutes and by civil law shall be so held as prescribed by those same laws, everything else shall be regarded in the light indicated by the Greek proverb: "Amongst friends all things in common." Furthermore, we find the common property of all men in things of the sort defined by Ennius; and, though restricted by him to one instance, the principle may be applied very generally: "Who kindly sets a wand'rer on his way Does e'en as if he lit another's lamp by his: No less shines his, when he his friend's hath lit." In this example he effectively teaches us all to bestow even upon a stranger what it costs us nothing to give.
12. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 14.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 14.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Polybius, Histories, 3.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.23. 1.  The "Fair Promontory" is that lying in front of Carthage to the North.,2.  The Carthaginians forbid the Romans absolutely to sail south of this on its western side in long ships, the reason being, I think that they did not wish them to become acquainted either with the district round Byssatis or that near the lesser Syrtis, which they call Emporia, owing to their great fertility.,3.  If anyone, carried there by a storm or driven by his enemies, requires anything for the purpose of sacrificing to the gods or of repairing his ships, he may have this, but nothing beyond it, and those who touch there must leave within five days.,4.  To Carthage itself and all parts of Libya on this side of the Fair Promontory, to Sardinia and the Carthaginian province of Sicily the Romans may come for trading purposes, and the Carthaginian state engages to secure payment of their just debts.,5.  The phrasing of this treaty shows that they consider Sardinia and Libya as their own, whereas they distinctly express themselves otherwise about Sicily, mentioning only in the treaty those parts of it which are under Carthaginian rule.,6.  Similarly, the Romans include in the treaty Latium alone, making no mention of the rest of Italy as it was not then subject to their authority.
15. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 6.6-6.7, 6.9, 6.14, 6.17, 13.15, 13.21-13.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

13.15. Every creature loves its like,and every person his neighbor; 13.21. When a rich man totters, he is steadied by friends,but when a humble man falls, he is even pushed away by friends. 13.22. If a rich man slips, his helpers are many;he speaks unseemly words, and they justify him. If a humble man slips, they even reproach him;he speaks sensibly, and receives no attention. 13.23. When the rich man speaks all are silent,and they extol to the clouds what he says. When the poor man speaks they say, "Who is this fellow?" And should he stumble, they even push him down.
16. Horace, Odes, 3.16 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.16. The city is covered all round with other mountains, and can no way be seen till a man comes just upon it. And this was the strong situation of Jotapata. 3.16. So they were easily beaten; for as soon as ever their first ranks were once in disorder, they were put to flight by the enemy’s cavalry, and those of them that came behind such as crowded to the wall fell upon their own party’s weapons, and became one another’s enemies; and this so long till they were all forced to give way to the attacks of the horsemen, and were dispersed all the plain over, which plain was wide, and all fit for the horsemen;
17. Horace, Letters, 1.2.55 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

18. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 32.9 (1st cent. CE

32.9.  And as for the Cynics, as they are called, it is true that the city contains no small number of that sect, and that, like any other thing, this too has had its crop — persons whose tenets, to be sure, comprise practically nothing spurious or ignoble, yet who must make a living — still these Cynics, posting themselves at street-corners, in alley-ways, and at temple-gates, pass round the hat and play upon the credulity of lads and sailors and crowds of that sort, stringing together rough jokes and much tittle-tattle and that low badinage that smacks of the market-place. Accordingly they achieve no good at all, but rather the worst possible harm, for they accustom thoughtless people to deride philosophers in general, just as one might accustom lads to scorn their teachers, and, when they ought to knock the insolence out of their hearers, these Cynics merely increase it.
19. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. 1. Those who undertake to write histories, do not, I perceive, take that trouble on one and the same account, but for many reasons, and those such as are very different one from another. 1.1. 3. I found, therefore, that the second of the Ptolemies was a king who was extraordinarily diligent in what concerned learning, and the collection of books; that he was also peculiarly ambitious to procure a translation of our law, and of the constitution of our government therein contained, into the Greek tongue. 1.1. it being an instance of greater wisdom not to have granted them life at all, than, after it was granted, to procure their destruction; “But the injuries,” said he, “they offered to my holiness and virtue, forced me to bring this punishment upon them.
20. Josephus Flavius, Life, 2-4, 430, 5-6, 1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Juvenal, Satires, 14.125, 14.138-14.140 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Mishnah, Eduyot, 5.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.6. Akavia ben Mahalalel testified concerning four things. They said to him: Akavia, retract these four things which you say, and we will make you the head of the court in Israel. He said to them: it is better for me to be called a fool all my days than that I should become [even] for one hour a wicked man before God; So they shouldn’t say: “he withdrew his opinions for the sake of power.” He used to pronounce impure the hair which has been left over [in leprosy], And green (yellow) blood (of vaginal discharge); But the Sages declared them clean. He used to permit the wool of a first-born animal which was blemished and which had fallen out and had been put in a niche, the first-born being slaughtered afterwards; But the sages forbid it. He used to say: a woman proselyte and a freed slave-woman are not made to drink of the bitter waters. But the Sages say: they are made to drink. They said to him: it happened in the case of Karkemith, a freed slave-woman who was in Jerusalem, that Shemaiah and Avtalion made her drink. He said to them: they made her drink an example (and not the real water). Whereupon they excommunicated him; and he died while he was under excommunication, and the court stoned his coffin. Rabbi Judah said: God forbid [that one should say] that Akavia was excommunicated; for the courtyard is never locked for any man in Israel who was equal to Avavia ben Mahalalel in wisdom and the fear of sin. But whom did they excommunicate? Eliezer the son of Hanoch who cast doubt against the laws concerning the purifying of the hands. And when he died the court sent and laid a stone on his coffin. This teaches that whoever is excommunicated and dies while under excommunication, his coffin is stoned."
23. Mishnah, Toharot, 4.11 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.11. \"If there is doubt concerning the hands as to whether they have contracted uncleanness, have conveyed uncleanness or have attained cleanness, they are deemed clean.\" \"Any doubt that arose in a public domain is deemed clean. \"A condition of doubt concerning an ordice of the scribes\": [For instance, he is uncertain whether] he ate unclean food or drank unclean liquids, whether he immersed his head and the greater part of his body in drawn water, or whether there fell on his head and the greater part of his body three log of drawn water, such a condition of doubt is deemed clean. But if a condition of doubt arose concerning a father of uncleanness even though it was only rabbinical, it is deemed unclean."
24. New Testament, 1 John, 2.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.7. Brothers, I write no new commandment to you, but an old commandment which you had from the beginning. The old commandment is the word which you heard from the beginning.
25. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.5-1.7, 2.9-2.11, 2.17, 3.6, 5.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. who by the power of God are guarded through faith for a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time. 1.6. Wherein you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while, if need be, you have been put to grief in various trials 1.7. that the proof of your faith, which is more precious than gold that perishes even though it is tested by fire, may be found to result in praise, glory, and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ -- 2.9. But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for God's own possession, that you may show forth the excellencies of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light: 2.10. who in time past were no people, but now are God's people, who had not obtained mercy, but now have obtained mercy. 2.11. Beloved, I beg you as sojourners and pilgrims, to abstain from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul; 2.17. Honor all men. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honor the king. 3.6. as Sarah obeyed Abraham, calling him lord, whose children you now are, if you do well, and are not put in fear by any terror. 5.9. Withstand him steadfast in your faith, knowing that your brothers who are in the world are undergoing the same sufferings.
26. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.7, 1.8, 5.11, 11.17-14.40, 12.12, 12.13, 12.14, 12.15, 12.16, 12.17, 12.18, 12.19, 12.20, 12.21, 12.22, 12.23, 12.24, 12.25, 12.26, 12.27, 12.28, 12.29, 12.30, 15, 15.1, 15.2, 15.23, 15.58, 16.13, 16.15, 16.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. o that you come behindin no gift; waiting for the revelation of our Lord Jesus Christ;
27. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.10, 3.10, 3.12, 4.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. and to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead -- Jesus, who delivers us from the wrath to come. 3.10. night and day praying exceedingly that we may see your face, and may perfect that which is lacking in your faith? 3.12. and the Lord make you to increase and abound in love one toward another, and toward all men, even as we also do toward you 4.10. for indeed you do it toward all the brothers who are in all Macedonia. But we exhort you, brothers, that you abound more and more;
28. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 3.9, 3.15, 5.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.9. holding the mystery of the faith in a pure conscience. 3.15. but if I wait long, that you may know how men ought to behave themselves in the house of God, which is the assembly of the living God, the pillar and ground of the truth. 5.8. But if anyone doesn't provide for his own, and especially his own household, he has denied the faith, and is worse than an unbeliever.
29. New Testament, 2 John, 10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

30. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 6.14-7.1, 7.1, 8.6, 8.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

31. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 1.3-1.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. We are bound to always give thanks to God for you, brothers, even as it is appropriate, because your faith grows exceedingly, and the love of each and every one of you towards one another abounds; 1.4. so that we ourselves boast about you in the assemblies of God for your patience and faith in all your persecutions and in the afflictions which you endure.
32. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 3.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.15. From infancy, you have known the sacred writings which are able to make you wise for salvation through faith, which is in Christ Jesus.
33. New Testament, Acts, 1.1, 1.15, 2.1, 2.42-2.47, 3.19, 3.21, 3.25, 4.4, 4.17, 4.29-4.31, 4.33-4.37, 5.1-5.11, 5.14, 5.41, 6.1-6.7, 8.18-8.40, 9.2, 10.34-10.35, 11.1, 11.27-11.30, 12.12, 13.26, 13.39, 14.22-14.23, 15.6-15.29, 16.5, 16.15, 16.25, 17.11-17.12, 17.18-17.19, 17.26, 17.30-17.31, 17.34, 18.24, 19.9, 19.23, 21.25-21.26, 22.3-22.4, 24.5, 24.14, 24.17, 24.22, 24.25, 26.25, 28.22 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.1. The first book I wrote, Theophilus, concerned all that Jesus began both to do and to teach 1.15. In these days, Peter stood up in the midst of the disciples (and the number of names was about one hundred twenty), and said 2.1. Now when the day of Pentecost had come, they were all with one accord in one place. 2.42. They continued steadfastly in the apostles' teaching and fellowship, in the breaking of bread, and prayer. 2.43. Fear came on every soul, and many wonders and signs were done through the apostles. 2.44. All who believed were together, and had all things common. 2.45. They sold their possessions and goods, and distributed them to all, according as anyone had need. 2.46. Day by day, continuing steadfastly with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread at home, they took their food with gladness and singleness of heart 2.47. praising God, and having favor with all the people. The Lord added to the assembly day by day those who were being saved. 3.19. Repent therefore, and turn again, that your sins may be blotted out, that so there may come times of refreshing from the presence of the Lord 3.21. whom the heaven must receive until the times of restoration of all things, whereof God spoke by the mouth of his holy prophets that have been from ancient times. 3.25. You are the sons of the prophets, and of the covet which God made with our fathers, saying to Abraham, 'In your seed will all the families of the earth be blessed.' 4.4. But many of those who heard the word believed, and the number of the men came to be about five thousand. 4.17. But so that this spreads no further among the people, let's threaten them, that from now on they don't speak to anyone in this name. 4.29. Now, Lord, look at their threats, and grant to your servants to speak your word with all boldness 4.30. while you stretch out your hand to heal; and that signs and wonders may be done through the name of your holy Servant Jesus. 4.31. When they had prayed, the place was shaken where they were gathered together. They were all filled with the Holy Spirit, and they spoke the word of God with boldness. 4.33. With great power, the apostles gave their testimony of the resurrection of the Lord Jesus. Great grace was on them all. 4.34. For neither was there among them any who lacked, for as many as were owners of lands or houses sold them, and brought the prices of the things that were sold 4.35. and laid them at the apostles' feet, and distribution was made to each, according as anyone had need. 4.36. Joses, who by the apostles was surnamed Barnabas (which is, being interpreted, Son of Exhortation), a Levite, a man of Cyprus by race 4.37. having a field, sold it, and brought the money and laid it at the apostles' feet. 5.1. But a certain man named Aias, with Sapphira, his wife, sold a possession 5.2. and kept back part of the price, his wife also being aware of it, and brought a certain part, and laid it at the apostles' feet. 5.3. But Peter said, "Aias, why has Satan filled your heart to lie to the Holy Spirit, and to keep back part of the price of the land? 5.4. While you kept it, didn't it remain your own? After it was sold, wasn't it in your power? How is it that you have conceived this thing in your heart? You haven't lied to men, but to God. 5.5. Aias, hearing these words, fell down and died. Great fear came on all who heard these things. 5.6. The young men arose and wrapped him up, and they carried him out and buried him. 5.7. About three hours later, his wife, not knowing what had happened, came in. 5.8. Peter answered her, "Tell me whether you sold the land for so much."She said, "Yes, for so much. 5.9. But Peter asked her, "How is it that you have agreed together to tempt the Spirit of the Lord? Behold, the feet of those who have buried your husband are at the door, and they will carry you out. 5.10. She fell down immediately at his feet, and died. The young men came in and found her dead, and they carried her out and buried her by her husband. 5.11. Great fear came on the whole assembly, and on all who heard these things. 5.14. More believers were added to the Lord, multitudes of both men and women. 5.41. They therefore departed from the presence of the council, rejoicing that they were counted worthy to suffer dishonor for Jesus' name. 6.1. Now in those days, when the number of the disciples was multiplying, there arose a grumbling of the Grecian Jews against the Hebrews because their widows were neglected in the daily service. 6.2. The twelve summoned the multitude of the disciples and said, "It is not appropriate for us to forsake the word of God and serve tables. 6.3. Therefore select from among you, brothers, seven men of good report, full of the Holy Spirit and of wisdom, whom we may appoint over this business. 6.4. But we will continue steadfastly in prayer and in the ministry of the word. 6.5. These words pleased the whole multitude. They chose Stephen, a man full of faith and of the Holy Spirit, Philip, Prochorus, Nicanor, Timon, Parmenas, and Nicolaus, a proselyte of Antioch; 6.6. whom they set before the apostles. When they had prayed, they laid their hands on them. 6.7. The word of God increased and the number of the disciples multiplied in Jerusalem exceedingly. A great company of the priests were obedient to the faith. 8.18. Now when Simon saw that the Holy Spirit was given through the laying on of the apostles' hands, he offered them money 8.19. saying, "Give me also this power, that whoever I lay my hands on may receive the Holy Spirit. 8.20. But Peter said to him, "May your silver perish with you, because you thought you could obtain the gift of God with money! 8.21. You have neither part nor lot in this matter, for your heart isn't right before God. 8.22. Repent therefore of this, your wickedness, and ask God if perhaps the thought of your heart may be forgiven you. 8.23. For I see that you are in the gall of bitterness and in the bondage of iniquity. 8.24. Simon answered, "Pray for me to the Lord, that none of the things which you have spoken come on me. 8.25. They therefore, when they had testified and spoken the word of the Lord, returned to Jerusalem, and preached the gospel to many villages of the Samaritans. 8.26. But an angel of the Lord spoke to Philip, saying, "Arise, and go toward the south to the way that goes down from Jerusalem to Gaza. This is a desert. 8.27. He arose and went. Behold, there was a man of Ethiopia, a eunuch of great authority under Candace, queen of the Ethiopians, who was over all her treasure, who had come to Jerusalem to worship. 8.28. He was returning and sitting in his chariot, and was reading the prophet Isaiah. 8.29. The Spirit said to Philip, "Go near, and join yourself to this chariot. 8.30. Philip ran to him, and heard him reading Isaiah the prophet, and said, "Do you understand what you are reading? 8.31. He said, "How can I, unless someone explains it to me?" He begged Philip to come up and sit with him. 8.32. Now the passage of the Scripture which he was reading was this, "He was led as a sheep to the slaughter. As a lamb before his shearer is silent, So he doesn't open his mouth. 8.33. In his humiliation, his judgment was taken away. Who will declare His generations? For his life is taken from the earth. 8.34. The eunuch answered Philip, "Please tell who the prophet is talking about: about himself, or about some other? 8.35. Philip opened his mouth, and beginning from this Scripture, preached to him Jesus. 8.36. As they went on the way, they came to some water, and the eunuch said, "Behold, here is water. What is keeping me from being baptized? 8.38. He commanded the chariot to stand still, and they both went down into the water, both Philip and the eunuch, and he baptized him. 8.39. When they came up out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord caught Philip away, and the eunuch didn't see him any more, for he went on his way rejoicing. 8.40. But Philip was found at Azotus. Passing through, he preached the gospel to all the cities, until he came to Caesarea. 9.2. and asked for letters from him to the synagogues of Damascus, that if he found any who were of the Way, whether men or women, he might bring them bound to Jerusalem. 10.34. Peter opened his mouth and said, "Truly I perceive that God doesn't show favoritism; 10.35. but in every nation he who fears him and works righteousness is acceptable to him. 11.1. Now the apostles and the brothers who were in Judea heard that the Gentiles had also received the word of God. 11.27. Now in these days, prophets came down from Jerusalem to Antioch. 11.28. One of them named Agabus stood up, and indicated by the Spirit that there should be a great famine over all the world, which also happened in the days of Claudius. 11.29. The disciples, as anyone had plenty, each determined to send relief to the brothers who lived in Judea; 11.30. which they also did, sending it to the elders by the hands of Barnabas and Saul. 12.12. Thinking about that, he came to the house of Mary, the mother of John whose surname was Mark, where many were gathered together and were praying. 13.26. Brothers, children of the stock of Abraham, and those among you who fear God, the word of this salvation is sent out to you. 13.39. and by him everyone who believes is justified from all things, from which you could not be justified by the law of Moses. 14.22. confirming the souls of the disciples, exhorting them to continue in the faith, and that through many afflictions we must enter into the Kingdom of God. 14.23. When they had appointed elders for them in every assembly, and had prayed with fasting, they commended them to the Lord, on whom they had believed. 15.6. The apostles and the elders were gathered together to see about this matter. 15.7. When there had been much discussion, Peter rose up and said to them, "Brothers, you know that a good while ago God made choice among you, that by my mouth the Gentiles should hear the word of the gospel, and believe. 15.8. God, who knows the heart, testified about them, giving them the Holy Spirit, just like he did to us. 15.9. He made no distinction between us and them, cleansing their hearts by faith. 15.10. Now therefore why do you tempt God, that you should put a yoke on the neck of the disciples which neither our fathers nor we were able to bear? 15.11. But we believe that we are saved through the grace of the Lord Jesus, just as they are. 15.12. All the multitude kept silence, and they listened to Barnabas and Paul reporting what signs and wonders God had done among the Gentiles through them. 15.13. After they were silent, James answered, "Brothers, listen to me. 15.14. Simeon has reported how God first visited the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name. 15.15. This agrees with the words of the prophets. As it is written 15.16. 'After these things I will return. I will again build the tent of David, which has fallen. I will again build its ruins. I will set it up 15.17. That the rest of men may seek after the Lord; All the Gentiles who are called by my name, Says the Lord, who does all these things. 15.18. All his works are known to God from eternity.' 15.19. Therefore my judgment is that we don't trouble those from among the Gentiles who turn to God 15.20. but that we write to them that they abstain from the pollution of idols, from sexual immorality, from what is strangled, and from blood. 15.21. For Moses from generations of old has in every city those who preach him, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath. 15.22. Then it seemed good to the apostles and the elders, with the whole assembly, to choose men out of their company, and send them to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas: Judas called Barsabbas, and Silas, chief men among the brothers. 15.23. They wrote these things by their hand: "The apostles, the elders, and the brothers, to the brothers who are of the Gentiles in Antioch, Syria, and Cilicia: greetings. 15.24. Because we have heard that some who went out from us have troubled you with words, unsettling your souls, saying, 'You must be circumcised and keep the law,' to whom we gave no commandment; 15.25. it seemed good to us, having come to one accord, to choose out men and send them to you with our beloved Barnabas and Paul 15.26. men who have risked their lives for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. 15.27. We have sent therefore Judas and Silas, who themselves will also tell you the same things by word of mouth. 15.28. For it seemed good to the Holy Spirit, and to us, to lay no greater burden on you than these necessary things: 15.29. that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality, from which if you keep yourselves, it will be well with you. Farewell. 16.5. So the assemblies were strengthened in the faith, and increased in number daily. 16.15. When she and her household were baptized, she begged us, saying, "If you have judged me to be faithful to the Lord, come into my house, and stay." She urged us. 16.25. But about midnight Paul and Silas were praying and singing hymns to God, and the prisoners were listening to them. 17.11. Now these were more noble than those in Thessalonica, in that they received the word with all readiness of the mind, examining the Scriptures daily, whether these things were so. 17.12. Many of them therefore believed; also of the Greek women of honorable estate, and not a few men. 17.18. Some of the Epicurean and Stoic philosophers also encountered him. Some said, "What does this babbler want to say?"Others said, "He seems to be advocating foreign demons," because he preached Jesus and the resurrection. 17.19. They took hold of him, and brought him to the Areopagus, saying, "May we know what this new teaching is, which is spoken by you? 17.26. He made from one blood every nation of men to dwell on all the surface of the earth, having determined appointed seasons, and the bounds of their habitation 17.30. The times of ignorance therefore God overlooked. But now he commands that all men everywhere should repent 17.31. because he has appointed a day in which he will judge the world in righteousness by the man whom he has ordained; whereof he has given assurance to all men, in that he has raised him from the dead. 17.34. But certain men joined with him, and believed, among whom also was Dionysius the Areopagite, and a woman named Damaris, and others with them. 18.24. Now a certain Jew named Apollos, an Alexandrian by race, an eloquent man, came to Ephesus. He was mighty in the Scriptures. 19.9. But when some were hardened and disobedient, speaking evil of the Way before the multitude, he departed from them, and separated the disciples, reasoning daily in the school of Tyrannus. 19.23. About that time there arose no small stir concerning the Way. 21.25. But concerning the Gentiles who believe, we have written our decision that they should observe no such thing, except that they should keep themselves from food offered to idols, from blood, from strangled things, and from sexual immorality. 21.26. Then Paul took the men, and the next day, purified himself and went with them into the temple, declaring the fulfillment of the days of purification, until the offering was offered for every one of them. 22.3. I am indeed a Jew, born in Tarsus of Cilicia, but brought up in this city at the feet of Gamaliel, instructed according to the strict manner of the law of our fathers, being zealous for God, even as you all are this day. 22.4. I persecuted this Way to the death, binding and delivering into prisons both men and women. 24.5. For we have found this man to be a plague, an instigator of insurrections among all the Jews throughout the world, and a ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes. 24.14. But this I confess to you, that after the Way, which they call a sect, so I serve the God of our fathers, believing all things which are according to the law, and which are written in the prophets; 24.17. Now after some years, I came to bring gifts to the needy to my nation, and offerings; 24.22. But Felix, having more exact knowledge concerning the Way, deferred them, saying, "When Lysias, the commanding officer, comes down, I will decide your case. 24.25. As he reasoned about righteousness, self-control, and the judgment to come, Felix was terrified, and answered, "Go your way for this time, and when it is convenient for me, I will summon you. 26.25. But he said, "I am not crazy, most excellent Festus, but boldly declare words of truth and reasonableness. 28.22. But we desire to hear from you what you think. For, as concerning this sect, it is known to us that everywhere it is spoken against.
34. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.10, 13.10, 14.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.10. Don't be afraid of the things which you are about to suffer. Behold, the devil is about to throw some of you into prison, that you may be tested; and you will have oppression for ten days. Be faithful to death, and I will give you the crown of life. 13.10. If anyone has captivity, he goes away. If anyone is with the sword, he must be killed. Here is the endurance and the faith of the saints. 14.12. Here is the patience of the saints, those who keep the commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus.
35. New Testament, James, 1.2-1.3, 1.16, 2.5, 2.14-2.26, 5.7-5.11, 5.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. Count it all joy, my brothers, when you fall into various temptations 1.3. knowing that the testing of your faith produces patience. 1.16. Don't be deceived, my beloved brothers. 2.5. Listen, my beloved brothers. Didn't God choose those who are poor in this world to be rich in faith, and heirs of the kingdom which he promised to those who love him? 2.14. What good is it, my brothers, if a man says he has faith, but has no works? Can that faith save him? 2.15. And if a brother or sister is naked and in lack of daily food 2.16. and one of you tells them, "Go in peace, be warmed and filled;" and yet you didn't give them the things the body needs, what good is it? 2.17. Even so faith, if it has no works, is dead in itself. 2.18. Yes, a man will say, "You have faith, and I have works." Show me your faith from your works, and I by my works will show you my faith. 2.19. You believe that God is one. You do well. The demons also believe, and shudder. 2.20. But do you want to know, vain man, that faith apart from works is dead? 2.21. Wasn't Abraham our father justified by works, in that he offered up Isaac his son on the altar? 2.22. You see that faith worked with his works, and by works faith was perfected; 2.23. and the Scripture was fulfilled which says, "Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him as righteousness;" and he was called the friend of God. 2.24. You see then that by works, a man is justified, and not only by faith. 2.25. In like manner wasn't Rahab the prostitute also justified by works, in that she received the messengers, and sent them out another way? 2.26. For as the body apart from the spirit is dead, even so faith apart from works is dead. 5.7. Be patient therefore, brothers, until the coming of the Lord. Behold, the farmer waits for the precious fruit of the earth, being patient over it, until it receives the early and late rain. 5.8. You also be patient. Establish your hearts, for the coming of the Lord is at hand. 5.9. Don't grumble, brothers, against one another, so that you won't be judged. Behold, the judge stands at the door. 5.10. Take, brothers, for an example of suffering and of patience, the prophets who spoke in the name of the Lord. 5.11. Behold, we call them blessed who endured. You have heard of the patience of Job, and have seen the Lord in the outcome, and how the Lord is full of compassion and mercy. 5.17. Elijah was a man with a nature like ours, and he prayed earnestly that it might not rain, and it didn't rain on the earth for three years and six months.
36. New Testament, Jude, 3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

37. New Testament, Philemon, 2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

38. New Testament, Colossians, 1.18, 1.24, 2.10, 2.19, 3.15, 4.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. He is the head of the body, the assembly, who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence. 1.24. Now I rejoice in my sufferings for your sake, and fill up on my part that which is lacking of the afflictions of Christ in my flesh for his body's sake, which is the assembly; 2.10. and in him you are made full, who is the head of all principality and power; 2.19. and not holding firmly to the Head, from whom all the body, being supplied and knit together through the joints and ligaments, grows with God's growth. 3.15. And let the peace of God rule in your hearts, to which also you were called in one body; and be thankful. 4.15. Greet the brothers who are in Laodicea, and Nymphas, and the assembly that is in his house.
39. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.19-2.22, 4.15, 4.25, 5.22-5.23, 5.29-5.30, 6.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.19. So then you are no longer strangers and sojourners, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God 2.20. being built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the chief cornerstone; 2.21. in whom the whole building, fitted together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord; 2.22. in whom you also are built together for a habitation of God in the Spirit. 4.15. but speaking truth in love, we may grow up in all things into him, who is the head, Christ; 4.25. Therefore, putting away falsehood, speak truth each one with his neighbor. For we are members one of another. 5.22. Wives, be subject to your own husbands, as to the Lord. 5.23. For the husband is the head of the wife, and Christ also is the head of the assembly, being himself the savior of the body. 5.29. For no man ever hated his own flesh; but nourishes and cherishes it, even as the Lord also does the assembly; 5.30. because we are members of his body, of his flesh and bones. 6.23. Peace be to the brothers, and love with faith, from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
40. New Testament, Galatians, 2.16, 3.28, 4.20, 5.22-5.23, 6.1, 6.6, 6.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.16. yet knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law butthrough the faith of Jesus Christ, even we believed in Christ Jesus,that we might be justified by faith in Christ, and not by the works ofthe law, because no flesh will be justified by the works of the law. 3.28. There is neither Jewnor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither malenor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. 4.20. but I could wish to be present withyou now, and to change my tone, for I am perplexed about you. 5.22. But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience,kindness, goodness, faithfulness 5.23. gentleness, and self-control.Against such things there is no law. 6.1. Brothers, even if a man is caught in some fault, you who arespiritual must restore such a one in a spirit of gentleness; looking toyourself so that you also aren't tempted. 6.6. But let him who is taught in the word share all goodthings with him who teaches. 6.10. So then, as we have opportunity, let's do whatis good toward all men, and especially toward those who are of thehousehold of the faith.
41. New Testament, Hebrews, 3.1, 3.6, 6.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. Therefore, holy brothers, partakers of a heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our confession, Jesus; 3.6. but Christ is faithful as a Son over his house; whose house we are, if we hold fast our confidence and the glorying of our hope firm to the end. 6.9. But, beloved, we are persuaded of better things for you, and things that accompany salvation, even though we speak like this.
42. New Testament, Philippians, 1.4-1.7, 1.14, 1.18, 1.27, 2.2-2.3, 2.8, 2.17, 2.25, 2.27-2.29, 4.1-4.4, 4.10-4.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. always in every request of mine on behalf of you all making my requests with joy 1.5. for your fellowship in furtherance of the gospel from the first day until now; 1.6. being confident of this very thing, that he who began a good work in you will complete it until the day of Jesus Christ. 1.7. It is even right for me to think this way on behalf of all of you, because I have you in my heart, because, both in my bonds and in the defense and confirmation of the gospel, you all are partakers with me of grace. 1.14. and that most of the brothers in the Lord, being confident through my bonds, are more abundantly bold to speak the word of God without fear. 1.18. What does it matter? Only that in every way, whether in pretense or in truth, Christ is proclaimed. I rejoice in this, yes, and will rejoice. 1.27. Only let your manner of life be worthy of the gospel of Christ, that, whether I come and see you or am absent, I may hear of your state, that you stand firm in one spirit, with one soul striving for the faith of the gospel; 2.2. make my joy full, by being like-minded, having the same love, being of one accord, of one mind; 2.3. doing nothing through rivalry or through conceit, but in humility, each counting others better than himself; 2.8. And being found in human form, he humbled himself, becoming obedient to death, yes, the death of the cross. 2.17. Yes, and if I am poured out on the sacrifice and service of your faith, I rejoice, and rejoice with you all. 2.25. But I counted it necessary to send to you Epaphroditus, my brother, fellow worker, fellow soldier, and your apostle and minister to my need; 2.27. For indeed he was sick, nearly to death, but God had mercy on him; and not on him only, but on me also, that I might not have sorrow on sorrow. 2.28. I have sent him therefore the more diligently, that, when you see him again, you may rejoice, and that I may be the less sorrowful. 2.29. Receive him therefore in the Lord with all joy, and hold such in honor 4.1. Therefore, my brothers, beloved and longed for, my joy and crown, so stand firm in the Lord, my beloved. 4.2. I exhort Euodia, and I exhort Syntyche, to think the same way in the Lord. 4.3. Yes, I beg you also, true yoke-fellow, help these women, for they labored with me in the gospel, with Clement also, and the rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the book of life. 4.4. Rejoice in the Lord always! Again I will say, Rejoice! 4.10. But I rejoice in the Lord greatly, that now at length you have revived your thought for me; in which you did indeed take thought, but you lacked opportunity. 4.11. Not that I speak in respect to lack, for I have learned in whatever state I am, to be content in it. 4.12. I know how to be humbled, and I know also how to abound. In everything and in all things I have learned the secret both to be filled and to be hungry, both to abound and to be in need. 4.13. I can do all things through Christ, who strengthens me. 4.14. However you did well that you had fellowship with my affliction. 4.15. You yourselves also know, you Philippians, that in the beginning of the gospel, when I departed from Macedonia, no assembly had fellowship with me in the matter of giving and receiving but you only. 4.16. For even in Thessalonica you sent once and again to my need. 4.17. Not that I seek for the gift, but I seek for the fruit that increases to your account. 4.18. But I have all things, and abound. I am filled, having received from Epaphroditus the things that came from you, a sweet-smelling fragrance, an acceptable and well-pleasing sacrifice to God. 4.19. My God will supply every need of yours according to his riches in glory in Christ Jesus. 4.20. Now to our God and Father be the glory forever and ever! Amen.
43. New Testament, Romans, 3.26, 8.32, 12.3-12.8, 12.19, 14.2, 14.14, 16.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.26. to demonstrate his righteousness at this present time; that he might himself be just, and the justifier of him who has faith in Jesus. 8.32. He who didn't spare his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how would he not also with him freely give us all things? 12.3. For I say, through the grace that was given me, to every man who is among you, not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think; but to think reasonably, as God has apportioned to each person a measure of faith. 12.4. For even as we have many members in one body, and all the members don't have the same function 12.5. so we, who are many, are one body in Christ, and individually members one of another. 12.6. Having gifts differing according to the grace that was given to us, if prophecy, let us prophesy according to the proportion of our faith; 12.7. or service, let us give ourselves to service; or he who teaches, to his teaching; 12.8. or he who exhorts, to his exhorting: he who gives, let him do it with liberality; he who rules, with diligence; he who shows mercy, with cheerfulness. 12.19. Don't seek revenge yourselves, beloved, but give place to God's wrath. For it is written, "Vengeance belongs to me; I will repay, says the Lord. 14.2. One man has faith to eat all things, but he who is weak eats only vegetables. 14.14. I know, and am persuaded in the Lord Jesus, that nothing is unclean of itself; except that to him who considers anything to be unclean, to him it is unclean. 16.5. Greet the assembly that is in their house. Greet Epaenetus, my beloved, who is the first fruits of Achaia to Christ.
44. New Testament, John, 2.1-2.11, 6.1-6.15, 10.16, 14.1-14.3, 15.12-15.14, 21.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. The third day, there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee. Jesus' mother was there. 2.2. Jesus also was invited, with his disciples, to the marriage. 2.3. When the wine ran out, Jesus' mother said to him, "They have no wine. 2.4. Jesus said to her, "Woman, what does that have to do with you and me? My hour has not yet come. 2.5. His mother said to the servants, "Whatever he says to you, do it. 2.6. Now there were six water pots of stone set there after the Jews' manner of purifying, containing two or three metretes apiece. 2.7. Jesus said to them, "Fill the water pots with water." They filled them up to the brim. 2.8. He said to them, "Now draw some out, and take it to the ruler of the feast." So they took it. 2.9. When the ruler of the feast tasted the water now become wine, and didn't know where it came from (but the servants who had drawn the water knew), the ruler of the feast called the bridegroom 2.10. and said to him, "Everyone serves the good wine first, and when the guests have drunk freely, then that which is worse. You have kept the good wine until now! 2.11. This beginning of his signs Jesus did in Cana of Galilee, and revealed his glory; and his disciples believed in him. 6.1. After these things, Jesus went away to the other side of the sea of Galilee, which is also called the Sea of Tiberias. 6.2. A great multitude followed him, because they saw his signs which he did on those who were sick. 6.3. Jesus went up into the mountain, and he sat there with his disciples. 6.4. Now the Passover, the feast of the Jews, was at hand. 6.5. Jesus therefore lifting up his eyes, and seeing that a great multitude was coming to him, said to Philip, "Where are we to buy bread, that these may eat? 6.6. This he said to test him, for he himself knew what he would do. 6.7. Philip answered him, "Two hundred denarii worth of bread is not sufficient for them, that everyone of them may receive a little. 6.8. One of his disciples, Andrew, Simon Peter's brother, said to him 6.9. There is a boy here who has five barley loaves and two fish, but what are these among so many? 6.10. Jesus said, "Have the people sit down." Now there was much grass in that place. So the men sat down, in number about five thousand. 6.11. Jesus took the loaves; and having given thanks, he distributed to the disciples, and the disciples to those who were sitting down; likewise also of the fish as much as they desired. 6.12. When they were filled, he said to his disciples, "Gather up the broken pieces which are left over, that nothing be lost. 6.13. So they gathered them up, and filled twelve baskets with broken pieces from the five barley loaves, which were left over by those who had eaten. 6.14. When therefore the people saw the sign which Jesus did, they said, "This is truly the prophet who comes into the world. 6.15. Jesus therefore, perceiving that they were about to come and take him by force, to make him king, withdrew again to the mountain by himself. 10.16. I have other sheep, which are not of this fold. I must bring them also, and they will hear my voice. They will become one flock with one shepherd. 14.1. Don't let your heart be troubled. Believe in God. Believe also in me. 14.2. In my Father's house are many mansions. If it weren't so, I would have told you. I am going to prepare a place for you. 14.3. If I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again, and will receive you to myself; that where I am, you may be there also. 15.12. This is my commandment, that you love one another, even as I have loved you. 15.13. Greater love has no one than this, that someone lay down his life for his friends. 15.14. You are my friends, if you do whatever I command you. 21.23. This saying therefore went out among the brothers, that this disciple wouldn't die. Yet Jesus didn't say to him that he wouldn't die, but, "If I desire that he stay until I come, what is that to you?
45. New Testament, Luke, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 6.22, 6.23, 6.24, 6.25, 8.19, 8.20, 8.21, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.21, 9.22, 9.26, 9.43, 9.44, 9.51-19.27, 10.25, 10.26, 10.27, 10.28, 10.29, 10.30, 10.31, 10.32, 10.33, 10.34, 10.35, 10.36, 10.37, 12.13, 12.14, 12.15, 12.16, 12.17, 12.18, 12.19, 12.20, 12.21, 12.23, 12.24, 12.25, 12.26, 12.27, 12.28, 12.29, 12.30, 12.31, 12.32, 12.33, 12.34, 12.41, 12.42, 12.43, 12.44, 12.45, 12.46, 15.11, 15.12, 15.13, 15.14, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17, 15.18, 15.19, 15.20, 15.21, 15.22, 15.23, 15.24, 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.28, 15.29, 15.30, 15.31, 15.32, 16.19, 16.20, 16.21, 16.22, 16.23, 16.24, 16.25, 16.26, 16.27, 16.28, 16.29, 16.30, 16.31, 17.24, 17.25, 18.18, 18.19, 18.20, 18.21, 18.22, 18.23, 18.24, 18.25, 18.26, 18.27, 18.30, 18.31, 18.32, 18.33, 18.34, 19.1, 19.2, 19.3, 19.4, 19.5, 19.6, 19.7, 19.8, 19.9, 19.10, 19.11, 19.12, 19.13, 19.14, 19.15, 19.16, 19.17, 19.18, 19.19, 19.20, 19.21, 19.22, 19.23, 19.24, 19.25, 19.26, 19.27, 21.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Since many have undertaken to set in order a narrative concerning those matters which have been fulfilled among us
46. New Testament, Mark, 3.31-3.35, 6.32-6.44, 7.15, 8.1-8.10, 10.17-10.31, 13.13, 13.21-13.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.31. His mother and his brothers came, and standing outside, they sent to him, calling him. 3.32. A multitude was sitting around him, and they told him, "Behold, your mother, your brothers, and your sisters are outside looking for you. 3.33. He answered them, "Who are my mother and my brothers? 3.34. Looking around at those who sat around him, he said, "Behold, my mother and my brothers! 3.35. For whoever does the will of God, the same is my brother, and my sister, and mother. 6.32. They went away in the boat to a desert place by themselves. 6.33. They saw them going, and many recognized him and ran there on foot from all the cities. They arrived before them and came together to him. 6.34. Jesus came out, saw a great multitude, and he had compassion on them, because they were like sheep without a shepherd, and he began to teach them many things. 6.35. When it was late in the day, his disciples came to him, and said, "This place is deserted, and it is late in the day. 6.36. Send them away, that they may go into the surrounding country and villages, and buy themselves bread, for they have nothing to eat. 6.37. But he answered them, "You give them something to eat."They asked him, "Shall we go and buy two hundred denarii worth of bread, and give them something to eat? 6.38. He said to them, "How many loaves do you have? Go see."When they knew, they said, "Five, and two fish. 6.39. He commanded them that everyone should sit down in groups on the green grass. 6.40. They sat down in ranks, by hundreds and by fifties. 6.41. He took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven, he blessed and broke the loaves, and he gave to his disciples to set before them, and he divided the two fish among them all. 6.42. They all ate, and were filled. 6.43. They took up twelve baskets full of broken pieces and also of the fish. 6.44. Those who ate the loaves were five thousand men. 7.15. There is nothing from outside of the man, that going into him can defile him; but the things which proceed out of the man are those that defile the man. 8.1. In those days, when there was a very great multitude, and they had nothing to eat, Jesus called his disciples to himself, and said to them 8.2. I have compassion on the multitude, because they have stayed with me now three days, and have nothing to eat. 8.3. If I send them away fasting to their home, they will faint on the way, for some of them have come a long way. 8.4. His disciples answered him, "From where could one satisfy these people with bread here in a deserted place? 8.5. He asked them, "How many loaves do you have?"They said, "Seven. 8.6. He commanded the multitude to sit down on the ground, and he took the seven loaves. Having given thanks, he broke them, and gave them to his disciples to serve, and they served the multitude. 8.7. They had a few small fish. Having blessed them, he said to serve these also. 8.8. They ate, and were filled. They took up seven baskets of broken pieces that were left over. 8.9. Those who had eaten were about four thousand. Then he sent them away. 8.10. Immediately he entered into the boat with his disciples, and came into the region of Dalmanutha. 10.17. As he was going out into the way, one ran to him, knelt before him, and asked him, "Good Teacher, what shall I do that I may inherit eternal life? 10.18. Jesus said to him, "Why do you call me good? No one is good except one -- God. 10.19. You know the commandments: 'Do not murder,' 'Do not commit adultery,' 'Do not steal,' 'Do not give false testimony,' 'Do not defraud,' 'Honor your father and mother.' 10.20. He said to him, "Teacher, I have observed all these things from my youth. 10.21. Jesus looking at him loved him, and said to him, "One thing you lack. Go, sell whatever you have, and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me, taking up the cross. 10.22. But his face fell at that saying, and he went away sorrowful, for he was one who had great possessions. 10.23. Jesus looked around, and said to his disciples, "How difficult it is for those who have riches to enter into the Kingdom of God! 10.24. The disciples were amazed at his words. But Jesus answered again, "Children, how hard is it for those who trust in riches to enter into the Kingdom of God! 10.25. It is easier for a camel to go through a needle's eye than for a rich man to enter into the Kingdom of God. 10.26. They were exceedingly astonished, saying to him, "Then who can be saved? 10.27. Jesus, looking at them, said, "With men it is impossible, but not with God, for all things are possible with God. 10.28. Peter began to tell him, "Behold, we have left all, and have followed you. 10.29. Jesus said, "Most assuredly I tell you, there is no one who has left house, or brothers, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or land, for my sake, and for the gospel's sake 10.30. but he will receive one hundred times more now in this time, houses, brothers, sisters, mothers, children, and land, with persecutions; and in the age to come eternal life. 10.31. But many who are first will be last; and the last first. 13.13. You will be hated by all men for my name's sake, but he who endures to the end, the same will be saved. 13.21. Then if anyone tells you, 'Look, here is the Christ!' or, 'Look, there!' don't believe it. 13.22. For there will arise false christs and false prophets, and will show signs and wonders, that they may lead astray, if possible, even the chosen ones.
47. New Testament, Matthew, 6.25-6.34, 10.25, 12.46-12.50, 14.13-14.21, 15.32-15.39, 18.19-18.20, 19.16-19.30, 23.8-23.9, 24.23-24.24, 24.45-24.51, 25.13-25.30 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.25. Therefore, I tell you, don't be anxious for your life: what you will eat, or what you will drink; nor yet for your body, what you will wear. Isn't life more than food, and the body more than clothing? 6.26. See the birds of the sky, that they don't sow, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns. Your heavenly Father feeds them. Aren't you of much more value than they? 6.27. Which of you, by being anxious, can add one cubit to the measure of his life? 6.28. Why are you anxious about clothing? Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow. They don't toil, neither do they spin 6.29. yet I tell you that even Solomon in all his glory was not dressed like one of these. 6.30. But if God so clothes the grass of the field, which today exists, and tomorrow is thrown into the oven, won't he much more clothe you, you of little faith? 6.31. Therefore don't be anxious, saying, 'What will we eat?', 'What will we drink?' or, 'With what will we be clothed?' 6.32. For the Gentiles seek after all these things, for your heavenly Father knows that you need all these things. 6.33. But seek first God's Kingdom, and his righteousness; and all these things will be given to you as well. 6.34. Therefore don't be anxious for tomorrow, for tomorrow will be anxious for itself. Each day's own evil is sufficient. 10.25. It is enough for the disciple that he be like his teacher, and the servant like his lord. If they have called the master of the house Beelzebul, how much more those of his household! 12.46. While he was yet speaking to the multitudes, behold, his mother and his brothers stood outside, seeking to speak to him. 12.47. One said to him, "Behold, your mother and your brothers stand outside, seeking to speak to you. 12.48. But he answered him who spoke to him, "Who is my mother? Who are my brothers? 12.49. He stretched out his hand towards his disciples, and said, "Behold, my mother and my brothers! 12.50. For whoever does the will of my Father who is in heaven, he is my brother, and sister, and mother. 14.13. Now when Jesus heard this, he withdrew from there in a boat, to a deserted place apart. When the multitudes heard it, they followed him on foot from the cities. 14.14. Jesus went out, and he saw a great multitude. He had compassion on them, and healed their sick. 14.15. When evening had come, his disciples came to him, saying, "This place is deserted, and the hour is already late. Send the multitudes away, that they may go into the villages, and buy themselves food. 14.16. But Jesus said to them, "They don't need to go away. You give them something to eat. 14.17. They told him, "We only have here five loaves and two fish. 14.18. He said, "Bring them here to me. 14.19. He commanded the multitudes to sit down on the grass; and he took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven, he blessed, broke and gave the loaves to the disciples, and the disciples gave to the multitudes. 14.20. They all ate, and were filled. They took up twelve baskets full of that which remained left over from the broken pieces. 14.21. Those who ate were about five thousand men, besides women and children. 15.32. Jesus summoned his disciples and said, "I have compassion on the multitude, because they continue with me now three days and have nothing to eat. I don't want to send them away fasting, or they might faint on the way. 15.33. The disciples said to him, "Where should we get so many loaves in a deserted place as to satisfy so great a multitude? 15.34. Jesus said to them, "How many loaves do you have?"They said, "Seven, and a few small fish. 15.35. He commanded the multitude to sit down on the ground; 15.36. and he took the seven loaves and the fish. He gave thanks and broke them, and gave to the disciples, and the disciples to the multitudes. 15.37. They all ate, and were filled. They took up seven baskets full of the broken pieces that were left over. 15.38. Those who ate were four thousand men, besides women and children. 15.39. Then he sent away the multitudes, got into the boat, and came into the borders of Magdala. 18.19. Again, assuredly I tell you, that if two of you will agree on earth concerning anything that they will ask, it will be done for them by my Father who is in heaven. 18.20. For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there I am in the midst of them. 19.16. Behold, one came to him and said, "Good teacher, what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life? 19.17. He said to him, "Why do you call me good? No one is good but one, that is, God. But if you want to enter into life, keep the commandments. 19.18. He said to him, "Which ones?"Jesus said, "'You shall not murder.' 'You shall not commit adultery.' 'You shall not steal.' 'You shall not offer false testimony.' 19.19. 'Honor your father and mother.' And, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' 19.20. The young man said to him, "All these things I have observed from my youth. What do I still lack? 19.21. Jesus said to him, "If you want to be perfect, go, sell what you have, and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me. 19.22. But when the young man heard the saying, he went away sad, for he was one who had great possessions. 19.23. Jesus said to his disciples, "Most assuredly I say to you, a rich man will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven with difficulty. 19.24. Again I tell you, it is easier for a camel to go through a needle's eye, than for a rich man to enter into the Kingdom of God. 19.25. When the disciples heard it, they were exceedingly astonished, saying, "Who then can be saved? 19.26. Looking at them, Jesus said, "With men this is impossible, but with God all things are possible. 19.27. Then Peter answered, "Behold, we have left everything, and followed you. What then will we have? 19.28. Jesus said to them, "Most assuredly I tell you that you who have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of Man will sit on the throne of his glory, you also will sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. 19.29. Everyone who has left houses, or brothers, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for my name's sake, will receive one hundred times, and will inherit eternal life. 19.30. But many will be last who are first; and first who are last. 23.8. But don't you be called 'Rabbi,' for one is your teacher, the Christ, and all of you are brothers. 23.9. Call no man on the earth your father, for one is your Father, he who is in heaven. 24.23. Then if any man tells you, 'Behold, here is the Christ,' or, 'There,' don't believe it. 24.24. For there will arise false Christs, and false prophets, and they will show great signs and wonders, so as to lead astray, if possible, even the elect. 24.45. Who then is the faithful and wise servant, whom his lord has set over his household, to give them their food in due season? 24.46. Blessed is that servant whom his lord finds doing so when he comes. 24.47. Most assuredly I tell you that he will set him over all that he has. 24.48. But if that evil servant should say in his heart, 'My lord is delaying his coming,' 24.49. and begins to beat his fellow-servants, and eat and drink with the drunken 24.50. the lord of that servant will come in a day when he doesn't expect it, and in an hour when he doesn't know it 24.51. and will cut him in pieces, and appoint his portion with the hypocrites; there is where the weeping and grinding of teeth will be. 25.13. Watch therefore, for you don't know the day nor the hour in which the Son of Man is coming. 25.14. For it is like a man, going into another country, who called his own servants, and entrusted his goods to them. 25.15. To one he gave five talents, to another two, to another one; to each according to his own ability. Then he went on his journey. 25.16. Immediately he who received the five talents went and traded with them, and made another five talents. 25.17. In like manner he also who got the two gained another two. 25.18. But he who received the one went away and dug in the earth, and hid his lord's money. 25.19. Now after a long time the lord of those servants came, and reconciled accounts with them. 25.20. He who received the five talents came and brought another five talents, saying, 'Lord, you delivered to me five talents. Behold, I have gained another five talents besides them.' 25.21. His lord said to him, 'Well done, good and faithful servant. You have been faithful over a few things, I will set you over many things. Enter into the joy of your lord.' 25.22. He also who got the two talents came and said, 'Lord, you delivered to me two talents. Behold, I have gained another two talents besides them.' 25.23. His lord said to him, 'Well done, good and faithful servant. You have been faithful over a few things, I will set you over many things. Enter into the joy of your lord.' 25.24. He also who had received the one talent came and said, 'Lord, I knew you that you are a hard man, reaping where you did not sow, and gathering where you did not scatter. 25.25. I was afraid, and went away and hid your talent in the earth. Behold, you have what is yours.' 25.26. But his lord answered him, 'You wicked and slothful servant. You knew that I reap where I didn't sow, and gather where I didn't scatter. 25.27. You ought therefore to have deposited my money with the bankers, and at my coming I should have received back my own with interest. 25.28. Take away therefore the talent from him, and give it to him who has the ten talents. 25.29. For to everyone who has will be given, and he will have abundance, but from him who has not, even that which he has will be taken away. 25.30. Throw out the unprofitable servant into the outer darkness, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.'
48. Plutarch, On Having Many Friends, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

49. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 110.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

50. Anon., Acts of Peter, 13 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

51. Athenagoras, Apology Or Embassy For The Christians, 31 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

31. But they have further also made up stories against us of impious feasts and forbidden intercourse between the sexes, both that they may appear to themselves to have rational grounds of hatred, and because they think either by fear to lead us away from our way of life, or to render the rulers harsh and inexorable by the magnitude of the charges they bring. But they lose their labour with those who know that from of old it has been the custom, and not in our time only, for vice to make war on virtue. Thus Pythagoras, with three hundred others, was burnt to death; Heraclitus and Democritus were banished, the one from the city of the Ephesians, the other from Abdera, because he was charged with being mad; and the Athenians condemned Socrates to death. But as they were none the worse in respect of virtue because of the opinion of the multitude, so neither does the undiscriminating calumny of some persons cast any shade upon us as regards rectitude of life, for with God we stand in good repute. Nevertheless, I will meet these charges also, although I am well assured that by what has been already said I have cleared myself to you. For as you excel all men in intelligence, you know that those whose life is directed towards God as its rule, so that each one among us may be blameless and irreproachable before Him, will not entertain even the thought of the slightest sin. For if we believed that we should live only the present life, then we might be suspected of sinning, through being enslaved to flesh and blood, or overmastered by gain or carnal desire; but since we know that God is witness to what we think and what we say both by night and by day, and that He, being Himself light, sees all things in our heart, we are persuaded that when we are removed from the present life we shall live another life, better than the present one, and heavenly, not earthly (since we shall abide near God, and with God, free from all change or suffering in the soul, not as flesh, even though we shall have flesh, but as heavenly spirit), or, falling with the rest, a worse one and in fire; for God has not made us as sheep or beasts of burden, a mere by-work, and that we should perish and be annihilated. On these grounds it is not likely that we should wish to do evil, or deliver ourselves over to the great Judge to be punished.
52. Clement of Alexandria, Christ The Educator, 1.7.53.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

53. Justin, First Apology, 67, 60 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

60. And the physiological discussion concerning the Son of God in the Tim us of Plato, where he says, He placed him crosswise in the universe, he borrowed in like manner from Moses; for in the writings of Moses it is related how at that time, when the Israelites went out of Egypt and were in the wilderness, they fell in with poisonous beasts, both vipers and asps, and every kind of serpent, which slew the people; and that Moses, by the inspiration and influence of God, took brass, and made it into the figure of a cross, and set it in the holy tabernacle, and said to the people, If you look to this figure, and believe, you shall be saved thereby. Numbers 21:8 And when this was done, it is recorded that the serpents died, and it is handed down that the people thus escaped death. Which things Plato reading, and not accurately understanding, and not apprehending that it was the figure of the cross, but taking it to be a placing crosswise, he said that the power next to the first God was placed crosswise in the universe. And as to his speaking of a third, he did this because he read, as we said above, that which was spoken by Moses, that the Spirit of God moved over the waters. For he gives the second place to the Logos which is with God, who he said was placed crosswise in the universe; and the third place to the Spirit who was said to be borne upon the water, saying, And the third around the third. And hear how the Spirit of prophecy signified through Moses that there should be a conflagration. He spoke thus: Everlasting fire shall descend, and shall devour to the pit beneath. Deuteronomy 32:22 It is not, then, that we hold the same opinions as others, but that all speak in imitation of ours. Among us these things can be heard and learned from persons who do not even know the forms of the letters, who are uneducated and barbarous in speech, though wise and believing in mind; some, indeed, even maimed and deprived of eyesight; so that you may understand that these things are not the effect of human wisdom, but are uttered by the power of God.
54. Minucius Felix, Octavius, 9.6, 31.1, 31.5 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

55. Tertullian, To The Martyrs, 1.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

56. Tertullian, To The Heathen, 1.7 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.7. Whence comes it to pass, you will say to us, that such a character could have been attributed to you, as to have justified the lawmakers perhaps by its imputation? Let me ask on my side, what voucher they had then, or you now, for the truth of the imputation? (You answer,) Fame. Well, now, is not this - Fama malum, quo non aliud velocius ullum? Now, why a plague, if it be always true? It never ceases from lying; nor even at the moment when it reports the truth is it so free from the wish to lie, as not to interweave the false with the true, by processes of addition, diminution, or confusion of various facts. Indeed, such is its condition, that it can only continue to exist while it lies. For it lives only just so long as it fails to prove anything. As soon as it proves itself true, it falls; and, as if its office of reporting news were at an end, it quits its post: thenceforward the thing is held to be a fact, and it passes under that name. No one, then, says, to take an instance, The report is that this happened at Rome, or, The rumour goes that he has got a province; but, He has got a province, and, This happened at Rome. Nobody mentions a rumour except at an uncertainty, because nobody can be sure of a rumour, but only of certain knowledge; and none but a fool believes a rumour, because no wise man puts faith in an uncertainty. In however wide a circuit a report has been circulated, it must needs have originated some time or other from one mouth; afterwards it creeps on somehow to ears and tongues which pass it on and so obscures the humble error in which it began, that no one considers whether the mouth which first set it a-going disseminated a falsehood - a circumstance which often happens either from a temper of rivalry, or a suspicious turn, or even the pleasure of feigning news. It is, however, well that time reveals all things, as your own sayings and proverbs testify; yea, as nature herself attests, which has so ordered it that nothing lies hid, not even that which fame has not reported. See, now, what a witness you have suborned against us: it has not been able up to this time to prove the report it set in motion, although it has had so long a time to recommend it to our acceptance. This name of ours took its rise in the reign of Augustus; under Tiberius it was taught with all clearness and publicity; under Nero it was ruthlessly condemned, and you may weigh its worth and character even from the person of its persecutor. If that prince was a pious man, then the Christians are impious; if he was just, if he was pure, then the Christians are unjust and impure; if he was not a public enemy, we are enemies of our country: what sort of men we are, our persecutor himself shows, since he of course punished what produced hostility to himself. Now, although every other institution which existed under Nero has been destroyed, yet this of ours has firmly remained - righteous, it would seem, as being unlike the author (of its persecution). Two hundred and fifty years, then, have not yet passed since our life began. During the interval there have been so many criminals; so many crosses have obtained immortality; so many infants have been slain; so many loaves steeped in blood; so many extinctions of candles; so many dissolute marriages. And up to the present time it is mere report which fights against the Christians. No doubt it has a strong support in the wickedness of the human mind, and utters its falsehoods with more success among cruel and savage men. For the more inclined you are to maliciousness, the more ready are you to believe evil; in short, men more easily believe the evil that is false, than the good which is true. Now, if injustice has left any place within you for the exercise of prudence in investigating the truth of reports, justice of course demanded that you should examine by whom the report could have been spread among the multitude, and thus circulated through the world. For it could not have been by the Christians themselves, I suppose, since by the very constitution and law of all mysteries the obligation of silence is imposed. How much more would this be the case in such (mysteries as are ascribed to us), which, if divulged, could not fail to bring down instant punishment from the prompt resentment of men! Since, therefore, the Christians are not their own betrayers, it follows that it must be strangers. Now I ask, how could strangers obtain knowledge of us, when even true and lawful mysteries exclude every stranger from witnessing them, unless illicit ones are less exclusive? Well, then, it is more in keeping with the character of strangers both to be ignorant (of the true state of a case), and to invent (a false account). Our domestic servants (perhaps) listened, and peeped through crevices and holes, and stealthily got information of our ways. What, then, shall we say when our servants betray them to you? It is better, (to be sure,) for us all not to be betrayed by any; but still, if our practices be so atrocious, how much more proper is it when a righteous indignation bursts asunder even all ties of domestic fidelity? How was it possible for it to endure what horrified the mind and affrighted the eye? This is also a wonderful thing, both that he who was so overcome with impatient excitement as to turn informer, did not likewise desire to prove (what he reported), and that he who heard the informer's story did not care to see for himself, since no doubt the reward is equal both for the informer who proves what he reports, and for the hearer who convinces himself of the credibility of what he hears. But then you say that (this is precisely what has taken place): first came the rumour, then the exhibition of the proof; first the hearsay, then the inspection; and after this, fame received its commission. Now this, I must say, surpasses all admiration, that that was once for all detected and divulged which is being for ever repeated, unless, forsooth, we have by this time ceased from the reiteration of such things (as are alleged of us). But we are called still by the same (offensive) name, and we are supposed to be still engaged in the same practices, and we multiply from day to day; the more we are, to the more become we objects of hatred. Hatred increases as the material for it increases. Now, seeing that the multitude of offenders is ever advancing, how is it that the crowd of informers does not keep equal pace therewith? To the best of my belief, even our manner of life has become better known; you know the very days of our assemblies; therefore we are both besieged, and attacked, and kept prisoners actually in our secret congregations. Yet who ever came upon a half-consumed corpse (among us)? Who has detected the traces of a bite in our blood-steeped loaf? Who has discovered, by a sudden light invading our darkness, any marks of impurity, I will not say of incest, (in our feasts)? If we save ourselves by a bribe from being dragged out before the public gaze with such a character, how is it that we are still oppressed? We have it indeed in our own power not to be thus apprehended at all; for who either sells or buys information about a crime, if the crime itself has no existence? But why need I disparagingly refer to strange spies and informers, when you allege against us such charges as we certainly do not ourselves divulge with very much noise - either as soon as you hear of them, if we previously show them to you, or after you have yourselves discovered them, if they are for the time concealed from you? For no doubt, when any desire initiation in the mysteries, their custom is first to go to the master or father of the sacred rites. Then he will say (to the applicant), You must bring an infant, as a guarantee for our rites, to be sacrificed, as well as some bread to be broken and dipped in his blood; you also want candles, and dogs tied together to upset them, and bits of meat to rouse the dogs. Moreover, a mother too, or a sister, is necessary for you. What, however, is to be said if you have neither? I suppose in that case you could not be a genuine Christian. Now, do let me ask you, Will such things, when reported by strangers, bear to be spread about (as charges against us)? It is impossible for such persons to understand proceedings in which they take no part. The first step of the process is perpetrated with artifice; our feasts and our marriages are invented and detailed by ignorant persons, who had never before heard about Christian mysteries. And though they afterwards cannot help acquiring some knowledge of them, it is even then as having to be administered by others whom they bring on the scene. Besides, how absurd is it that the profane know mysteries which the priest knows not! They keep them all to themselves, then, and take them for granted; and so these tragedies, (worse than those) of Thyestes or Œdipus, do not at all come forth to light, nor find their way to the public. Even more voracious bites take nothing away from the credit of such as are initiated, whether servants or masters. If, however, none of these allegations can be proved to be true, how incalculable must be esteemed the grandeur (of that religion) which is manifestly not overbalanced even by the burden of these vast atrocities! O you heathen; who have and deserve our pity, behold, we set before you the promise which our sacred system offers. It guarantees eternal life to such as follow and observe it; on the other hand, it threatens with the eternal punishment of an unending fire those who are profane and hostile; while to both classes alike is preached a resurrection from the dead. We are not now concerned about the doctrine of these (verities), which are discussed in their proper place. Meanwhile, however, believe them, even as we do ourselves, for I want to know whether you are ready to reach them, as we do, through such crimes. Come, whosoever you are, plunge your sword into an infant; or if that is another's office, then simply gaze at the breathing creature dying before it has lived; at any rate, catch its fresh blood in which to steep your bread; then feed yourself without stint; and while this is going on, recline. Carefully distinguish the places where your mother or your sister may have made their bed; mark them well, in order that, when the shades of night have fallen upon them, putting of course to the test the care of every one of you, you may not make the awkward mistake of alighting on somebody else: you would have to make an atonement, if you failed of the incest. When you have effected all this, eternal life will be in store for you. I want you to tell me whether you think eternal life worth such a price. No, indeed, you do not believe it: even if you did believe it, I maintain that you would be unwilling to give (the fee); or if willing, would be unable. But why should others be able if you are unable? Why should you be able if others are unable? What would you wish impunity (and) eternity to stand you in? Do you suppose that these (blessings) can be bought by us at any price? Have Christians teeth of a different sort from others? Have they more ample jaws? Are they of different nerve for incestuous lust? I think not. It is enough for us to differ from you in condition by truth alone.
57. Tertullian, Apology, 39.8 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

39. I shall at once go on, then, to exhibit the peculiarities of the Christian society, that, as I have refuted the evil charged against it, I may point out its positive good. We are a body knit together as such by a common religious profession, by unity of discipline, and by the bond of a common hope. We meet together as an assembly and congregation, that, offering up prayer to God as with united force, we may wrestle with Him in our supplications. This violence God delights in. We pray, too, for the emperors, for their ministers and for all in authority, for the welfare of the world, for the prevalence of peace, for the delay of the final consummation. We assemble to read our sacred writings, if any peculiarity of the times makes either forewarning or reminiscence needful. However it be in that respect, with the sacred words we nourish our faith, we animate our hope, we make our confidence more steadfast; and no less by inculcations of God's precepts we confirm good habits. In the same place also exhortations are made, rebukes and sacred censures are administered. For with a great gravity is the work of judging carried on among us, as befits those who feel assured that they are in the sight of God; and you have the most notable example of judgment to come when any one has sinned so grievously as to require his severance from us in prayer, in the congregation and in all sacred intercourse. The tried men of our elders preside over us, obtaining that honour not by purchase, but by established character. There is no buying and selling of any sort in the things of God. Though we have our treasure chest, it is not made up of purchase-money, as of a religion that has its price. On the monthly day, if he likes, each puts in a small donation; but only if it be his pleasure, and only if he be able: for there is no compulsion; all is voluntary. These gifts are, as it were, piety's deposit fund. For they are not taken thence and spent on feasts, and drinking-bouts, and eating-houses, but to support and bury poor people, to supply the wants of boys and girls destitute of means and parents, and of old persons confined now to the house; such, too, as have suffered shipwreck; and if there happen to be any in the mines, or banished to the islands, or shut up in the prisons, for nothing but their fidelity to the cause of God's Church, they become the nurslings of their confession. But it is mainly the deeds of a love so noble that lead many to put a brand upon us. See, they say, how they love one another, for themselves are animated by mutual hatred; how they are ready even to die for one another, for they themselves will sooner put to death. And they are angry with us, too, because we call each other brethren; for no other reason, as I think, than because among themselves names of consanguinity are assumed in mere pretence of affection. But we are your brethren as well, by the law of our common mother nature, though you are hardly men, because brothers so unkind. At the same time, how much more fittingly they are called and counted brothers who have been led to the knowledge of God as their common Father, who have drunk in one spirit of holiness, who from the same womb of a common ignorance have agonized into the same light of truth! But on this very account, perhaps, we are regarded as having less claim to be held true brothers, that no tragedy makes a noise about our brotherhood, or that the family possessions, which generally destroy brotherhood among you, create fraternal bonds among us. One in mind and soul, we do not hesitate to share our earthly goods with one another. All things are common among us but our wives. We give up our community where it is practised alone by others, who not only take possession of the wives of their friends, but most tolerantly also accommodate their friends with theirs, following the example, I believe, of those wise men of ancient times, the Greek Socrates and the Roman Cato, who shared with their friends the wives whom they had married, it seems for the sake of progeny both to themselves and to others; whether in this acting against their partners' wishes, I am not able to say. Why should they have any care over their chastity, when their husbands so readily bestowed it away? O noble example of Attic wisdom, of Roman gravity - the philosopher and the censor playing pimps! What wonder if that great love of Christians towards one another is desecrated by you! For you abuse also our humble feasts, on the ground that they are extravagant as well as infamously wicked. To us, it seems, applies the saying of Diogenes: The people of Megara feast as though they were going to die on the morrow; they build as though they were never to die! But one sees more readily the mote in another's eye than the beam in his own. Why, the very air is soured with the eructations of so many tribes, and curi, and decuri . The Salii cannot have their feast without going into debt; you must get the accountants to tell you what the tenths of Hercules and the sacrificial banquets cost; the choicest cook is appointed for the Apaturia, the Dionysia, the Attic mysteries; the smoke from the banquet of Serapis will call out the firemen. Yet about the modest supper-room of the Christians alone a great ado is made. Our feast explains itself by its name. The Greeks call it agapè, i.e., affection. Whatever it costs, our outlay in the name of piety is gain, since with the good things of the feast we benefit the needy; not as it is with you, do parasites aspire to the glory of satisfying their licentious propensities, selling themselves for a belly-feast to all disgraceful treatment - but as it is with God himself, a peculiar respect is shown to the lowly. If the object of our feast be good, in the light of that consider its further regulations. As it is an act of religious service, it permits no vileness or immodesty. The participants, before reclining, taste first of prayer to God. As much is eaten as satisfies the cravings of hunger; as much is drunk as befits the chaste. They say it is enough, as those who remember that even during the night they have to worship God; they talk as those who know that the Lord is one of their auditors. After manual ablution, and the bringing in of lights, each is asked to stand forth and sing, as he can, a hymn to God, either one from the holy Scriptures or one of his own composing - a proof of the measure of our drinking. As the feast commenced with prayer, so with prayer it is closed. We go from it, not like troops of mischief-doers, nor bands of vagabonds, nor to break out into licentious acts, but to have as much care of our modesty and chastity as if we had been at a school of virtue rather than a banquet. Give the congregation of the Christians its due, and hold it unlawful, if it is like assemblies of the illicit sort: by all means let it be condemned, if any complaint can be validly laid against it, such as lies against secret factions. But who has ever suffered harm from our assemblies? We are in our congregations just what we are when separated from each other; we are as a community what we are individuals; we injure nobody, we trouble nobody. When the upright, when the virtuous meet together, when the pious, when the pure assemble in congregation, you ought not to call that a faction, but a curia- [i.e., the court of God.]
58. Tertullian, Prescription Against Heretics, 20.8 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

59. Tertullian, On Modesty, 7.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

60. Theophilus, To Autolycus, 2.35 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.35. The divine law, then, not only forbids the worshipping of idols, but also of the heavenly bodies, the sun, the moon, or the other stars; yea, not heaven, nor earth, nor the sea, nor fountains, nor rivers, must be worshipped, but we must serve in holiness of heart and sincerity of purpose only the living and true God, who also is Maker of the universe. Wherefore says the holy law: You shall not commit adultery; you shall not steal; you shall not bear false witness; you shall not desire your neighbour's wife. So also the prophets. Solomon indeed teaches us that we must not sin with so much as a turn of the eye, saying, Let your eyes look right on, and let your eyelids look straight before you. Proverbs 4:25 And Moses, who himself also was a prophet, says, concerning the sole government of God: Your God is He who establishes the heaven, and forms the earth, whose hands have brought forth all the host of heaven; and He has not set these things before you that you should go after them. Deuteronomy 4:19 And Isaiah himself also says: Thus says the Lord God who established the heavens, and founded the earth and all that is therein, and gives breath unto the people upon it, and spirit to them that walk therein. This is the Lord your God. Isaiah 42:5 And again, through him He says: I have made the earth, and man upon it. I by my hand have established the heavens. Isaiah 45:12 And in another chapter, This is your God, who created the ends of the earth; He hungers not, neither is weary, and there is no searching of His understanding. Isaiah 40:28 So, too, Jeremiah says: Who has made the earth by His power, and established the world by His wisdom, and by His discretion has stretched out the heavens, and a mass of water in the heavens, and He caused the clouds to ascend from the ends of the earth; He made lightnings with rain, and brought forth winds out of His treasures. Jeremiah 10:12-13 One can see how consistently and harmoniously all the prophets spoke, having given utterance through one and the same spirit concerning the unity of God, and the creation of the world, and the formation of man. Moreover, they were in sore travail, bewailing the godless race of men, and they reproached those, who seemed to be wise, for their error and hardness of heart. Jeremiah, indeed, said: Every man is brutishly gone astray from the knowledge of Him; every founder is confounded by his graven images; in vain the silversmith makes his molten images; there is no breath in them: in the day of their visitation they shall perish. Jeremiah 51:17-18 The same, too, says David: They are corrupt, they have done abominable works; there is none that does good, no, not one; they have all gone aside, they have together become profitless. So also Habakkuk: What profits the graven image that he has graven it a lying image? Woe to him that says to the stone, Awake; and to the wood, Arise. Habakkuk 2:18 Likewise spoke the other prophets of the truth. And why should I recount the multitude of prophets, who are numerous, and said ten thousand things consistently and harmoniously? For those who desire it, can, by reading what they uttered, accurately understand the truth, and no longer be carried away by opinion and profitless labour. These, then, whom we have already mentioned, were prophets among the Hebrews, - illiterate, and shepherds, and uneducated.
61. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

10a. כל פרשה שהיתה חביבה על דוד פתח בה באשרי וסיים בה באשרי פתח באשרי דכתיב (תהלים א, א) אשרי האיש וסיים באשרי דכתיב (תהלים ב, יב) אשרי כל חוסי בו:,הנהו בריוני דהוו בשבבותיה דר"מ והוו קא מצערו ליה טובא הוה קא בעי ר' מאיר רחמי עלויהו כי היכי דלימותו אמרה לי' ברוריא דביתהו מאי דעתך משום דכתיב (תהלים קד, לה) יתמו חטאים מי כתיב חוטאים חטאים כתיב,ועוד שפיל לסיפיה דקרא ורשעים עוד אינם כיון דיתמו חטאים ורשעים עוד אינם אלא בעי רחמי עלויהו דלהדרו בתשובה ורשעים עוד אינם,בעא רחמי עלויהו והדרו בתשובה:,אמר לה ההוא צדוקי לברוריא כתיב (ישעיהו נד, א) רני עקרה לא ילדה משום דלא ילדה רני,אמרה ליה שטיא שפיל לסיפיה דקרא דכתיב כי רבים בני שוממה מבני בעולה אמר ה',אלא מאי עקרה לא ילדה רני כנסת ישראל שדומה לאשה עקרה שלא ילדה בנים לגיהנם כותייכו:,א"ל ההוא צדוקי לר' אבהו כתיב (תהלים ג, א) מזמור לדוד בברחו מפני אבשלום בנו וכתיב (תהלים נז, א) לדוד מכתם בברחו מפני שאול במערה הי מעשה הוה ברישא מכדי מעשה שאול הוה ברישא לכתוב ברישא,אמר ליה אתון דלא דרשיתון סמוכין קשיא לכו אנן דדרשינן סמוכים לא קשיא לן,דא"ר יוחנן סמוכין מן התורה מנין שנא' (תהלים קיא, ח) סמוכים לעד לעולם עשוים באמת וישר,למה נסמכה פרשת אבשלום לפרשת גוג ומגוג שאם יאמר לך אדם כלום יש עבד שמורד ברבו אף אתה אמור לו כלום יש בן שמורד באביו אלא הוה הכא נמי הוה:,אמר ר' יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי מאי דכתיב (משלי לא, כו) פיה פתחה בחכמה ותורת חסד על לשונה כנגד מי אמר שלמה מקרא זה לא אמרו אלא כנגד דוד אביו שדר בחמשה עולמים ואמר שירה,דר במעי אמו ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, א) ברכי נפשי את ה' וכל קרבי את שם קדשו,יצא לאויר העולם ונסתכל בכוכבים ומזלות ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, כ) ברכו ה' מלאכיו גבורי כח עושי דברו לשמוע בקול דברו ברכו ה' כל צבאיו וגו',ינק משדי אמו ונסתכל בדדיה ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, ב) ברכי נפשי את ה' ואל תשכחי כל גמוליו,מאי כל גמוליו אמר ר' אבהו שעשה לה דדים במקום בינה,טעמא מאי אמר (רבי) יהודה כדי שלא יסתכל במקום ערוה רב מתנא אמר כדי שלא יינק ממקום הטנופת,ראה במפלתן של רשעים ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קד, לה) יתמו חטאים מן הארץ ורשעים עוד אינם ברכי נפשי את ה' הללויה,נסתכל ביום המיתה ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קד, א) ברכי נפשי את ה' ה' אלהי גדלת מאד הוד והדר לבשת,מאי משמע דעל יום המיתה נאמר אמר רבה בר רב שילא מסיפא דעניינא דכתיב (תהלים קד, כט) תסתיר פניך יבהלון תוסף רוחם יגועון וגו',רב שימי בר עוקבא ואמרי לה מר עוקבא הוה שכיח קמיה דר' שמעון בן פזי והוה מסדר אגדתא קמיה דר' יהושע בן לוי אמר ליה מאי דכתיב (תהלים קג, א) ברכי נפשי את ה' וכל קרבי את שם קדשו אמר ליה בא וראה שלא כמדת הקדוש ברוך הוא מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם צר צורה על גבי הכותל ואינו יכול להטיל בה רוח ונשמה קרבים ובני מעים והקב"ה אינו כן צר צורה בתוך צורה ומטיל בה רוח ונשמה קרבים ובני מעים והיינו דאמרה חנה (שמואל א ב, ב) אין קדוש כה' כי אין בלתך ואין צור כאלהינו.,מאי אין צור כאלהינו אין צייר כאלהינו,מאי כי אין בלתך אמר ר' יהודה בר מנסיא אל תקרי כי אין בלתך אלא אין לבלותך שלא כמדת הקדוש ברוך הוא מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם מעשה ידיו מבלין אותו והקב"ה מבלה מעשיו,א"ל אנא הכי קא אמינא לך הני חמשה ברכי נפשי כנגד מי אמרן דוד לא אמרן אלא כנגד הקב"ה וכנגד נשמה,מה הקב"ה מלא כל העולם אף נשמה מלאה את כל הגוף מה הקדוש ברוך הוא רואה ואינו נראה אף נשמה רואה ואינה נראית מה הקב"ה זן את כל העולם כלו אף נשמה זנה את כל הגוף מה הקב"ה טהור אף נשמה טהורה מה הקב"ה יושב בחדרי חדרים אף נשמה יושבת בחדרי חדרים יבא מי שיש בו חמשה דברים הללו וישבח למי שיש בו חמשה דברים הללו:,אמר רב המנונא מאי דכתיב (קהלת ח, א) מי כהחכם ומי יודע פשר דבר מי כהקדוש ברוך הוא שיודע לעשות פשרה בין שני צדיקים בין חזקיהו לישעיהו חזקיהו אמר ליתי ישעיהו גבאי דהכי אשכחן באליהו דאזל לגבי אחאב (שנאמר (מלכים א יח, ב) וילך אליהו להראות אל אחאב) ישעיהו אמר ליתי חזקיהו גבאי דהכי אשכחן ביהורם בן אחאב דאזל לגבי אלישע,מה עשה הקב"ה הביא יסורים על חזקיהו ואמר לו לישעיהו לך ובקר את החולה שנאמר (מלכים ב כ, א) בימים ההם חלה חזקיהו למות ויבא אליו ישעיהו בן אמוץ הנביא ויאמר אליו כה אמר ה' (צבאות) צו לביתך כי מת אתה ולא תחיה וגו' מאי כי מת אתה ולא תחיה מת אתה בעולם הזה ולא תחיה לעולם הבא,אמר ליה מאי כולי האי אמר ליה משום דלא עסקת בפריה ורביה א"ל משום דחזאי לי ברוח הקדש דנפקי מינאי בנין דלא מעלו,א"ל בהדי כבשי דרחמנא למה לך מאי דמפקדת איבעי לך למעבד ומה דניחא קמיה קודשא בריך הוא לעביד,אמר ליה השתא הב לי ברתך אפשר דגרמא זכותא דידי ודידך ונפקי מנאי בנין דמעלו א"ל כבר נגזרה עליך גזירה א"ל בן אמוץ כלה נבואתך וצא,כך מקובלני מבית אבי אבא אפי' חרב חדה מונחת על צוארו של אדם אל ימנע עצמו מן הרחמים,אתמר נמי רבי יוחנן ורבי (אליעזר) דאמרי תרוייהו אפילו חרב חדה מונחת על צוארו של אדם אל ימנע עצמו מן הרחמים שנא' (איוב יג, טו) הן יקטלני לו איחל 10a. bEvery chapter that was dear to David, he began with “happy is” and concluded with “happy is.” He opened with “happy is,” as it is written: “Happy is the manwho has not walked in the counsel of the wicked or stood in the way of sinners or sat in the dwelling place of the scornful” (Psalms 1:1). bAnd he concluded with “happy,” as it is writtenat the end of the chapter: “Pay homage in purity, lest He be angry, and you perish on the way when His anger is kindled suddenly. bHappy are those who take refuge in Him”(Psalms 2:12). We see that these two chapters actually constitute a single chapter.,With regard to the statement of Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, that David did not say iHalleluyauntil he saw the downfall of the wicked, the Gemara relates: bThere were these hooligans in Rabbi Meir’s neighborhood who caused him a great deal of anguish. Rabbi Meir prayed forGod to have bmercy on them, that they should die. Rabbi Meir’s wife, Berurya, said to him: What is your thinking?On what basis do you pray for the death of these hooligans? Do you base yourself on the verse, bas it is written: “Let sins cease from the land”(Psalms 104:35), which you interpret to mean that the world would be better if the wicked were destroyed? But bis it written,let bsinnerscease?” Let bsinscease, bis written.One should pray for an end to their transgressions, not for the demise of the transgressors themselves., bMoreover, go to the end of the verse,where it says: b“And the wicked will be no more.”If, as you suggest, btransgressions shall ceaserefers to the demise of the evildoers, how is it possible that bthe wicked will be no more,i.e., that they will no longer be evil? bRather, pray forGod to have bmercy on them, that they should repent,as if they repent, then the wicked will be no more, as they will have repented.,Rabbi Meir saw that Berurya was correct band he prayed forGod to have bmercy on them, and they repented. /b,The Gemara relates an additional example of Berurya’s incisive insight: bA certain heretic said to Berurya: It is written: “Sing, barren woman who has not given birth,open forth in song and cry, you did not travail, for more are the children of the desolate than the children of the married wife, said the Lord” (Isaiah 54:1). bBecause she has not given birth,she should bsingand rejoice?,Berurya responded to this heretic’s mockery and bsaid: Fool! Go to the end of the verse, where it is written: “For the children of the desolate shall be more numerous than the children of the married wife, said the Lord.” /b, bRather, whatis the meaning of: b“Sing, barren woman who has not given birth”?It means: bSing congregation of Israel, which is like a barren woman who did not give birth to children who aredestined bfor Gehenna like you. /b,In explaining passages from Psalms, the Gemara relates another instance of a response to the question of a heretic: bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Abbahu, it is written: “A Psalm of David, when he fled from his son, Absalom”(Psalms 3:1), bandsimilarly bit is said:“To the chief musician, ial tashḥet /i, ba imikhtamof David when fleeing from Saul into the cave”(Psalms 57:1). bWhich event was first? Since the event with Saul was first,it would have been appropriate bto write it first. /b,Rabbi Abbahu bsaid to him:For byou, who donot employ the bhomileticmethod bof juxtapositionof verses, bit is difficult.But for bus, whoemploy the bhomileticmethod bof juxtapositionof verses, bit is not difficult,as the Sages commonly homiletically infer laws and moral lessons from the juxtaposition of two verses.,Regarding the juxtaposition of verses, bRabbi Yoḥa said: From wherein the Bible is it derived that one may draw homiletical inferences from the bjuxtapositionof verses? bAs it is said:“The works of His hands in truth and justice, all His commandments are sure. bAdjoined forever and ever, made in truth and uprightness”(Psalms 111:7–8). Conclude from here that it is appropriate to draw inferences from the juxtaposition of God’s commandments. Accordingly, David’s fleeing from Absalom is situated where it is in order to juxtapose it to the next chapter, which mentions the war of Gog and Magog; the second chapter of Psalms opens: “Why are the nations in an uproar?”, bWhy was the chapter of Absalom juxtaposed with the chapter of Gog and Magog?They are juxtaposed bsothat bif a person should say to you,expressing doubt with regard to the prophecy of the war of Gog and Magog “against the Lord and against His anointed”: bIs there a slave who rebels against his master?Is there someone capable of rebelling against God? bYou too say to him: Is there a son who rebels against his fatherand severs the relationship with the one who brought him into the world and raised him? bYet,nevertheless, bthere wassuch a son, Absalom, and bso too therecan bbea situation where people will seek to rebel against God., bRabbi Yoḥa saidexplanations of other verses bin the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “She opens her mouth with wisdom, and the teaching of loving-kindness is on her tongue”(Proverbs 31:26)? The Sages explain that this chapter discusses the wisdom of Torah and those who engage in its study, so bwith reference to whom did Solomon say this verse? He said thisverse babout none other than his father, David,who was the clearest example of one who opens his mouth in wisdom, and bwho resided in five worldsor stages of life bandhis soul bsaid a songof praise corresponding to each of them. Five times David said: “Bless the Lord, O my soul,” each corresponding to a different stage of life., bHe resided in his mother’s womb,his first world, band said a songof praise of the pregcy, bas it is stated:“of David. bBless the Lord, O my soul and all that is within me bless His holy name”(Psalms 103:1), in which he thanks God for creating all that is within his mother, i.e., her womb., bHe emerged into the atmosphere of the world,his second world, blooked upon the stars and constellations and said a songof praise of God for the entirety of creation, bas it is stated: “Bless the Lord, His angels, mighty in strength, that fulfill His word, listening to the voice of His word. Bless the Lord, all His hosts,His servants, that do His will. Bless the Lord, all His works, in all places of His kingship, bless my soul, Lord” (Psalms 103:20–23). David saw the grandeur of all creation and recognized that they are mere servants, carrying out the will of their Creator ( iMa’ayan HaBerakhot /i)., bHe nursed from his mother’s breast,his third world, band he looked upon her bosom and said a songof praise, bas it is stated: “Bless the Lord, O my soul, and do not forget all His benefits [ igemulav /i]”(Psalms 103:2). The etymological association is between igemulavand igemulei meḥalav /i, which means weaned from milk (Isaiah 28:9).,We still must understand, however, bwhat ismeant by ball His benefits?What in particular is praiseworthy in what God provided, beyond merely providing for the infant? bRabbi Abbahu said:In contrast with most other animals, God bplaced her breastsnear her heart, bthe placethat is the source bof understanding. /b, bWhat is the reasonthat God did this? bRav Yehuda said: So thatthe nursing child bwould not look upon the place ofhis mother’s bnakedness. Rav Mattana said: So thatthe child bwould not nurse from a place of uncleanliness. /b, bHe witnessedin both vision and reality bthe downfall of the wicked and he said a songof praise, bas it is stated: “Let sinners cease from the earth, and let the wicked be no more. Bless the Lord, O my soul, iHalleluya /i”(Psalms 104:35).,The fifth world was when David blooked upon the day of death and said a songof praise, bas it is stated: “Bless the Lord, O my soul. Lord my God, You are very great; You are clothed in glory and majesty”(Psalms 104:1); for even death is a time of transcendence for the righteous.,The connection between this final praise and the day of death is unclear. The Gemara asks: bFrom where is it inferredthat bthisverse bwas stated with regard to the day of death?Rabba bar Rav Sheila says: We can derive this bfromthe verses at bthe end of the matter,where bit is written: “You hide Your face, they vanish; You gather Your breath, they perishand return to the dust” (Psalms 104:29).,Other interpretations of this verse exist. The Gemara relates how bRav Shimi bar Ukva, and some say Mar Ukva, would regularlystudy bbefore Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi,who was well versed in iaggadaand bwould arrange the iaggadabefore Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. brOnce, Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi bsaid to him: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “Bless the Lord, my soul, and all that is within me bless His Holy name”? brRav Shimi bar Ukva bsaid toRabbi Shimon ben Pazi: bCome and see that the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is not like the attribute of flesh and blood,as this verse praises the formation of man in his mother’s womb. bThe attribute of flesh and blood issuch that he bshapes a form on the wallfor all to see, yet bhe cannot instill it with a spirit and soul, bowels and intestines.While bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, is not so,as God bshapes one form within another form,a child in its mother’s womb, band instills it with spirit and soul, bowels and intestines. And this isthe explanation of bwhat Hannah saidwith regard to the birth of Samuel: b“There is none holy like the Lord, for there is none like You, and there is no Rock like our God”(I Samuel 2:2)., bWhat isthe meaning of bthere is no rock [ itzur /i] like our God? There is no artist [ itzayyar /i] like our God. /b,The Gemara continues to interpret the rest of that verse homiletically: bWhat isthe meaning of b“there is none like You”? Rabbi Yehuda ben Menasya said: Do not readthe verse to mean b“there is none like You [ ibiltekha /i]”; rather, readit to mean b“none can outlast You [ ilevalotkha /i],” as the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is not like the attribute of flesh and blood: The attribute of flesh and blood issuch bthat his creations outlast him,but bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, outlasts His actions. /b,This did not satisfy Rav Shimi bar Ukva, who bsaid toRabbi Shimon ben Pazi: bImeant to bsay to you as follows: Corresponding to whom did David say these fiveinstance of b“Blessthe Lord, bO my soul”?He answered him: bHe said them about none other than the Holy One, Blessed be He, and corresponding to the soul,as the verse refers to the relationship between man’s soul and God. The five instances of “Bless the Lord, O my soul” correspond to the five parallels between the soul in man’s body and God’s power in His world., bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, fills the entire world, so too the soul fills the entire body. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, sees but is not seen, so too does the soul see, but is not seen. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, sustains the entire world, so too the soul sustains the entire body. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, is pure, so too is the soul pure. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, resides in a chamber within a chamber,in His inner sanctum, bso too the soul resides in a chamber within a chamber,in the innermost recesses of the body. brTherefore, bthat which has these five characteristics,the soul, bshould come and praise He Who has these five characteristics. /b,With regard to redemption and prayer, the Gemara tells the story of Hezekiah’s illness, his prayer to God, and subsequent recuperation. bRav Hamnuna said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is writtenpraising the Holy One, Blessed be He: b“Who is like the wise man, and who knows the interpretation [ ipesher /i] of the matter”(Ecclesiastes 8:1)? This verse means: bWho is like the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who knows how to effect compromise [ ipeshara /i] between two righteous individuals, between Hezekiah,the king of Judea, band Isaiahthe prophet. They disagreed over which of them should visit the other. bHezekiah said: Let Isaiah come to me, as that is what we find with regard to Elijahthe prophet, bwho went to Ahab,the king of Israel, bas it is stated: “And Elijah went to appear to Ahab”(I Kings 18:2). This proves that it is the prophet who must seek out the king. bAnd Isaiah said: Let Hezekiah come to me, as that is what we find with regard to Yehoram ben Ahab,king of Israel, bwho went to Elishathe prophet, as it is stated: “So the king of Israel, Jehosaphat and the king of Edom went down to him” (II Kings 3:12)., bWhat did the Holy One, Blessed be He, doto effect compromise between Hezekiah and Isaiah? bHe brought the sufferingof illness bupon Hezekiah and told Isaiah: Go and visit the sick.Isaiah did as God instructed, bas it is stated: “In those days Hezekiah became deathly ill, and Isaiah ben Amoz the prophet came and said to him: Thus says the Lord of Hosts: Set your house in order, for you will die and you will not live”(Isaiah 38:1). This seems redundant; bwhat isthe meaning of byou will die and you will not live?This repetition means: bYou will die in this world, and you will not live,you will have no share, bin the World-to-Come. /b,Hezekiah bsaid to him: What is all of this?For what transgression am I being punished? brIsaiah bsaid to him: Because you did notmarry and bengage in procreation. brHezekiah apologized and bsaid:I had no children bbecause I envisaged through divine inspiration that the children that emerge from me will not be virtuous.Hezekiah meant that he had seen that his children were destined to be evil. In fact, his son Menashe sinned extensively, and he thought it preferable to have no children at all.,Isaiah bsaid to him: Why do youinvolve byourself with the secrets of the Holy One, Blessed be He? That which you have been commanded,the mitzva of procreation, byou are required to perform, and that which is acceptablein the eyes of bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, let Him perform,as He has so decided.,Hezekiah bsaid toIsaiah: bNow give me your daughteras my wife; bperhaps my merit and your merit will cause virtuous children to emerge from me. brIsaiah bsaid to him: The decree has already been decreed against youand this judgment cannot be changed. brHezekiah bsaid to him: Son of Amoz, cease your prophecy and leave.As long as the prophet spoke as God’s emissary, Hezekiah was obligated to listen to him. He was not, however, obligated to accept Isaiah’s personal opinion that there was no possibility for mercy and healing.,Hezekiah continued: bI have received a tradition from the house of my father’s father,from King David, the founding father of the dynasty of kings of Judea: bEvenif ba sharp sword rests upon a person’s neck, he should not prevent himself frompraying for bmercy.One may still hold out hope that his prayers will be answered, as was David himself when he saw the Angel of Destruction, but nonetheless prayed for mercy and his prayers were answered.,With regard to the fact that one should not despair of God’s mercy, the Gemara cites that bit was also saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Eliezer both said: Even if a sharp sword is resting upon a person’s neck, he should not prevent himself frompraying for bmercy, as it is statedin the words of Job: b“Though He slay me, I will trust in Him”(Job 13:15). Even though God is about to take his life, he still prays for God’s mercy.
62. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

52b. רע כל היום אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש יצרו של אדם מתגבר עליו בכל יום ומבקש להמיתו שנאמר (תהלים לז, לב) צופה רשע לצדיק ומבקש להמיתו ואלמלא הקב"ה שעוזר לו אינו יכול לו שנאמ' (תהלים לז, לג) ה' לא יעזבנו בידו ולא ירשיענו בהשפטו,תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל אם פגע בך מנוול זה משכהו לבית המדרש אם אבן הוא נימוח אם ברזל הוא מתפוצץ אם אבן הוא נימוח דכתיב (ישעיהו נה, א) הוי כל צמא לכו למים וכתיב (איוב יד, יט) אבנים שחקו מים אם ברזל הוא מתפוצץ דכתיב (ירמיהו כג, כט) הלא כה דברי כאש נאם ה' וכפטיש יפוצץ סלע,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן יצר הרע מסיתו לאדם בעוה"ז ומעיד עליו לעולם הבא שנאמר (משלי כט, כא) מפנק מנוער עבדו ואחריתו יהיה מנון שכן באטב"ח של ר' חייא קורין לסהדה מנון,רב הונא רמי כתיב (הושע ד, יב) כי רוח זנונים התעה וכתיב (הושע ה, ד) בקרבם בתחלה התעם ולבסוף בקרבם,אמר רבא בתחלה קראו הלך ולבסוף קראו אורח ולבסוף קראו איש שנאמר (שמואל ב יב, ד) ויבא הלך לאיש העשיר ויחמול לקחת מצאנו ומבקרו לעשות לאורח וכתיב ויקח את כבשת האיש הרש ויעשה לאיש הבא אליו,אמר רבי יוחנן אבר קטן יש לו לאדם מרעיבו שבע משביעו רעב שנאמר (הושע יג, ו) כמרעיתם וישבעו וגו',אמר רב חנא בר אחא אמרי בי רב ארבעה מתחרט עליהן הקב"ה שבראם ואלו הן גלות כשדים וישמעאלים ויצר הרע גלות דכתיב (ישעיהו נב, ה) ועתה מה לי פה נאם ה' כי לקח עמי חנם וגו' כשדים דכתיב (ישעיהו כג, יג) הן ארץ כשדים זה העם לא היה,ישמעאלים דכתיב (איוב יב, ו) ישליו אהלים לשודדים ובטוחות למרגיזי אל לאשר הביא אלוה בידו יצר הרע דכתיב (מיכה ד, ו) ואשר הרעתי,אמר רבי יוחנן אלמלא שלש מקראות הללו נתמוטטו רגליהם של שונאיהן של ישראל חד דכתיב ואשר הרעתי וחד דכתיב (ירמיהו יח, ו) הנה כחומר ביד היוצר כן אתם וגו' ואידך (יחזקאל לו, כו) והסרתי את לב האבן מבשרכם ונתתי לכם לב בשר,רב פפא אמר אף מהאי נמי (יחזקאל לו, כז) ואת רוחי אתן בקרבכם וגו',(זכריה ב, ג) ויראני ה' ארבעה חרשים מאן נינהו ארבעה חרשים אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא אמר רבי שמעון חסידא משיח בן דוד ומשיח בן יוסף ואליהו וכהן צדק מתיב רב ששת אי הכי היינו דכתיב (זכריה ב, ד) ויאמר אלי אלה הקרנות אשר זרו את יהודה הני לשובה אתו,א"ל שפיל לסיפיה דקרא ויבואו אלה להחריד אותם לידות את קרנות הגוים הנושאים קרן אל ארץ יהודה לזרותה וגו' א"ל בהדי חנא באגדתא למה לי,(מיכה ה, ד) והיה זה שלום אשור כי יבא בארצנו וכי ידרוך בארמנותינו והקמנו עליו שבעה רועים ושמנה נסיכי אדם מאן נינהו שבעה רועים דוד באמצע אדם שת ומתושלח מימינו אברהם יעקב ומשה בשמאלו ומאן נינהו שמנה נסיכי אדם ישי ושאול ושמואל עמוס וצפניה צדקיה ומשיח ואליהו:,ארבעה סולמות כו': תנא גובהה של מנורה חמשים אמה (כו'): וארבעה ילדים של פרחי כהונה ובידיהם כדי שמן של מאה ועשרים לוג: איבעיא להו מאה ועשרים לוג כולהו או דלמא לכל חד וחד תא שמע ובידיהם כדי שמן של שלשים שלשים לוג שהם כולם מאה ועשרים לוג,תנא והן משובחין היו יותר מבנה של מרתא בת בייתוס אמרו על בנה של מרתא בת בייתוס שהיה נוטל שתי יריכות של שור הגדול שלקוח באלף זוז ומהלך עקב בצד גודל ולא הניחוהו אחיו הכהנים לעשות כן משום (משלי יד, כח) ברב עם הדרת מלך,מאי משובחים אילימא משום יוקרא הני יקירי טפי אלא התם כבש ומרובע ולא זקיף הכא סולמות וזקיף טובא:,ולא היה חצר בירושלים: תנא 52b. bevil all day”(Genesis 6:5). All day long his thoughts and desires are for evil. bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: A person’sevil binclination overcomes him each day and seeks to kill him, as it stated: “The wicked watches the righteous and seeks to kill him”(Psalms 37:32); the wicked here is referring to the wickedness inside one’s heart. bAnd if not for the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who assistshim with the good inclination, bhe would not overcome it, as it is stated: “The Lord will not leave him in his hand, nor suffer him to be condemned when he is judged”(Psalms 37:33)., bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: If this scoundrel,the evil inclination, baccosted you,seeking to tempt you to sin, bdrag it to the study halland study Torah. bIf it islike ba stone, it will be dissolvedby the Torah. bIf it islike biron, it will be shattered.The Gemara elaborates: bIf it islike bstone, it will be dissolved, as it is written: “Ho, everyone who is thirsty, come you for the water”(Isaiah 55:1), water in this context meaning Torah; band it is written: “Stones were worn by water”(Job 14:19). bIf it islike biron, it will be shattered, as it is written: “Is not My word like fire, says the Lord; and like a hammer that shatters rock”(Jeremiah 23:29)., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: The evil inclination incites a personto sin bin this world, andthen btestifies against him in the next world, as it is stated: “He that delicately brings up his servant from a child shall have him become a master [ imanon /i] at the last”(Proverbs 29:21). Initially, in one’s youth, the evil inclination, which should have been enslaved to him, takes control of him and causes him to sin. Then, ultimately, that same evil inclination becomes his imanon /i. iManonmeans witness, bas in Rabbi Ḥiyya’scoded alphabet in which ialef /iand itet /iand ibeit /iand iḥet /i,etc., are interchanged. bWitness[isahada/b] bis called imanon /i.The letters imemand isamekh /i, inunand iheh /i, and ivavand idaletare interchanged with other letters., bRav Huna raised a contradictionbetween two verses. bIt is written: “For the spirit of harlotry causedthem bto err”(Hosea 4:12), indicating that this spirit was a temporary phenomenon and not an integral part of their persona. bAnd it isalso bwritten:“For the spirit of harlotry bis within them”(Hosea 5:4), indicating that it is an integral part of their persona. The Gemara explains: bInitially, it causes them to errfrom without, band ultimately,it is from bwithin them. /b, bRava said: Initially,the verse bcalledthe evil inclination ba travelercoming from afar. bSubsequently,the verse bcalls it a guest,as one welcomes it. bUltimately,the verse bcalls it man,indicating significance, as it became the homeowner. bAs it is statedin the parable of the poor man’s lamb that Nathan the prophet said to David: b“And there came a traveler to the rich man, and he was reluctant to take of his own flock and of his own herd, to prepare for the guest”(II Samuel 12:4). bAnd it is writtenin the same verse: b“And he took the poor man’s lamb, and prepared it for the man that was come to him.”In other words, the evil inclination that began as a traveler gradually rose in prominence., bRabbi Yoḥa said: A man has a small organused in sexual relations. bIf he starvesthe organ, and does not overindulge, it bis satiated;however, bif he satiatesthe organ and overindulges in sexual relations, it bis starving,and desires more, bas it is stated: “When they were fed, they became full,they were filled, and their heart was exalted; therefore have they forgotten Me” (Hosea 13:6)., bRav Ḥana bar Aḥa saidthat the Sages bin the school of Rav say:There are bfourcreations that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He,created, yet He, as it were, bregrets that He created them,as they do more harm than good. bAnd these are they: Exile, Chaldeans, and Ishmaelites, and the evil inclination. Exile, as it is written: “Now therefore, for what am I here, says the Lord, seeing that My people is taken away for naught”(Isaiah 52:5). God Himself is asking: For what am I here? bChaldeans, as it is written: “Behold the land of the Chaldeans, this is the people that was not”(Isaiah 23:13), meaning, if only they never were., bIshmaelites, as it is written: “The tents of robbers prosper, and they that provoke God are secure, in whatsoever God brings with His hand”(Job 12:6). God brought upon Himself these Arabs that dwell in the deserts in tents. bThe evil inclination, as it is written:“On that day, says the Lord, will I assemble her that is lame, and I will gather her that is driven away, band her that I corrupted”(Micah 4:6). God is saying that He created the evil inclination that led the people to sin and to be cast into exile., bRabbi Yoḥa said: Were it not for these three versesthat follow that indicate that God controls people’s hearts, bthe legs of the enemies ofthe bJewish people,a euphemism for the Jewish people themselves, bwould have collapsed,unable to withstand the repercussions of their sins. bOne, as it is written: “And her that I corrupted,”indicating God’s regret for doing so. bAnd one, as it is written: “Behold, as the clay in the potter’s hand, so are youin My hand, O house of Israel” (Jeremiah 18:6). bAnd the otherverse: b“And I will take away the heart of stone out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh”(Ezekiel 36:26), indicating that the matter is not solely in human hands, but in the hands of God as well., bRav Pappa said:It is derived bfrom thisverse bas well: “And I will put My spirit within you,and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you shall keep My ordices, and do them” (Ezekiel 36:27).,§ Apropos the end of days, the Gemara cites another verse and interprets it homiletically. It is stated: b“The Lord then showed me four craftsmen”(Zechariah 2:3). bWho are these four craftsmen? Rav Ḥana bar Bizna saidthat bRabbi Shimon Ḥasida said:They are bMessiah ben David, Messiah ben Yosef, Elijah, and the righteousHigh bPriest,who will serve in the Messianic era. bRav Sheshet raised an objection: If so,if that is the identity of the four craftsmen, then bthat which is writtenin the previous verse: b“And he said to me: These are the horns that scattered Judea”(Zechariah 2:4), is difficult; bthesefour in the first verse bare coming for their enemies,and are not redeemers.,Rav Ḥana bsaid toRav Sheshet: bGo to the end of the verse: “These then are come to frighten them, to cast down the horns of the nations, which lifted uptheir bhorn against the land of Judah to scatter it.”This indicates that the horns refer to the nations that exiled the Jewish people and that the four craftsmen will hurl those horns aside. Rav Sheshet bsaid to him: Whyshould bIdisagree bwithRav bḤana inmatters of iaggada /i,where he is more expert than I, and I cannot prevail?,The Gemara continues homiletically interpreting verses that relate to the end of days. It is stated: b“And this shall be peace: When the Assyrian shall come into our land, and when he shall tread in our palaces, then shall we raise against him seven shepherds, and eight princes among men”(Micah 5:4). The Gemara asks: bWho are these seven shepherds?The Gemara explains: bDavidis bin the middle; Adam, Seth, and Methuselah are to his right; Abraham, Jacob, and Moses are to his left. And who are the eight princes among men?They are bYishai, Saul, Samuel, Amos, Zephania, Zedekiah, Messiah, and Elijah. /b,§ The mishna continues: bAnd there were four laddersfor each pole. One of the Sages btaught: The height of the candelabrumupon the pole bis fifty cubits. Andthere were bfour children from the priesthood traineesholding band in their hands jugs of oilwith a capacity bof 120 ilog /iof oil. bA dilemma was raised:Was it b120 ilogaltogether, or perhaps each and everychild carried that amount? bComeand bhearproof from this ibaraita /i: bAnd in their handswere bjugs of oil, eachwith a capacity bof thirty ilog /i, that were alltogether b120 ilog /i. /b,One of the Sages btaught: And theseyoung priests who held the pitchers bwere superiorin strength bto the son of Marta, daughter of Baitos,who was a priest renowned for his might. bThey said about the son of Marta, daughter of Baitos, that he would take two thighs of a large bullthat was so large bthatit would be bpurchased for one thousand izuz /i, and walkup the ramp in small steps, bheel to toe,without hurrying, due to his strength. However, bhis brethren the priests would not allow him do so, due tothe principle: b“In the multitude of people is the King’s glory”(Proverbs 14:28). The more priests engaged in the Temple service, the greater glory for God. Therefore, it is preferable for the thighs to be carried to the altar by multiple priests.,The Gemara asks: In bwhatsense were these young priests bsuperior? If we say it is due to the weightof the pitchers that they carried, bthesetwo bthighs are heavierthan the thirty ilogof oil. The Gemara answers: bRather,the difference is that bthere,in the case of the son of Marta, he walked on a brampthat was wide, bandwith a moderate gradient of only one cubit every bfourcubits of length, bandit is bnot steep; herethey climbed bladders, andthose are bvery steep. /b,§ The mishna continues: bAnd there was not a courtyard in Jerusalemthat was not illuminated from the light of the Place of the Drawing of the Water. One of the Sages btaught: /b
63. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

47a. אין לי אלא בארץ בח"ל מנין תלמוד לומר אתך בכל מקום שאתך אם כן מה ת"ל בארץ בארץ צריך להביא ראיה בח"ל אין צריך להביא ראיה דברי ר' יהודה וחכמים אומרים בין בארץ בין בחוצה לארץ צריך להביא ראיה,בא הוא ועדיו עמו קרא למה לי אמר רב ששת דאמרי שמענו שנתגייר בב"ד של פלוני סד"א לא ליהמנייהו קמ"ל,בארץ אין לי אלא בארץ בח"ל מנין ת"ל אתך בכל מקום שאתך והא אפיקתיה חדא מאתך וחדא מעמך,וחכ"א בין בארץ בין בח"ל צריך להביא ראיה ואלא הא כתיב בארץ,ההוא מיבעי ליה דאפילו בארץ מקבלים גרים דסד"א משום טיבותא דארץ ישראל קמגיירי והשתא נמי דליכא טיבותא איכא לקט שכחה ופאה ומעשר עני קמ"ל,א"ר חייא בר אבא אמר ר' יוחנן הלכה בין בארץ בין בח"ל צריך להביא ראיה פשיטא יחיד ורבים הלכה כרבים מהו דתימא מסתבר טעמא דרבי יהודה דקמסייעי ליה קראי קמ"ל,ת"ר (דברים א, טז) ושפטתם צדק בין איש ובין אחיו ובין גרו מכאן א"ר יהודה גר שנתגייר בב"ד הרי זה גר בינו לבין עצמו אינו גר,מעשה באחד שבא לפני רבי יהודה ואמר לו נתגיירתי ביני לבין עצמי א"ל רבי יהודה יש לך עדים אמר ליה לאו יש לך בנים א"ל הן א"ל נאמן אתה לפסול את עצמך ואי אתה נאמן לפסול את בניך,[ומי] א"ר יהודה אבנים לא מהימן והתניא (דברים כא, יז) יכיר יכירנו לאחרים מכאן א"ר יהודה נאמן אדם לומר זה בני בכור וכשם שנאמן לומר זה בני בכור כך נאמן לומר בני זה בן גרושה הוא או בן חלוצה הוא וחכ"א אינו נאמן,א"ר נחמן בר יצחק ה"ק ליה לדבריך עובד כוכבים אתה ואין עדות לעובד כוכבים רבינא אמר הכי קאמר ליה יש לך בנים הן יש לך בני בנים הן א"ל נאמן אתה לפסול בניך ואי אתה נאמן לפסול בני בניך,תניא נמי הכי ר' יהודה אומר נאמן אדם לומר על בנו קטן ואין נאמן על בנו גדול ואמר ר' חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן לא קטן קטן ממש ולא גדול גדול ממש אלא קטן ויש לו בנים זהו גדול גדול ואין לו בנים זהו קטן,והלכתא כוותיה דרב נחמן בר יצחק והתניא כוותיה דרבינא ההוא לענין יכיר איתמר,תנו רבנן גר שבא להתגייר בזמן הזה אומרים לו מה ראית שבאת להתגייר אי אתה יודע שישראל בזמן הזה דוויים דחופים סחופים ומטורפין ויסורין באין עליהם אם אומר יודע אני ואיני כדאי מקבלין אותו מיד,ומודיעין אותו מקצת מצות קלות ומקצת מצות חמורות ומודיעין אותו עון לקט שכחה ופאה ומעשר עני ומודיעין אותו ענשן של מצות אומרים לו הוי יודע שעד שלא באת למדה זו אכלת חלב אי אתה ענוש כרת חללת שבת אי אתה ענוש סקילה ועכשיו אכלת חלב ענוש כרת חללת שבת ענוש סקילה,וכשם שמודיעין אותו ענשן של מצות כך מודיעין אותו מתן שכרן אומרים לו הוי יודע שהעולם הבא אינו עשוי אלא לצדיקים וישראל בזמן הזה אינם יכולים לקבל 47a. bI havederived bonlythat a convert is accepted bin EretzYisrael; bfrom wheredo I derive that also boutsideof bEretzYisrael he is to be accepted? bThe verse states “with you,”which indicates that bin any place that he is with you,you should accept him. bIf so, whatis the meaning when bthe verse states: In the land?This indicates that bin EretzYisrael bhe needs to bring evidencethat he is a convert, bbut outsideof bEretzYisrael bhe does not need to bring evidencethat he is a convert; rather, his claim is accepted. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Yehuda. And the Rabbis say: Whetherhe is bin EretzYisrael bor whetherhe is boutsideof bEretzYisrael, bhe needs to bring evidence. /b,The Gemara analyzes the ibaraita /i: In the case when bhe came andbrought bwitnessesto his conversion bwith him, why do Ineed ba verseto teach that he is accepted? In all cases, the testimony of witnesses is fully relied upon. bRav Sheshet said:The case is bwhere they say: We heard that he converted inthe bcourtof bso-and-so,but they did not witness the actual conversion. And it is necessary to teach this because it could benter your mind to saythat bthey should not be relied upon;therefore, the verse bteaches usthat they are relied upon.,As cited above, the latter clause of the ibaraitastates: “With you binyour bland”(Leviticus 19:33). bI havederived bonlythat a convert is accepted bin EretzYisrael; bfrom wheredo I derive that also boutsideof bEretzYisrael he is to be accepted? bThe verse states: “With you,”which indicates that bin any place that he is with you,you should accept him. The Gemara asks: bBut didn’t youalready bexpound thatphrase in the first clause of the ibaraitato teach that one doesn’t accept the claims of an individual that he is a valid convert? The Gemara explains: bOneof these ihalakhotis derived from the phrase b“with you”in the verse cited, bandthe other boneis derived from the phrase b“with you”in a subsequent verse (Leviticus 25:35).,The ibaraitastates: bAnd the Rabbis say: Whetherhe is bin EretzYisrael bor whetherhe is boutsideof bEretzYisrael, bhe needs to bring evidence.The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t “inyour bland” writtenin the verse? How can the Rabbis deny any distinction between the ihalakhainside and outside of Eretz Yisrael?,The Gemara explains: bThatphrase bis necessaryto teach bthat even in EretzYisrael, the Jewish people should baccept converts, as it could enter your mind to saythat it is only bfor the sake ofbenefiting from bthe goodness of Eretz Yisrael,and not for the sake of Heaven, that bthey are converting,and therefore they should not be accepted. bAndit could also enter your mind to say that even bnowadays, whenGod’s blessing has ceased and bthere is nolonger btheoriginal bgoodnessfrom which to benefit, one should still suspect their purity of motives because bthere arethe bgleanings,the bforgotten sheaves, andthe bcornersof fields, band the poor man’s tithefrom which they would benefit by converting. Therefore, the verse bteaches usthat they are accepted even in Eretz Yisrael., bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:The ihalakha /iis that bwhethera convert is bin EretzYisrael bor whetherhe is boutside of EretzYisrael, bhe needs to bring evidence.The Gemara asks: bIsn’tthis bobvious;in all disputes between ban individualSage band manySages the ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of the bmanySages. The Gemara explains: It is necessary to state this blest you saythat bRabbi Yehuda’s reasonis more blogical, being that the verse supports himwhen it states: “In your land.” Therefore, it is necessary for Rabbi Yoḥa to bteach usthat the ihalakhais not in accordance with his opinion., bThe Sages taught:The verse states that Moses charged the judges of a court: b“And judge righteously between a man and his brother, and the convert with him”(Deuteronomy 1:16). bFrom here,based on the mention of a convert in the context of judgment in a court, bRabbi Yehuda said:A potential bconvert who converts in a court is avalid bconvert.However, if he converts bin private, he is not a convert. /b,The Gemara relates: There was ban incident involving onewho was presumed to be Jewish bwho came before Rabbi Yehuda and said to him: I converted in private,and therefore I am not actually Jewish. bRabbi Yehuda said to him:Do byou have witnessesto support your claim? bHe said to him: No.Rabbi Yehuda asked: Do byou have children? He said to him: Yes.Rabbi Yehuda bsaid to him: You are deemed crediblein order bto render yourself unfitto marry a Jewish woman by claiming that you are a gentile, bbut you are not deemed crediblein order bto render your children unfit. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut did Rabbi Yehudaactually bsaythat bwith regard tohis bchildren he is not deemed credible? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“He shall acknowledge [ iyakir /i]the firstborn, the son of the hated, by giving him a double portion of all that he has” (Deuteronomy 21:17). The phrase “he shall acknowledge” is apparently superfluous. It is therefore expounded to teach that the father is deemed credible so that bhe can identify him [ iyakirenu /i] to others. From here Rabbi Yehuda said: A man is deemed credible to say: This is my firstborn son, and just as he is deemed credible to say: This is my firstborn son, sotoo, a priest bis deemed credible to say: This son of mine is a son of a divorced womanand myself, borto say: He is ba son of a iḥalutza /iand myself, and therefore he is disqualified due to flawed lineage [ iḥalal /i]. bAnd the Rabbis say: He is not deemed credible.If Rabbi Yehuda holds that a father is deemed credible to render his children unfit, why did he rule otherwise in the case of the convert?, bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak saidthat bthis is whatRabbi Yehuda bsaid to him: According to your statement you are a gentile, and there is no testimony for a gentile,as a gentile is a disqualified witness. Consequently, you cannot testify about the status of your children and render them unfit. bRavina saidthat bthis is whatRabbi Yehuda bsaid to him:Do byou have children? He said: Yes. He said to him:Do byou have grandchildren?He said: bYes. He said to him: You are deemed crediblein order bto render your children unfit,based on the phrase “he shall acknowledge,” bbut you are not deemed crediblein order bto render your grandchildren unfit,as the verse affords a father credibility only with respect to his children., bThisopinion of Ravina bis also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yehuda says: A man is deemed credible to say about his minor sonthat he is unfit, bbut he is not deemed credible to say about his adult sonthat he is unfit. bAndin explanation of the ibaraita /i, bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:The reference to ba minorson does bnotmean one who is bliterally a minor,who has not yet reached majority, bandthe reference to ban adultson does bnotmean one who is bliterally an adult,who has reached majority; brather, a minor who has children, this iswhat the ibaraitais referring to as ban adult,and ban adult who does not have children, this iswhat the ibaraitais referring to as ba minor. /b,The Gemara concludes: bAnd the ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak.The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it taughtin the ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion bof Ravina?If there is a ibaraitathat supports his opinion, the ihalakhashould be in accordance with his opinion. The Gemara explains: bThat ibaraita bwas stated concerning the matter of “he shall acknowledge,”that a father is deemed credible to render his son unfit; however, if one claims he is a gentile, he is not deemed credible to say the same about his son.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to a potential bconvert who comes toa court in order to bconvert, at the present time,when the Jews are in exile, the judges of the court bsay to him: What did you see thatmotivated byouto bcome to convert? Don’t you know that the Jewish people at the present time are anguished, suppressed, despised, and harassed, and hardships arefrequently bvisited upon them? If he says: I know, andalthough bI am unworthyof joining the Jewish people and sharing in their sorrow, I nevertheless desire to do so, then the court baccepts him immediatelyto begin the conversion process., bAndthe judges of the court binform himof bsome of the lenient mitzvot and some of the stringent mitzvot, and they inform himof bthe sinof neglecting the mitzva to allow the poor to take bgleanings, forgotten sheaves, andproduce in the bcornerof one’s field, bandabout the bpoor man’s tithe. And they inform himof bthe punishment fortransgressing bthe mitzvot,as follows: bThey say to him: Be aware that before you came to this statusand converted, bhad you eaten forbidden fat, you would not be punished by ikaret /i,and bhad you profaned Shabbat, you would not be punished by stoning,since these prohibitions do not apply to gentiles. bBut now,once converted, if byou have eaten forbidden fat you are punished by ikaret /i,and if byou have profaned Shabbat, you are punished by stoning. /b, bAnd just as they inform himabout the bpunishment fortransgressing the bmitzvot, sotoo, bthey inform himabout the breward granted forfulfilling bthem. They say to him: Be aware that the World-to-Come is made only for the righteous,and if you observe the mitzvot you will merit it, bandbe aware that bthe Jewish people, at the present time, are unable to receivetheir full reward in this world;
64. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 8.10 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.10. He divides man's life into four quarters thus: Twenty years a boy, twenty years a youth, twenty years a young man, twenty years an old man; and these four periods correspond to the four seasons, the boy to spring, the youth to summer, the young man to autumn, and the old man to winter, meaning by youth one not yet grown up and by a young man a man of mature age. According to Timaeus, he was the first to say, Friends have all things in common and Friendship is equality; indeed, his disciples did put all their possessions into one common stock. For five whole years they had to keep silence, merely listening to his discourses without seeing him, until they passed an examination, and thenceforward they were admitted to his house and allowed to see him. They would never use coffins of cypress, because the sceptre of Zeus was made from it, so we are informed by Hermippus in his second book On Pythagoras.
65. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 6.43, 8.12 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

66. Origen, Against Celsus, 8.32 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.32. The Psalmist bears witness that divine justice employs certain evil angels to inflict calamities upon men: He cast upon them the fierceness of His anger, wrath, and indignation, and trouble, sent by evil angels. Whether demons ever go beyond this when they are suffered to do what they are ever ready, though through the restraint put upon them they are not always able to do, is a question to be solved by that man who can conceive, in so far as human nature will allow, how it accords with the divine justice, that such multitudes of human souls are separated from the body while walking in the paths which lead to certain death. For the judgments of God are so great, that a soul which is still clothed with a mortal body cannot comprehend them; and they cannot be expressed: therefore by unnurtured souls they are not in any measure to be understood. And hence, too, rash spirits, by their ignorance in these matters, and by recklessly setting themselves against the Divine Being, multiply impious objections against providence. It is not from demons, then, that men receive any of those things which meet the necessities of life, and least of all ourselves, who have been taught to make a proper use of these things. And they who partake of grain and wine, and the fruits of trees, of water and of air, do not feed with demons, but rather do they feast with divine angels, who are appointed for this purpose, and who are as it were invited to the table of the pious man, who hearkens to the precept of the word, which says, Whether you eat or drink, or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God. And again, in another place it is written, Do all things in the name of God. When, therefore, we eat and drink and breathe to the glory of God, and act in all things according to what is right, we feast with no demons, but with divine angels: For every creature is good, and nothing to be refused, if it be received with thanksgiving: for it is sanctified by the word of God and prayer. But it could not be good, and it could not be sanctified, if these things were, as Celsus supposes, entrusted to the charge of demons.
67. Epigraphy, Syll. , 985

68. Pseudo-Tertullian, To His Wife, 2.3.1



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
accounting for souls by leaders Dilley, Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline (2019) 229
acts and liberation theology Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 28
acts and racial discourse Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 28
acts and universalism Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 28
administration Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 370
adversity Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 54
alexis-baker, andy Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 157
amoraic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 60
ananias and sapphira Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 174
anchorites Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 167
antony Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 167
apollo of bawit Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 165
apologetic, covetousness Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 346
apologetic, portrait of paul Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 213
apologetic Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 213
apologist Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 213
arator, historia apostolica Hardie, Classicism and Christianity in Late Antique Latin Poetry (2019) 104
aristotle, friendship Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 327
asceticism Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 167
assembling Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 370
assembly rooms Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 370
athens Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 213
augustine of hippo, influenced by paulinus Conybeare, Abused Bodies in Roman Epic (2000) 145
babylonian talmud Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 60
barnabas Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 479
beatitudes, lukan Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 413
beatitudes Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 413
bible, cyprians ad quirinum, summarising divine truths of Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 157
boniface Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 163
brothers, doris Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 304
brüderlichkeitsethik Bremmer, Magic and Martyrs in Early Christianity: Collected Essays (2017) 75
burial places (memorials) Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 370
cassian Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 167
catacombs/cemeteries Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 370
caution Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 54
celsus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 213
christian church, unity of the Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 192
christianity Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 174
chunitrud Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 163
church regions Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 370
city-foundation, shield of aeneas Hardie, Classicism and Christianity in Late Antique Latin Poetry (2019) 104
clichés, of friendship Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 327
clivus scauri Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 370
coenobitic Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 167
collegium Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 370
commonplace Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 327
community, monastic Conybeare, Abused Bodies in Roman Epic (2000) 145
community, spiritual (more generally) Conybeare, Abused Bodies in Roman Epic (2000) 145
community property Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 370
constantine Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 167
cornelius Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 370
covetousness Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 346
cultus, christian Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 370
cyprian of carthage, ad quirinum, summarising divine truths Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 157
cyprian of carthage, cyprian of carthage, testimonia collections of Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 157
cyprian of carthage, ordering of knowledge in Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 157
deacon Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 370
desert Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 167
diatribe Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 346
dibelius, martin Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 213
dionysius of halicarnassus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 327
dionysius of rome Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 370
double treatise Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 60
eck, w. Bremmer, Magic and Martyrs in Early Christianity: Collected Essays (2017) 75
encheirizein Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 297
endurance Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 110, 111
enemies Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 54
entrustedness, in scriptures Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 297
entrustedness, of christians Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 297
entrustedness, with responsibility Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 297
epicureanism, christians Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 213
epicureanism, paul Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 213
eschatology, eschatological, belonging to the end-of-days, messianic age Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 60
eschatology Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 110, 111, 304
evagrius Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 167
evil Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 54
exegesis, exegetical, interpretation of scripture, messianic/eschatological interpretation Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 60
fabian, bishop from ca. Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 370
faithfulness Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 54
famine Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 165
felix Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 479
fitzgerald, w. Hardie, Classicism and Christianity in Late Antique Latin Poetry (2019) 104
friendship, definition of Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 327
friendship Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 327
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 479
gift of the spirit Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 303, 304
good Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 54
good name Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 54
grace Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 297, 303, 304
greed Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 346
heart Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 54
hellenism, hellenistic period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 174
herod Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 60
hope Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 110, 111, 297
horace Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 346
hospitality Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 370
house, possession of Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 370
house community Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 370
hymnody Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 165
idols, food offered to Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 479
imitation of christ Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 163
instructions (theodore), repentance Dilley, Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline (2019) 229
irenaeus of lyons, demonstration of the apostolic preaching Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 157
israel, the people of, redemption/restoration of, the kingdom of, israelite Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 60
james (brother of jesus) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 479
jerome Conybeare, Abused Bodies in Roman Epic (2000) 145; Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 167
jerusalem Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 165; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 213
jerusalem church Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 479
jesus, disciples, early followers, messianic movement Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 60
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 60
jesus, temple incident of Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 238
jesus messianic biography Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 60
jews Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 192
johannis et pauli Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 370
juvenal, greed Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 346
kreider, a. Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 157
laelius Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 327
letter, friendship Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 327
like seeking like Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 54
liudger Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 163
love Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 110, 111, 297, 303
luke Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 479
lukes hermeneutic, rich and poor Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 413
marketplace Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 213
martin of tours Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 163
martyrdom Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 163
messiah, gods anointed, messiahship, messianic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 60
methods of interpretation, ancient feminist Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 28
miracle Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 174
miracles Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 165
missionaries Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 163
monasticism Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 167
new testament Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 192
nuns Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 163
obedience Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 297
observance of law Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 479
offenses, lying about property Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 174
okeefe, john Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 157
oneness of soul Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 54
ordering of knowledge, epistemology in late antique world, cyprian of carthage, testimonia collections of Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 157
ordinance of god Dilley, Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline (2019) 229
ownership, private Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 174
parables of the end time Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 110, 111
paradigm Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 213
paratithenai Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 297
pastoral responsibilities/duties Dilley, Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline (2019) 229
patience Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 111
paul Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 129
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 479
pelagius Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 167
penal code of the manual of discipline Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 174
pharisee Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 129
philosopher, moral Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 213
pistis, as gift of the spirit Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 303, 304
pleasure Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 213, 327, 346
pontius pilate Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 60
poor, attitudes toward, of jesus Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 238
poor, the Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 479
poor Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 54
porneia (zenut, unchastity) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 479
possessions, wealth Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 370
poverty Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 163
preaching Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 213
private property Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 370
property, personal Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 174
prosperity Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 54
proverb Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 346
psalms Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 60
punishment, penalty Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 174
purity, moral Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 129
quint, d. Hardie, Classicism and Christianity in Late Antique Latin Poetry (2019) 104
rabbinic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 60
rebuke Dilley, Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline (2019) 229
reformation, method of' Dilley, Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline (2019) 229
reno, russell Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 157
resistant readings Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 28
resurrection Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 60
rhetorical devices Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 47
rich Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 54
risk, relation to divine-human trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 111, 304
risk, relation to trust in general Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 304
romanus and agilis Conybeare, Abused Bodies in Roman Epic (2000) 145
rufinus Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 167
sacrifice, funding of Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 238
sacrifice, ownership of Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 238
sacrificial lifestyle Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 47
schwartz, regina Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 28
scriptures, jewish, as source of new testament ideas about pistis Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 297
seclusion Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 167
sect, full status in Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 174
self, relational Conybeare, Abused Bodies in Roman Epic (2000) 145
serapion of antioch Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 192
service to god or christ Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 297, 304
sharing (goods in common) Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 54
shenoute, duties of leaders/rules Dilley, Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline (2019) 229
sons of god, sons of heaven Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 60
spirit, relation to pistis Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 303, 304
spirit, relationship of charismatic and life-giving in christian communities Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 303, 304
stephanas/stephen Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 479
stewardship Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 110, 111, 297, 304
stoicism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 213
tannaitic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 60
temple, as ritually inadequate, in new testament Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 238
temple (jerusalem) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 479
temple tax Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 238
tertullian Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 192
thebaid Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 165
theodore, pastoral responsibilities Dilley, Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline (2019) 229
theodore, repentance Dilley, Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline (2019) 229
titus (emperor) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 479
topos, topoi, covetousness Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 346
topos, topoi Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 346
treasury (church's)" '186.0_370.0@worship Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 370
trust, attitude and action, not always co-existent Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 111
trust, growth in Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 110
typology Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 165
unity in variety Hardie, Classicism and Christianity in Late Antique Latin Poetry (2019) 104
verheijen, luc Conybeare, Abused Bodies in Roman Epic (2000) 145
voluntary associations, banquet practices Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 223
wealth Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 346
weapon Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 213
women, church leadership Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 223
women, households Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 223