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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8243
New Testament, Acts, 23.6


Γνοὺς δὲ ὁ Παῦλος ὅτι τὸ ἓν μέρος ἐστὶν Σαδδουκαίων τὸ δὲ ἕτερον Φαρισαίων ἔκραζεν ἐν τῷ συνεδρίῳ Ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί, ἐγὼ Φαρισαῖός εἰμι, υἱὸς Φαρισαίων· περὶ ἐλπίδος καὶ ἀναστάσεως νεκρῶν κρίνομαι.But when Paul perceived that the one part were Sadducees and the other Pharisees, he cried out in the council, "Men and brothers, I am a Pharisee, a son of Pharisees. Concerning the hope and resurrection of the dead I am being judged!


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

47 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 9.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.22. כַּיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר־נָחוּ בָהֶם הַיְּהוּדִים מֵאוֹיְבֵיהֶם וְהַחֹדֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר נֶהְפַּךְ לָהֶם מִיָּגוֹן לְשִׂמְחָה וּמֵאֵבֶל לְיוֹם טוֹב לַעֲשׂוֹת אוֹתָם יְמֵי מִשְׁתֶּה וְשִׂמְחָה וּמִשְׁלוֹחַ מָנוֹת אִישׁ לְרֵעֵהוּ וּמַתָּנוֹת לָאֶבְיוֹנִים׃ 9.22. the days wherein the Jews had rest from their enemies, and the month which was turned unto them from sorrow to gladness, and from mourning into a good day; that they should make them days of feasting and gladness, and of sending portions one to another, and gifts to the poor."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 3.14, 4.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה וַיֹּאמֶר כֹּה תֹאמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶהְיֶה שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם׃ 4.22. וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹה כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה בְּנִי בְכֹרִי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 3.14. And God said unto Moses: ‘I AM THAT I AM’; and He said: ‘Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: I AM hath sent me unto you.’" 4.22. And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh: Thus saith the LORD: Israel is My son, My first-born."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 6.1-6.6, 12.7, 13.15, 17.18, 24.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.1. וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃ 6.1. וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 6.2. וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃ 6.2. מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃ 6.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃ 6.4. הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃ 6.5. וַיַּרְא יְהוָה כִּי רַבָּה רָעַת הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ וְכָל־יֵצֶר מַחְשְׁבֹת לִבּוֹ רַק רַע כָּל־הַיּוֹם׃ 6.6. וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוָה כִּי־עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ וַיִּתְעַצֵּב אֶל־לִבּוֹ׃ 12.7. וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר לְזַרְעֲךָ אֶתֵּן אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת וַיִּבֶן שָׁם מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה הַנִּרְאֶה אֵלָיו׃ 13.15. כִּי אֶת־כָּל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה רֹאֶה לְךָ אֶתְּנֶנָּה וּלְזַרְעֲךָ עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 17.18. וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָהָם אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים לוּ יִשְׁמָעֵאל יִחְיֶה לְפָנֶיךָ׃ 24.7. יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם אֲשֶׁר לְקָחַנִי מִבֵּית אָבִי וּמֵאֶרֶץ מוֹלַדְתִּי וַאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר־לִי וַאֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע־לִי לֵאמֹר לְזַרְעֲךָ אֶתֵּן אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת הוּא יִשְׁלַח מַלְאָכוֹ לְפָנֶיךָ וְלָקַחְתָּ אִשָּׁה לִבְנִי מִשָּׁם׃ 6.1. And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them," 6.2. that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose." 6.3. And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’" 6.4. The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown." 6.5. And the LORD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually." 6.6. And it repented the LORD that He had made man on the earth, and it grieved Him at His heart." 12.7. And the LORD appeared unto Abram, and said: ‘Unto thy seed will I give this land’; and he builded there an altar unto the LORD, who appeared unto him." 13.15. for all the land which thou seest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed for ever." 17.18. And Abraham said unto God: ‘Oh that Ishmael might live before Thee! ’" 24.7. The LORD, the God of heaven, who took me from my father’s house, and from the land of my nativity, and who spoke unto me, and who swore unto me, saying: Unto thy seed will I give this land; He will send His angel before thee, and thou shalt take a wife for my son from thence."
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 11.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.1. אַחֲרֵי יְהוָה יֵלְכוּ כְּאַרְיֵה יִשְׁאָג כִּי־הוּא יִשְׁאַג וְיֶחֶרְדוּ בָנִים מִיָּם׃ 11.1. כִּי נַעַר יִשְׂרָאֵל וָאֹהֲבֵהוּ וּמִמִּצְרַיִם קָרָאתִי לִבְנִי׃ 11.1. When Israel was a child, then I loved him, And out of Egypt I called My son."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 1.18, 27.4, 27.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.18. וְאֵת כָּל־הָעֵדָה הִקְהִילוּ בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי וַיִּתְיַלְדוּ עַל־מִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לְבֵית אֲבֹתָם בְּמִסְפַּר שֵׁמוֹת מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה לְגֻלְגְּלֹתָם׃ 27.4. לָמָּה יִגָּרַע שֵׁם־אָבִינוּ מִתּוֹךְ מִשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ כִּי אֵין לוֹ בֵּן תְּנָה־לָּנוּ אֲחֻזָּה בְּתוֹךְ אֲחֵי אָבִינוּ׃ 27.7. כֵּן בְּנוֹת צְלָפְחָד דֹּבְרֹת נָתֹן תִּתֵּן לָהֶם אֲחֻזַּת נַחֲלָה בְּתוֹךְ אֲחֵי אֲבִיהֶם וְהַעֲבַרְתָּ אֶת־נַחֲלַת אֲבִיהֶן לָהֶן׃ 1.18. And they assembled all the congregation together on the first day of the second month, and they declared their pedigrees after their families, by their fathers’houses, according to the number of names, from twenty years old and upward, by their polls." 27.4. Why should the name of our father be done away from among his family, because he had no son? Give unto us a possession among the brethren of our father.’" 27.7. ’The daughters of Zelophehad speak right: thou shalt surely give them a possession of an inheritance among their father’s brethren; and thou shalt cause the inheritance of their father to pass unto them."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 16.8-16.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.8. שִׁוִּיתִי יְהוָה לְנֶגְדִּי תָמִיד כִּי מִימִינִי בַּל־אֶמּוֹט׃ 16.9. לָכֵן שָׂמַח לִבִּי וַיָּגֶל כְּבוֹדִי אַף־בְּשָׂרִי יִשְׁכֹּן לָבֶטַח׃ 16.11. תּוֹדִיעֵנִי אֹרַח חַיִּים שֹׂבַע שְׂמָחוֹת אֶת־פָּנֶיךָ נְעִמוֹת בִּימִינְךָ נֶצַח׃ 16.8. I have set the LORD always before me; Surely He is at my right hand, I shall not be moved." 16.9. Therefore my heart is glad, and my glory rejoiceth; my flesh also dwelleth in safety;" 16.10. For Thou wilt not abandon my soul to the nether-world; Neither wilt Thou suffer Thy godly one to see the pit." 16.11. Thou makest me to know the path of life; In Thy presence is fulness of joy, In Thy right hand bliss for evermore."
7. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 23.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

23.9. אַךְ לֹא יַעֲלוּ כֹּהֲנֵי הַבָּמוֹת אֶל־מִזְבַּח יְהוָה בִּירוּשָׁלִָם כִּי אִם־אָכְלוּ מַצּוֹת בְּתוֹךְ אֲחֵיהֶם׃ 23.9. Nevertheless the priests of the high places came not up to the altar of the LORD in Jerusalem, but they did eat unleavened bread among their brethren."
8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 21.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

21.9. וַיִּתְּנֵם בְּיַד הַגִּבְעֹנִים וַיֹּקִיעֻם בָּהָר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וַיִּפְּלוּ שבעתים [שְׁבַעְתָּם] יָחַד והם [וְהֵמָּה] הֻמְתוּ בִּימֵי קָצִיר בָּרִאשֹׁנִים תחלת [בִּתְחִלַּת] קְצִיר שְׂעֹרִים׃ 21.9. and he delivered them into the hands of the Giv῾onim, and they hanged them on the hill before the Lord: and they fell all seven together, and were put to death in the days of harvest, in the first days, in the beginning of the barley harvest."
9. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.9-6.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.9. וַיֹּאמֶר לֵךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ לָעָם הַזֶּה שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמוֹעַ וְאַל־תָּבִינוּ וּרְאוּ רָאוֹ וְאַל־תֵּדָעוּ׃ 6.9. And He said: ‘Go, and tell this people: Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not." 6.10. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they, seeing with their eyes, and hearing with their ears, and understanding with their heart, return, and be healed.’"
10. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 17.6, 18.1, 19.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

17.6. בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם אֵין מֶלֶךְ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל אִישׁ הַיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינָיו יַעֲשֶׂה׃ 18.1. בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם אֵין מֶלֶךְ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וּבַיָּמִים הָהֵם שֵׁבֶט הַדָּנִי מְבַקֶּשׁ־לוֹ נַחֲלָה לָשֶׁבֶת כִּי לֹא־נָפְלָה לּוֹ עַד־הַיּוֹם הַהוּא בְּתוֹךְ־שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּנַחֲלָה׃ 18.1. כְּבֹאֲכֶם תָּבֹאוּ אֶל־עַם בֹּטֵחַ וְהָאָרֶץ רַחֲבַת יָדַיִם כִּי־נְתָנָהּ אֱלֹהִים בְּיֶדְכֶם מָקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אֵין־שָׁם מַחְסוֹר כָּל־דָּבָר אֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ׃ 19.1. וְלֹא־אָבָה הָאִישׁ לָלוּן וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיָּבֹא עַד־נֹכַח יְבוּס הִיא יְרוּשָׁלִָם וְעִמּוֹ צֶמֶד חֲמוֹרִים חֲבוּשִׁים וּפִילַגְשׁוֹ עִמּוֹ׃ 19.1. וַיְהִי בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וּמֶלֶךְ אֵין בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וַיְהִי אִישׁ לֵוִי גָּר בְּיַרְכְּתֵי הַר־אֶפְרַיִם וַיִּקַּח־לוֹ אִשָּׁה פִילֶגֶשׁ מִבֵּית לֶחֶם יְהוּדָה׃ 17.6. In those days there was no king in Yisra᾽el, but every man did that which was right in his own eyes." 18.1. In those days there was no king in Yisra᾽el: and in those days the tribe of the Dani sought for itself an inheritance to dwell in; for to that day a due inheritance had not fallen to their share among the tribes of Yisra᾽el." 19.1. And it came to pass in those days, when there was no king in Yisra᾽el that there was a certain Levite sojourning on the far side of mount Efrayim, who took to him a concubine out of Bet-leĥem-yehuda."
11. Euripides, Bacchae, 45 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

45. ὃς θεομαχεῖ τὰ κατʼ ἐμὲ καὶ σπονδῶν ἄπο 45. who fights against the gods as far as I am concerned and drives me away from sacrifices, and in his prayers makes no mention of me, for which I will show him and all the Thebans that I was born a god. And when I have set matters here right, I will move on to another land
12. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 8.9 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.9. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת תֶּחֱזַקְנָה יְדֵיכֶם הַשֹּׁמְעִים בַּיָּמִים הָאֵלֶּה אֵת הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה מִפִּי הַנְּבִיאִים אֲשֶׁר בְּיוֹם יֻסַּד בֵּית־יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת הַהֵיכָל לְהִבָּנוֹת׃ 8.9. Thus saith the LORD of hosts: Let your hands be strong, ye that hear in these days these words from the mouth of the prophets that were in the day that the foundation of the house of the LORD of hosts was laid, even the temple, that it might be built."
13. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 4.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.2. to fall upon the camp of the Jews and attack them suddenly. Men from the citadel were his guides.
14. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 3.39, 4.43-4.47, 5.15, 7.5, 7.9-7.10, 7.14, 7.20, 7.23, 7.34 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.39. For he who has his dwelling in heaven watches over that place himself and brings it aid, and he strikes and destroys those who come to do it injury.' 4.43. Charges were brought against Menelaus about this incident. 4.44. When the king came to Tyre, three men sent by the senate presented the case before him.' 4.45. But Menelaus, already as good as beaten, promised a substantial bribe to Ptolemy son of Dorymenes to win over the king.' 4.46. Therefore Ptolemy, taking the king aside into a colonnade as if for refreshment, induced the king to change his mind.' 4.47. Menelaus, the cause of all the evil, he acquitted of the charges against him, while he sentenced to death those unfortunate men, who would have been freed uncondemned if they had pleaded even before Scythians.' 5.15. Not content with this, Antiochus dared to enter the most holy temple in all the world, guided by Menelaus, who had become a traitor both to the laws and to his country.' 7.5. When he was utterly helpless, the king ordered them to take him to the fire, still breathing, and to fry him in a pan. The smoke from the pan spread widely, but the brothers and their mother encouraged one another to die nobly, saying,' 7.9. And when he was at his last breath, he said, 'You accursed wretch, you dismiss us from this present life, but the King of the universe will raise us up to an everlasting renewal of life, because we have died for his laws.' 7.10. After him, the third was the victim of their sport. When it was demanded, he quickly put out his tongue and courageously stretched forth his hands,' 7.14. And when he was near death, he said, 'One cannot but choose to die at the hands of men and to cherish the hope that God gives of being raised again by him. But for you there will be no resurrection to life!' 7.20. The mother was especially admirable and worthy of honorable memory. Though she saw her seven sons perish within a single day, she bore it with good courage because of her hope in the Lord.' 7.23. Therefore the Creator of the world, who shaped the beginning of man and devised the origin of all things, will in his mercy give life and breath back to you again, since you now forget yourselves for the sake of his laws.' 7.34. But you, unholy wretch, you most defiled of all men, do not be elated in vain and puffed up by uncertain hopes, when you raise your hand against the children of heaven.'
15. Septuagint, Judith, 14.6-14.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

14.6. So they summoned Achior from the house of Uzziah. And when he came and saw the head of Holofernes in the hand of one of the men at the gathering of the people, he fell down on his face and his spirit failed him. 14.7. And when they raised him up he fell at Judith's feet, and knelt before her, and said, "Blessed are you in every tent of Judah! In every nation those who hear your name will be alarmed. 14.8. Now tell me what you have done during these days." Then Judith described to him in the presence of the people all that she had done, from the day she left until the moment of her speaking to them.
16. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 4.19, 7.15, 10.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4.19. because he will dash them speechless to the ground,and shake them from the foundations;they will be left utterly dry and barren,and they will suffer anguish,and the memory of them will perish. 7.15. May God grant that I speak with judgment and have thought worthy of what I have received,for he is the guide even of wisdom and the corrector of the wise. 10.20. Therefore the righteous plundered the ungodly;they sang hymns, O Lord, to thy holy name,and praised with one accord thy defending hand
17. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 6.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.23. For when he heard the shouting and saw them all fallen headlong to destruction, he wept and angrily threatened his friends, saying
18. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 6, 5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5. But not to dwell upon ancient examples, let us come to the most recent spiritual heroes. Let us take the noble examples furnished in our own generation. Through envy and jealousy the greatest and most righteous pillars [of the church] have been persecuted and put to death. Let us set before our eyes the illustrious apostles. Peter, through unrighteous envy, endured not one or two, but numerous labours; and when he had at length suffered martyrdom, departed to the place of glory due to him. Owing to envy, Paul also obtained the reward of patient endurance, after being seven times thrown into captivity, compelled to flee, and stoned. After preaching both in the east and west, he gained the illustrious reputation due to his faith, having taught righteousness to the whole world, and come to the extreme limit of the west, and suffered martyrdom under the prefects. Thus was he removed from the world, and went into the holy place, having proved himself a striking example of patience.
19. Ignatius, To The Romans, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.3. I do not enjoin you, as Peter and Paul did. They were Apostles, I am a convict; they were free, but I am a slave to this very hour. Yet if I shall suffer, then am I a freed-man of Jesus Christ, and I shall rise free in Him. Now I am learning in my bonds to put away every desire.
20. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 12.138-12.146, 13.16, 13.172-13.173, 13.288-13.296, 14.163-14.184, 15.3, 15.370, 18.1, 18.4, 18.14-18.15, 18.178, 20.103, 20.131, 20.205-20.207, 20.216-20.217 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.138. “King Antiochus To Ptolemy, Sendeth Greeting. /p“Since the Jews, upon our first entrance on their country, demonstrated their friendship towards us, and when we came to their city [Jerusalem], received us in a splendid manner, and came to meet us with their senate, and gave abundance of provisions to our soldiers, and to the elephants, and joined with us in ejecting the garrison of the Egyptians that were in the citadel 12.139. we have thought fit to reward them, and to retrieve the condition of their city, which hath been greatly depopulated by such accidents as have befallen its inhabitants, and to bring those that have been scattered abroad back to the city. 12.141. And these payments I would have fully paid them, as I have sent orders to you. I would also have the work about the temple finished, and the cloisters, and if there be any thing else that ought to be rebuilt. And for the materials of wood, let it be brought them out of Judea itself and out of the other countries, and out of Libanus tax free; and the same I would have observed as to those other materials which will be necessary, in order to render the temple more glorious; 12.142. and let all of that nation live according to the laws of their own country; and let the senate, and the priests, and the scribes of the temple, and the sacred singers, be discharged from poll-money and the crown tax and other taxes also. 12.143. And that the city may the sooner recover its inhabitants, I grant a discharge from taxes for three years to its present inhabitants, and to such as shall come to it, until the month Hyperberetus. 12.144. We also discharge them for the future from a third part of their taxes, that the losses they have sustained may be repaired. And all those citizens that have been carried away, and are become slaves, we grant them and their children their freedom, and give order that their substance be restored to them.” 12.145. 4. And these were the contents of this epistle. He also published a decree through all his kingdom in honor of the temple, which contained what follows: “It shall be lawful for no foreigner to come within the limits of the temple round about; which thing is forbidden also to the Jews, unless to those who, according to their own custom, have purified themselves. 12.146. Nor let any flesh of horses, or of mules, or of asses, he brought into the city, whether they be wild or tame; nor that of leopards, or foxes, or hares; and, in general, that of any animal which is forbidden for the Jews to eat. Nor let their skins be brought into it; nor let any such animal be bred up in the city. Let them only be permitted to use the sacrifices derived from their forefathers, with which they have been obliged to make acceptable atonements to God. And he that transgresseth any of these orders, let him pay to the priests three thousand drachmae of silver.” 13.16. and built towers in every one of these cities, and encompassed them with strong walls, that were very large also, and put garrisons into them, that they might issue out of them, and do mischief to the Jews. 13.16. but those that were laid in ambush by Demetrius’s generals being behind them, the Jews were afraid lest they should be caught in the midst between two bodies, and perish; so they ran away in haste 13.172. Now for the Pharisees, they say that some actions, but not all, are the work of fate, and some of them are in our own power, and that they are liable to fate, but are not caused by fate. But the sect of the Essenes affirm, that fate governs all things, and that nothing befalls men but what is according to its determination. 13.173. And for the Sadducees, they take away fate, and say there is no such thing, and that the events of human affairs are not at its disposal; but they suppose that all our actions are in our own power, so that we are ourselves the causes of what is good, and receive what is evil from our own folly. However, I have given a more exact account of these opinions in the second book of the Jewish War. 13.288. 5. However, this prosperous state of affairs moved the Jews to envy Hyrcanus; but they that were the worst disposed to him were the Pharisees, who were one of the sects of the Jews, as we have informed you already. These have so great a power over the multitude, that when they say any thing against the king, or against the high priest, they are presently believed. 13.289. Now Hyrcanus was a disciple of theirs, and greatly beloved by them. And when he once invited them to a feast, and entertained them very kindly, when he saw them in a good humor, he began to say to them, that they knew he was desirous to be a righteous man, and to do all things whereby he might please God, which was the profession of the Pharisees also. 13.291. a man of an ill temper, and delighting in seditious practices. This man said, “Since thou desirest to know the truth, if thou wilt be righteous in earnest, lay down the high priesthood, and content thyself with the civil government of the people,” 13.292. And when he desired to know for what cause he ought to lay down the high priesthood, the other replied, “We have heard it from old men, that thy mother had been a captive under the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes. “ This story was false, and Hyrcanus was provoked against him; and all the Pharisees had a very great indignation against him. 13.293. 6. Now there was one Jonathan, a very great friend of Hyrcanus’s, but of the sect of the Sadducees, whose notions are quite contrary to those of the Pharisees. He told Hyrcanus that Eleazar had cast such a reproach upon him, according to the common sentiments of all the Pharisees, and that this would be made manifest if he would but ask them the question, What punishment they thought this man deserved? 13.294. for that he might depend upon it, that the reproach was not laid on him with their approbation, if they were for punishing him as his crime deserved. So the Pharisees made answer, that he deserved stripes and bonds, but that it did not seem right to punish reproaches with death. And indeed the Pharisees, even upon other occasions, are not apt to be severe in punishments. 13.295. At this gentle sentence, Hyrcanus was very angry, and thought that this man reproached him by their approbation. It was this Jonathan who chiefly irritated him, and influenced him so far 13.296. that he made him leave the party of the Pharisees, and abolish the decrees they had imposed on the people, and to punish those that observed them. From this source arose that hatred which he and his sons met with from the multitude: 14.163. 3. But now the principal men among the Jews, when they saw Antipater and his sons to grow so much in the good-will the nation bare to them, and in the revenues which they received out of Judea, and out of Hyrcanus’s own wealth, they became ill-disposed to him; 14.164. for indeed Antipater had contracted a friendship with the Roman emperors; and when he had prevailed with Hyrcanus to send them money, he took it to himself, and purloined the present intended, and sent it as if it were his own, and not Hyrcanus’s gift to them. 14.165. Hyrcanus heard of this his management, but took no care about it; nay, he rather was very glad of it. But the chief men of the Jews were therefore in fear, because they saw that Herod was a violent and bold man, and very desirous of acting tyrannically; so they came to Hyrcanus, and now accused Antipater openly, and said to him, “How long wilt thou be quiet under such actions as are now done? Or dost thou not see that Antipater and his sons have already seized upon the government, and that it is only the name of a king which is given thee? 14.166. But do not thou suffer these things to be hidden from thee, nor do thou think to escape danger by being so careless of thyself and of thy kingdom; for Antipater and his sons are not now stewards of thine affairs: do not thou deceive thyself with such a notion; they are evidently absolute lords; 14.167. for Herod, Antipater’s son, hath slain Hezekiah, and those that were with him, and hath thereby transgressed our law, which hath forbidden to slay any man, even though he were a wicked man, unless he had been first condemned to suffer death by the Sanhedrim yet hath he been so insolent as to do this, and that without any authority from thee.” 14.168. 4. Upon Hyrcanus hearing this, he complied with them. The mothers also of those that had been slain by Herod raised his indignation; for those women continued every day in the temple, persuading the king and the people that Herod might undergo a trial before the Sanhedrim for what he had done. 14.169. Hyrcanus was so moved by these complaints, that he summoned Herod to come to his trial for what was charged upon him. Accordingly he came; but his father had persuaded him to come not like a private man, but with a guard, for the security of his person; and that when he had settled the affairs of Galilee in the best manner he could for his own advantage, he should come to his trial, but still with a body of men sufficient for his security on his journey, yet so that he should not come with so great a force as might look like terrifying Hyrcanus, but still such a one as might not expose him naked and unguarded [to his enemies.] 14.171. But when Herod stood before the Sanhedrim, with his body of men about him, he affrighted them all, and no one of his former accusers durst after that bring any charge against him, but there was a deep silence, and nobody knew what was to be done. 14.172. When affairs stood thus, one whose name was Sameas, a righteous man he was, and for that reason above all fear, rose up, and said, “O you that are assessors with me, and O thou that art our king, I neither have ever myself known such a case, nor do I suppose that any one of you can name its parallel, that one who is called to take his trial by us ever stood in such a manner before us; but every one, whosoever he be, that comes to be tried by this Sanhedrim, presents himself in a submissive manner, and like one that is in fear of himself, and that endeavors to move us to compassion, with his hair dishevelled, and in a black and mourning garment: 14.173. but this admirable man Herod, who is accused of murder, and called to answer so heavy an accusation, stands here clothed in purple, and with the hair of his head finely trimmed, and with his armed men about him, that if we shall condemn him by our law, he may slay us, and by overbearing justice may himself escape death. 14.174. Yet do not I make this complaint against Herod himself; he is to be sure more concerned for himself than for the laws; but my complaint is against yourselves, and your king, who gave him a license so to do. However, take you notice, that God is great, and that this very man, whom you are going to absolve and dismiss, for the sake of Hyrcanus, will one day punish both you and your king himself also.” 14.175. Nor did Sameas mistake in any part of this prediction; for when Herod had received the kingdom, he slew all the members of this Sanhedrim, and Hyrcanus himself also, excepting Sameas 14.176. for he had a great honor for him on account of his righteousness, and because, when the city was afterward besieged by Herod and Sosius, he persuaded the people to admit Herod into it; and told them that for their sins they would not be able to escape his hands:—which things will be related by us in their proper places. 14.177. 5. But when Hyrcanus saw that the members of the Sanhedrim were ready to pronounce the sentence of death upon Herod, he put off the trial to another day, and sent privately to Herod, and advised him to fly out of the city, for that by this means he might escape. 14.178. So he retired to Damascus, as though he fled from the king; and when he had been with Sextus Caesar, and had put his own affairs in a sure posture, he resolved to do thus; that in case he were again summoned before the Sanhedrim to take his trial, he would not obey that summons. 14.179. Hereupon the members of the Sanhedrim had great indignation at this posture of affairs, and endeavored to persuade Hyrcanus that all these things were against him; which state of matters he was not ignorant of; but his temper was so unmanly, and so foolish, that he was able to do nothing at all. 14.181. but his father Antipater, and his brother [Phasaelus], met him, and hindered him from assaulting Jerusalem. They also pacified his vehement temper, and persuaded him to do no overt action, but only to affright them with threatenings, and to proceed no further against one who had given him the dignity he had: 14.182. they also desired him not only to be angry that he was summoned, and obliged to come to his trial, but to remember withal how he was dismissed without condemnation, and how he ought to give Hyrcanus thanks for the same; and that he was not to regard only what was disagreeable to him, and be unthankful for his deliverance. 14.183. So they desired him to consider, that since it is God that turns the scales of war, there is great uncertainty in the issue of battles, and that therefore he ought of to expect the victory when he should fight with his king, and him that had supported him, and bestowed many benefits upon him, and had done nothing of itself very severe to him; for that his accusation, which was derived from evil counselors, and not from himself, had rather the suspicion of some severity, than any thing really severe in it. 14.184. Herod was persuaded by these arguments, and believed that it was sufficient for his future hopes to have made a show of his strength before the nation, and done no more to it—and in this state were the affairs of Judea at this time. 15.3. But Pollio the Pharisee, and Sameas, a disciple of his, were honored by him above all the rest; for when Jerusalem was besieged, they advised the citizens to receive Herod, for which advice they were well requited. 15.3. He therefore wrote back to him, that if this boy should only go out of the country, all would be in a state of war and uproar, because the Jews were in hopes of a change in the government, and to have another king over them. 15.3. for, in the first place, there were perpetual droughts, and for that reason the ground was barren, and did not bring forth the same quantity of fruits that it used to produce; and after this barrenness of the soil, that change of food which the want of corn occasioned produced distempers in the bodies of men, and a pestilential disease prevailed, one misery following upon the back of another; 18.1. 1. Now Cyrenius, a Roman senator, and one who had gone through other magistracies, and had passed through them till he had been consul, and one who, on other accounts, was of great dignity, came at this time into Syria, with a few others, being sent by Caesar to be a judge of that nation, and to take an account of their substance. 18.1. concerning which I will discourse a little, and this the rather because the infection which spread thence among the younger sort, who were zealous for it, brought the public to destruction. 18.1. when he had estimated the number of those that were truly faithful to him, as also of those who were already corrupted, but were deceitful in the kindness they professed to him, and were likely, upon trial, to go over to his enemies, he made his escape to the upper provinces, where he afterwards raised a great army out of the Dahae and Sacae, and fought with his enemies, and retained his principality. 18.4. Yet was there one Judas, a Gaulonite, of a city whose name was Gamala, who, taking with him Sadduc, a Pharisee, became zealous to draw them to a revolt, who both said that this taxation was no better than an introduction to slavery, and exhorted the nation to assert their liberty; 18.4. When Phraates had had legitimate sons of his own, he had also an Italian maid-servant, whose name was Thermusa, who had been formerly sent to him by Julius Caesar, among other presents. He first made her his concubine; but he being a great admirer of her beauty, in process of time having a son by her, whose name was Phraataces, he made her his legitimate wife, and had a great respect for her. 18.14. They also believe that souls have an immortal rigor in them, and that under the earth there will be rewards or punishments, according as they have lived virtuously or viciously in this life; and the latter are to be detained in an everlasting prison, but that the former shall have power to revive and live again; 18.14. Alexander had a son of the same name with his brother Tigranes, and was sent to take possession of the kingdom of Armenia by Nero; he had a son, Alexander, who married Jotape, the daughter of Antiochus, the king of Commagena; Vespasian made him king of an island in Cilicia. 18.15. on account of which doctrines they are able greatly to persuade the body of the people; and whatsoever they do about divine worship, prayers, and sacrifices, they perform them according to their direction; insomuch that the cities give great attestations to them on account of their entire virtuous conduct, both in the actions of their lives and their discourses also. 18.15. Yet did not Herod long continue in that resolution of supporting him, though even that support was not sufficient for him; for as once they were at a feast at Tyre, and in their cups, and reproaches were cast upon one another, Agrippa thought that was not to be borne, while Herod hit him in the teeth with his poverty, and with his owing his necessary food to him. So he went to Flaccus, one that had been consul, and had been a very great friend to him at Rome formerly, and was now president of Syria. 18.178. Nor was he in one way of acting with respect to the Jews, and in another with respect to the rest of his subjects. He further informed them, that even in the hearing of the causes of prisoners, he made such delays, because immediate death to those that must be condemned to die would be an alleviation of their present miseries, while those wicked wretches have not deserved any such favor; “but I do it, that, by being harassed with the present calamity, they may undergo greater misery.” 20.103. But now Herod, king of Chalcis, removed Joseph, the son of Camydus, from the high priesthood, and made Aias, the son of Nebedeu, his successor. And now it was that Cumanus came as successor to Tiberius Alexander; 20.131. whom Quadratus ordered to be put to death: but still he sent away Aias the high priest, and Aus the commander [of the temple], in bonds to Rome, to give an account of what they had done to Claudius Caesar. 20.205. But as for the high priest, Aias he increased in glory every day, and this to a great degree, and had obtained the favor and esteem of the citizens in a signal manner; for he was a great hoarder up of money: he therefore cultivated the friendship of Albinus, and of the high priest [Jesus], by making them presents; 20.206. he also had servants who were very wicked, who joined themselves to the boldest sort of the people, and went to the thrashing-floors, and took away the tithes that belonged to the priests by violence, and did not refrain from beating such as would not give these tithes to them. 20.207. So the other high priests acted in the like manner, as did those his servants, without any one being able to prohibit them; so that [some of the] priests, that of old were wont to be supported with those tithes, died for want of food. 20.216. 6. Now as many of the Levites, which is a tribe of ours, as were singers of hymns, persuaded the king to assemble a sanhedrim, and to give them leave to wear linen garments, as well as the priests for they said that this would be a work worthy the times of his government, that he might have a memorial of such a novelty, as being his doing. 20.217. Nor did they fail of obtaining their desire; for the king, with the suffrages of those that came into the sanhedrim, granted the singers of hymns this privilege, that they might lay aside their former garments, and wear such a linen one as they desired;
21. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.110, 2.8, 2.162-2.166 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.8. 3. At these clamors Archelaus was provoked, but restrained himself from taking vengeance on the authors, on account of the haste he was in of going to Rome, as fearing lest, upon his making war on the multitude, such an action might detain him at home. Accordingly, he made trial to quiet the innovators by persuasion, rather than by force, and sent his general in a private way to them, and by him exhorted them to be quiet. 2.8. 1. But now came another accusation from the Jews against Archelaus at Rome, which he was to answer to. It was made by those ambassadors who, before the revolt, had come, by Varus’s permission, to plead for the liberty of their country; those that came were fifty in number, but there were more than eight thousand of the Jews at Rome who supported them. 2.162. 14. But then as to the two other orders at first mentioned: the Pharisees are those who are esteemed most skillful in the exact explication of their laws, and introduce the first sect. These ascribe all to fate [or providence], and to God 2.163. and yet allow, that to act what is right, or the contrary, is principally in the power of men, although fate does cooperate in every action. They say that all souls are incorruptible, but that the souls of good men only are removed into other bodies,—but that the souls of bad men are subject to eternal punishment. 2.164. But the Sadducees are those that compose the second order, and take away fate entirely, and suppose that God is not concerned in our doing or not doing what is evil; 2.165. and they say, that to act what is good, or what is evil, is at men’s own choice, and that the one or the other belongs so to every one, that they may act as they please. They also take away the belief of the immortal duration of the soul, and the punishments and rewards in Hades. 2.166. Moreover, the Pharisees are friendly to one another, and are for the exercise of concord, and regard for the public; but the behavior of the Sadducees one towards another is in some degree wild, and their conversation with those that are of their own party is as barbarous as if they were strangers to them. And this is what I had to say concerning the philosophic sects among the Jews.
22. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.233-2.234 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.233. Now I think, those that have conquered us have put us to such deaths, not out of their hatred to us when they had subdued us, but rather out of their desire of seeing a surprising sight, which is this, whether there be such men in the world who believe that no evil is to them so great as to be compelled to do or to speak any thing contrary to their own laws. 2.234. Nor ought men to wonder at us, if we are more courageous in dying for our laws than all other men are; for other men do not easily submit to the easier things in which we are instituted; I mean, working with our hands, and eating but little, and being contented to eat and drink, not at random, or at every one’s pleasure, or being under inviolable rules in lying with our wives, in magnificent furniture, and again in the observation of our times of rest;
23. Josephus Flavius, Life, 191, 197, 12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

24. Mishnah, Avot, 1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

25. New Testament, 1 Peter, 3.2, 3.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.2. seeing your pure behavior in fear. 3.19. in which he also went and preached to the spirits in prison
26. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 15.3-15.4, 15.12-15.24, 16.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.3. For I delivered to youfirst of all that which I also received: that Christ died for our sinsaccording to the Scriptures 15.4. that he was buried, that he wasraised on the third day according to the Scriptures 15.12. Now if Christ is preached, that he has been raised from thedead, how do some among you say that there is no resurrection of thedead? 15.13. But if there is no resurrection of the dead, neither hasChrist been raised. 15.14. If Christ has not been raised, then ourpreaching is in vain, and your faith also is in vain. 15.15. Yes, weare found false witnesses of God, because we testified about God thathe raised up Christ, whom he didn't raise up, if it is so that the deadare not raised. 15.16. For if the dead aren't raised, neither hasChrist been raised. 15.17. If Christ has not been raised, your faithis vain; you are still in your sins. 15.18. Then they also who arefallen asleep in Christ have perished. 15.19. If we have only hoped inChrist in this life, we are of all men most pitiable. 15.20. But now Christ has been raised from the dead. He became thefirst fruits of those who are asleep. 15.21. For since death came byman, the resurrection of the dead also came by man. 15.22. For as inAdam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive. 15.23. Buteach in his own order: Christ the first fruits, then those who areChrist's, at his coming. 15.24. Then the end comes, when he willdeliver up the Kingdom to God, even the Father; when he will haveabolished all rule and all authority and power. 16.21. This greeting is by me, Paul, with my own hand.
27. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 4.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

28. New Testament, Acts, 1.15-1.26, 2.22-2.32, 2.37, 3.15, 4.1-4.2, 4.5, 4.15, 5.17, 5.21, 5.29-5.42, 7.2, 7.26, 7.58-7.59, 9.20-9.25, 10.39-10.41, 11.26, 13.14-13.49, 15.5, 15.7, 15.13, 16.16-16.40, 17.3, 17.18, 17.30-17.32, 21.11, 21.21, 21.28, 22.1, 22.3, 22.30, 23.1, 23.5, 23.7-23.10, 23.20, 23.28-23.29, 24.1, 24.5, 24.14-24.21, 25.8-25.10, 25.19, 25.25, 26.4-26.8, 26.22-26.24, 26.31-26.32, 28.17-28.31 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.15. In these days, Peter stood up in the midst of the disciples (and the number of names was about one hundred twenty), and said 1.16. Brothers, it was necessary that this Scripture should be fulfilled, which the Holy Spirit spoke before by the mouth of David concerning Judas, who was guide to those who took Jesus. 1.17. For he was numbered with us, and received his portion in this ministry. 1.18. Now this man obtained a field with the reward for his wickedness, and falling headlong, his body burst open, and all his intestines gushed out. 1.19. It became known to everyone who lived in Jerusalem that in their language that field was called 'Akeldama,' that is, 'The field of blood.' 1.20. For it is written in the book of Psalms, 'Let his habitation be made desolate, Let no one dwell therein,' and, 'Let another take his office.' 1.21. of the men therefore who have accompanied us all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and went out among us 1.22. beginning from the baptism of John, to the day that he was received up from us, of these one must become a witness with us of his resurrection. 1.23. They put forward two, Joseph called Barsabbas, who was surnamed Justus, and Matthias. 1.24. They prayed, and said, "You, Lord, who know the hearts of all men, show which one of these two you have chosen 1.25. to take part in this ministry and apostleship from which Judas fell away, that he might go to his own place. 1.26. They drew lots for them, and the lot fell on Matthias, and he was numbered with the eleven apostles. 2.22. You men of Israel, hear these words. Jesus of Nazareth, a man approved by God to you by mighty works and wonders and signs which God did by him in the midst of you, even as you yourselves know 2.23. him, being delivered up by the determined counsel and foreknowledge of God, you have taken by the hand of lawless men, crucified and killed; 2.24. whom God raised up, having freed him from the agony of death, because it was not possible that he should be held by it. 2.25. For David says concerning him, 'I saw the Lord always before my face, For he is on my right hand, that I should not be moved. 2.26. Therefore my heart was glad, and my tongue rejoiced. Moreover my flesh also will dwell in hope; 2.27. Because you will not leave my soul in Hades, Neither will you allow your Holy One to see decay. 2.28. You made known to me the ways of life. You will make me full of gladness with your presence.' 2.29. Brothers, I may tell you freely of the patriarch David, that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day. 2.30. Therefore, being a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him that of the fruit of his body, according to the flesh, he would raise up the Christ to sit on his throne 2.31. he foreseeing this spoke about the resurrection of the Christ, that neither was his soul left in Hades, nor did his flesh see decay. 2.32. This Jesus God raised up, whereof we all are witnesses. 2.37. Now when they heard this, they were cut to the heart, and said to Peter and the rest of the apostles, "Brothers, what shall we do? 3.15. and killed the Prince of life, whom God raised from the dead, whereof we are witnesses. 4.1. As they spoke to the people, the priests and the captain of the temple and the Sadducees came to them 4.2. being upset because they taught the people and proclaimed in Jesus the resurrection from the dead. 4.5. It happened in the morning, that their rulers, elders, and scribes were gathered together in Jerusalem. 4.15. But when they had commanded them to go aside out of the council, they conferred among themselves 5.17. But the high priest rose up, and all those who were with him (which is the sect of the Sadducees), and they were filled with jealousy 5.21. When they heard this, they entered into the temple about daybreak, and taught. But the high priest came, and those who were with him, and called the council together, and all the senate of the children of Israel, and sent to the prison to have them brought. 5.29. But Peter and the apostles answered, "We must obey God rather than men. 5.30. The God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom you killed, hanging him on a tree. 5.31. God exalted him with his right hand to be a Prince and a Savior, to give repentance to Israel, and remission of sins. 5.32. We are His witnesses of these things; and so also is the Holy Spirit, whom God has given to those who obey him. 5.33. But they, when they heard this, were cut to the heart, and determined to kill them. 5.34. But one stood up in the council, a Pharisee named Gamaliel, a teacher of the law, honored by all the people, and commanded to take the apostles out a little while. 5.35. He said to them, "You men of Israel, be careful concerning these men, what you are about to do. 5.36. For before these days Theudas rose up, making himself out to be somebody; to whom a number of men, about four hundred, joined themselves: who was slain; and all, as many as obeyed him, were dispersed, and came to nothing. 5.37. After this man, Judas of Galilee rose up in the days of the enrollment, and drew away some people after him. He also perished, and all, as many as obeyed him, were scattered abroad. 5.38. Now I tell you, refrain from these men, and leave them alone. For if this counsel or this work is of men, it will be overthrown. 5.39. But if it is of God, you will not be able to overthrow it, and you would be found even to be fighting against God! 5.40. They agreed with him. Summoning the apostles, they beat them and charged them not to speak in the name of Jesus, and let them go. 5.41. They therefore departed from the presence of the council, rejoicing that they were counted worthy to suffer dishonor for Jesus' name. 5.42. Every day, in the temple and at home, they never stopped teaching and preaching Jesus, the Christ. 7.2. He said, "Brothers and fathers, listen. The God of glory appeared to our father Abraham, when he was in Mesopotamia, before he lived in Haran 7.26. The day following, he appeared to them as they fought, and urged them to be at peace again, saying, 'Sirs, you are brothers. Why do you wrong one to another?' 7.58. They threw him out of the city, and stoned him. The witnesses placed their garments at the feet of a young man named Saul. 7.59. They stoned Stephen as he called out, saying, "Lord Jesus, receive my Spirit! 9.20. Immediately in the synagogues he proclaimed the Christ, that he is the Son of God. 9.21. All who heard him were amazed, and said, "Isn't this he who in Jerusalem made havoc of those who called on this name? And he had come here intending to bring them bound before the chief priests! 9.22. But Saul increased more in strength, and confounded the Jews who lived at Damascus, proving that this is the Christ. 9.23. When many days were fulfilled, the Jews conspired together to kill him 9.24. but their plot became known to Saul. They watched the gates both day and night that they might kill him 9.25. but his disciples took him by night, and let him down through the wall, lowering him in a basket. 10.39. We are witnesses of all things which he did both in the country of the Jews, and in Jerusalem; whom they also killed, hanging him on a tree. 10.40. God raised him up the third day, and gave him to be revealed 10.41. not to all the people, but to witnesses who were chosen before by God, to us, who ate and drank with him after he rose from the dead. 11.26. When he had found him, he brought him to Antioch. It happened, that even for a whole year they were gathered together with the assembly, and taught many people. The disciples were first called Christians in Antioch. 13.14. But they, passing through from Perga, came to Antioch of Pisidia. They went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and sat down. 13.15. After the reading of the law and the prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, saying, "Brothers, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, speak. 13.16. Paul stood up, and beckoning with his hand said, "Men of Israel, and you who fear God, listen. 13.17. The God of this people Israel chose our fathers, and exalted the people when they stayed as aliens in the land of Egypt , and with an uplifted arm, he led them out of it. 13.18. For about the time of forty years he put up with them in the wilderness. 13.19. When he had destroyed seven nations in the land of Canaan, he gave them their land for an inheritance, for about four hundred fifty years. 13.20. After these things he gave them judges until Samuel the prophet. 13.21. Afterward they asked for a king, and God gave to them Saul the son of Kish, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, for forty years. 13.22. When he had removed him, he raised up David to be their king, to whom he also testified, 'I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after my heart, who will do all my will.' 13.23. From this man's seed, God has brought salvation to Israel according to his promise 13.24. before his coming, when John had first preached the baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel. 13.25. As John was fulfilling his course, he said, 'What do you suppose that I am? I am not he. But behold, one comes after me the sandals of whose feet I am not worthy to untie.' 13.26. Brothers, children of the stock of Abraham, and those among you who fear God, the word of this salvation is sent out to you. 13.27. For those who dwell in Jerusalem, and their rulers, because they didn't know him, nor the voices of the prophets which are read every Sabbath, fulfilled them by condemning him. 13.28. Though they found no cause for death, they still asked Pilate to have him killed. 13.29. When they had fulfilled all things that were written about him, they took him down from the tree, and laid him in a tomb. 13.30. But God raised him from the dead 13.31. and he was seen for many days by those who came up with him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who are his witnesses to the people. 13.32. We bring you good news of the promise made to the fathers 13.33. that God has fulfilled the same to us, their children, in that he raised up Jesus. As it is also written in the second psalm, 'You are my Son. Today I have become your father.' 13.34. Concerning that he raised him up from the dead, now no more to return to corruption, he has spoken thus: 'I will give you the holy and sure blessings of David.' 13.35. Therefore he says also in another psalm, 'You will not allow your Holy One to see decay.' 13.36. For David, after he had in his own generation served the counsel of God, fell asleep, and was laid with his fathers, and saw decay. 13.37. But he whom God raised up saw no decay. 13.38. Be it known to you therefore, brothers, that through this man is proclaimed to you remission of sins 13.39. and by him everyone who believes is justified from all things, from which you could not be justified by the law of Moses. 13.40. Beware therefore, lest that come on you which is spoken in the prophets: 13.41. 'Behold, you scoffers, and wonder, and perish; For I work a work in your days, A work which you will in no way believe, if one declares it to you.' 13.42. So when the Jews went out of the synagogue, the Gentiles begged that these words might be preached to them the next Sabbath. 13.43. Now when the synagogue broke up, many of the Jews and of the devout proselytes followed Paul and Barnabas; who, speaking to them, urged them to continue in the grace of God. 13.44. The next Sabbath almost the whole city was gathered together to hear the word of God. 13.45. But when the Jews saw the multitudes, they were filled with jealousy, and contradicted the things which were spoken by Paul, and blasphemed. 13.46. Paul and Barnabas spoke out boldly, and said, "It was necessary that God's word should be spoken to you first. Since indeed you thrust it from you, and judge yourselves unworthy of eternal life, behold, we turn to the Gentiles. 13.47. For so has the Lord commanded us, saying, 'I have set you as a light of the Gentiles, That you should be for salvation to the uttermost parts of the earth.' 13.48. As the Gentiles heard this, they were glad, and glorified the word of God. As many as were appointed to eternal life believed. 13.49. The Lord's word was spread abroad throughout all the region. 15.5. But some of the sect of the Pharisees who believed rose up, saying, "It is necessary to circumcise them, and to charge them to keep the law of Moses. 15.7. When there had been much discussion, Peter rose up and said to them, "Brothers, you know that a good while ago God made choice among you, that by my mouth the Gentiles should hear the word of the gospel, and believe. 15.13. After they were silent, James answered, "Brothers, listen to me. 16.16. It happened, as we were going to prayer, that a certain girl having a spirit of divination met us, who brought her masters much gain by fortune telling. 16.17. The same, following after Paul and us, cried out, "These men are servants of the Most High God, who proclaim to us the way of salvation! 16.18. This she did for many days. But Paul, becoming greatly annoyed, turned and said to the spirit, "I charge you in the name of Jesus Christ to come out of her!" It came out that very hour. 16.19. But when her masters saw that the hope of their gain was gone, they seized Paul and Silas, and dragged them into the marketplace before the rulers. 16.20. When they had brought them to the magistrates, they said, "These men, being Jews, are agitating our city 16.21. and set forth customs which it is not lawful for us to accept or to observe, being Romans. 16.22. The multitude rose up together against them, and the magistrates tore their clothes off of them, and commanded them to be beaten with rods. 16.23. When they had laid many stripes on them, they threw them into prison, charging the jailer to keep them safely 16.24. who, having received such a charge, threw them into the inner prison, and secured their feet in the stocks. 16.25. But about midnight Paul and Silas were praying and singing hymns to God, and the prisoners were listening to them. 16.26. Suddenly there was a great earthquake, so that the foundations of the prison were shaken; and immediately all the doors were opened, and everyone's bonds were loosened. 16.27. The jailer, being roused out of sleep and seeing the prison doors open, drew his sword and was about to kill himself, supposing that the prisoners had escaped. 16.28. But Paul cried with a loud voice, saying, "Don't harm yourself, for we are all here! 16.29. He called for lights and sprang in, and, fell down trembling before Paul and Silas 16.30. and brought them out and said, "Sirs, what must I do to be saved? 16.31. They said, "Believe in the Lord Jesus Christ, and you will be saved, you and your household. 16.32. They spoke the word of the Lord to him, and to all who were in his house. 16.33. He took them the same hour of the night, and washed their stripes, and was immediately baptized, he and all his household. 16.34. He brought them up into his house, and set food before them, and rejoiced greatly, with all his household, having believed in God. 16.35. But when it was day, the magistrates sent the sergeants, saying, "Let those men go. 16.36. The jailer reported these words to Paul, saying, "The magistrates have sent to let you go; now therefore come out, and go in peace. 16.37. But Paul said to them, "They have beaten us publicly, without a trial, men who are Romans, and have cast us into prison! Do they now release us secretly? No, most assuredly, but let them come themselves and bring us out! 16.38. The sergeants reported these words to the magistrates, and they were afraid when they heard that they were Romans 16.39. and they came and begged them. When they had brought them out, they asked them to depart from the city. 16.40. They went out of the prison, and entered into Lydia's house. When they had seen the brothers, they comforted them, and departed. 17.3. explaining and demonstrating that the Christ had to suffer, and to rise again from the dead, and saying, "This Jesus, whom I proclaim to you, is the Christ. 17.18. Some of the Epicurean and Stoic philosophers also encountered him. Some said, "What does this babbler want to say?"Others said, "He seems to be advocating foreign demons," because he preached Jesus and the resurrection. 17.30. The times of ignorance therefore God overlooked. But now he commands that all men everywhere should repent 17.31. because he has appointed a day in which he will judge the world in righteousness by the man whom he has ordained; whereof he has given assurance to all men, in that he has raised him from the dead. 17.32. Now when they heard of the resurrection of the dead, some mocked; but others said, "We want to hear you yet again concerning this. 21.11. Coming to us, and taking Paul's belt, he bound his own feet and hands, and said, "Thus says the Holy Spirit: 'So will the Jews at Jerusalem bind the man who owns this belt, and will deliver him into the hands of the Gentiles.' 21.21. They have been informed about you, that you teach all the Jews who are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, telling them not to circumcise their children neither to walk after the customs. 21.28. crying out, "Men of Israel, help! This is the man who teaches all men everywhere against the people, and the law, and this place. Moreover, he also brought Greeks into the temple, and has defiled this holy place! 22.1. Brothers and fathers, listen to the defense which I now make to you. 22.3. I am indeed a Jew, born in Tarsus of Cilicia, but brought up in this city at the feet of Gamaliel, instructed according to the strict manner of the law of our fathers, being zealous for God, even as you all are this day. 22.30. But on the next day, desiring to know the truth about why he was accused by the Jews, he freed him from the bonds, and commanded the chief priests and all the council to come together, and brought Paul down and set him before them. 23.1. Paul, looking steadfastly at the council, said, "Brothers, I have lived before God in all good conscience until this day. 23.5. Paul said, "I didn't know, brothers, that he was high priest. For it is written, 'You shall not speak evil of a ruler of your people.' 23.7. When he had said this, an argument arose between the Pharisees and Sadducees, and the assembly was divided. 23.8. For the Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, neither angel, nor spirit; but the Pharisees confess all of these. 23.9. A great clamor arose, and some of the scribes of the Pharisees part stood up, and contended, saying, "We find no evil in this man. But if a spirit or angel has spoken to him, let's not fight against God! 23.10. When a great argument arose, the commanding officer, fearing that Paul would be torn in pieces by them, commanded the soldiers to go down and take him by force from among them, and bring him into the barracks. 23.20. He said, "The Jews have agreed to ask you to bring down Paul tomorrow to the council, as though intending to inquire somewhat more accurately concerning him. 23.28. Desiring to know the cause why they accused him, I brought him down to their council. 23.29. I found him to be accused about questions of their law, but to have nothing laid to his charge worthy of death or of bonds. 24.1. After five days, the high priest, Aias, came down with certain elders and an orator, one Tertullus. They informed the governor against Paul. 24.5. For we have found this man to be a plague, an instigator of insurrections among all the Jews throughout the world, and a ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes. 24.14. But this I confess to you, that after the Way, which they call a sect, so I serve the God of our fathers, believing all things which are according to the law, and which are written in the prophets; 24.15. having hope toward God, which these also themselves look for, that there will be a resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust. 24.16. Herein I also practice always having a conscience void of offense toward God and men. 24.17. Now after some years, I came to bring gifts to the needy to my nation, and offerings; 24.18. amid which certain Jews from Asia found me purified in the temple, with no crowd, nor yet with tumult. 24.19. They ought to have been here before you, and to make accusation, if they had anything against me. 24.20. Or else let these men themselves say what injustice they found in me when I stood before the council 24.21. unless it is for this one thing that I cried standing among them, 'Concerning the resurrection of the dead I am being judged before you today!' 25.8. while he said in his defense, "Neither against the law of the Jews, nor against the temple, nor against Caesar, have I sinned at all. 25.9. But Festus, desiring to gain favor with the Jews, answered Paul and said, "Will you go up to Jerusalem, and there be judged of these things before me? 25.10. But Paul said, "I am standing before Caesar's judgment seat, where I ought to be tried. I have done no wrong to the Jews, as you also know very well. 25.19. but had certain questions against him of their own religion, and of one Jesus, who was dead, whom Paul affirmed to be alive. 25.25. But when I found that he had committed nothing worthy of death, and as he himself appealed to the emperor I determined to send him. 26.4. Indeed, all the Jews know my way of life from my youth up, which was from the beginning among my own nation and at Jerusalem; 26.5. having known me from the first, if they are willing to testify, that after the strictest sect of our religion I lived a Pharisee. 26.6. Now I stand here to be judged for the hope of the promise made by God to our fathers 26.7. which our twelve tribes, earnestly serving night and day, hope to attain. Concerning this hope I am accused by the Jews, King Agrippa! 26.8. Why is it judged incredible with you, if God does raise the dead? 26.22. Having therefore obtained the help that is from God, I stand to this day testifying both to small and great, saying nothing but what the prophets and Moses did say should come 26.23. how the Christ must suffer, and how he first by the resurrection of the dead should proclaim light both to these people and to the Gentiles. 26.24. As he thus made his defense, Festus said with a loud voice, "Paul, you are crazy! Your great learning is driving you insane! 26.31. When they had withdrawn, they spoke one to another, saying, "This man does nothing worthy of death or of bonds. 26.32. Agrippa said to Festus, "This man might have been set free if he had not appealed to Caesar. 28.17. It happened that after three days Paul called together those who were the leaders of the Jews. When they had come together, he said to them, "I, brothers, though I had done nothing against the people, or the customs of our fathers, still was delivered prisoner from Jerusalem into the hands of the Romans 28.18. who, when they had examined me, desired to set me free, because there was no cause of death in me. 28.19. But when the Jews spoke against it, I was constrained to appeal to Caesar, not that I had anything about which to accuse my nation. 28.20. For this cause therefore I asked you to see and to speak with me. For because of the hope of Israel I am bound with this chain. 28.21. They said to him, "We neither received letters from Judea concerning you, nor did any of the brothers come here and report or speak any evil of you. 28.22. But we desire to hear from you what you think. For, as concerning this sect, it is known to us that everywhere it is spoken against. 28.23. When they had appointed him a day, they came to him into his lodging in great number. He explained to them, testifying about the Kingdom of God, and persuading them concerning Jesus, both from the law of Moses and from the prophets, from morning until evening. 28.24. Some believed the things which were spoken, and some disbelieved. 28.25. When they didn't agree among themselves, they departed after Paul had spoken one word, "The Holy Spirit spoke well through Isaiah, the prophet, to our fathers 28.26. saying, 'Go to this people, and say, In hearing, you will hear, And will in no way understand. In seeing, you will see, And will in no way perceive. 28.27. For this people's heart has grown callous. Their ears are dull of hearing. Their eyes they have closed. Lest they should see with their eyes, Hear with their ears, Understand with their heart, And would turn again, And I would heal them.' 28.28. Be it known therefore to you, that the salvation of God is sent to the Gentiles. They will also hear. 28.29. When he had said these words, the Jews departed, having a great dispute among themselves. 28.30. Paul stayed two whole years in his own rented house, and received all who went in to him 28.31. preaching the Kingdom of God, and teaching the things concerning the Lord Jesus Christ with all boldness, without hinderance.
29. New Testament, Apocalypse, 14.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.12. Here is the patience of the saints, those who keep the commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus.
30. New Testament, Galatians, 1.1, 1.11-1.16, 2.20, 3.13-3.14, 3.16-3.20, 3.24-3.29, 6.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, an apostle (not from men, neither through man, but through Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead) 1.11. But Imake known to you, brothers, concerning the gospel which was preachedby me, that it is not according to man. 1.12. For neither did Ireceive it from man, nor was I taught it, but it came to me throughrevelation of Jesus Christ. 1.13. For you have heard of my way ofliving in time past in the Jews' religion, how that beyond measure Ipersecuted the assembly of God, and ravaged it. 1.14. I advanced inthe Jews' religion beyond many of my own age among my countrymen, beingmore exceedingly zealous for the traditions of my fathers. 1.15. Butwhen it was the good pleasure of God, who separated me from my mother'swomb, and called me through his grace 1.16. to reveal his Son in me,that I might preach him among the Gentiles, I didn't immediately conferwith flesh and blood 2.20. I have been crucified with Christ, andit is no longer I that live, but Christ living in me. That life which Inow live in the flesh, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me,and gave himself up for me. 3.13. Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become acurse for us. For it is written, "Cursed is everyone who hangs on atree 3.14. that the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentilesthrough Christ Jesus; that we might receive the promise of the Spiritthrough faith. 3.16. Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and tohis seed. He doesn't say, "To seeds," as of many, but as of one, "Toyour seed," which is Christ. 3.17. Now I say this. A covetconfirmed beforehand by God in Christ, the law, which came four hundredand thirty years after, does not annul, so as to make the promise of noeffect. 3.18. For if the inheritance is of the law, it is no more ofpromise; but God has granted it to Abraham by promise. 3.19. What then is the law? It was added because of transgressions,until the seed should come to whom the promise has been made. It wasordained through angels by the hand of a mediator. 3.20. Now amediator is not between one, but God is one. 3.24. So that the law has become our tutor to bring us toChrist, that we might be justified by faith. 3.25. But now that faithis come, we are no longer under a tutor. 3.26. For you are all sons ofGod, through faith in Christ Jesus. 3.27. For as many of you as werebaptized into Christ have put on Christ. 3.28. There is neither Jewnor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither malenor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. 3.29. If you are Christ's, then you are Abraham's seed and heirs according to promise. 6.11. See with what large letters I write to you with my own hand.
31. New Testament, Hebrews, 12.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.23. to the general assembly and assembly of the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven, to God the Judge of all, to the spirits of just men made perfect
32. New Testament, Philippians, 3.4-3.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.4. though I myself might have confidence even in the flesh. If any other man thinks that he has confidence in the flesh, I yet more: 3.5. circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; concerning the law, a Pharisee; 3.6. concerning zeal, persecuting the assembly; concerning the righteousness which is in the law, found blameless. 3.7. However, what things were gain to me, these have I counted loss for Christ. 3.8. Yes most assuredly, and I count all things to be loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus, my Lord, for whom I suffered the loss of all things, and count them nothing but refuse, that I may gain Christ 3.9. and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own, that which is of the law, but that which is through faith in Christ, the righteousness which is from God by faith; 3.10. that I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his sufferings, becoming conformed to his death; 3.11. if by any means I may attain to the resurrection from the dead.
33. New Testament, Romans, 4.12, 4.16-4.17, 4.24, 11.1, 16.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.12. The father of circumcision to those who not only are of the circumcision, but who also walk in the steps of that faith of our father Abraham, which he had in uncircumcision. 4.16. For this cause it is of faith, that it may be according to grace, to the end that the promise may be sure to all the seed, not to that only which is of the law, but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all. 4.17. As it is written, "I have made you a father of many nations." This is in the presence of him whom he believed: God, who gives life to the dead, and calls the things that are not, as though they were. 4.24. but for our sake also, to whom it will be accounted, who believe in him who raised Jesus, our Lord, from the dead 11.1. I ask then, Did God reject his people? May it never be! For I also am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. 16.22. I, Tertius, who write the letter, greet you in the Lord.
34. New Testament, John, 3.1, 5.16, 11.47, 21.12-21.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. Now there was a man of the Pharisees named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews. 5.16. For this cause the Jews persecuted Jesus, and sought to kill him, because he did these things on the Sabbath. 11.47. The chief priests therefore and the Pharisees gathered a council, and said, "What are we doing? For this man does many signs. 21.12. Jesus said to them, "Come and eat breakfast."None of the disciples dared inquire of him, "Who are you?" knowing that it was the Lord. 21.13. Then Jesus came and took the bread, gave it to them, and the fish likewise. 21.14. This is now the third time that Jesus was revealed to his disciples, after he had risen from the dead.
35. New Testament, Luke, 1.1, 1.3, 2.25-2.38, 5.17, 6.11, 7.6, 7.36-7.39, 9.44, 11.37-11.38, 13.17, 13.31, 14.1, 14.6, 18.10-18.11, 18.32, 20.27-20.40, 22.66, 23.34, 23.51, 24.3, 24.7, 24.21, 24.26, 24.41-24.44 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Since many have undertaken to set in order a narrative concerning those matters which have been fulfilled among us 1.3. it seemed good to me also, having traced the course of all things accurately from the first, to write to you in order, most excellent Theophilus; 2.25. Behold, there was a man in Jerusalem whose name was Simeon; and this man was righteous and devout, looking for the consolation of Israel, and the Holy Spirit was on him. 2.26. It had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he should not see death before he had seen the Lord's Christ. 2.27. He came in the Spirit into the temple. When the parents brought in the child, Jesus, that they might do concerning him according to the custom of the law 2.28. then he received him into his arms, and blessed God, and said 2.29. Now you are releasing your servant, Master, According to your word, in peace; 2.30. For my eyes have seen your salvation 2.31. Which you have prepared before the face of all peoples; 2.32. A light for revelation to the Gentiles, And the glory of your people Israel. 2.33. Joseph and his mother were marveling at the things which were spoken concerning him 2.34. and Simeon blessed them, and said to Mary, his mother, "Behold, this child is set for the falling and the rising of many in Israel, and for a sign which is spoken against. 2.35. Yes, a sword will pierce through your own soul, that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed. 2.36. There was one Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher (she was of a great age, having lived with a husband seven years from her virginity 2.37. and she had been a widow for about eighty-four years), who didn't depart from the temple, worshipping with fastings and petitions night and day. 2.38. Coming up at that very hour, she gave thanks to the Lord, and spoke of him to all those who were looking for redemption in Jerusalem. 5.17. It happened on one of those days, that he was teaching; and there were Pharisees and teachers of the law sitting by, who had come out of every village of Galilee, Judea, and Jerusalem. The power of the Lord was with him to heal them. 6.11. But they were filled with rage, and talked with one another about what they might do to Jesus. 7.6. Jesus went with them. When he was now not far from the house, the centurion sent friends to him, saying to him, "Lord, don't trouble yourself, for I am not worthy for you to come under my roof. 7.36. One of the Pharisees invited him to eat with him. He entered into the Pharisee's house, and sat at the table. 7.37. Behold, a woman in the city who was a sinner, when she knew that he was reclining in the Pharisee's house, she brought an alabaster jar of ointment. 7.38. Standing behind at his feet weeping, she began to wet his feet with her tears, and she wiped them with the hair of her head, kissed his feet, and anointed them with the ointment. 7.39. Now when the Pharisee who had invited him saw it, he said to himself, "This man, if he were a prophet, would have perceived who and what kind of woman this is who touches him, that she is a sinner. 9.44. Let these words sink into your ears, for the Son of Man will be delivered up into the hands of men. 11.37. Now as he spoke, a certain Pharisee asked him to dine with him. He went in, and sat at the table. 11.38. When the Pharisee saw it, he marveled that he had not first washed himself before dinner. 13.17. As he said these things, all his adversaries were put to shame, and all the multitude rejoiced for all the glorious things that were done by him. 13.31. On that same day, some Pharisees came, saying to him, "Get out of here, and go away, for Herod wants to kill you. 14.1. It happened, when he went into the house of one of the rulers of the Pharisees on a Sabbath to eat bread, that they were watching him. 14.6. They couldn't answer him regarding these things. 18.10. Two men went up into the temple to pray; one was a Pharisee, and the other was a tax collector. 18.11. The Pharisee stood and prayed to himself like this: 'God, I thank you, that I am not like the rest of men, extortioners, unrighteous, adulterers, or even like this tax collector. 18.32. For he will be delivered up to the Gentiles, will be mocked, treated shamefully, and spit on. 20.27. Some of the Sadducees came to him, those who deny that there is a resurrection. 20.28. They asked him, "Teacher, Moses wrote to us that if a man's brother dies having a wife, and he is childless, his brother should take the wife, and raise up children for his brother. 20.29. There were therefore seven brothers. The first took a wife, and died childless. 20.30. The second took her as wife, and he died childless. 20.31. The third took her, and likewise the seven all left no children, and died. 20.32. Afterward the woman also died. 20.33. Therefore in the resurrection whose wife of them will she be? For the seven had her as a wife. 20.34. Jesus said to them, "The sons of this age marry, and are given in marriage. 20.35. But those who are considered worthy to attain to that age and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage. 20.36. For they can't die any more, for they are like the angels, and are sons of God, being sons of the resurrection. 20.37. But that the dead are raised, even Moses showed at the bush, when he called the Lord 'The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.' 20.38. Now he is not the God of the dead, but of the living, for all are alive to him. 20.39. Some of the scribes answered, "Teacher, you speak well. 20.40. They didn't dare to ask him any more questions. 22.66. As soon as it was day, the assembly of the elders of the people was gathered together, both chief priests and scribes, and they led him away into their council, saying 23.34. Jesus said, "Father, forgive them, for they don't know what they are doing."Dividing his garments among them, they cast lots. 23.51. (he had not consented to their counsel and deed), from Arimathaea, a city of the Jews, who was also waiting for the Kingdom of God: 24.3. They entered in, and didn't find the Lord Jesus' body. 24.7. saying that the Son of Man must be delivered up into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again? 24.21. But we were hoping that it was he who would redeem Israel. Yes, and besides all this, it is now the third day since these things happened. 24.26. Didn't the Christ have to suffer these things and to enter into his glory? 24.41. While they still didn't believe for joy, and wondered, he said to them, "Do you have anything here to eat? 24.42. They gave him a piece of a broiled fish and some honeycomb. 24.43. He took it, and ate in front of them. 24.44. He said to them, "This is what I told you, while I was still with you, that all things which are written in the law of Moses, the prophets, and the psalms, concerning me must be fulfilled.
36. New Testament, Mark, 1.22, 2.16, 3.6, 3.22, 8.11, 9.5, 10.2, 12.13, 12.18-12.28, 14.55, 15.1, 16.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.22. They were astonished at his teaching, for he taught them as having authority, and not as the scribes. 2.16. The scribes and the Pharisees, when they saw that he was eating with the sinners and tax collectors, said to his disciples, "Why is it that he eats and drinks with tax collectors and sinners? 3.6. The Pharisees went out, and immediately conspired with the Herodians against him, how they might destroy him. 3.22. The scribes who came down from Jerusalem said, "He has Beelzebul," and, "By the prince of the demons he casts out the demons. 8.11. The Pharisees came out and began to question him, seeking from him a sign from heaven, and testing him. 9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah. 10.2. Pharisees came to him testing him, and asked him, "Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife? 12.13. They sent some of the Pharisees and of the Herodians to him, that they might trap him with words. 12.18. There came to him Sadducees, who say that there is no resurrection. They asked him, saying 12.19. Teacher, Moses wrote to us, 'If a man's brother dies, and leaves a wife behind him, and leaves no children, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up offspring for his brother.' 12.20. There were seven brothers. The first took a wife, and dying left no offspring. 12.21. The second took her, and died, leaving no children behind him. The third likewise; 12.22. and the seven took her and left no children. Last of all the woman also died. 12.23. In the resurrection, when they rise, whose wife will she be of them? For the seven had her as a wife. 12.24. Jesus answered them, "Isn't this because you are mistaken, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God? 12.25. For when they will rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven. 12.26. But about the dead, that they are raised; haven't you read in the book of Moses, about the Bush, how God spoke to him, saying, 'I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?' 12.27. He is not the God of the dead, but of the living. You are therefore badly mistaken. 12.28. One of the scribes came, and heard them questioning together. Knowing that he had answered them well, asked him, "Which commandment is the greatest of all? 14.55. Now the chief priests and the whole council sought witnesses against Jesus to put him to death, and found none. 15.1. Immediately in the morning the chief priests, with the elders and scribes, and the whole council, held a consultation, and bound Jesus, and carried him away, and delivered him up to Pilate. 16.1. When the Sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, bought spices, that they might come and anoint him.
37. New Testament, Matthew, 3.7, 5.22, 5.28, 5.32, 5.34, 5.39, 5.44, 7.29, 9.11, 9.34, 12.14, 12.24, 15.5, 16.1, 16.6, 16.12, 21.45, 22.23-22.34, 23.2-23.7, 23.13, 23.23, 23.25-23.29, 23.32-23.36, 26.59 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.7. But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming for his baptism, he said to them, "You offspring of vipers, who warned you to flee from the wrath to come? 5.22. But I tell you, that everyone who is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment; and whoever shall say to his brother, 'Raca!' shall be in danger of the council; and whoever shall say, 'You fool!' shall be in danger of the fire of Gehenna. 5.28. but I tell you that everyone who gazes at a woman to lust after her has committed adultery with her already in his heart. 5.32. but I tell you that whoever who puts away his wife, except for the cause of sexual immorality, makes her an adulteress; and whoever marries her when she is put away commits adultery. 5.34. but I tell you, don't swear at all: neither by heaven, for it is the throne of God; 5.39. But I tell you, don't resist him who is evil; but whoever strikes you on your right cheek, turn to him the other also. 5.44. But I tell you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who mistreat you and persecute you 7.29. for he taught them with authority, and not like the scribes. 9.11. When the Pharisees saw it, they said to his disciples, "Why does your teacher eat with tax collectors and sinners? 9.34. But the Pharisees said, "By the prince of the demons, he casts out demons. 12.14. But the Pharisees went out, and conspired against him, how they might destroy him. 12.24. But when the Pharisees heard it, they said, "This man does not cast out demons, except by Beelzebul, the prince of the demons. 15.5. But you say, 'Whoever may tell his father or his mother, "Whatever help you might otherwise have gotten from me is a gift devoted to God 16.1. The Pharisees and Sadducees came, and testing him, asked him to show them a sign from heaven. 16.6. Jesus said to them, "Take heed and beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees. 16.12. Then they understood that he didn't tell them to beware of the yeast of bread, but of the teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees. 21.45. When the chief priests and the Pharisees heard his parables, they perceived that he spoke about them. 22.23. On that day Sadducees (those who say that there is no resurrection) came to him. They asked him 22.24. saying, "Teacher, Moses said, 'If a man dies, having no children, his brother shall marry his wife, and raise up seed for his brother.' 22.25. Now there were with us seven brothers. The first married and died, and having no seed left his wife to his brother. 22.26. In like manner the second also, and the third, to the seventh. 22.27. After them all, the woman died. 22.28. In the resurrection therefore, whose wife will she be of the seven? For they all had her. 22.29. But Jesus answered them, "You are mistaken, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God. 22.30. For in the resurrection they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are like God's angels in heaven. 22.31. But concerning the resurrection of the dead, haven't you read that which was spoken to you by God, saying 22.32. 'I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?' God is not the God of the dead, but of the living. 22.33. When the multitudes heard it, they were astonished at his teaching. 22.34. But the Pharisees, when they heard that he had put the Sadducees to silence, gathered themselves together. 23.2. saying, "The scribes and the Pharisees sat on Moses' seat. 23.3. All things therefore whatever they tell you to observe, observe and do, but don't do their works; for they say, and don't do. 23.4. For they bind heavy burdens that are grievous to be borne, and lay them on men's shoulders; but they themselves will not lift a finger to help them. 23.5. But all their works they do to be seen by men. They make their phylacteries broad, enlarge the fringes of their garments 23.6. and love the place of honor at feasts, the best seats in the synagogues 23.7. the salutations in the marketplaces, and to be called 'Rabbi, Rabbi' by men. 23.13. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you devour widows' houses, and as a pretense you make long prayers. Therefore you will receive greater condemnation. 23.23. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you tithe mint, dill, and cumin, and have left undone the weightier matters of the law: justice, mercy, and faith. But you ought to have done these, and not to have left the other undone. 23.25. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and unrighteousness. 23.26. You blind Pharisee, first clean the inside of the cup and of the platter, that the outside of it may become clean also. 23.27. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like whitened tombs, which outwardly appear beautiful, but inwardly are full of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness. 23.28. Even so you also outwardly appear righteous to men, but inwardly you are full of hypocrisy and iniquity. 23.29. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you build the tombs of the prophets, and decorate the tombs of the righteous 23.32. Fill up, then, the measure of your fathers. 23.33. You serpents, you offspring of vipers, how will you escape the judgment of Gehenna? 23.34. Therefore, behold, I send to you prophets, wise men, and scribes. Some of them you will kill and crucify; and some of them you will scourge in your synagogues, and persecute from city to city; 23.35. that on you may come all the righteous blood shed on the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel to the blood of Zachariah son of Barachiah, whom you killed between the sanctuary and the altar. 23.36. Most assuredly I tell you, all these things will come upon this generation. 26.59. Now the chief priests, the elders, and the whole council sought false testimony against Jesus, that they might put him to death;
38. Tacitus, Annals, 15.44.2-15.44.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

39. Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

40. Tosefta, Parah, 3.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

41. Tosefta, Sukkah, 3.1, 3.16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.1. The lulav suspends the Sabbath in the beginning of its duty, and the willow in the end of its duty. There is a story that some Boethusians once hid the willows under some great stones on the Sabbath eve; but when this had become known to the common people they came and dragged them out from under the stones on the Sabbath, for the Boethusians do not acknowledge that the beating of the willow suspends the Sabbath."
42. Anon., Marytrdom of Polycarp, 3.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.2. 2 So after this all the crowd, wondering at the nobility of the God-loving and God-fearing people of the Christians, cried out: "Away with the Atheists; let Polycarp be searched for.
43. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 3.14.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

44. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

66a. שורך נרבע והלה שותק נאמן ותנא תונא ושנעבדה בו עבירה ושהמית על פי עד אחד או ע"פ הבעלים נאמן האי ע"פ עד אחד היכי דמי אי דקא מודו בעלים היינו ע"פ הבעלים אלא לאו דשתיק,וצריכא דאי אשמעינן הך קמייתא אי לאו דקים ליה בנפשיה דעבד חולין בעזרה לא הוה מייתי,אבל נטמאו טהרותיך מימר אמרינן האי דשתיק דסבר חזי ליה בימי טומאתו,ואי אשמעינן הא משום דקא מפסיד ליה בימי טהרתו אבל שורו נרבע מימר אמר כל השוורים לאו לגבי מזבח קיימי צריכא,איבעיא להו אשתו זינתה בעד אחד ושותק מהו אמר אביי נאמן רבא אמר אינו נאמן הוי דבר שבערוה ואין דבר שבערוה פחות משנים,אמר אביי מנא אמינא לה דההוא סמיא דהוה מסדר מתנייתא קמיה דמר שמואל יומא חד נגה ליה ולא הוה קאתי שדר שליחא אבתריה אדאזיל שליח בחדא אורחא אתא איהו בחדא כי אתא שליח אמר אשתו זינתה אתא לקמיה דמר שמואל א"ל אי מהימן לך זיל אפקה ואי לא לא תפיק,מאי לאו אי מהימן עלך דלאו גזלנא הוא ורבא אי מהימן לך כבי תרי זיל אפקה ואי לא לא תפקה,ואמר אביי מנא אמינא לה דתניא מעשה בינאי המלך שהלך לכוחלית שבמדבר וכיבש שם ששים כרכים ובחזרתו היה שמח שמחה גדולה וקרא לכל חכמי ישראל אמר להם אבותינו היו אוכלים מלוחים בזמן שהיו עסוקים בבנין בית המקדש אף אנו נאכל מלוחים זכר לאבותינו והעלו מלוחים על שולחנות של זהב ואכלו,והיה שם אחד איש לץ לב רע ובליעל ואלעזר בן פועירה שמו ויאמר אלעזר בן פועירה לינאי המלך ינאי המלך לבם של פרושים עליך ומה אעשה הקם להם בציץ שבין עיניך הקים להם בציץ שבין עיניו,היה שם זקן אחד ויהודה בן גדידיה שמו ויאמר יהודה בן גדידיה לינאי המלך ינאי המלך רב לך כתר מלכות הנח כתר כהונה לזרעו של אהרן שהיו אומרים אמו נשבית במודיעים ויבוקש הדבר ולא נמצא ויבדלו חכמי ישראל בזעם,ויאמר אלעזר בן פועירה לינאי המלך ינאי המלך הדיוט שבישראל כך הוא דינו ואתה מלך וכהן גדול כך הוא דינך ומה אעשה אם אתה שומע לעצתי רומסם ותורה מה תהא עליה הרי כרוכה ומונחת בקרן זוית כל הרוצה ללמוד יבוא וילמוד,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מיד נזרקה בו אפיקורסות דהוה ליה למימר תינח תורה שבכתב תורה שבעל פה מאי מיד ותוצץ הרעה על ידי אלעזר בן פועירה ויהרגו כל חכמי ישראל והיה העולם משתומם עד שבא שמעון בן שטח והחזיר את התורה ליושנה,היכי דמי אילימא דבי תרי אמרי אישתבאי ובי תרי אמרי לא אישתבאי מאי חזית דסמכת אהני סמוך אהני,אלא בעד אחד וטעמא דקא מכחשי ליה בי תרי הא לאו הכי מהימן,ורבא לעולם תרי ותרי וכדאמר רב אחא בר רב מניומי בעדי הזמה הכא נמי בעדי הזמה,ואיבעית אימא כדרבי יצחק דאמר רבי יצחק שפחה הכניסו תחתיה,אמר רבא 66a. bYour ox was usedby a man bfor an act of bestialityand is therefore unfit for an offering, band the other,the owner of the ox, bis silent,the witness is bdeemed credible. And the itanna /iof the mishna also btaught( iBekhorot41a): bAndwith regard to an animal bthat was used for a transgressionor bthat killed,if this is attested to bby one witness or by the owner,he is bdeemed credible.The Gemara clarifies this case: bWhat are the circumstancesof bthiscase of the mishna, where the knowledge is established bby one witness? If the owner admitsto the claim, bthis isthe same as: bBy the owner. Rather, is it notreferring to a case bwherethe owner remains bsilent? /b,The Gemara comments: bAndeach of these statements of Abaye is bnecessary. As, had he taught usonly bthat firstcase, where the witness said someone ate forbidden fat, one might have said that he is deemed credible for the following reason: bWere it notfor the fact bthat he himselfwas bconvinced that he had committeda transgression, bhe would notcommit the transgression of bbringing a non-sacredanimal btothe Temple bcourtyardon the basis of the testimony of one witness. Consequently, his silence is evidently an admission., bButif the witness said: bYour ritually purefoods bwere rendered ritually impure,and the accused was silent, bwe would say:The reason bthathe is bsilentand refrains from denying the claim is bthat he thinkshe is not suffering any significant loss, as the food bis fit for himto eat bon his days of ritual impurity,because he is not required to destroy ritually impure foods., bAnd hadAbaye btaught usonly the case of: Your ritually pure food was rendered ritually impure, one might have said that the reason bthiswitness is deemed credible is bthat he causes him a loss on his days of ritual impurity,and therefore his silence is tantamount to a confession. bButin the case of: bHis ox was usedby a man bfor an act of bestiality,the owner of the ox bcan saywith regard to his animal: bNot all the oxen standready to be sacrificed basan offering on the baltar.Perhaps one would think that the owner does not bother denying the claim because he merely forfeits the possibility of sacrificing his ox as an offering, which he considers an inconsequential matter. It is only if there were two witnesses to the act that the animal is put to death, whereas here there was only one witness. It is therefore bnecessaryfor Abaye to specify all these cases.,§ bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: If a husband is told bby one witnessthat bhis wife committed adultery, andthe husband remains bsilent, what isthe ihalakha /i? bAbaye said:The witness is bdeemed credible. Rava said: He is not deemed credible.Why not? Because bit is a matter involving forbidden relations, and there is no matterof testimony bfor forbidden sexual relationsthat can be attested to by bfewer than twowitnesses., bAbaye said: From where do I saythis claim of mine? It happened bthatthere was ba certain blind man who would review imishnayotbefore Mar Shmuel. One daythe blind man bwas late for him and was not arriving.Mar Shmuel bsent a messenger after himto assist him. bWhilethe bmessenger was goingto the blind man’s house bby one way,the blind man barrivedat the house of study bby a differentroute, and therefore the messenger missed him and reached his house. bWhenthe bmessenger cameback, bhe saidthat he had been to the blind man’s house and saw that bhis wife committed adultery.The blind man bcame before Mar Shmuelto inquire whether he must pay heed to this testimony. Mar Shmuel bsaid to him: Ifthis messenger bis trusted by you, goand bdivorce her, but if not, do not divorceher.,Abaye comments: bWhat, is it notcorrect to say that this means that bif he is trusted by you that he is not a thiefbut is a valid witness, you must rely on him? This would prove that a single witness can testify in a case of this kind. bAnd Ravaexplains that Mar Shmuel meant: bIfhe bis trusted by you like twowitnesses, bgoand bdivorce her, but if not, do not divorceher. Consequently, Rava maintains that this episode affords no proof., bAnd Abaye said: From where do I saythis claim of mine? bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAn incidentoccurred bwith King Yannai, who went tothe region of bKoḥalit in the desert and conquered sixty cities there. And upon his return he rejoicedwith ba great happinessover his victory. bAnd hesubsequently bsummoned all the Sages of the Jewish peopleand bsaid to them: Our ancestorsin their poverty bwould eat salty foods when they were busy with the building of the Temple; we too shall eat salty foods in memory of our ancestors. And they brought salty food on tables of gold, and ate. /b, bAnd there was oneperson bpresent, a scoffer,a man of ban evil heart and a scoundrel called Elazar ben Po’ira. And Elazar ben Po’ira said to King Yannai: King Yannai, the hearts of the Pharisees,the Sages, bare against you.In other words, they harbor secret resentment against you and do not like you. The king replied: bAnd what shall I doto clarify this matter? Elazar responded: bHave them stand bywearing bthe frontplate between your eyes.Since the frontplate bears the Divine Name, they should stand in its honor. Yannai, who was a member of the priestly Hasmonean family, also served as High Priest, who wears the frontplate. bHe hadthe Pharisees bstand bywearing bthe frontplate between his eyes. /b,Now bthere was a certain elder present called Yehuda ben Gedidya, and Yehuda ben Gedidya said to King Yannai: King Yannai, the crown of the monarchy suffices for you,i.e., you should be satisfied that you are king. bLeave the crown of the priesthood for the descendants of Aaron.The Gemara explains this last comment: bAs they would saythat Yannai’s bmother was taken captive in Modi’in,and she was therefore disqualified from marrying into the priesthood, which meant that Yannai was a iḥalal /i. bAnd the matter was investigated and was not discovered,i.e., they sought witnesses for that event but none were found. bAnd the Sages of Israel were expelled inthe king’s brage,due to this rumor., bAnd Elazar ben Po’ira said to King Yannai: King Yannai, such is the judgment of a common person in Israel.In other words, merely expelling a slanderer is appropriate if the subject of the slander is a commoner. bBut you are a king and a High Priest.Is bthis your judgmentas well? Yannai replied: bAnd what should I do?Elazar responded: bIf you listen to my advice, crush them.Yannai countered: bBut what will become of the Torah?He retorted: bBehold,it bis wrapped and placed in the corner. Anyone who wishes to study can come and study.We have no need for the Sages.,The Gemara interjects: bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: Immediately, heresy was injected intoYannai, bas he should have saidto Elazar ben Po’ira: This bworks out wellwith regard to bthe Written Torah,as it can be studied by all on their own, but bwhatwill become of bthe Oral Torah?The Oral Torah is transmitted only by the Sages. The ibaraitacontinues: bImmediately, the evilarose and bcaught fire through Elazar ben Po’ira, and all the Sages of the Jewish people were killed. And the world was desolateof Torah buntil Shimon ben Shataḥ came and restored the Torah to its formerglory. This completes the ibaraita /i.,Abaye asks: bWhat are the circumstancesof this case? How did those who conducted the investigation refute the rumor that Yannai’s mother had been taken captive? bIf we say that twowitnesses bsaidthat bshe was taken captive, and twoothers bsaidthat bshe was not taken captive, what did you see that you rely on thesewho said that she was not taken captive? Instead, brely on thesewho said that she was taken captive. In such a scenario, one cannot say definitively that the matter was investigated and found to be false., bRather,it must be referring bto one witnesswho testified she was taken captive, and two testified that she was not taken captive. bAnd the reasonthat the lone witness is not deemed credible is only bthat he is contradicted by theother btwo,from which it may be inferred that bif not for thatfact, bhe would be deemed credible.This supports Abaye’s claim that an uncontested lone witness is deemed credible in a case of this kind., bAnd Ravacould reply that this incident affords no proof, for the following reason: bActually,one can say that there were btwowitnesses who testified that she was captured band twowho testified that she was not, bandthe case was decided bin accordance with thatwhich bRav Aḥa bar Rav Minyumi saysin a different context, that it is referring bto conspiring witnesses.The second pair of witnesses did not contradict the testimony of the first pair but established them as liars by stating that the first pair were not there to witness the event. This serves to disqualify the testimony of the first pair altogether. bHere too,it is referring btowitnesses who rendered the first set bconspiring witnesses. /b, bAnd if you wish, saythat this is bin accordance withthe version of the story stated bby Rabbi Yitzḥak, as Rabbi Yitzḥak says: They replacedYannai’s mother bwith a maidservant.The first witnesses saw that Yannai’s mother was about to be taken captive, but the second pair revealed that she had actually been replaced with a maidservant, thereby negating the testimony of the first set., bRava says: /b
45. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 2.25.5-2.25.8, 4.26 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

2.25.5. Thus publicly announcing himself as the first among God's chief enemies, he was led on to the slaughter of the apostles. It is, therefore, recorded that Paul was beheaded in Rome itself, and that Peter likewise was crucified under Nero. This account of Peter and Paul is substantiated by the fact that their names are preserved in the cemeteries of that place even to the present day. 2.25.6. It is confirmed likewise by Caius, a member of the Church, who arose under Zephyrinus, bishop of Rome. He, in a published disputation with Proclus, the leader of the Phrygian heresy, speaks as follows concerning the places where the sacred corpses of the aforesaid apostles are laid: 2.25.7. But I can show the trophies of the apostles. For if you will go to the Vatican or to the Ostian way, you will find the trophies of those who laid the foundations of this church. 2.25.8. And that they both suffered martyrdom at the same time is stated by Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, in his epistle to the Romans, in the following words: You have thus by such an admonition bound together the planting of Peter and of Paul at Rome and Corinth. For both of them planted and likewise taught us in our Corinth. And they taught together in like manner in Italy, and suffered martyrdom at the same time. I have quoted these things in order that the truth of the history might be still more confirmed.
46. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Homilies, 17 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

47. Papyri, P.Yadin, 28



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acts of the apostles Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 205
aelius aristeides, sophist Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 528
agabus Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 111
agrippa ii Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 94; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 111; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 549, 552, 584
amasa, joabs slaying of Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 328
analysis for rhetorical criminalization (arc) Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 30
ananias Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552
angels Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 21
antioch (syrian) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552
antioch of pisidia Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
antiocheia in pisidia, pauls sojourn Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 528
apocalypticism, apocalypse Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 205
apollo Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15
apostle Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 549, 552
appearances Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 21
augustine of hippo Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 205
augustus, emperor Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 528
authority Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112; Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 30
barnabas, apostle Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 528
bernice (berenice) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552, 584
birth Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
blackness Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 30
blood Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
boulē Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 94
bread Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
brigands Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 94
caesaraea philippi Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 549, 552
caesarea Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
callirhoe Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15
capital punishment Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 94
cassius dio Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15
chariton Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15
christian myth, nascent christian, community, outlook of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 39
christianity/christians, beginnings Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 528
christianity/christians, in asia minor Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 528
cicero Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15
clarke, w.k.l., septuagint use in acts Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 328
claudius lysias Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 111
cornelius Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 549
court, in jerusalem Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15, 134
court, persian Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15
court Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15, 134
courts, non-roman Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 94
covenant Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
creator Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
criminal Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 134
criminalization Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15, 30
critical race theory (crt) Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 30
cross Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
crucifixion Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 134
cyprus/cyprians Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 528
damascus Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
david, the king, as prophet Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 39
death of paul Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 111
death penalty Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 111
dionysus Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15
domitian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552
egyptian Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15
elite Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15
encounter Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
eschatology, eschatological Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
essenes, as a marginalized group Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 109
essenes, missing references in the gospels and Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 109
euripides Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15
faith, faithfulness Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 39
faith Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
fate Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 111
father, fatherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 241
felix Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 111; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552
feminism Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 30
festus Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 111; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552, 584
galilean Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552
gamaliel (gamliel) the elder, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 549, 584
general Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 304
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 549
god, of heaven Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 305
halakha, in the new testament Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 549
hermeneutic of suspicion Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 30
herod, agrippa ii Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 304
herod antipas Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 549
hierarchization Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15
high (chief) priest Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 549, 552
history, revisionist Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 30
hope Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 39
human Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15
ideology Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15
imperial sociology Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 169
indigenous peoples Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 30
israel, the people of, redemption/restoration of, the kingdom of, israelite Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 39
jerusalem Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 528; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 111, 112; Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 110; Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 30
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 39
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 549
jesus christ Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 528
jesus of nazareth Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 45; Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 110
jewish Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 30
jews Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 111, 112
john, gospel of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 110
john, st. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 110
john the baptist Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 110
josephus, and judaisms three schools of law Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 110
josephus Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 109; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552, 584
josephus essenes, as paradigm of jewishness Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 109
josephus essenes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 109
judaea, region of, and synagogues Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 110
judas, death of Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 328
judges Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 94
jurisdiction Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 94
just Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
justice Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15
juvenal Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15
karo, joseph Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 205
law/law Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 111, 112
law Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
letters Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 94
levites Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 110
linus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552
liturgy Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
luke, gospel of, pharisees in Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 110
luke-acts, septuagintal style Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 328
luke Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 111; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 549, 552
lukes hermeneutic, septuagintalisms Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 328
maase merkava Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 205
marcus aurelius, emperor Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 528
mareotis, lake, mark, gospel of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 109, 110
mareotis, lake, pharisees in Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 109, 110
mary Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
mason, s. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 110
matthew, gospel of, portrayal of pharisees in Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 109, 110
merkava xiii–xvi, xix Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 205
message of salvation Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
messiah Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 241
messianism Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 205
mind Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 21
moses Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 584
motifs (thematic), martyrs as heroes Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 305
mystery Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 205
mysticism Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 205
myth Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15
nazarenes, early christians in jerusalem Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 528
nazarenes Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
neolithic/chalcolithic age (ca. Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 528
nero Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552, 584
new testament, missing essenes in Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 109
new testament, pharisees and legal authority in Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 110
nicodemus Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 110
novels, greek Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15
obstinacy Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
of jesus Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 304
paradise, pardes, entered pardes Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 205
paul Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 205
paul (apostle) Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 528
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 549, 552, 584
paul (the apostle) Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 111, 112
paul of tarsus Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 45
paul pharisee Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 549, 584
peter, simon Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 39
peter Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 21; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19; Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 134
peter (cephas, simon –) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 584
peter (simon peter) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 110
pharisaic-rabbinic connection, gamaliel of yavneh as evidence of Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 54
pharisaic-rabbinic connection, john hyrcanus story as evidence of Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 54
pharisaic-rabbinic connection, new testament evidence supporting Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 54
pharisaic-rabbinic connection Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 54
pharisees, in christian literature Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 45
pharisees, in the new testament gospels Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 109, 110
pharisees, torah-sages, pharisaic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 39
pharisees Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 241; Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 45; Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 109, 110; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 88; Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 134
philippi Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15
philos essenes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 109
pickup, m. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 109
pliny Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15
plutarch Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15
police Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15
politics, of respectability Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15
politics Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 134
power Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
prophecy Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 111
prophet Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
prophets Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
psalter, lukes use Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 328
punishment Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 134
qumran documents Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 584
rabbinic literature Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 94; Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 30
rabbinic literature xiii, xvi Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 205
rabbis Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
racializing assemblages Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15
redemption, salvation Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 39
resurrection Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112; Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 21; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552; Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 134
resurrection of the body Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 21
revelation, the apocalypse of jesus christ Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 205
rhetoric, rhetorical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552
rhetoric Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15
roman, citizen Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552
rome Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
sabbath Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 549
sabbatianism Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 205
sadducean Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 549
sadducees Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
sadducees (tsedukim/tseduqim), in the new testament gospels Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 109, 110
salvation Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
sanhedrin, great Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 94
sanhedrin Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
school Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
scriptures Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112; Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 21
secrecy Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 205
sects/sectarianism, transition to legal dispute, emergence of individual authority Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 64
septuagint' Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 241
septuagint, lukes use, clarke, w.k.l. Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 328
septuagint, lukes use Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 328
septuagintalisms, lukes use of Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 328
simeon Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 549
sins Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
slavery Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15
sons of god, sons of heaven Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 39
suffering Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 304
sunedrion Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15, 30
synoptic gospels, tradition, pre-synoptic v-vi Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 39
tacitus Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15
tarsos Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 528
temple, the Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 110
tertullian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 552
tertullus Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
theology, greek Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15
third day Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
torah, and the pharisees Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 110
torah, revelation of Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 45
torah Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 110
tradition, of the fathers/ancestors Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 45
tradition, oral Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 45
tradition, pharisaic Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 45
twelve Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
valentinians Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
von wahlde, u. c. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 110
witness Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 134
womanism Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 15, 30
women Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19