|1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 3.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
| 3.6. וַיֹּאמֶר אָנֹכִי אֱלֹהֵי אָבִיךָ אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אֱלֹהֵי יִצְחָק וֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב וַיַּסְתֵּר מֹשֶׁה פָּנָיו כִּי יָרֵא מֵהַבִּיט אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים׃
| 3.6. Moreover He said: ‘I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.’ And Moses hid his face; for he was afraid to look upon God."
|2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 12.7, 17.1, 18.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
| 12.7. וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר לְזַרְעֲךָ אֶתֵּן אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת וַיִּבֶן שָׁם מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה הַנִּרְאֶה אֵלָיו׃ 17.1. זֹאת בְּרִיתִי אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁמְרוּ בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ הִמּוֹל לָכֶם כָּל־זָכָר׃ 17.1. וַיְהִי אַבְרָם בֶּן־תִּשְׁעִים שָׁנָה וְתֵשַׁע שָׁנִים וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אֲנִי־אֵל שַׁדַּי הִתְהַלֵּךְ לְפָנַי וֶהְיֵה תָמִים׃ 18.1. וַיֹּאמֶר שׁוֹב אָשׁוּב אֵלֶיךָ כָּעֵת חַיָּה וְהִנֵּה־בֵן לְשָׂרָה אִשְׁתֶּךָ וְשָׂרָה שֹׁמַעַת פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וְהוּא אַחֲרָיו׃ 18.1. וַיֵּרָא אֵלָיו יְהוָה בְּאֵלֹנֵי מַמְרֵא וְהוּא יֹשֵׁב פֶּתַח־הָאֹהֶל כְּחֹם הַיּוֹם׃
| 12.7. And the LORD appeared unto Abram, and said: ‘Unto thy seed will I give this land’; and he builded there an altar unto the LORD, who appeared unto him." 17.1. And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the LORD appeared to Abram, and said unto him: ‘I am God Almighty; walk before Me, and be thou wholehearted." 18.1. And the LORD appeared unto him by the terebinths of Mamre, as he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day;"
|3. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 2.28-2.32 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
|4. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 2.1-2.2, 2.7, 109.1, 117.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
| 2.1. וְעַתָּה מְלָכִים הַשְׂכִּילוּ הִוָּסְרוּ שֹׁפְטֵי אָרֶץ׃ 2.1. לָמָּה רָגְשׁוּ גוֹיִם וּלְאֻמִּים יֶהְגּוּ־רִיק׃ 2.2. יִתְיַצְּבוּ מַלְכֵי־אֶרֶץ וְרוֹזְנִים נוֹסְדוּ־יָחַד עַל־יְהוָה וְעַל־מְשִׁיחוֹ׃ 2.7. אֲסַפְּרָה אֶל חֹק יְהוָה אָמַר אֵלַי בְּנִי אַתָּה אֲנִי הַיּוֹם יְלִדְתִּיךָ׃ 109.1. לַמְנַצֵּחַ לְדָוִד מִזְמוֹר אֱלֹהֵי תְהִלָּתִי אַל־תֶּחֱרַשׁ׃ 109.1. וְנוֹעַ יָנוּעוּ בָנָיו וְשִׁאֵלוּ וְדָרְשׁוּ מֵחָרְבוֹתֵיהֶם׃
| 2.1. Why are the nations in an uproar? And why do the peoples mutter in vain?" 2.2. The kings of the earth stand up, And the rulers take counsel together, Against the LORD, and against His anointed:" 2.7. I will tell of the decree: The LORD said unto me: 'Thou art My son, this day have I begotten thee." 109.1. For the Leader. A Psalm of David. O God of my praise, keep not silence;"
|5. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 17.18 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
| 17.18. וַתֹּאמֶר אֶל־אֵלִיָּהוּ מַה־לִּי וָלָךְ אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים בָּאתָ אֵלַי לְהַזְכִּיר אֶת־עֲוֺנִי וּלְהָמִית אֶת־בְּנִי׃
| 17.18. And she said unto Elijah: ‘What have I to do with thee, O thou man of God? art thou come unto me to bring my sin to remembrance, and to slay my son?’"
|6. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 1.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
| 1.8. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו אִישׁ בַּעַל שֵׂעָר וְאֵזוֹר עוֹר אָזוּר בְּמָתְנָיו וַיֹּאמַר אֵלִיָּה הַתִּשְׁבִּי הוּא׃
| 1.8. And they answered him: ‘He was a hairy man, and girt with a girdle of leather about his loins.’ And he said: ‘It is Elijah the Tishbite.’"
|7. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 13.7, 16.17 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
| 13.7. וַיֹּאמֶר לִי הִנָּךְ הָרָה וְיֹלַדְתְּ בֵּן וְעַתָּה אַל־תִּשְׁתִּי יַיִן וְשֵׁכָר וְאַל־תֹּאכְלִי כָּל־טֻמְאָה כִּי־נְזִיר אֱלֹהִים יִהְיֶה הַנַּעַר מִן־הַבֶּטֶן עַד־יוֹם מוֹתוֹ׃ 16.17. וַיַּגֶּד־לָהּ אֶת־כָּל־לִבּוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ מוֹרָה לֹא־עָלָה עַל־רֹאשִׁי כִּי־נְזִיר אֱלֹהִים אֲנִי מִבֶּטֶן אִמִּי אִם־גֻּלַּחְתִּי וְסָר מִמֶּנִּי כֹחִי וְחָלִיתִי וְהָיִיתִי כְּכָל־הָאָדָם׃
| 13.7. but he said to me, Behold, thou shalt conceive, and bear a son; and now drink no wine nor strong drink, neither eat any unclean thing: for the child shall be a Nazir to God from the womb to the day of his death." 16.17. that he told her all his heart, and said to her, There has not come a razor upon my head; for I have been a Nazir to God from my mother’s womb: if I am shaved, then my strength will go from me, and I shall become weak, and be like any other man."
|8. Hesiod, Theogony, 579-584, 578 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
| 578. And strength had gone beyond the boundary
|9. Homer, Iliad, 14.166-14.186 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
| 14.166. /upon his eyelids and his cunning mind. So she went her way to her chamber, that her dear son Hephaestus had fashioned for her, and had fitted strong doors to the door-posts with a secret bolt, that no other god might open. Therein she entered, and closed the bright doors. 14.167. /upon his eyelids and his cunning mind. So she went her way to her chamber, that her dear son Hephaestus had fashioned for her, and had fitted strong doors to the door-posts with a secret bolt, that no other god might open. Therein she entered, and closed the bright doors. 14.168. /upon his eyelids and his cunning mind. So she went her way to her chamber, that her dear son Hephaestus had fashioned for her, and had fitted strong doors to the door-posts with a secret bolt, that no other god might open. Therein she entered, and closed the bright doors. 14.169. /upon his eyelids and his cunning mind. So she went her way to her chamber, that her dear son Hephaestus had fashioned for her, and had fitted strong doors to the door-posts with a secret bolt, that no other god might open. Therein she entered, and closed the bright doors. 14.170. /With ambrosia first did she cleanse from her lovely body every stain, and anointed her richly with oil, ambrosial, soft, and of rich fragrance; were this but shaken in the palace of Zeus with threshold of bronze, even so would the savour thereof reach unto earth and heaven. 14.171. /With ambrosia first did she cleanse from her lovely body every stain, and anointed her richly with oil, ambrosial, soft, and of rich fragrance; were this but shaken in the palace of Zeus with threshold of bronze, even so would the savour thereof reach unto earth and heaven. 14.172. /With ambrosia first did she cleanse from her lovely body every stain, and anointed her richly with oil, ambrosial, soft, and of rich fragrance; were this but shaken in the palace of Zeus with threshold of bronze, even so would the savour thereof reach unto earth and heaven. 14.173. /With ambrosia first did she cleanse from her lovely body every stain, and anointed her richly with oil, ambrosial, soft, and of rich fragrance; were this but shaken in the palace of Zeus with threshold of bronze, even so would the savour thereof reach unto earth and heaven. 14.174. /With ambrosia first did she cleanse from her lovely body every stain, and anointed her richly with oil, ambrosial, soft, and of rich fragrance; were this but shaken in the palace of Zeus with threshold of bronze, even so would the savour thereof reach unto earth and heaven. 14.175. /Therewith she annointed her lovely body, and she combed her hair, and with her hands pIaited the bright tresses, fair and ambrosial, that streamed from her immortal head. Then she clothed her about in a robe ambrosial, which Athene had wrought for her with cunning skill, and had set thereon broideries full many; 14.176. /Therewith she annointed her lovely body, and she combed her hair, and with her hands pIaited the bright tresses, fair and ambrosial, that streamed from her immortal head. Then she clothed her about in a robe ambrosial, which Athene had wrought for her with cunning skill, and had set thereon broideries full many; 14.177. /Therewith she annointed her lovely body, and she combed her hair, and with her hands pIaited the bright tresses, fair and ambrosial, that streamed from her immortal head. Then she clothed her about in a robe ambrosial, which Athene had wrought for her with cunning skill, and had set thereon broideries full many; 14.178. /Therewith she annointed her lovely body, and she combed her hair, and with her hands pIaited the bright tresses, fair and ambrosial, that streamed from her immortal head. Then she clothed her about in a robe ambrosial, which Athene had wrought for her with cunning skill, and had set thereon broideries full many; 14.179. /Therewith she annointed her lovely body, and she combed her hair, and with her hands pIaited the bright tresses, fair and ambrosial, that streamed from her immortal head. Then she clothed her about in a robe ambrosial, which Athene had wrought for her with cunning skill, and had set thereon broideries full many; 14.180. /and she pinned it upon her breast with brooches of gold, and she girt about her a girdle set with an hundred tassels, and in her pierced ears she put ear-rings with three clustering drops; and abundant grace shone therefrom. And with a veil over all did the bright goddess 14.181. /and she pinned it upon her breast with brooches of gold, and she girt about her a girdle set with an hundred tassels, and in her pierced ears she put ear-rings with three clustering drops; and abundant grace shone therefrom. And with a veil over all did the bright goddess 14.182. /and she pinned it upon her breast with brooches of gold, and she girt about her a girdle set with an hundred tassels, and in her pierced ears she put ear-rings with three clustering drops; and abundant grace shone therefrom. And with a veil over all did the bright goddess 14.183. /and she pinned it upon her breast with brooches of gold, and she girt about her a girdle set with an hundred tassels, and in her pierced ears she put ear-rings with three clustering drops; and abundant grace shone therefrom. And with a veil over all did the bright goddess 14.184. /and she pinned it upon her breast with brooches of gold, and she girt about her a girdle set with an hundred tassels, and in her pierced ears she put ear-rings with three clustering drops; and abundant grace shone therefrom. And with a veil over all did the bright goddess 14.185. /veil herself, a fair veil, all glistering, and white was it as the sun; and beneath her shining feet she bound her fair sandals. But when she had decked her body with all adornment, she went forth from her chamber, and calling to her Aphrodite, apart from the other gods, she spake to her, saying: 14.186. /veil herself, a fair veil, all glistering, and white was it as the sun; and beneath her shining feet she bound her fair sandals. But when she had decked her body with all adornment, she went forth from her chamber, and calling to her Aphrodite, apart from the other gods, she spake to her, saying:
|10. Homer, Odyssey, 8.362-8.366 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
|11. Homeric Hymns, To Aphrodite, 61 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
| 61. The Graces bathed her with the oil that’s seen
|12. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 2-3, 1 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
|13. Plato, Critias, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
| 109c. rear their flocks, to be their cattle and nurslings; only it was not our bodies that they constrained by bodily force, like shepherds guiding their flocks with stroke of staff, but they directed from the stern where the living creature is easiest to turn about, laying hold on the soul by persuasion, as by a rudder, according to their own disposition; and thus they drove and steered all the mortal kind. Now in other regions others of the gods had their allotments and ordered the affairs, but inasmuch as Hephaestus and Athena were of a like nature, being born of the same father, and agreeing, moreover, in their love of wisdom and of craftsmanship, they both took for their joint portion this land of ours as being naturally congenial and adapted for virtue
|14. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
| 920d. Touching agreements, whenever a man undertakes and fails to fulfil his agreement—unless it be such as is forbidden by the laws or by a decree, or one made under forcible and unjust compulsion, or when the man is involuntarily prevented from fulfilling it owing to some unforeseen accident,—in all other cases of unfulfilled agreements, actions may be brought before the tribal courts, if the parties are unable to come to a previous settlement before arbitrators or neighbors. Sacred to Hephaestus and Athena is the class of craftsmen who have furnished our life with the arts
|15. Plato, Protagoras, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
| 321d. together with fire—since by no means without fire could it be acquired or helpfully used by any—and he handed it there and then as a gift to man. Now although man acquired in this way the wisdom of daily life, civic wisdom he had not, since this was in the possession of Zeus; Prometheus could not make so free as to enter the citadel which is the dwelling-place of Zeus, and moreover the guards of Zeus were terrible: but he entered unobserved the building shared by Athena and Hephaestu
|16. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 14.805-14.828 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
|17. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 18.116-18.119 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
| 18.116. 2. Now some of the Jews thought that the destruction of Herod’s army came from God, and that very justly, as a punishment of what he did against John, that was called the Baptist: 18.117. for Herod slew him, who was a good man, and commanded the Jews to exercise virtue, both as to righteousness towards one another, and piety towards God, and so to come to baptism; for that the washing [with water] would be acceptable to him, if they made use of it, not in order to the putting away [or the remission] of some sins [only], but for the purification of the body; supposing still that the soul was thoroughly purified beforehand by righteousness. 18.118. Now when [many] others came in crowds about him, for they were very greatly moved [or pleased] by hearing his words, Herod, who feared lest the great influence John had over the people might put it into his power and inclination to raise a rebellion, (for they seemed ready to do any thing he should advise,) thought it best, by putting him to death, to prevent any mischief he might cause, and not bring himself into difficulties, by sparing a man who might make him repent of it when it would be too late. 18.119. Accordingly he was sent a prisoner, out of Herod’s suspicious temper, to Macherus, the castle I before mentioned, and was there put to death. Now the Jews had an opinion that the destruction of this army was sent as a punishment upon Herod, and a mark of God’s displeasure to him.
|18. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 9.1, 15.3-15.11, 15.21-15.22, 15.35, 15.51-15.52 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
| 9.1. Am I not free? Am I not an apostle? Haven't I seen JesusChrist, our Lord? Aren't you my work in the Lord? 15.3. For I delivered to youfirst of all that which I also received: that Christ died for our sinsaccording to the Scriptures 15.4. that he was buried, that he wasraised on the third day according to the Scriptures 15.5. and that heappeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. 15.6. Then he appeared to overfive hundred brothers at once, most of whom remain until now, but somehave also fallen asleep. 15.7. Then he appeared to James, then to allthe apostles 15.8. and last of all, as to the child born at the wrongtime, he appeared to me also. 15.9. For I am the least of theapostles, who is not worthy to be called an apostle, because Ipersecuted the assembly of God. 15.10. But by the grace of God I amwhat I am. His grace which was bestowed on me was not futile, but Iworked more than all of them; yet not I, but the grace of God which waswith me. 15.11. Whether then it is I or they, so we preach, and so youbelieved. 15.21. For since death came byman, the resurrection of the dead also came by man. 15.22. For as inAdam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive. 15.35. But someone will say, "Howare the dead raised?" and, "With what kind of body do they come? 15.51. Behold, I tell you a mystery. We will not all sleep, but wewill all be changed 15.52. in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye,at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will beraised incorruptible, and we will be changed.
|19. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 11.28, 12.1-12.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
|20. New Testament, Acts, 1, 2, 2.22, 2.33, 2.34, 2.35, 2.36, 2.37, 2.38, 2.39, 2.40, 2.41, 3.6, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.19, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 3.25, 3.26, 4.10, 4.11, 4.24, 4.25, 4.26, 4.27, 4.28, 6.14, 6.15, 7.37, 7.52, 8.1, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 8.14, 8.15, 8.16, 8.17, 8.18, 8.19, 8.20, 8.21, 8.22, 8.23, 8.24, 8.25, 8.26, 8.27, 8.28, 8.29, 8.30, 8.31, 8.32, 8.33, 8.34, 8.35, 8.36, 8.37, 8.38, 8.39, 8.40, 9, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24, 9.25, 9.26, 9.27, 9.28, 9.29, 9.30, 10, 10.1-11.18, 10.34, 10.35, 10.36, 10.37, 10.38, 10.39, 10.40, 10.41, 10.42, 10.43, 10.44, 10.45, 10.46, 10.47, 10.48, 11.26, 12.19, 13.1, 13.2, 13.4, 13.16, 13.17, 13.18, 13.19, 13.20, 13.21, 13.22, 13.23, 13.24, 13.25, 13.26, 13.27, 13.28, 13.29, 13.30, 13.31, 13.32, 13.33, 13.34, 13.35, 13.36, 13.37, 13.38, 13.39, 13.40, 13.41, 13.42, 13.43, 13.44, 13.45, 13.46, 13.47, 13.48, 14.4, 14.14, 16.6, 16.10, 16.12, 16.13, 16.14, 16.15, 16.16, 16.17, 16.18, 16.19, 16.20, 16.21, 16.22, 16.23, 16.24, 16.25, 16.26, 16.27, 16.28, 16.29, 16.30, 16.31, 16.32, 16.33, 16.34, 16.35, 16.36, 16.37, 17.2, 17.3, 17.4, 17.10, 17.11, 17.31, 17.32, 18.8, 18.24, 18.24-19.7, 18.25, 18.26, 20.17, 20.18, 20.19, 20.20, 20.21, 20.22, 20.23, 20.24, 20.25, 20.26, 20.27, 20.28, 20.29, 20.30, 20.31, 20.32, 20.33, 20.34, 20.35, 20.36, 20.37, 20.38, 22, 22.1, 22.2, 22.3, 22.4, 22.5, 22.6, 22.7, 22.9, 22.10, 22.11, 22.12, 22.13, 22.14, 22.15, 22.16, 22.17, 22.18, 22.19, 22.20, 22.21, 22.22, 24.5, 24.10, 24.11, 24.12, 24.13, 24.14, 24.15, 24.16, 24.17, 24.18, 24.19, 24.20, 24.21, 26.2, 26.3, 26.4, 26.5, 26.6, 26.7, 26.8, 26.9, 26.10, 26.11, 26.12, 26.13, 26.14, 26.15, 26.16, 26.17, 26.18, 26.19, 26.20, 26.21, 26.22, 26.23, 26.24, 26.25, 26.26, 26.27, 26.28, 26.29 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
|21. New Testament, Galatians, 1.11-1.12, 1.15-1.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
| 1.11. But Imake known to you, brothers, concerning the gospel which was preachedby me, that it is not according to man. 1.12. For neither did Ireceive it from man, nor was I taught it, but it came to me throughrevelation of Jesus Christ. 1.15. Butwhen it was the good pleasure of God, who separated me from my mother'swomb, and called me through his grace 1.16. to reveal his Son in me,that I might preach him among the Gentiles, I didn't immediately conferwith flesh and blood 1.17. nor did I go up to Jerusalem to those whowere apostles before me, but I went away into Arabia. Then I returnedto Damascus.
|22. New Testament, Philippians, 3.8, 3.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
| 3.8. Yes most assuredly, and I count all things to be loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus, my Lord, for whom I suffered the loss of all things, and count them nothing but refuse, that I may gain Christ 3.12. Not that I have already obtained, or am already made perfect; but I press on, if it is so that I may take hold of that for which also I was taken hold of by Christ Jesus.
|23. New Testament, Romans, 8.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
| 8.17. and if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if indeed we suffer with him, that we may also be glorified with him.
|24. New Testament, John, 6.69, 20.11-20.18, 20.26-20.29, 21.9-21.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
| 6.69. We have come to believe and know that you are the Christ, the Son of the living God. 20.11. But Mary was standing outside at the tomb weeping. So, as she wept, she stooped and looked into the tomb 20.12. and she saw two angels in white sitting, one at the head, and one at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain. 20.13. They told her, "Woman, why are you weeping?"She said to them, "Because they have taken away my Lord, and I don't know where they have laid him. 20.14. When she had said this, she turned around and saw Jesus standing, and didn't know that it was Jesus. 20.15. Jesus said to her, "Woman, why are you weeping? Who are you looking for?"She, supposing him to be the gardener, said to him, "Sir, if you have carried him away, tell me where you have laid him, and I will take him away. 20.16. Jesus said to her, "Mary."She turned and said to him, "Rhabbouni!" which is to say, "Teacher! 20.17. Jesus said to her, "Don't touch me, for I haven't yet ascended to my Father; but go to my brothers, and tell them, 'I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.' 20.18. Mary Magdalene came and told the disciples that she had seen the Lord, and that he had said these things to her. 20.26. After eight days again his disciples were inside, and Thomas was with them. Jesus came, the doors being locked, and stood in the midst, and said, "Peace be to you. 20.27. Then he said to Thomas, "Reach here your finger, and see my hands. Reach here your hand, and put it into my side. Don't be unbelieving, but believing. 20.28. Thomas answered him, "My Lord and my God! 20.29. Jesus said to him, "Because you have seen me, you have believed. Blessed are those who have not seen, and have believed. 21.9. So when they got out on the land, they saw a fire of coals there, and fish laid on it, and bread. 21.10. Jesus said to them, "Bring some of the fish which you have just caught. 21.11. Simon Peter went up, and drew the net to land, full of great fish, one hundred fifty-three; and even though there were so many, the net wasn't torn. 21.12. Jesus said to them, "Come and eat breakfast."None of the disciples dared inquire of him, "Who are you?" knowing that it was the Lord. 21.13. Then Jesus came and took the bread, gave it to them, and the fish likewise. 21.14. This is now the third time that Jesus was revealed to his disciples, after he had risen from the dead.
|25. New Testament, Luke, 1.35, 3.22, 4.35, 5.10, 11.49, 15.17, 17.23, 18.37, 19.1-19.8, 20.17, 20.37-20.38, 20.41-20.44, 21.12, 24.13-24.35, 24.46-24.49 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
| 1.35. The angel answered her, "The Holy Spirit will come on you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. Therefore also the holy one who is born from you will be called the Son of God. 3.22. and the Holy Spirit descended in a bodily form as a dove on him; and a voice came out of the sky, saying "You are my beloved Son. In you I am well pleased. 4.35. Jesus rebuked him, saying, "Be silent, and come out of him!" When the demon had thrown him down in their midst, he came out of him, having done him no harm. 5.10. and so also were James and John, sons of Zebedee, who were partners with Simon. Jesus said to Simon, "Don't be afraid. From now on you will be catching people alive. 11.49. Therefore also the wisdom of God said, 'I will send to them prophets and apostles; and some of them they will kill and persecute 15.17. But when he came to himself he said, 'How many hired servants of my father's have bread enough to spare, and I'm dying with hunger! 17.23. They will tell you, 'Look, here!' or 'Look, there!' Don't go away, nor follow after them 18.37. They told him that Jesus of Nazareth was passing by. 19.1. He entered and was passing through Jericho. 19.2. There was a man named Zacchaeus. He was a chief tax collector, and he was rich. 19.3. He was trying to see who Jesus was, and couldn't because of the crowd, because he was short. 19.4. He ran on ahead, and climbed up into a sycamore tree to see him, for he was to pass that way. 19.5. When Jesus came to the place, he looked up and saw him, and said to him, "Zacchaeus, hurry and come down, for today I must stay at your house. 19.6. He hurried, came down, and received him joyfully. 19.7. When they saw it, they all murmured, saying, "He has gone in to lodge with a man who is a sinner. 19.8. Zacchaeus stood and said to the Lord, "Behold, Lord, half of my goods I give to the poor. If I have wrongfully exacted anything of anyone, I restore four times as much. 20.17. But he looked at them, and said, "Then what is this that is written, 'The stone which the builders rejected, The same was made the chief cornerstone?' 20.37. But that the dead are raised, even Moses showed at the bush, when he called the Lord 'The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.' 20.38. Now he is not the God of the dead, but of the living, for all are alive to him. 20.41. He said to them, "Why do they say that the Christ is David's son? 20.42. David himself says in the book of Psalms, 'The Lord said to my Lord,"Sit at my right hand 20.43. Until I make your enemies the footstool of your feet."' 20.44. David therefore calls him Lord, so how is he his son? 21.12. But before all these things, they will lay their hands on you and will persecute you, delivering you up to synagogues and prisons, bringing you before kings and governors for my name's sake. 24.13. Behold, two of them were going that very day to a village named Emmaus, which was sixty stadia from Jerusalem. 24.14. They talked with each other about all of these things which had happened. 24.15. It happened, while they talked and questioned together, that Jesus himself came near, and went with them. 24.16. But their eyes were kept from recognizing him. 24.17. He said to them, "What are you talking about as you walk, and are sad? 24.18. One of them, named Cleopas, answered him, "Are you the only stranger in Jerusalem who doesn't know the things which have happened there in these days? 24.19. He said to them, "What things?"They said to him, "The things concerning Jesus, the Nazarene, who was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people; 24.20. and how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him up to be condemned to death, and crucified him. 24.21. But we were hoping that it was he who would redeem Israel. Yes, and besides all this, it is now the third day since these things happened. 24.22. Also, certain women of our company amazed us, having arrived early at the tomb; 24.23. and when they didn't find his body, they came saying that they had also seen a vision of angels, who said that he was alive. 24.24. Some of us went to the tomb, and found it just like the women had said, but they didn't see him. 24.25. He said to them, "Foolish men, and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! 24.26. Didn't the Christ have to suffer these things and to enter into his glory? 24.27. Beginning from Moses and from all the prophets, he explained to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself. 24.28. They drew near to the village, where they were going, and he acted like he would go further. 24.29. They urged him, saying, "Stay with us, for it is almost evening, and the day is almost over."He went in to stay with them. 24.30. It happened, that when he had sat down at the table with them, he took the bread and gave thanks. Breaking it, he gave to them. 24.31. Their eyes were opened, and they recognized him, and he vanished out of their sight. 24.32. They said one to another, "Weren't our hearts burning within us, while he spoke to us along the way, and while he opened the Scriptures to us? 24.33. Rising rose up that very hour, they returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and those who were with them 24.34. saying, "The Lord is risen indeed, and has appeared to Simon! 24.35. They related the things that happened along the way, and how he was recognized by them in the breaking of the bread. 24.46. He said to them, "Thus it is written, and thus it was necessary for the Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead the third day 24.47. and that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name to all the nations, beginning at Jerusalem. 24.48. You are witnesses of these things. 24.49. Behold, I send forth the promise of my Father on you. But wait in the city of Jerusalem until you are clothed with power from on high.
|26. New Testament, Mark, 1.3-1.4, 1.6, 1.14-1.15, 1.24, 14.28, 16.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
| 1.3. The voice of one crying in the wilderness, 'Make ready the way of the Lord! Make his paths straight!' 1.4. John came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching the baptism of repentance for forgiveness of sins. 1.6. John was clothed with camel's hair and a leather belt around his loins. He ate locusts and wild honey. 1.14. Now after John was taken into custody, Jesus came into Galilee, preaching the gospel of the Kingdom of God 1.15. and saying, "The time is fulfilled, and the Kingdom of God is at hand! Repent, and believe in the gospel. 1.24. saying, "Ha! What do we have to do with you, Jesus, you Nazarene? Have you come to destroy us? I know you who you are: the Holy One of God! 14.28. However, after I am raised up, I will go before you to Galilee. 16.7. But go, tell his disciples and Peter, 'He goes before you into Galilee. There you will see him, as he said to you.'
|27. New Testament, Matthew, 2.23, 5.10-5.12, 5.44, 6.12, 6.17, 6.22-6.23, 26.71, 28.9-28.10, 28.16-28.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
| 2.23. and came and lived in a city called Nazareth; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through the prophets: "He will be called a Nazarene. 5.10. Blessed are those who have been persecuted for righteousness' sake, For theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.11. Blessed are you when people reproach you, persecute you, and say all kinds of evil against you falsely, for my sake. 5.12. Rejoice, and be exceedingly glad, for great is your reward in heaven. For that is how they persecuted the prophets who were before you. 5.44. But I tell you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who mistreat you and persecute you 6.12. Forgive us our debts, as we also forgive our debtors. 6.17. But you, when you fast, anoint your head, and wash your face; 6.22. The lamp of the body is the eye. If therefore your eye is sound, your whole body will be full of light. 6.23. But if your eye is evil, your whole body will be full of darkness. If therefore the light that is in you is darkness, how great is the darkness! 26.71. When he had gone out onto the porch, someone else saw him, and said to those who were there, "This man also was with Jesus of Nazareth. 28.9. As they went to tell his disciples, behold, Jesus met them, saying, "Rejoice!"They came and took hold of his feet, and worshiped him. 28.10. Then Jesus said to them, "Don't be afraid. Go tell my brothers that they should go into Galilee, and there they will see me. 28.16. But the eleven disciples went into Galilee, to the mountain where Jesus had sent them. 28.17. When they saw him, they bowed down to him, but some doubted. 28.18. Jesus came to them and spoke to them, saying, "All authority has been given to me in heaven and on earth. 28.19. Go, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit 28.20. teaching them to observe all things which I commanded you. Behold, I am with you always, even to the end of the age." Amen.
|28. Anon., The Acts of John, 89, 87 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
| 87. Those that were present inquired the cause, and were especially perplexed, because Drusiana had said: The Lord appeared unto me in the tomb in the likeness of John, and in that of a youth. Forasmuch, therefore, as they were perplexed and were, in a manner, not yet stablished in the faith, so as to endure it steadfastly, John said (or John bearing it patiently, said):
|29. Anon., Acts of John, 89, 87 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
| 87. Those that were present inquired the cause, and were especially perplexed, because Drusiana had said: The Lord appeared unto me in the tomb in the likeness of John, and in that of a youth. Forasmuch, therefore, as they were perplexed and were, in a manner, not yet stablished in the faith, so as to endure it steadfastly, John said (or John bearing it patiently, said):
|30. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 3.12.8 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
|31. Justin, First Apology, 6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
| 6. Hence are we called atheists. And we confess that we are atheists, so far as gods of this sort are concerned, but not with respect to the most true God, the Father of righteousness and temperance and the other virtues, who is free from all impurity. But both Him, and the Son (who came forth from Him and taught us these things, and the host of the other good angels who follow and are made like to Him), and the prophetic Spirit, we worship and adore, knowing them in reason and truth, and declaring without grudging to every one who wishes to learn, as we have been taught.
|32. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 16, 56, 127 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
| 127. These passages of Scripture do not apply to the Father, but to the Word Justin: These and other such sayings are recorded by the lawgiver and by the prophets; and I suppose that I have stated sufficiently, that wherever God says, 'God went up from Abraham,' Genesis 18:22 or, 'The Lord spoke to Moses,' Exodus 6:29 and 'The Lord came down to behold the tower which the sons of men had built,' Genesis 11:5 or when 'God shut Noah into the ark,' Genesis 7:16 you must not imagine that the unbegotten God Himself came down or went up from any place. For the ineffable Father and Lord of all neither has come to any place, nor walks, nor sleeps, nor rises up, but remains in His own place, wherever that is, quick to behold and quick to hear, having neither eyes nor ears, but being of indescribable might; and He sees all things, and knows all things, and none of us escapes His observation; and He is not moved or confined to a spot in the whole world, for He existed before the world was made. How, then, could He talk with any one, or be seen by any one, or appear on the smallest portion of the earth, when the people at Sinai were not able to look even on the glory of Him who was sent from Him; and Moses himself could not enter into the tabernacle which he had erected, when it was filled with the glory of God; and the priest could not endure to stand before the temple when Solomon conveyed the ark into the house in Jerusalem which he had built for it? Therefore neither Abraham, nor Isaac, nor Jacob, nor any other man, saw the Father and ineffable Lord of all, and also of Christ, but [saw] Him who was according to His will His Son, being God, and the Angel because He ministered to His will; whom also it pleased Him to be born man by the Virgin; who also was fire when He conversed with Moses from the bush. Since, unless we thus comprehend the Scriptures, it must follow that the Father and Lord of all had not been in heaven when what Moses wrote took place: 'And the Lord rained upon Sodom fire and brimstone from the Lord out of heaven.' Genesis 19:24 and again, when it is thus said by David: 'Lift up your gates, you rulers; and be lifted up, you everlasting gates; and the King of glory shall enter;' and again, when He says: 'The Lord says to my Lord, Sit at My right hand, till I make Your enemies Your footstool.'
|33. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.14.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
| 1.14.6. Above the Cerameicus and the portico called the King's Portico is a temple of Hephaestus. I was not surprised that by it stands a statue of Athena, be cause I knew the story about Erichthonius. But when I saw that the statue of Athena had blue eyes I found out that the legend about them is Libyan. For the Libyans have a saying that the Goddess is the daughter of Poseidon and Lake Tritonis, and for this reason has blue eyes like Poseidon.
|34. Tertullian, Against Marcion, 4.8 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
| 4.8. The Christ of the Creator had to be called a Nazarene according to prophecy; whence the Jews also designate us, on that very account, Nazerenes after Him. For we are they of whom it is written, Her Nazarites were whiter than snow; Lamentations 4:7 even they who were once defiled with the stains of sin, and darkened with the clouds of ignorance. But to Christ the title Nazarene was destined to become a suitable one, from the hiding-place of His infancy, for which He went down and dwelt at Nazareth, to escape from Archelaus the son of Herod. This fact I have not refrained from mentioning on this account, because it behooved Marcion's Christ to have forborne all connection whatever with the domestic localities of the Creator's Christ, when he had so many towns in Jud a which had not been by the prophets thus assigned to the Creator's Christ. But Christ will be (the Christ) of the prophets, wheresoever He is found in accordance with the prophets. And yet even at Nazareth He is not remarked as having preached anything new, Luke 4:23 while in another verse He is said to have been rejected Luke 4:29 by reason of a simple proverb. Luke 4:24 Here at once, when I observe that they laid their hands on Him, I cannot help drawing a conclusion respecting His bodily substance, which cannot be believed to have been a phantom, since it was capable of being touched and even violently handled, when He was seized and taken and led to the very brink of a precipice. For although He escaped through the midst of them, He had already experienced their rough treatment, and afterwards went His way, no doubt because the crowd (as usually happens) gave way, or was even broken through; but not because it was eluded as by an impalpable disguise, which, if there had been such, would not at all have submitted to any touch. Tangere enim et tangi, nisi corpus, nulla potest res, is even a sentence worthy of a place in the world's wisdom. In short, He did himself touch others, upon whom He laid His hands, which were capable of being felt, and conferred the blessings of healing, Luke 4:40 which were not less true, not less unimaginary, than were the hands wherewith He bestowed them. He was therefore the very Christ of Isaiah, the healer of our sicknesses. Surely, says he, He has borne our griefs and carried our sorrows. Now the Greeks are accustomed to use for carry a word which also signifies to take away. A general promise is enough for me in passing. Whatever were the cures which Jesus effected, He is mine. We will come, however, to the kinds of cures. To liberate men, then, from evil spirits, is a cure of sickness. Accordingly, wicked spirits (just in the manner of our former example) used to go forth with a testimony, exclaiming, You are the Son of God, Luke 4:41 - of what God, is clear enough from the case itself. But they were rebuked, and ordered not to speak; precisely because Christ willed Himself to be proclaimed by men, not by unclean spirits, as the Son of God- even that Christ alone to whom this was befitting, because He had sent beforehand men through whom He might become known, and who were assuredly worthier preachers. It was natural to Him to refuse the proclamation of an unclean spirit, at whose command there was an abundance of saints. He, however, who had never been foretold (if, indeed, he wished to be acknowledged; for if he did not wish so much, his coming was in vain), would not have spurned the testimony of an alien or any sort of substance, who did not happen to have a substance of his own, but had descended in an alien one. And now, too, as the destroyer also of the Creator, he would have desired nothing better than to be acknowledged by His spirits, and to be divulged for the sake of being feared: only that Marcion says that his god is not feared; maintaining that a good being is not an object of fear, but only a judicial being, in whom reside the grounds of fear- anger, severity, judgments, vengeance, condemnation. But it was from fear, undoubtedly, that the evil spirits were cowed. Therefore they confessed that (Christ) was the Son of a God who was to be feared, because they would have an occasion of not submitting if there were none for fearing. Besides, He showed that He was to be feared, because He drove them out, not by persuasion like a good being, but by command and reproof. Or else did he reprove them, because they were making him an object of fear, when all the while he did not want to be feared? And in what manner did he wish them to go forth, when they could not do so except with fear? So that he fell into the dilemma of having to conduct himself contrary to his nature, whereas he might in his simple goodness have at once treated them with leniency. He fell, too, into another false position - of prevarication, when he permitted himself to be feared by the demons as the Son of the Creator, that he might drive them out, not indeed by his own power, but by the authority of the Creator. He departed, and went into a desert place. Luke 4:42 This was, indeed, the Creator's customary region. It was proper that the Word should there appear in body, where He had aforetime, wrought in a cloud. To the gospel also was suitable that condition of place which had once been determined on for the law. Let the wilderness and the solitary place, therefore, be glad and rejoice; so had Isaiah promised. Isaiah 35:1 When stayed by the crowds, He said, I must preach the kingdom of God to other cities also. Luke 4:42-43 Had He displayed His God anywhere yet? I suppose as yet nowhere. But was He speaking of those who knew of another god also? I do not believe so. If, therefore, neither He had preached, nor they had known, any other God but the Creator, He was announcing the kingdom of that God whom He knew to be the only God known to those who were listening to Him.
|35. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
| 17b. אין פרץ שלא תהא סיעתנו כסיעתו של דוד שיצא ממנו אחיתופל ואין יוצאת שלא תהא סיעתנו כסיעתו של שאול שיצא ממנו דואג האדומי ואין צוחה שלא תהא סיעתנו כסיעתו של אלישע שיצא ממנו גחזי ברחובותינו שלא יהא לנו בן או תלמיד שמקדיח תבשילו ברבים: (ישעיהו מו, יב),שמעו אלי אבירי לב הרחוקים מצדקה רב ושמואל ואמרי לה רבי יוחנן ורבי אלעזר חד אמר כל העולם כולו נזונין בצדקה והם נזונין בזרוע וחד אמר כל העולם כולו נזונין בזכותם והם אפילו בזכות עצמן אין נזונין כדרב יהודה אמר רב,דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב בכל יום ויום בת קול יוצאת מהר חורב ואומרת כל העולם כולו נזונין בשביל חנינא בני וחנינא בני די לו בקב חרובין מערב שבת לערב שבת,ופליגא דרב יהודה דאמר רב יהודה מאן אבירי לב גובאי טפשאי אמר רב יוסף תדע דהא לא איגייר גיורא מינייהו,אמר רב אשי בני מתא מחסיא אבירי לב נינהו דקא חזו יקרא דאורייתא תרי זמני בשתא ולא קמגייר גיורא מינייהו:,חתן אם רוצה לקרות וכו':,למימרא דרבן שמעון בן גמליאל חייש ליוהרא ורבנן לא חיישי ליוהרא והא איפכא שמעינן להו דתנן מקום שנהגו לעשות מלאכה בתשעה באב עושין מקום שנהגו שלא לעשות אין עושין וכל מקום תלמידי חכמים בטלים רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר לעולם יעשה כל אדם את עצמו כתלמיד חכם,קשיא דרבנן אדרבנן קשיא דרבן שמעון בן גמליאל אדרבן שמעון בן גמליאל,אמר רבי יוחנן מוחלפת השיטה רב שישא בריה דרב אידי אמר לעולם לא תחליף דרבנן אדרבנן לא קשיא ק"ש כיון דכ"ע קא קרו ואיהו נמי קרי לא מיחזי כיוהרא הכא כיון דכולי עלמא עבדי מלאכה ואיהו לא קא עביד מיחזי כיוהרא,דרבן שמעון בן גמליאל אדרבן שמעון בן גמליאל לא קשיא התם בכונה תליא מילתא ואנן סהדי דלא מצי לכווני דעתיה אבל הכא הרואה אומר מלאכה הוא דאין לו פוק חזי כמה בטלני איכא בשוקא:, br br big strongהדרן עלך היה קורא /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongמי /strong /big שמתו מוטל לפניו פטור מק"ש ומן התפלה ומן התפילין ומכל מצות האמורות בתורה,נושאי המטה וחלופיהן וחלופי חלופיהן את שלפני המטה ואת שלאחר המטה את שלפני המטה צורך בהם פטורים ואת שלאחר המטה צורך בהם חייבין ואלו ואלו פטורים מן התפלה,קברו את המת וחזרו אם יכולין להתחיל ולגמור עד שלא יגיעו לשורה יתחילו ואם לאו לא יתחילו,העומדים בשורה הפנימיים פטורים והחיצונים חייבים (נשים ועבדים וקטנים פטורים מק"ש ומן התפילין וחייבין בתפלה ובמזוזה ובברכת המזון):, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מוטל לפניו אין ושאינו מוטל לפניו לא,ורמינהי מי שמתו מוטל לפניו אוכל בבית אחר ואם אין לו בית אחר אוכל בבית חבירו ואם אין לו בית חבירו עושה מחיצה ואוכל ואם אין לו דבר לעשות מחיצה מחזיר פניו ואוכל ואינו מיסב ואוכל ואינו אוכל בשר ואינו שותה יין ואינו מברך ואינו מזמן
| 17b. b“There is no breach”; that our factionof Sages bshould not be like the faction of David, from which Ahitophel emerged,who caused a breach in the kingdom of David. br b“And no going forth”; that our faction should not be like the faction of Saul, from which Doeg the Edomite emerged,who set forth on an evil path. br b“And no outcry”; that our faction should not be like the faction of Elisha, from which Geihazi emerged. br b“In our open places”; that we should not have a child or student who overcooks his food in public,i.e., who sins in public and causes others to sin, basin the well-known case of bJesus the Nazarene. /b,Having cited a dispute with regard to the interpretation of a verse where we are uncertain whether the dispute is between Rav and Shmuel or Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar, the Gemara cites another verse with regard to which there is a similar dispute. It is said: b“Hear Me, stubborn-hearted who are far from charity”(Isaiah 46:12). While both agree that the verse refers to the righteous, bRav and Shmuel, and some say Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar,disagreed as to how to interpret the verse. bOne said: The entire world is sustained byGod’s bcharity,not because it deserves to exist, bwhilethe righteous who are far from God’s charity bare sustained by force,as due to their own good deeds they have the right to demand their sustece. bAnd one said: The entire world is sustained by the meritof btheirrighteousness, bwhile they are not sustainedat all, bnot even by their own merit, in accordance withthe statement that bRav Yehudasaid that bRav said. /b, bAs Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: Every day a Divine Voice emerges from Mount Horeb and says: The entire world is sustained bythe merit of bḤaninaben Dosa, bmy son, andfor bḤanina, my son, a ikavof carobs is sufficientto sustain him for an entire week, bfromone bShabbat eve tothe next bShabbat eve. /b, bAndthis exegesis bdisagrees withthe opinion of bRav Yehuda, as Rav Yehuda said, who are the stubborn-hearted?They are the bfoolishheathens bof Gova’ei. Rav Yosef said: Knowthat this is so, bas no convert has ever converted from theirranks.,Similarly, bRav Ashi said:The heathen residents bofthe city bMata Meḥasya are the stubborn-hearted, as they witness the glory of the Torah twice a yearat the ikallagatherings in Adar and Elul, when thousands of people congregate and study Torah ien masse /i, byet no convert has ever converted from theirranks.,We learned in our mishna that bif a groom wishes to recite iShemaon the first night of his marriage, he may do so, and Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel prohibited doing so because of the appearance of presumptuousness.,The Gemara asks: bIs that to say that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel is concerned about presumptuousness and the Rabbis are not concerned about presumptuousness? Didn’t we learnthat btheysay bthe opposite? As we learnedin a mishna: bA place where they were accustomed to perform labor on Ninth of Av, onemay bperformlabor. bA place where they were accustomed not to performlabor on Ninth of Av, bonemay bnot performlabor. bAnd everywhere, Torah scholars are idleand do not perform labor. bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says:With regard to performing labor on the Ninth of Av, bone should always conduct himself as a Torah scholar. /b,If so, bthere is a contradiction betweenthe statement of bthe Rabbishere bandthe statement of bthe Rabbisthere. And, bthere is a contradiction betweenthe statement of bRabban Shimon ben Gamlielhere bandthe statement of bRabban Shimon ben Gamlielthere., bRabbi Yoḥa said: The attributionof the opinions bis reversedin one of the sources in the interest of avoiding contradiction. bRav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, said: Actually,you need bnot reversethe opinions, as the contradiction between the statement of bthe Rabbishere bandthe statement of bthe Rabbisthere bis not difficult.In the case of bthe recitation of iShema /ion his wedding night, bsince everyone is reciting iShema band he is also reciting iShema /i, he is not conspicuous and bit does not appear as presumptuousness. Here,in the case of the Ninth of Av, however, bsince everyone is performing labor and he is not performing labor,his idleness is conspicuous and bappears as presumptuousness. /b,So too, the contradiction bbetweenthe statement of bRabban Shimon ben Gamlielhere bandthe statement of bRabban Shimon ben Gamlielthere bis not difficult. There,in the case of the recitation of iShemaon his wedding night, bthe matter is dependent upon hiscapacity to bconcentrate,and bit is clear to allthat bhe is unable to concentrate.Reciting iShemaunder those circumstances is a display of presumptuousness. bBut here,in the case of the Ninth of Av, bone who seeshim idle bsays: It isbecause bhe has no laborto perform. bGo out and see how many idle people there are in the marketplace,even on days when one is permitted to work. Consequently, his idleness is not conspicuous.,, strongMISHNA: /strong bOne whose deceasedrelative bis laid outunburied bbefore him is exempt from the recitation of iShema /i, fromthe iAmida bprayer, and fromthe mitzva to don bphylacteries, as well as allpositive bmitzvot mentioned in the Torah,until the deceased has been buried.,With regard to bthe pallbearers and their replacements and the replacements of their replacements, thoselocated bbefore the bierwho have not yet carried the deceased band thoselocated bafter the bier. Those before the bier who are neededto carry the bier bare exemptfrom reciting iShema /i; bwhile those after the bier,even if bthey arestill bneededto carry it, since they have already carried the deceased, they are bobligatedto recite iShema /i. However, both bthese and those are exempt fromreciting the iAmida bprayer,since they are preoccupied and are unable to focus and pray with the appropriate intent.,After bthey buried the deceased and returned, if theyhave sufficient time to bbeginto recite iShema band conclude before they arrive at the row,formed by those who attended the burial, through which the bereaved family will pass in order to receive consolation, bthey should begin. Ifthey do bnothave sufficient time to conclude reciting the entire iShema /i, then bthey should not begin. /b,And bthose standing in the row, thosein the binteriorrow, directly before whom the mourners will pass and who will console them, bare exemptfrom reciting iShema /i, while bthosein the bexteriorrow, who stand there only to show their respect, bare obligatedto recite iShema /i. bWomen, slaves and minors are exempt from the recitation of iShemaand from phylacteries, but are obligated in prayer, imezuzaand Grace after Meals. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong We learned in the mishna that one whose deceased relative is laid out before him is exempt from the recitation of iShemaand other positive mitzvot. The Gemara deduces: When the corpse is blaid out before him, yes,he is exempt, but when the corpse is bnotphysically blaid out before him, no,he is not exempt from these mitzvot.,The Gemara braises a contradictionfrom a ibaraita /i: bOne whose deceasedrelative bis laid out before him eats in another room. If he does not have another room, he eats in the house of a friend. If he does not have a friend’s houseavailable, bhe makes a partitionbetween him and the deceased band eats. If he does not have materialwith which bto make a partition, he averts his facefrom the dead and beats. Andin any case, bhe does not recline while he eats,as reclining is characteristic of a festive meal. bFurthermore, he neither eats meat nor drinks wine, and does not recitea bblessingbefore eating, band does notrecite the formula to binvitethe participants in the meal to join together in the Grace after Meals [ izimmun /i], i.e., he is exempt from the obligation of Grace after Meals.
|36. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
| 57a. במאי דפסיק אנפשיה כל יומא מכנשי ליה לקיטמיה ודייני ליה וקלו ליה ומבדרו אשב ימי,אזל אסקיה לבלעם בנגידא אמר ליה מאן חשיב בההוא עלמא א"ל ישראל מהו לאידבוקי בהו א"ל (דברים כג, ז) לא תדרוש שלומם וטובתם כל הימים א"ל דיניה דההוא גברא במאי א"ל בשכבת זרע רותחת,אזל אסקיה [ליש"ו] בנגידא (לפושעי ישראל) א"ל מאן חשיב בההוא עלמא א"ל ישראל מהו לאדבוקי בהו א"ל טובתם דרוש רעתם לא תדרוש כל הנוגע בהן כאילו נוגע בבבת עינו,א"ל דיניה דההוא גברא במאי א"ל בצואה רותחת דאמר מר כל המלעיג על דברי חכמים נידון בצואה רותחת תא חזי מה בין פושעי ישראל לנביאי אומות העולם עובדי ע"ז,תניא אמר רבי אלעזר בא וראה כמה גדולה כחה של בושה שהרי סייע הקב"ה את בר קמצא והחריב את ביתו ושרף את היכלו:,אתרנגולא ואתרנגולתא חריב טור מלכא דהוו נהיגי כי הוו מפקי חתנא וכלתא מפקי קמייהו תרנגולא ותרנגולתא כלומר פרו ורבו כתרנגולים,יומא חד הוה קא חליף גונדא דרומאי שקלינהו מינייהו נפלו עלייהו מחונהו אתו אמרו ליה לקיסר מרדו בך יהודאי אתא עלייהו הוה בהו ההוא בר דרומא דהוה קפיץ מילא וקטיל בהו שקליה קיסר לתאגיה ואותביה אארעא אמר ריבוניה דעלמא כוליה אי ניחא לך לא תמסריה לההוא גברא לדידיה ולמלכותיה בידיה דחד גברא,אכשליה פומיה לבר דרומא ואמר (תהלים ס, יב) הלא אתה אלהים זנחתנו ולא תצא אלהים בצבאותינו דוד נמי אמר הכי דוד אתמוהי קא מתמה,על לבית הכסא אתא דרקונא שמטיה לכרכשיה ונח נפשיה אמר הואיל ואיתרחיש לי ניסא הא זימנא אישבקינהו שבקינהו ואזל איזדקור ואכלו ושתו ואדליקו שרגי עד דאיתחזי בליונא דגושפנקא ברחוק מילא אמר מיחדא קא חדו בי יהודאי הדר אתא עלייהו,א"ר אסי תלת מאה אלפי שליפי סייפא עיילו לטור. מלכא וקטלו בה תלתא יומי ותלתא לילוותא ובהך גיסא הלולי וחנגי ולא הוו ידעי הני בהני,(איכה ב, ב) בלע ה' ולא חמל את כל נאות יעקב כי אתא רבין אמר רבי יוחנן אלו ששים רבוא עיירות שהיו לו לינאי המלך בהר המלך דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב אסי ששים רבוא עיירות היו לו לינאי המלך בהר המלך וכל אחת ואחת היו בה כיוצאי מצרים חוץ משלש שהיו בהן כפלים כיוצאי מצרים,אלו הן כפר ביש כפר שיחליים כפר דכריא כפר ביש דלא יהבי ביתא לאושפיזא כפר שיחליים שהיתה פרנסתן מן שחליים כפר דכריא אמר רבי יוחנן שהיו נשותיהן יולדות זכרים תחלה ויולדות נקבה באחרונה ופוסקות,אמר עולא לדידי חזי לי ההוא אתרא ואפילו שיתין ריבוותא קני לא מחזיק אמר ליה ההוא צדוקי לרבי חנינא שקורי משקריתו אמר ליה (ירמיהו ג, יט) ארץ צבי כתיב בה מה צבי זה אין עורו מחזיק את בשרו אף ארץ ישראל בזמן שיושבין עליה רווחא ובזמן שאין יושבין עליה גמדא,רב מניומי בר חלקיה ורב חלקיה בר טוביה ורב הונא בר חייא הוו יתבי גבי הדדי אמרי אי איכא דשמיע ליה מילתא מכפר סכניא של מצרים לימא,פתח חד מינייהו ואמר מעשה בארוס וארוסתו שנשבו לבין העובדי כוכבים והשיאום זה לזה אמרה לו בבקשה ממך אל תגע בי שאין לי כתובה ממך ולא נגע בה עד יום מותו,וכשמת אמרה להן סיפדו לזה שפטפט ביצרו יותר מיוסף דאילו ביוסף לא הוה אלא חדא שעתא והאי כל יומא ויומא ואילו יוסף לאו בחדא מטה והאי בחדא מטה ואילו יוסף לאו אשתו והא אשתו,פתח אידך ואמר מעשה ועמדו ארבעים מודיות בדינר נחסר השער מודיא אחת ובדקו ומצאו אב ובנו שבאו על נערה מאורסה ביום הכפורים והביאום לבית דין וסקלום וחזר השער למקומו,פתח אידך ואמר מעשה באדם אחד שנתן עיניו באשתו לגרשה והיתה כתובתה מרובה מה עשה הלך וזימן את שושביניו והאכילן והשקן שיכרן והשכיבן על מיטה אחת והביא לובן ביצה והטיל ביניהן והעמיד להן עדים ובא לבית דין,היה שם זקן אחד מתלמידי שמאי הזקן ובבא בן בוטא שמו אמר להן כך מקובלני משמאי הזקן לובן ביצה סולד מן האור ושכבת זרע דוחה מן האור בדקו ומצאו כדבריו והביאוהו לב"ד והלקוהו והגבוהו כתובתה ממנו,א"ל אביי לרב יוסף ומאחר דהוו צדיקים כולי האי מאי טעמא איענוש א"ל משום דלא איאבול על ירושלים דכתיב (ישעיהו סו, י) שמחו את ירושלם וגילו בה כל אוהביה שישו אתה משוש כל המתאבלים עליה:,אשקא דריספק חריב ביתר דהוו נהיגי כי הוה מתיליד ינוקא שתלי ארזא ינוקתא שתלי תורניתא וכי הוו מינסבי קייצי להו ועבדו גננא יומא חד הוה קא חלפא ברתיה דקיסר אתבר שקא דריספק קצו ארזא ועיילו לה אתו נפול עלייהו מחונהו אתו אמרו ליה לקיסר מרדו בך יהודאי אתא עלייהו:,(איכה ב, ג) גדע בחרי אף כל קרן ישראל א"ר זירא א"ר אבהו א"ר יוחנן אלו שמונים [אלף] קרני מלחמה שנכנסו לכרך ביתר בשעה שלכדוה והרגו בה אנשים ונשים וטף עד שהלך דמן ונפל לים הגדול שמא תאמר קרובה היתה רחוקה היתה מיל,תניא רבי אליעזר הגדול אומר שני נחלים יש בבקעת ידים אחד מושך אילך ואחד מושך אילך ושיערו חכמים שני חלקים מים ואחד דם במתניתא תנא שבע שנים בצרו עובדי כוכבים את כרמיהן מדמן של ישראל בלא זבל
| 57a. bThat which he decreed against himself,as he undergoes the following: bEvery day his ashes are gathered, and they judge him, and they burn him, and they scatter him over the seven seas. /b,Onkelos then bwent and raised Balaamfrom the grave bthrough necromancy. He said to him: Who ismost bimportant in that worldwhere you are now? Balaam bsaid to him: The Jewish people.Onkelos asked him: bShould Ithen battachmyself bto themhere in this world? Balaam bsaid to him: You shall not seek their peace or their welfare all the days(see Deuteronomy 23:7). Onkelos bsaid to him: What is the punishment of that man,a euphemism for Balaam himself, in the next world? Balaam bsaid to him:He is cooked bin boiling semen,as he caused Israel to engage in licentious behavior with the daughters of Moab.,Onkelos then bwentand braised Jesus the Nazarenefrom the grave bthrough necromancy.Onkelos bsaid to him: Who ismost bimportant in that worldwhere you are now? Jesus bsaid to him: The Jewish people.Onkelos asked him: bShould Ithen battachmyself bto themin this world? Jesus bsaid to him: Their welfare you shall seek, their misfortune you shall not seek,for banyone who touches them isregarded bas if he were touching the apple of his eye(see Zechariah 2:12).,Onkelos bsaid to him: What is the punishment of that man,a euphemism for Jesus himself, in the next world? Jesus bsaid to him:He is punished bwith boiling excrement. As the Master said: Anyone who mocks the words of the Sages will be sentenced to boiling excrement.And this was his sin, as he mocked the words of the Sages. The Gemara comments: bComeand bsee the difference between the sinners of Israel and the prophets of the nations of the world.As Balaam, who was a prophet, wished Israel harm, whereas Jesus the Nazarene, who was a Jewish sinner, sought their well-being.,To conclude the story of Kamtza and bar Kamtza and the destruction of Jerusalem, the Gemara cites a ibaraita /i. It bis taught: Rabbi Elazar says: Come and see how great is the power of shame, for the Holy One, Blessed be He, assisted bar Kamtza,who had been humiliated, banddue to this humiliation and shame bHe destroyed His Temple and burned His Sanctuary. /b,§ It was previously mentioned (55b) that the place known as bthe King’s Mountain [ iTur Malka /i] was destroyed on account of a rooster and a hen.The details of what happened are as follows: bIt was customaryin that place bthat when they would lead a bride and groomto their wedding, bthey would take out a rooster and a hen before them,as if bto sayin the manner of a good omen: bBe fruitful and multiply like chickens. /b, bOne day a troop [ igunda /i] of Romansoldiers bpassed bythere while a wedding was taking place band tookthe rooster and hen bfrom them.The residents of the city bfell upon them and beat them.The soldiers bcame and said to the emperor: The Jews have rebelled against you.The emperor then bcame against themin war. Among the residents of the King’s Mountain bthere was a certain mannamed bbar Deroma who could jumpthe distance of ba imil /i, and he killedmany of the Romans, who were powerless to stand up against him. bThe emperorthen btook his crown and set it on the groundas a sign of mourning. bHe said: Master of the Universe, if it is pleasing to You, do not give over that man,a euphemism for himself, band his kingdom into the hands ofonly bone man. /b,In the end it was the words issuing from bhisown bmouththat bcaused bar Deroma to stumble, as he utteredthis verse in complaint against God: b“Have You not rejected us, O God, so that You go not forth, O God, with our hosts?”(Psalms 60:12). The Gemara asks: But did not bDavid also say this?The Gemara answers: bDavid utteredthese words bas a question,wondering whether they were true, whereas bar Deroma pronounced them as a statement of fact.,The Gemara recounts what happened to bar Deroma: bHe entered an outhouse, a snake cameand beviscerated him, and he died.The emperor bsaid: Since a miracle was performed for me,as I had no part in bar Deroma’s death, bI will letthe rest of the people bbe this timeand take no further action against them. bHe let them be and wenton his way. bThey leaptabout, bate, drank, and litso many bcandlesin celebration bthat the image [ ibilyona /i]imprinted bon a seal [ igushpanka /i] was visible from a distance of a imil /i.The emperor then bsaid: The Jews are rejoicing over me.So bhe went backand bcame against them. /b, bRav Asi says: Three hundred thousand men with drawn swords entered the King’s Mountain and massacredits inhabitants bfor three days and three nights. Andat the same time bonthe other bsideof the mountain, bweddings andother bfestivitiescontinued to be celebrated, band they did not know about each other,owing to the enormous size of the place.,§ Concerning the verse: b“The Lord has swallowed up without pity all the habitations of Jacob”(Lamentations 2:2), it is related that bwhen Ravin camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia bhesaid that bRabbi Yoḥa says: Thisis referring to the bsix hundred thousand citiesthat bKing Yannai had in the King’s Mountain.As bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav Asi says: King Yannai had six hundred thousand cities in the King’s Mountain, and each of themhad a population as great basthe number of bthose who left Egypt, except for threeof those cities, the population of which bwas doublethe number of bthose who left Egypt. /b, bTheseare bthosethree cities: bKefar Bish, Kefar Shiḥalayim, and Kefar Dikhrayya.The Gemara explains the meaning of these place-names. bKefar Bish,Evil Town, was called by that name because its inhabitants bwould not opentheir bhouses to guests. Kefar Shiḥalayimwas referred to by that name because btheir livelihood wasderived bfromthe cultivation of bcress [ ishaḥalayim /i].As for bKefar Dikhrayya,Town of Males, bRabbi Yoḥa says: Their women would first give birth to boys, and afterward give birth to girls, andthen bthey would stophaving children., bUlla said: I myself saw that place, and it could not hold even six hundred thousand reeds,all the more so that number of people. bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Ḥanina: You liewith your exorbitant exaggerations. Rabbi Ḥanina bsaid to him: With regard toEretz Yisrael bit is written: Land of the deer(see Jeremiah 3:19). bJust as the skin of a deer cannot hold its flesh,for after the animal is skinned, its hide shrinks, bso too,with regard to bEretz Yisrael, when it is settled, it expands, but when it is not settled, it contracts.This explains how a place that is so small today could have been so highly populated prior to the Temple’s destruction.,§ The Gemara relates that bRav Minyumi bar Ḥilkiya, Rav Ḥilkiya bar Toviya, and Rav Huna bar Ḥiyya wereonce bsitting together. They said: If there is someone who has heard anything about Kefar Sekhanya of Egypt,which was in that region, blet him relateit., bOne of them beganthe discussion band said:There was ban incident involving a betrothed man and womanfrom there bwho were taken captive by gentiles andthe latter bmarried them off to each other.The woman bsaid tothe man: bPlease do not touch me, as I do not have a marriage contract from you,and it is prohibited for us to live together without one. bAnd untilthe day of bhis deaththe man bdid not touchthe woman., bAnd when he diedwithout having touched her, the woman bsaid tothe Sages: bEulogize thisman bwho conquered [ ishepitpet /i] his passion [ ibeyitzro /i] more than Joseph. Asin the case of bJoseph it was only for a short timethat he had to overpower his inclination and resist Potiphar’s wife (see Genesis, chapter 39), bwhereas thisman struggled with his passion beach and every day.Furthermore, bJosephwas bnot in one bedwith Potiphar’s wife, bwhereas thisman was bin one bedwith his wife. In addition, with bJosephthe woman was bnot his wife, whereaswith bthisman she was bhis wife,as she was already betrothed to him., bAnotherSage bbeganhis remarks band said: It once happened thatthe market price of bforty ise’a /iof grain bstood at one dinar.And then bthe rate went down one ise’a[ imodeya /i],so that only thirty-nine ise’awere sold for a dinar. bAnd they checkedto see what sin had caused this, band they found a father and son who had engaged in sexual intercourse with a betrothed young woman on Yom Kippur. They broughtthe offenders bto court and stoned them, and the rate returned to itsformer blevel. /b,Yet banotherSage bbeganhis remarks band said:There was ban incidentthere binvolving a man who set his eyes upon his wife to divorce her, but her marriage contract was largeand he wished to avoid having to pay it. bWhat did he do? He went and invited his friends, gave them food and drink, made them drunk, and layhis friends and his wife bin one bed. Hethen bbrought the white of an egg,which has the appearance of semen, band placed iton the sheet bbetween them. Hethen bstood witnesses over themso that they could offer testimony, band went to courtclaiming that his wife had committed adultery., bA certain Elder of the disciples of Shammai the Elder was there, and Bava ben Butawas bhis name. He said to them: This isthe tradition that bI received from Shammai the Elder: Egg whiteon a bedsheet bcontractsand hardens when heated bby fire, whereas semen is absorbedinto the sheet bby the fire. They checkedthe matter band found in accordance with his statementthat the substance on the sheet was not semen but egg white. bTheythen bbroughtthe husband bto court, administered lashes to him, and made him payhis wife’s bmarriage contractin full., bAbaye said to Rav Yosef: But sincethose in the city bwere so righteous, what is the reason that they were punishedand destroyed? Rav Yosef bsaid to him:It is bbecause they did not mourn for Jerusalem, as it is written: “Rejoice with Jerusalem, and be glad with her, all you that love her, rejoice with joy with her, all you that did mourn for her”(Isaiah 66:10). The verse teaches that one who mourns for Jerusalem will rejoice in its rebuilding, and one who fails to mourn for Jerusalem is destroyed.,§ It was stated earlier that the city of bBeitar was destroyed on account of a shaft from a carriage.The Gemara explains that bit was customaryin Beitar that bwhen a boy was born they would plant a cedartree and when ba girlwas born they bwould plant a cypress [ itornita /i]. And when they wouldlater bmarryeach other bthey would cutdown these trees band constructa wedding bcanopyfor them with their branches. bOne day the emperor’s daughter passed bythere and bthe shaft of the carriagein which she was riding bbroke.Her attendants bchopped down a cedarfrom among those trees band brought it to her.Owing to the importance that they attached to their custom, the residents of Beitar bcameand bfell upon them and beat them.The attendants bcameand bsaid to the emperor: The Jews have rebelled against you.The emperor then bcame against themin war.,It was in connection with the war that ensued that the Sages expounded the following verse: b“He has cut off in His fierce anger all the horn of Israel”(Lamentations 2:3). bRabbi Zeira saysthat bRabbi Abbahu saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: These are the eighty thousandofficers bearing bbattle trumpetsin their hands, bwho entered the city of Beitar whenthe enemy btook it and killed men, women, and children until their blood flowed into the Great Sea. Lest you saythat the city bwas closeto the sea, know that bit was a imilaway. /b, bIt issimilarly btaughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer the Great says: There are two rivers in the Yadayim Valleyin that region, bone flowing one way and one flowing the other way. And the Sages estimatedthat in the aftermath of this war these rivers were filled with btwo parts water to one part blood.Likewise, bit was taught in a ibaraita /i: For seven years the gentiles harvested their vineyardsthat had been soaked bwith the blood of Israel withoutrequiring any additional bfertilizer. /b
|37. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
| 103a. בגלל מנשה דלא עבד תשובה,א"ר יוחנן כל האומר מנשה אין לו חלק לעוה"ב מרפה ידיהן של בעלי תשובה דתני תנא קמיה דר' יוחנן מנשה עשה תשובה (ל) שלשים ושלש שנים דכתיב (מלכים ב כא, א) בן שתים עשרה שנה מנשה במלכו וחמשים וחמש שנה מלך בירושלים ויעש (הרע) [אשרה] כאשר עשה אחאב מלך ישראל כמה מלך אחאב עשרין ותרתין שנין מנשה כמה מלך חמשים וחמש דל מינייהו עשרים ותרתין פשו להו תלתין ותלת,א"ר יוחנן משום רשב"י מאי דכתי' (דברי הימים ב לג, יג) וישמע אליו ויחתר לו ויעתר לו מיבעי ליה מלמד שעשה לו הקב"ה כמין מחתרת ברקיע כדי לקבלו בתשובה מפני מדת הדין,וא"ר יוחנן משום רשב"י מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו כו, א) בראשית ממלכות יהויקים בן יאשיהו וכתיב (ירמיהו כח, א) בראשית ממלכת צדקיה וכי עד האידנא לא הוו מלכי,אלא בקש הקב"ה להחזיר את העולם כולו לתוהו ובוהו בשביל יהויקים נסתכל בדורו ונתקררה דעתו,בקש הקב"ה להחזיר את העולם כולו לתוהו ובוהו בשביל דורו של צדקיה נסתכל בצדקיה ונתקררה דעתו בצדקיה נמי כתיב (מלכים ב כד, ט) ויעש הרע בעיני ה' שהיה בידו למחות ולא מיחה,וא"ר יוחנן משום רשב"י מאי דכתיב (משלי כט, ט) איש חכם נשפט את איש אויל ורגז ושחק ואין נחת אמר הקב"ה כעסתי על אחז ונתתיו ביד מלכי דמשק זיבח וקיטר [לאלהיהם] שנאמר (דברי הימים ב כח, כג) ויזבח לאלהי דרמשק המכים בו ויאמר [כי] אלהי מלכי ארם הם מעזרים אותם להם אזבח ויעזרוני והם היו [לו] להכשילו ולכל ישראל,שחקתי עם אמציה ונתתי מלכי אדום בידו הביא אלהיהם והשתחוה להם שנאמר (דברי הימים ב כה, יד) ויהי אחרי (כן) בא אמציה מהכות את אדומים ויבא את אלהי בני שעיר ויעמידם [לו] לאלהים ולפניהם ישתחוה ולהם יקטר אמר רב פפא היינו דאמרי אינשי בכיי ליה למר דלא ידע חייכי למר דלא ידע ווי ליה למר דלא ידע בין טב לביש,(ירמיהו לט, ג) ויבאו כל [שרי] מלך בבל (ויבאו) [וישבו] בשער התוך א"ר יוחנן משום רשב"י מקום שמחתכין בו הלכות אמר רב פפא היינו דאמרי אינשי באתרא דמריה תלא ליה זייניה תמן קולבא רעיא קולתיה תלא,(סימן על שדה בתים לא תאונה),אמר רב חסדא אמר רבי ירמיה בר אבא מאי דכתיב (משלי כד, ל) על שדה איש עצל עברתי ועל כרם אדם חסר לב והנה עלה כולו קמשונים כסו פניו חרולים וגדר אבניו נהרסה על שדה איש עצל עברתי זה אחז ועל כרם אדם חסר לב זה מנשה והנה עלה כולו קמשונים זה אמון כסו פניו חרולים זה יהויקים וגדר אבניו נהרסה זה צדקיהו שנחרב בית המקדש בימיו,ואמר רב חסדא אמר רבי ירמיה בר אבא ארבע כיתות אין מקבלות פני שכינה כת לצים כת שקרנים כת חניפים כת מספרי לשון הרע כת לצים דכתיב (הושע ז, ה) משך ידו את לוצצים כת שקרנים דכתיב (תהלים קא, ז) דובר שקרים לא יכון לנגד עיני כת חניפים דכתיב (איוב יג, טז) כי לא לפניו חנף יבוא כת מספרי לשון הרע דכתיב (תהלים ה, ה) כי לא אל חפץ רשע אתה לא יגורך רע צדיק אתה ולא יהיה במגורך רע,ואמר רב חסדא אמר רבי ירמיה בר אבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים צא, י) לא תאונה אליך רעה ונגע לא יקרב באהלך לא תאונה אליך רעה שלא ישלוט) בהן יצר הרע ונגע לא יקרב באהלך שלא תמצא אשתך ספק נדה בשעה שתבא מן הדרך,דבר אחר לא תאונה אליך רעה שלא יבעתוך חלומות רעים והרהורים רעים ונגע לא יקרב באהלך שלא יהא לך בן או תלמיד שמקדיח תבשילו ברבים [כגון ישו הנוצרי],עד כאן ברכו אביו מכאן ואילך ברכתו אמו (תהלים צא, יא) כי מלאכיו יצוה לך לשמרך בכל דרכיך על כפים ישאונך וגו' על שחל ופתן תדרוך וגו',עד כאן ברכתו אמו מכאן ואילך ברכתו שמים
| 103a. b“on account of Manasseh”means bbecause he did not repent,and the people followed in his footsteps., bRabbi Yoḥa says: Anyone who saysthat bManasseh has no share in the World-to-Come discourages penitents,as Manasseh repented and according to them is nevertheless excluded from the World-to-Come. bAsthe itannataughta ibaraita bbefore Rabbi Yoḥa: Manasseh repented for thirty-three years, as it is written: “Manasseh was twelve years old when he began to reign, and he reigned fifty-five years in Jerusalem…And he did that which was evil…And he made an iashera /i, as did Ahab king of Israel”(II Kings 21:1–3). bHow manyyears bdid Ahab reign?He reigned btwenty-two years. How manyyears bdid Manasseh reign?He reigned bfifty-fiveyears. bDeduct from themthe btwenty-twoyears during which he performed evil like Ahab, and bthirty-threeyears bremain for himto have repented., bRabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “And he prayed to Him; and He made an opening for him”(II Chronicles 33:13)? Instead: bAnd He received his entreaty, should have beenwritten. Rather, this bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, crafted for him a type of opening in Heaven in order to accept him in repentance.It was necessary for Manasseh to enter the World-to-Come in a clandestine manner, bdue to the attribute of justicethat sought to prevent his entry by claiming that his sentence was irreversible.,§ bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “In the beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim, son of Josiah”(Jeremiah 26:1), band it is written: “In the beginning of the reign of Zedekiah”(Jeremiah 28:1). bBut is it sothat buntil now there were no kings?Why did the prophet use the term “in the beginning” exclusively with regard to these two kings, as opposed to: During the first year of his reign, or a similar formulation?, bRather,the reason for the unusual formulation is that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to restore the entire world to chaos and void,as it was in the beginning before Creation, bon account of Jehoiakimthe wicked; but bHe observedJehoiakim’s bgeneration,which included the righteous who had not yet been exiled to Babylonia, band His mind was set at ease.The term “in the beginning” is used to signify that it is as though the world had been created anew.,Likewise, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to restore the entire world to chaos and void,as it was in the beginning before Creation, bon account of the generation of Zedekiah,as only the wicked remained after the exile of the righteous; but bHe observed Zedekiah and His mind was set at ease.The Gemara asks: bWith regard to Zedekiah it is also written: “And he did evil in the eyes of the Lord”(II Kings 24:19); why was God’s mind set at ease? The Gemara answers: Zedekiah was not wicked; rather, bhe hadit bin his power to rebukethe people of his generation band he did not rebukethem. Therefore, their sins are attributed to him., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “If a wise man contends with a foolish man, whether he is angry or laughs, there is no rest”(Proverbs 29:9)? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I was angry with Ahaz and I delivered him into the hand of the kings of Damascus. Hethen bsacrificedofferings band burnedincense bto their gods, as it is stated: “He sacrificed to the gods of Damascus that smote him; and he said: Because the gods of the kings of Aram help them, I will sacrifice to them, and they will help me. But they were the ruin of him, and of all Israel”(II Chronicles 28:23). When the Holy One, Blessed be He, was angry with Israel and caused them to lose a war to prompt them to repent of their sins, their response was to worship idols., bI smiled upon Amaziah and I delivered the kings of Edom into his hand.In response, bhe brought their gods and bowed to them, as it is stated: “And it came to pass after Amaziah came from striking the Edomites, that he brought the gods of the children of Seir and set them up to be his gods and prostrated himself before them, and burned incense to them”(II Chronicles 25:14). The response to victory in war was the same, idol worship. They are incorrigible. bRav Pappa saysthat bthisis in accordance with the adage bthat people say: I cried for the master and he did not know, I smiled for the master and he did not know; woe unto the master who does not knowthe distinction bbetween good and bad.The Jewish people also resorted to idol worship both when God rewarded them and when He afflicted them.,With regard to the verse: b“And all the princes of the king of Babylonia came in and sat in the middle gate [ isha’ar hattavekh /i]”(Jeremiah 39:3), bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: iSha’ar hattavekhwas bthe place in which theywould bdecide [ imeḥattekhin /i] ihalakhot /i. Rav Pappa saysthat bthisis in accordance with the adage bthat people say: In the place that the masterof the house bhangs his weapons, there the despicable shepherd hangs his jug.In the place where the Sanhedrin convened, Nebuchadnezzar the wicked and his princes now assemble.,§ The Gemara cites ba mnemonicfor the following statements that Rav Ḥisda said that Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba said: bBy the field, houses, shall not befall. /b, bRav Ḥisda saysthat bRabbi Yirmeya bar Abba says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “I passed by the field of an indolent man, and by the vineyard of a man void of understanding; and behold, it was overgrown with thistles, and its surface was covered with nettles, and its stone wall was broken”(Proverbs 24:30–31)? The verse describes the spiritual and political decline of the kings of Judea. b“I passed by the field of an indolent man”; thisis a reference to bAhaz. “And by the vineyard of a man void of understanding”; thisis a reference to bManasseh. “And behold, it was overgrown with thistles”; thisis a reference to bAmon. “And its surface was covered with nettles”; thisis a reference to bJehoiakim. “And its stone wall was broken”; thisis a reference to bZedekiah, in whose days the Temple was destroyed. /b,Apropos the previous statement, the Gemara cites an additional statement. bAnd Rav Ḥisda saysthat bRabbi Yirmeya bar Abba saysthat bfour groups do not receive the Divine Presence:This pertains to bthe group of cynics, the group of liars, the group of flatterers,and bthe group of slanderers.This pertains to bthe group of cynics, as it is written: “He withdrew His hand with cynics”(Hosea 7:5), indicating that God distanced Himself from them. This pertains to bthe group of liars, as it is written: “He that speaks falsehoods shall not be established before My eyes”(Psalms 101:7). This pertains to bthe group of flatterers, as it is written: “That a flatterer shall not come before Him”(Job 13:16). This pertains to bthe group of slanderers, as it is stated: “For You are not a God who desires wickedness; evil shall not dwell with You”(Psalms 5:5), which means: bYou are righteous, and there will be noform of bevil in Your dwelling. /b, bAnd Rav Ḥisda saysthat bRabbi Yirmeya bar Abba says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “No evil shall befall you, nor shall any plague come near your tent”(Psalms 91:10)? b“No evil shall befall you”means bthat the evil inclination shall not dominate them. “Nor shall any plague come near your tent”means bthat you will never find your wifein a state of buncertaintywhether she has the halakhic status of ba menstruating woman when you return from a journey.After a period of separation, when a husband desires his wife, her uncertain status may prove more frustrating than a situation where the prohibition is clear-cut., bAlternatively,the phrase b“no evil shall befall you”means bthat you will be frightened neither by bad dreams nor by evil thoughts. “Nor shall any plague come near your tent”means bthat you will not have a child or student who overcooks his food in public,i.e., sins in public and causes others to sin, bsuch asin the well-known case of bJesus the Nazarene. /b, bUntil this pointin the psalm, Solomon’s bfather,David, bblessed him,as these are blessings appropriate for a father to bless his son. bFrom thispoint bforward, his mother blessed him,as these are blessings appropriate for a mother to bless her son. b“For he shall order His angels to preserve you in all your ways. They shall bear you on their hands,lest they dash your foot against a stone. bYou shall tread upon the lion and the adder;the young lion and the crocodile shall you trample under foot” (Psalms 91:11–13)., bUntil this pointin the psalm, bhis mother blessed him. From thispoint bforward,God in bHeaven blessed him,as the psalm proceeds to refer to God in the first person, as though speaking in His name:
|38. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
| 27b. וחלקום והעמידום על עשרים וארבעה בללום ונתנום בקלפי בא ידעיה ונטל חלקו וחלק חבריו שש בא [חרים] ונטל חלקו וחלק חבריו שש וכן פשחור וכן אימר,וכן התנו נביאים שביניהם שאפי' (יהוידיב) ראש משמרת עולה לא ידחה ידעיה ממקומו אלא ידעיה עיקר (ויהוידיב) טפל לו:,וישראל שבאותו משמר מתכנסין בעריהן וקורין במעשה בראשית: מנהני מילי א"ר יעקב בר אחא אמר רב אסי אלמלא מעמדות לא נתקיימו שמים וארץ שנאמר (בראשית טו, ב) ויאמר ה' אלהים במה אדע כי אירשנה,אמר אברהם רבש"ע שמא ישראל חוטאין לפניך אתה עושה להם כדור המבול וכדור הפלגה א"ל לאו אמר לפניו רבש"ע הודיעני במה אירשנה א"ל (בראשית טו, ט) קחה לי עגלה משולשת ועז משולשת וגו',אמר לפניו רבש"ע תינח בזמן שבית המקדש קיים בזמן שאין בית המקדש קיים מה תהא עליהם אמר לו כבר תקנתי להם סדר קרבנות בזמן שקוראין בהן לפני מעלה אני עליהם כאילו הקריבום לפני ואני מוחל להם על כל עונותיהם,ת"ר אנשי משמר היו מתפללין על קרבן אחיהם שיתקבל ברצון ואנשי מעמד מתכנסין לבית הכנסת ויושבין ד' תעניות בשני בשבת בשלישי ברביעי ובחמישי בשני על יורדי הים בשלישי על הולכי מדברות,ברביעי על אסכרא שלא תיפול על התינוקות בחמישי על עוברות ומיניקות עוברות שלא יפילו מיניקות שיניקו את בניהם ובערב שבת לא היו מתענין מפני כבוד השבת ק"ו בשבת עצמה,באחד בשבת מ"ט לא אמר ר' יוחנן מפני הנוצרים ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר מפני שהוא שלישי ליצירה,ריש לקיש אמר מפני נשמה יתירה דאמר ריש לקיש נשמה יתירה ניתנה בו באדם בע"ש במוצאי שבת נוטלין אותה ממנו שנאמר (שמות לא, יז) שבת וינפש כיון ששבת וי אבדה נפש:,ביום הראשון בראשית ויהי רקיע: תנא בראשית בשנים יהי רקיע באחד בשלמא יהי רקיע באחד תלתא פסוקי הוו אלא בראשית בשנים (מ"ט) ה' פסוקי הויין (ותנן) הקורא בתורה אל יפחות מג' פסוקים,רב אמר דולג ושמואל אמר פוסק ורב דאמר דולג מ"ט לא אמר פוסק קסבר כל פסוקא דלא פסקיה משה אנן לא פסקינן ליה,ושמואל אמר פוסק ומי פסקינן והאמר רבי חנינא קרא צער גדול היה לי אצל ר' חנינא הגדול ולא התיר לי לפסוק אלא לתינוקות של בית רבן הואיל ולהתלמד עשוין ושמואל התם טעמא מאי משום דלא אפשר הכא נמי לא אפשר,ושמואל אמר פוסק מ"ט לא אמר דולג גזירה משום הנכנסין וגזירה משום היוצאין,מיתיבי פרשה של ששה פסוקים קורין אותה בשנים ושל חמשה [ביחיד ואם] הראשון קורא ג' השני קורא שנים מפרשה זו ואחד מפרשה אחרת וי"א ג' לפי שאין מתחילין בפרשה פחות משלשה פסוקין,למ"ד דולג לידלוג ולמאן דאמר פוסק ליפסוק שאני התם
| 27b. band divided them and established them as twenty-fourwatches. They achieved this by writing the names of these new twenty-four watches on pieces of paper, bmixing them up, and putting them in a receptacle [ ikalfei /i]from which lots were drawn. A representative from the family of bJedaiah came and drew his portion and the lot offive botherwatches, for a total of bsix. Harim came andalso bdrew his portion and the lot offive botherwatches, a total of bsix. And likewise Pashhur, and likewise Immer. /b, bAnd likewise the prophets among them stipulated that evenif the descendants of bJehoiarib, whooriginally bheaded the priestly watches, ascendedto Eretz Yisrael, bJedaiah would not be demoted from its placeas the first of the watches. Rather, the watch of bJedaiahwould retain bprecedence, and Jehoiaribwould be bsubordinate to it. /b,§ The mishna taught: bAnd the Israelites of that priestly watch assembled in their towns and read the act of Creation.The Gemara asks: bFrom where is this matter,that they must read this specific portion, derived? bRabbi Ya’akov bar Aḥa saidthat bRav Asi said: Were it not forthe bnon-priestly watchesand the Temple service, bheaven and earth would not continue to exist, as it is stated: “And he said: Lord God, by what shall I know that I shall inherit it?”(Genesis 15:8).,The Gemara explains this verse. bAbraham said: Master of the Universe, perhaps the Jewswill bsin before You.Will bYou treat them asYou did bthe generation of the flood and the generation of the dispersion,and destroy them? God bsaid to him: No.Abraham bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, tell me, with what shall I inherit it?How can my descendants ensure that You will maintain the world? God bsaid toAbraham: b“Take for Me a three-year-old heifer, and a three-year-old goat,and a three-year-old ram, and a turtledove, and a young pigeon” (Genesis 15:9). God was alluding to the offerings, in whose merit the Jewish people, and through them the entire world, will be spared divine punishment.,Abraham bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe,this bworks out well when the Temple is standing,but bwhen the Temple is not standing, what will become of them?God bsaid to him: I have already enacted for them the order of offerings. When they read them before Me, I will ascribe themcredit bas though they had sacrificed them before Me and I will pardon them for all their transgressions.Since the offerings ensure the continued existence of the Jewish people and the rest of the world, the act of Creation is read in their honor.,§ bThe Sages taught: The members of the priestly watch would pray for the offerings of their brothers,the daily offering, bthat it should be accepted with favor. Andmeanwhile, bthe members ofthe bnon-priestly watchremained in their towns and would bassemble in the synagogue and observe four fasts: On Monday ofthat bweek, on Tuesday, on Wednesday, and on Thursday. On Mondaythey would fast bfor seafarers,that they should be rescued from danger, as the sea was created on Monday. bOn Tuesdaythey would fast bfor those who walk in the desert,as the dry land was created on Tuesday., bOn Wednesdaythey would fast bover croup, that it should not befall the children,as on the fourth day the bodies of light [ ime’orot /i] were created, a textual allusion to curses [ ime’erot /i]. bOn Thursdaythey would fast bfor pregt women and nursing women,as living beings were first created on this day. For bpregt womenthey would fast bthat they should not miscarry,while for bnursing womenthey would fast bthat theyshould be able to bnurse their childrenproperly. bAnd on Shabbat eve they would not fast, in deference to Shabbat,and ia fortiori /ithey would not fast bon Shabbat itself. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat they would bnotfast bon Sunday? Rabbi Yoḥa said: Due to the Christians,as Sunday is their day of rest, and they would claim that even the Jews ascribe significance to their special day. bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: Because it is the third day after the creationof man, who was created on Friday, and the third day of recovery from a wound or sickness, in this case one’s very creation, is considered the most painful., bReish Lakish said:They would not fast on Sunday bdue to the added soul, as Reish Lakish said: An added soul is given to man on Shabbat eve,and bat the conclusion of Shabbat it is removed it from him, as it is stated: “He ceased from work and rested[ivayinafash/b]” (Exodus 31:17), which he expounds as follows: bSince one has restedand Shabbat has passed, bwoe for the soul [ ivai nefesh /i]that is blost,the added soul that each individual relinquishes. Consequently, one is still weak from this loss on Sunday.,The mishna taught that bon Sundaythey would read the portions starting with: b“In the beginning”(Genesis 1:1–5) band “Let there be a firmament”(Genesis 1:6–8). It bis taughtin a ibaraita /i: The section: b“In the beginning”is read bby twopeople, while b“Let there be a firmament”is read bby one.The Gemara asks: bGranted,the passage b“Let there be a firmament”is read bby oneindividual, as bit is three verseslong, and one who is called to the Torah reads at least three verses. bHowever, what is the reasonthat the section b“In the beginning”is read bby twoindividuals? It is five verses long, band it is taughtin a mishna ( iMegilla22a): bOne who reads from the Torahmay bnotread bfewer than three verses.How, then, are five verses read by two individuals?,The Gemara cites two answers. bRav said:The first reader reads the first three verses, and the second reader brepeatsthe last verse read by the first, and continues with the final two verses. bAnd Shmuel said:They bsplitthe middle verse into two, so that each of the pair reads half of it. The Gemara asks: bAndwith regard to bRav, who saidthat one brepeats, what is the reasonthat bhe did not saythey should bsplita verse? The Gemara answers that Rav bmaintainsthat with regard to bany verse that was not divided by Moses, we do not divide it. /b, bAnd Shmuel saidthat one bsplitsthe middle verse into two. The Gemara asks: bAnd may one splita single verse? bBut didn’t Rabbi Ḥanina Kara,the Bible expert, who taught the Bible to schoolchildren, bsay: I had great trouble with Rabbi Ḥanina the Greatwhen I asked him this question, band he permitted me to splitlong verses into two bonly forthe benefit of bschoolchildren, since it is performed tohelp them blearn. And Shmuelcan respond that bwhat is the reason there,in the case of schoolchildren, that it is permitted to split verses? bBecause it is not possibleto proceed in any other way. bHere too, it is not possiblefor two people to read five verses other than by splitting one of them into two.,The Gemara questions this last conclusion. bAnd Shmuel saidthat one bsplitsthe middle verse into two. bWhat is the reasonthat bhe did not saythat he brepeatsone of the verses, in accordance with the opinion of Rav? The Gemara explains: It is a rabbinic bdecree due to those who enterthe synagogue in the middle of the reading, and ba decree due to those who leavein the middle. If someone entered or exited in the middle of the reading and heard three full verses, he might think that one of the readers had read fewer than three full verses, which might lead him to conclude that it is permitted to read fewer than three verses.,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom a ibaraita /i: bA chapterconsisting bof six versesmay bbe read by twoindividuals, banda chapter bof fiveverses must be read bby one. And if the firstindividual breads threeverses from the five-verse chapter, bthe secondone reads the last btwoverses bof that chapter and onemore from banother chapter. And some saythat bthreeverses are read from the next chapter, bas one may not begin to read a chapterfor bfewer than three verses. /b,The Gemara explains the objection: bAccording to the one who saidthat they brepeatthe middle verse, bletthe second reader brepeata verse here as well. bAnd according to the one who saidthat they bsplita verse, here too, bletthem bsplitit. Apparently, the ibaraitacontradicts the opinions of both Rav and Shmuel. The Gemara answers: bIt is different there, /b
|39. Epigraphy, Ig I , 82
|40. Epigraphy, Ig I , 82