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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8243
New Testament, Acts, 22.3


Ἐγώ εἰμι ἀνὴρ Ἰουδαῖος, γεγεννημένος ἐν Ταρσῷ τῆς Κιλικίας, ἀνατεθραμμένος δὲ ἐν τῇ πόλει ταύτῃ παρὰ τοὺς πόδας Γαμαλιήλ, πεπαιδευμένος κατὰ ἀκρίβειαν τοῦ πατρῴου νόμου, ζηλωτὴς ὑπάρχων τοῦ θεοῦ καθὼς πάντες ὑμεῖς ἐστὲ σήμερονI am indeed a Jew, born in Tarsus of Cilicia, but brought up in this city at the feet of Gamaliel, instructed according to the strict manner of the law of our fathers, being zealous for God, even as you all are this day.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

47 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.2, 33.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.2. כָּל־מַחְמֶצֶת לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ בְּכֹל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם תֹּאכְלוּ מַצּוֹת׃ 12.2. הַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה לָכֶם רֹאשׁ חֳדָשִׁים רִאשׁוֹן הוּא לָכֶם לְחָדְשֵׁי הַשָּׁנָה׃ 12.2. ’This month shall be unto you the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you." 33.20. And He said: ‘Thou canst not see My face, for man shall not see Me and live.’"
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 12.7, 17.1, 18.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.7. וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר לְזַרְעֲךָ אֶתֵּן אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת וַיִּבֶן שָׁם מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה הַנִּרְאֶה אֵלָיו׃ 17.1. זֹאת בְּרִיתִי אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁמְרוּ בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ הִמּוֹל לָכֶם כָּל־זָכָר׃ 17.1. וַיְהִי אַבְרָם בֶּן־תִּשְׁעִים שָׁנָה וְתֵשַׁע שָׁנִים וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אֲנִי־אֵל שַׁדַּי הִתְהַלֵּךְ לְפָנַי וֶהְיֵה תָמִים׃ 18.1. וַיֹּאמֶר שׁוֹב אָשׁוּב אֵלֶיךָ כָּעֵת חַיָּה וְהִנֵּה־בֵן לְשָׂרָה אִשְׁתֶּךָ וְשָׂרָה שֹׁמַעַת פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וְהוּא אַחֲרָיו׃ 18.1. וַיֵּרָא אֵלָיו יְהוָה בְּאֵלֹנֵי מַמְרֵא וְהוּא יֹשֵׁב פֶּתַח־הָאֹהֶל כְּחֹם הַיּוֹם׃ 12.7. And the LORD appeared unto Abram, and said: ‘Unto thy seed will I give this land’; and he builded there an altar unto the LORD, who appeared unto him." 17.1. And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the LORD appeared to Abram, and said unto him: ‘I am God Almighty; walk before Me, and be thou wholehearted." 18.1. And the LORD appeared unto him by the terebinths of Mamre, as he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day;"
3. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 2.28-2.32 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 17.11, 18.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.11. כִּי נֶפֶשׁ הַבָּשָׂר בַּדָּם הִוא וַאֲנִי נְתַתִּיו לָכֶם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כִּי־הַדָּם הוּא בַּנֶּפֶשׁ יְכַפֵּר׃ 18.5. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם הָאָדָם וָחַי בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 17.11. For the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that maketh atonement by reason of the life." 18.5. Ye shall therefore keep My statutes, and Mine ordices, which if a man do, he shall live by them: I am the LORD."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 25.6-25.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.6. וְהִנֵּה אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּא וַיַּקְרֵב אֶל־אֶחָיו אֶת־הַמִּדְיָנִית לְעֵינֵי מֹשֶׁה וּלְעֵינֵי כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהֵמָּה בֹכִים פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 25.7. וַיַּרְא פִּינְחָס בֶּן־אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן וַיָּקָם מִתּוֹךְ הָעֵדָה וַיִּקַּח רֹמַח בְּיָדוֹ׃ 25.8. וַיָּבֹא אַחַר אִישׁ־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־הַקֻּבָּה וַיִּדְקֹר אֶת־שְׁנֵיהֶם אֵת אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־קֳבָתָהּ וַתֵּעָצַר הַמַּגֵּפָה מֵעַל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.9. וַיִּהְיוּ הַמֵּתִים בַּמַּגֵּפָה אַרְבָּעָה וְעֶשְׂרִים אָלֶף׃ 25.11. פִּינְחָס בֶּן־אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן הֵשִׁיב אֶת־חֲמָתִי מֵעַל בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּקַנְאוֹ אֶת־קִנְאָתִי בְּתוֹכָם וְלֹא־כִלִּיתִי אֶת־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּקִנְאָתִי׃ 25.12. לָכֵן אֱמֹר הִנְנִי נֹתֵן לוֹ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי שָׁלוֹם׃ 25.13. וְהָיְתָה לּוֹ וּלְזַרְעוֹ אַחֲרָיו בְּרִית כְּהֻנַּת עוֹלָם תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר קִנֵּא לֵאלֹהָיו וַיְכַפֵּר עַל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.6. And, behold, one of the children of Israel came and brought unto his brethren a Midianitish woman in the sight of Moses, and in the sight of all the congregation of the children of Israel, while they were weeping at the door of the tent of meeting." 25.7. And when Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, saw it, he rose up from the midst of the congregation, and took a spear in his hand." 25.8. And he went after the man of Israel into the chamber, and thrust both of them through, the man of Israel, and the woman through her belly. So the plague was stayed from the children of Israel." 25.9. And those that died by the plague were twenty and four thousand." 25.10. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 25.11. ’Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, hath turned My wrath away from the children of Israel, in that he was very jealous for My sake among them, so that I consumed not the children of Israel in My jealousy." 25.12. Wherefore say: Behold, I give unto him My covet of peace;" 25.13. and it shall be unto him, and to his seed after him, the covet of an everlasting priesthood; because he was jealous for his God, and made atonement for the children of Israel.’"
6. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.9-6.10, 42.21 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.9. וַיֹּאמֶר לֵךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ לָעָם הַזֶּה שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמוֹעַ וְאַל־תָּבִינוּ וּרְאוּ רָאוֹ וְאַל־תֵּדָעוּ׃ 42.21. יְהוָה חָפֵץ לְמַעַן צִדְקוֹ יַגְדִּיל תּוֹרָה וְיַאְדִּיר׃ 6.9. And He said: ‘Go, and tell this people: Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not." 6.10. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they, seeing with their eyes, and hearing with their ears, and understanding with their heart, return, and be healed.’" 42.21. The LORD was pleased, for His righteousness’sake, To make the teaching great and glorious."
7. Hebrew Bible, Haggai, 2.10-2.13 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.11. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁאַל־נָא אֶת־הַכֹּהֲנִים תּוֹרָה לֵאמֹר׃ 2.12. הֵן יִשָּׂא־אִישׁ בְּשַׂר־קֹדֶשׁ בִּכְנַף בִּגְדוֹ וְנָגַע בִּכְנָפוֹ אֶל־הַלֶּחֶם וְאֶל־הַנָּזִיד וְאֶל־הַיַּיִן וְאֶל־שֶׁמֶן וְאֶל־כָּל־מַאֲכָל הֲיִקְדָּשׁ וַיַּעֲנוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֹא׃ 2.13. וַיֹּאמֶר חַגַּי אִם־יִגַּע טְמֵא־נֶפֶשׁ בְּכָל־אֵלֶּה הֲיִטְמָא וַיַּעֲנוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים וַיֹּאמְרוּ יִטְמָא׃ 2.10. In the four and twentieth day of the ninth month, in the second year of Darius, came the word of the LORD by Haggai the prophet, saying:" 2.11. ’Thus saith the LORD of hosts: Ask now the priests for instruction, saying:" 2.12. If one bear hallowed flesh in the skirt of his garment, and with his skirt do touch bread, or pottage, or wine, or oil, or any food, shall it be holy?’ And the priests answered and said: ‘No.’" 2.13. Then said Haggai: ‘If one that is unclean by a dead body touch any of these, shall it be unclean?’ And the priests answered and said: ‘It shall be unclean.’"
8. Anon., 1 Enoch, 38-71, 37 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

37. The second vision which he saw, the vision of wisdom -which Enoch the son of Jared, the son,of Mahalalel, the son of Cai, the son of Enos, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, saw. And this is the beginning of the words of wisdom which I lifted up my voice to speak and say to those which dwell on earth: Hear, ye men of old time, and see, ye that come after, the words of the Holy,One which I will speak before the Lord of Spirits. It were better to declare (them only) to the men of old time, but even from those that come after we will not withhold the beginning of wisdom.,Till the present day such wisdom has never been given by the Lord of Spirits as I have received according to my insight, according to the good pleasure of the Lord of Spirits by whom the lot of,eternal life has been given to me. Now three Parables were imparted to me, and I lifted up my voice and recounted them to those that dwell on the earth.
9. Dead Sea Scrolls, Pesher On Habakkuk, 11.6-11.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.44-1.48, 2.24, 2.26-2.27, 2.45-2.46, 2.54 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.44. And the king sent letters by messengers to Jerusalem and the cities of Judah; he directed them to follow customs strange to the land 1.45. to forbid burnt offerings and sacrifices and drink offerings in the sanctuary, to profane sabbaths and feasts 1.46. to defile the sanctuary and the priests 1.47. to build altars and sacred precincts and shrines for idols, to sacrifice swine and unclean animals 1.48. and to leave their sons uncircumcised. They were to make themselves abominable by everything unclean and profane 2.24. When Mattathias saw it, be burned with zeal and his heart was stirred. He gave vent to righteous anger; he ran and killed him upon the altar. 2.26. Thus he burned with zeal for the law, as Phinehas did against Zimri the son of Salu. 2.27. Then Mattathias cried out in the city with a loud voice, saying: "Let every one who is zealous for the law and supports the covet come out with me! 2.45. And Mattathias and his friends went about and tore down the altars; 2.46. they forcibly circumcised all the uncircumcised boys that they found within the borders of Israel. 2.54. Phinehas our father, because he was deeply zealous, received the covet of everlasting priesthood.
11. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 41, 5-6, 40 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

40. These things therefore being manifest to us, and since we look into the depths of the divine knowledge, it behooves us to do all things in [their proper] order, which the Lord has commanded us to perform at stated times. He has enjoined offerings [to be presented] and service to be performed [to Him], and that not thoughtlessly or irregularly, but at the appointed times and hours. Where and by whom He desires these things to be done, He Himself has fixed by His own supreme will, in order that all things, being piously done according to His good pleasure, may be acceptable unto Him. Those, therefore, who present their offerings at the appointed times, are accepted and blessed; for inasmuch as they follow the laws of the Lord, they sin not. For his own peculiar services are assigned to the high priest, and their own proper place is prescribed to the priests, and their own special ministrations devolve on the Levites. The layman is bound by the laws that pertain to laymen.
12. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 18.6-18.7 (1st cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)

18.6.  So first of all, you should know that you have no need of toil or exacting labour; for although, when a man has already undergone a great deal of training, these contribute very greatly to his progress, yet if he has had only a little, they will lessen his confidence and make him diffident about getting into action; just as with athletes who are unaccustomed to the training of the body, such training weakens them if they become fatigued by exercises which are too severe. But just as bodies unaccustomed to toil need anointing and moderate exercise rather than the training of the gymnasium, so you in preparing yourself for public speaking have need of diligence which has a tempering of pleasure rather than laborious training. So let us consider the poets: I would counsel you to read Meder of the writers of Comedy quite carefully, and Euripides of the writers of Tragedy, and to do so, not casually by reading them to yourself, but by having them read to you by others, preferably by men who know how to render the lines pleasurably, but at any rate so as not to offend. For the effect is enhanced when one is relieved of the preoccupation of reading. 18.7.  And let no one of the more 'advanced' critics chide me for selecting Meder's plays in preference to the Old Comedy, or Euripides in preference to the earlier writers of Tragedy. For physicians do not prescribe the most costly diet for their patients, but that which is salutary. Now it would be a long task to enumerate all the advantages to be derived from these writers; indeed, not only has Meder's portrayal of every character and every charming trait surpassed all the skill of the early writers of Comedy, but the suavity and plausibility of Euripides, while perhaps not completely attaining to the grandeur of the tragic poet's way of deifying his characters, or to his high dignity, are very useful for the man in public life; and furthermore, he cleverly fills his plays with an abundance of characters and moving incidents, and strews them with maxims useful on all occasions, since he was not without acquaintance with philosophy.
13. Ignatius, To The Romans, 4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 2.318, 3.239, 3.248, 4.78, 13.295-13.298, 15.370-15.371, 17.41, 18.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.318. 2. They left Egypt in the month Xanthicus, on the fifteenth day of the lunar month; four hundred and thirty years after our forefather Abraham came into Canaan, but two hundred and fifteen years only after Jacob removed into Egypt. 3.239. 2. But on the seventh month, which the Macedonians call Hyperberetaeus, they make an addition to those already mentioned, and sacrifice a bull, a ram, and seven lambs, and a kid of the goats, for sins. 3.248. 5. In the month of Xanthicus, which is by us called Nisan, and is the beginning of our year, on the fourteenth day of the lunar month, when the sun is in Aries, (for in this month it was that we were delivered from bondage under the Egyptians,) the law ordained that we should every year slay that sacrifice which I before told you we slew when we came out of Egypt, and which was called the Passover; and so we do celebrate this passover in companies, leaving nothing of what we sacrifice till the day following. 4.78. 6. Then it was that Miriam, the sister of Moses, came to her end, having completed her fortieth year since she left Egypt, on the first day of the lunar month Xanthicus. They then made a public funeral for her, at a great expense. She was buried upon a certain mountain, which they call Sin: and when they had mourned for her thirty days, Moses purified the people after this manner: 13.295. At this gentle sentence, Hyrcanus was very angry, and thought that this man reproached him by their approbation. It was this Jonathan who chiefly irritated him, and influenced him so far 13.296. that he made him leave the party of the Pharisees, and abolish the decrees they had imposed on the people, and to punish those that observed them. From this source arose that hatred which he and his sons met with from the multitude: 13.297. but of these matters we shall speak hereafter. What I would now explain is this, that the Pharisees have delivered to the people a great many observances by succession from their fathers, which are not written in the laws of Moses; and for that reason it is that the Sadducees reject them, and say that we are to esteem those observances to be obligatory which are in the written word, but are not to observe what are derived from the tradition of our forefathers. 13.298. And concerning these things it is that great disputes and differences have arisen among them, while the Sadducees are able to persuade none but the rich, and have not the populace obsequious to them, but the Pharisees have the multitude on their side. But about these two sects, and that of the Essenes, I have treated accurately in the second book of Jewish affairs. 15.371. The Essenes also, as we call a sect of ours, were excused from this imposition. These men live the same kind of life as do those whom the Greeks call Pythagoreans, concerning whom I shall discourse more fully elsewhere. 17.41. For there was a certain sect of men that were Jews, who valued themselves highly upon the exact skill they had in the law of their fathers, and made men believe they were highly favored by God, by whom this set of women were inveigled. These are those that are called the sect of the Pharisees, who were in a capacity of greatly opposing kings. A cunning sect they were, and soon elevated to a pitch of open fighting and doing mischief. 18.12. 3. Now, for the Pharisees, they live meanly, and despise delicacies in diet; and they follow the conduct of reason; and what that prescribes to them as good for them they do; and they think they ought earnestly to strive to observe reason’s dictates for practice. They also pay a respect to such as are in years; nor are they so bold as to contradict them in any thing which they have introduced; 18.12. 3. So Vitellius prepared to make war with Aretas, having with him two legions of armed men; he also took with him all those of light armature, and of the horsemen which belonged to them, and were drawn out of those kingdoms which were under the Romans, and made haste for Petra, and came to Ptolemais.
15. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.110, 2.162 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.162. 14. But then as to the two other orders at first mentioned: the Pharisees are those who are esteemed most skillful in the exact explication of their laws, and introduce the first sect. These ascribe all to fate [or providence], and to God
16. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.77, 2.149 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.77. we also offer perpetual sacrifices for them; nor do we only offer them every day at the common expenses of all the Jews, but although we offer no other such sacrifices out of our common expenses, no, not for our own children, yet do we this as a peculiar honor to the emperors, and to them alone, while we do the same to no other person whomsoever. 2.149. now I think I shall have then sufficiently disproved all these his allegations, when it shall appear that our laws enjoin the very reverse of what he says, and that we very carefully observe those laws ourselves;
17. Josephus Flavius, Life, 191, 190 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Mishnah, Eruvin, 6.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.2. Rabban Gamaliel said: A Sadducee once lived with us in the same alley in Jerusalem and father told us: “Hurry up and carry out all vessels into the alley before he carries out his and thereby restricts you”. Rabbi Judah said [the instruction was given] in different language: “Hurry up and perform all of your needs in the alley before he carries out his and thereby restricts you”."
19. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 2.1-2.5, 9.1, 9.19-9.23, 10.16, 14.16, 15.3-15.8, 15.10-15.11, 15.21-15.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. When I came to you, brothers, I didn't come with excellence ofspeech or of wisdom, proclaiming to you the testimony of God. 2.2. ForI determined not to know anything among you, except Jesus Christ, andhim crucified. 2.3. I was with you in weakness, in fear, and in muchtrembling. 2.4. My speech and my preaching were not in persuasivewords of human wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power 2.5. that your faith wouldn't stand in the wisdom of men, but in thepower of God. 9.1. Am I not free? Am I not an apostle? Haven't I seen JesusChrist, our Lord? Aren't you my work in the Lord? 9.19. For though I was free fromall, I brought myself under bondage to all, that I might gain the more. 9.20. To the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain Jews; to thosewho are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain those whoare under the law; 9.21. to those who are without law, as without law(not being without law toward God, but under law toward Christ), that Imight win those who are without law. 9.22. To the weak I became asweak, that I might gain the weak. I have become all things to all men,that I may by all means save some. 9.23. Now I do this for thegospel's sake, that I may be a joint partaker of it. 10.16. Thecup of blessing which we bless, isn't it a communion of the blood ofChrist? The bread which we break, isn't it a communion of the body ofChrist? 14.16. Otherwise if you blesswith the spirit, how will he who fills the place of the unlearned saythe "Amen" at your giving of thanks, seeing he doesn't know what yousay? 15.3. For I delivered to youfirst of all that which I also received: that Christ died for our sinsaccording to the Scriptures 15.4. that he was buried, that he wasraised on the third day according to the Scriptures 15.5. and that heappeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. 15.6. Then he appeared to overfive hundred brothers at once, most of whom remain until now, but somehave also fallen asleep. 15.7. Then he appeared to James, then to allthe apostles 15.8. and last of all, as to the child born at the wrongtime, he appeared to me also. 15.10. But by the grace of God I amwhat I am. His grace which was bestowed on me was not futile, but Iworked more than all of them; yet not I, but the grace of God which waswith me. 15.11. Whether then it is I or they, so we preach, and so youbelieved. 15.21. For since death came byman, the resurrection of the dead also came by man. 15.22. For as inAdam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive.
20. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 10.10, 11.22, 12.1-12.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

21. New Testament, Acts, 1, 1.13, 2, 2.44, 2.45, 4.13, 4.17, 4.32, 5.34, 5.35, 5.36, 5.37, 5.38, 5.39, 5.40, 5.42, 6.1, 6.9, 7.58, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 8.14, 8.15, 8.16, 8.17, 8.18, 8.19, 8.20, 8.21, 8.22, 8.23, 8.24, 8.25, 8.26, 8.27, 8.28, 8.29, 8.30, 8.31, 8.32, 8.33, 8.34, 8.35, 8.36, 8.37, 8.38, 8.39, 8.40, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24, 9.25, 9.26, 9.27, 9.28, 9.29, 9.30, 10, 10.1-11.18, 13.31, 14.4, 14.14, 15.5, 16.3, 16.12, 16.13, 16.14, 16.15, 16.16, 16.17, 16.18, 16.19, 16.20, 16.21, 16.22, 16.23, 16.24, 16.25, 16.26, 16.27, 16.28, 16.29, 16.30, 16.31, 16.32, 16.33, 16.34, 16.37, 16.38, 17.18, 17.19, 17.28, 18.3, 18.4, 18.5, 18.6, 18.7, 18.8, 18.12, 18.13, 18.24, 18.24-19.7, 18.25, 18.28, 19.9, 21, 21.11, 21.20, 21.21, 21.23, 21.24, 21.25, 21.26, 21.28, 22, 22.1, 22.2, 22.4, 22.5, 22.6, 22.7, 22.8, 22.9, 22.10, 22.11, 22.12, 22.13, 22.14, 22.15, 22.16, 22.17, 22.18, 22.19, 22.20, 22.21, 22.22, 22.25, 22.26, 22.27, 22.28, 22.29, 23, 23.6, 23.9, 23.12, 23.13, 23.14, 23.27, 23.29, 24, 24.10, 24.11, 24.12, 24.13, 24.14, 24.15, 24.16, 24.17, 24.18, 24.19, 24.20, 24.21, 25, 25.8, 25.25, 26, 26.2, 26.3, 26.4, 26.5, 26.6, 26.7, 26.8, 26.9, 26.10, 26.11, 26.12, 26.13, 26.14, 26.15, 26.16, 26.17, 26.18, 26.19, 26.20, 26.21, 26.22, 26.23, 26.24, 26.25, 26.26, 26.27, 26.28, 26.29, 26.31, 26.32, 27, 28, 28.17, 28.18, 28.19, 28.20, 28.21, 28.22, 28.23, 28.24, 28.25, 28.26, 28.27, 28.28, 28.29, 28.30, 28.31 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. New Testament, James, 1.18, 2.10, 2.14-2.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. of his own will he brought us forth by the word of truth, that we should be a kind of first fruits of his creatures. 2.10. For whoever shall keep the whole law, and yet stumble in one point, he has become guilty of all. 2.14. What good is it, my brothers, if a man says he has faith, but has no works? Can that faith save him? 2.15. And if a brother or sister is naked and in lack of daily food 2.16. and one of you tells them, "Go in peace, be warmed and filled;" and yet you didn't give them the things the body needs, what good is it? 2.17. Even so faith, if it has no works, is dead in itself. 2.18. Yes, a man will say, "You have faith, and I have works." Show me your faith from your works, and I by my works will show you my faith. 2.19. You believe that God is one. You do well. The demons also believe, and shudder. 2.20. But do you want to know, vain man, that faith apart from works is dead? 2.21. Wasn't Abraham our father justified by works, in that he offered up Isaac his son on the altar? 2.22. You see that faith worked with his works, and by works faith was perfected; 2.23. and the Scripture was fulfilled which says, "Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him as righteousness;" and he was called the friend of God. 2.24. You see then that by works, a man is justified, and not only by faith. 2.25. In like manner wasn't Rahab the prostitute also justified by works, in that she received the messengers, and sent them out another way? 2.26. For as the body apart from the spirit is dead, even so faith apart from works is dead.
23. New Testament, Ephesians, 5.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.15. Therefore watch carefully how you walk, not as unwise, but as wise;
24. New Testament, Galatians, 1.13-1.18, 3.10-3.19, 5.3, 6.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.13. For you have heard of my way ofliving in time past in the Jews' religion, how that beyond measure Ipersecuted the assembly of God, and ravaged it. 1.14. I advanced inthe Jews' religion beyond many of my own age among my countrymen, beingmore exceedingly zealous for the traditions of my fathers. 1.15. Butwhen it was the good pleasure of God, who separated me from my mother'swomb, and called me through his grace 1.16. to reveal his Son in me,that I might preach him among the Gentiles, I didn't immediately conferwith flesh and blood 1.17. nor did I go up to Jerusalem to those whowere apostles before me, but I went away into Arabia. Then I returnedto Damascus. 1.18. Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem tovisit Peter, and stayed with him fifteen days. 3.10. For as many as are of the works of the law areunder a curse. For it is written, "Cursed is everyone who doesn'tcontinue in all things that are written in the book of the law, to dothem. 3.11. Now that no man is justified by the law before God isevident, for, "The righteous will live by faith. 3.12. The law is notof faith, but, "The man who does them will live by them. 3.13. Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become acurse for us. For it is written, "Cursed is everyone who hangs on atree 3.14. that the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentilesthrough Christ Jesus; that we might receive the promise of the Spiritthrough faith. 3.15. Brothers, I speak like men. Though it is only aman's covet, yet when it has been confirmed, no one makes it void,or adds to it. 3.16. Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and tohis seed. He doesn't say, "To seeds," as of many, but as of one, "Toyour seed," which is Christ. 3.17. Now I say this. A covetconfirmed beforehand by God in Christ, the law, which came four hundredand thirty years after, does not annul, so as to make the promise of noeffect. 3.18. For if the inheritance is of the law, it is no more ofpromise; but God has granted it to Abraham by promise. 3.19. What then is the law? It was added because of transgressions,until the seed should come to whom the promise has been made. It wasordained through angels by the hand of a mediator. 5.3. Yes, I testify again to every man whoreceives circumcision, that he is a debtor to do the whole law. 6.11. See with what large letters I write to you with my own hand.
25. New Testament, Hebrews, 9.22, 13.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.22. According to the law, nearly everything is cleansed with blood, and apart from shedding of blood there is no remission. 13.10. We have an altar from which those who serve the holy tabernacle have no right to eat.
26. New Testament, Philippians, 3.4-3.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.4. though I myself might have confidence even in the flesh. If any other man thinks that he has confidence in the flesh, I yet more: 3.5. circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; concerning the law, a Pharisee; 3.6. concerning zeal, persecuting the assembly; concerning the righteousness which is in the law, found blameless. 3.7. However, what things were gain to me, these have I counted loss for Christ. 3.8. Yes most assuredly, and I count all things to be loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus, my Lord, for whom I suffered the loss of all things, and count them nothing but refuse, that I may gain Christ 3.9. and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own, that which is of the law, but that which is through faith in Christ, the righteousness which is from God by faith; 3.10. that I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his sufferings, becoming conformed to his death; 3.11. if by any means I may attain to the resurrection from the dead.
27. New Testament, Romans, 8.17, 8.35-8.39, 11.16, 15.24, 15.28, 16.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.17. and if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if indeed we suffer with him, that we may also be glorified with him. 8.35. Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Could oppression, or anguish, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword? 8.36. Even as it is written, "For your sake we are killed all day long. We were accounted as sheep for the slaughter. 8.37. No, in all these things, we are more than conquerors through him who loved us. 8.38. For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor things present, nor things to come, nor powers 8.39. nor height, nor depth, nor any other created thing, will be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord. 11.16. If the first fruit is holy, so is the lump. If the root is holy, so are the branches. 15.24. whenever I journey to Spain, I will come to you. For I hope to see you on my journey, and to be helped on my way there by you, if first I may enjoy your company for a while. 15.28. When therefore I have accomplished this, and have sealed to them this fruit, I will go on by way of you to Spain. 16.22. I, Tertius, who write the letter, greet you in the Lord.
28. New Testament, Titus, 1.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.12. One of them, a prophet of their own, said, "Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, and idle gluttons.
29. New Testament, John, 5.16, 7.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.16. For this cause the Jews persecuted Jesus, and sought to kill him, because he did these things on the Sabbath. 7.15. The Jews therefore marveled, saying, "How does this man know letters, having never been educated?
30. New Testament, Luke, 1.1, 1.3, 2.32, 3.14, 6.11, 6.15, 7.6, 7.36, 9.44, 11.37, 13.17, 13.31, 14.1, 14.6, 16.16, 18.32, 20.20-20.26, 24.7, 24.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Since many have undertaken to set in order a narrative concerning those matters which have been fulfilled among us 1.3. it seemed good to me also, having traced the course of all things accurately from the first, to write to you in order, most excellent Theophilus; 2.32. A light for revelation to the Gentiles, And the glory of your people Israel. 3.14. Soldiers also asked him, saying, "What about us? What must we do?"He said to them, "Extort from no one by violence, neither accuse anyone wrongfully. Be content with your wages. 6.11. But they were filled with rage, and talked with one another about what they might do to Jesus. 6.15. Matthew; Thomas; James, the son of Alphaeus; Simon, who was called the Zealot; 7.6. Jesus went with them. When he was now not far from the house, the centurion sent friends to him, saying to him, "Lord, don't trouble yourself, for I am not worthy for you to come under my roof. 7.36. One of the Pharisees invited him to eat with him. He entered into the Pharisee's house, and sat at the table. 9.44. Let these words sink into your ears, for the Son of Man will be delivered up into the hands of men. 11.37. Now as he spoke, a certain Pharisee asked him to dine with him. He went in, and sat at the table. 13.17. As he said these things, all his adversaries were put to shame, and all the multitude rejoiced for all the glorious things that were done by him. 13.31. On that same day, some Pharisees came, saying to him, "Get out of here, and go away, for Herod wants to kill you. 14.1. It happened, when he went into the house of one of the rulers of the Pharisees on a Sabbath to eat bread, that they were watching him. 14.6. They couldn't answer him regarding these things. 16.16. The law and the prophets were until John. From that time the gospel of the Kingdom of God is preached, and everyone is forcing his way into it. 18.32. For he will be delivered up to the Gentiles, will be mocked, treated shamefully, and spit on. 20.20. They watched him, and sent out spies, who pretended to be righteous, that they might trap him in something he said, so as to deliver him up to the power and authority of the governor. 20.21. They asked him, "Teacher, we know that you say and teach what is right, and aren't partial to anyone, but truly teach the way of God. 20.22. Is it lawful for us to pay taxes to Caesar, or not? 20.23. But he perceived their craftiness, and said to them, "Why do you test me? 20.24. Show me a denarius. Whose image and inscription are on it?"They answered, "Caesar's. 20.25. He said to them, "Then give to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's. 20.26. They weren't able to trap him in his words before the people. They marveled at his answer, and were silent. 24.7. saying that the Son of Man must be delivered up into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again? 24.34. saying, "The Lord is risen indeed, and has appeared to Simon!
31. New Testament, Mark, 3.6, 9.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.6. The Pharisees went out, and immediately conspired with the Herodians against him, how they might destroy him. 9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah.
32. New Testament, Matthew, 2.8, 11.12, 12.14, 17.24-17.27, 22.21, 26.52 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.8. He sent them to Bethlehem, and said, "Go and search diligently for the young child. When you have found him, bring me word, so that I also may come and worship him. 11.12. From the days of John the Baptizer until now, the Kingdom of Heaven suffers violence, and the violent take it by force. 12.14. But the Pharisees went out, and conspired against him, how they might destroy him. 17.24. When they had come to Capernaum, those who collected the didrachmas came to Peter, and said, "Doesn't your teacher pay the didrachma? 17.25. He said, "Yes."When he came into the house, Jesus anticipated him, saying, "What do you think, Simon? From whom do the kings of the earth receive toll or tribute? From their sons, or from strangers? 17.26. Peter said to him, "From strangers."Jesus said to him, "Therefore the sons are exempt. 17.27. But, lest we cause them to stumble, go to the sea, and cast a hook, and take up the first fish that comes up. When you have opened its mouth, you will find a stater. Take that, and give it to them for me and you. 22.21. They said to him, "Caesar's."Then he said to them, "Give therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's. 26.52. Then Jesus said to him, "Put your sword back into its place, for all those who take the sword will die by the sword.
33. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 20.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

34. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

35. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 3.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

36. Tosefta, Demai, 2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

37. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

38. Anon., The Acts of John, 89, 87 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

87. Those that were present inquired the cause, and were especially perplexed, because Drusiana had said: The Lord appeared unto me in the tomb in the likeness of John, and in that of a youth. Forasmuch, therefore, as they were perplexed and were, in a manner, not yet stablished in the faith, so as to endure it steadfastly, John said (or John bearing it patiently, said):
39. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 41.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

41.1. וַיְנַגַּע ה' אֶת פַּרְעֹה נְגָעִים גְּדֹלִים וגו' (בראשית יב, יז), כְּתִיב (תהלים צב, יג): צַדִּיק כַּתָּמָר יִפְרָח, מָה הַתְּמָרָה הַזּוֹ וְאֶרֶז אֵין בָּהֶם לֹא עִקּוּמִים וְלֹא סִיקוּסִים, כָּךְ הַצַּדִּיקִים אֵין בָּהֶם לֹא עִקּוּמִים וְלֹא סִיקוּסִים. מָה הַתְּמָרָה וְאֶרֶז צִלָּן רָחוֹק, כָּךְ מַתַּן שְׂכָרָן שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים רָחוֹק. מָה הַתְּמָרָה וְאֶרֶז לִבָּן מְכֻוָּן לְמַעְלָן, כָּךְ הַצַּדִּיקִים לִבָּן מְכֻוָּן לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים כה, טו): עֵינַי תָּמִיד אֶל ה' כִּי הוּא יוֹצִיא מֵרֶשֶׁת רַגְלָי. מַה תְּמָרָה וְאֶרֶז יֵשׁ לָהֶן תַּאֲוָה, אַף צַדִּיקִים יֵשׁ לָהֶן תַּאֲוָה, וּמַה הִיא תַּאֲוָתָן, הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, שֶׁנֶאֱמַר (תהלים מ, ב): קַוֹּה קִוִּיתִי ה'. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא מַעֲשֶׂה בִּתְמָרָה אַחַת שֶׁהָיְתָה עוֹמֶדֶת בְּחַמְתָן וְלֹא הָיְתָה עוֹשָׂה פֵּרוֹת, עָבַר דִּקְלַי אֶחָד וְרָאָה אוֹתָהּ, אָמַר תְּמָרָה זוֹ צוֹפָה מִירִיחוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִרְכִּיבוּ אוֹתָהּ עָשְׂתָה פֵּרוֹת. אִי מָה הַתְּמָרָה הַזּוֹ אֵין עוֹשִׂין מִמֶּנָּה כֵלִים, יָכוֹל אַף הַצַּדִּיקִים כֵּן, אֶתְמְהָא, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר כְּאֶרֶז. אָמַר רַב הוּנָא תַּמָּן עָבְדִין מִינֵיהּ מָאנִין. אִי מָה הָאֶרֶז אֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה פֵּרוֹת, כָּךְ הֵן צַדִּיקִים, אֶתְמְהָא, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר יִפְרָח. מַה תְּמָרָה זוֹ אֵין בָּהּ פְּסֹלֶת, אֶלָּא תְּמָרֶיהָ לַאֲכִילָה, וְלוּלָבֶיהָ לְהַלֵּל, חֲרָיוֹת לְסִכּוּךְ, סִיבִים לַחֲבָלִים, סַנְסַנִּים לִכְבָרָה, שִׁפְעַת קוֹרוֹת לְהַקְרוֹת בָּהֶם אֶת הַבַּיִת, כָּךְ הֵם יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵין בָּהֶם פְּסֹלֶת, אֶלָּא מֵהֶם בַּעֲלֵי מִקְרָא, מֵהֶם בַּעֲלֵי מִשְׁנָה, מֵהֶם בַּעֲלֵי תַּלְמוּד, מֵהֶם בַּעֲלֵי הַגָּדָה. מַה תְּמָרָה זוֹ וְאֶרֶז כָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא עוֹלֶה לְרֹאשָׁן וְאֵינוֹ מְשַׁמֵּר אֶת עַצְמוֹ הוּא נוֹפֵל וָמֵת, כָּךְ כָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא בָּא לְהִזְדַּוֵּג לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, סוֹף שֶׁהוּא נוֹטֵל אֶת שֶׁלּוֹ מִתַּחַת יְדֵיהֶם. תֵּדַע לְךָ שֶׁכֵּן, שֶׁהֲרֵי שָׂרָה עַל יְדֵי שֶׁמְּשָׁכָהּ פַּרְעֹה לַיְלָה אַחַת לָקָה הוּא וּבְנֵי בֵיתוֹ בִּנְגָעִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: וַיְנַגַע ה' אֶת פַּרְעֹה נְגָעִים גְּדֹלִים וגו'. 41.1. קוּם הִתְהַלֵּךְ בָּאָרֶץ (בראשית יג, יז), תָּנֵי הִלֵּךְ בַּשָּׂדֶה בֵּין לְאָרְכָּהּ בֵּין לְרָחְבָּהּ קָנָה עַד מָקוֹם שֶׁהִלֵּךְ, כְּדִבְרֵי רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, שֶׁהָיָה רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר הִלּוּךְ קָנָה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים לֹא קָנָה עַד שֶׁיְהַלֵּךְ לְאָרְכָּהּ וּלְרָחְבָּהּ. אָמַר רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב בֶּן זַבְדִּי טַעֲמֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר קוּם הִתְהַלֵּךְ בָּאָרֶץ וגו':
40. Anon., Acts of John, 89, 87 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

87. Those that were present inquired the cause, and were especially perplexed, because Drusiana had said: The Lord appeared unto me in the tomb in the likeness of John, and in that of a youth. Forasmuch, therefore, as they were perplexed and were, in a manner, not yet stablished in the faith, so as to endure it steadfastly, John said (or John bearing it patiently, said):
41. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 3.12.8, 4.19 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.19. Those born in Leo are of the following description: round head, reddish hair, huge wrinkled forehead, coarse ears, large development of neck, partly bald, red complexion, grey eyes, large jaws, coarse mouth, gross in the upper parts, huge breast, the under limbs tapering. The same are by nature persons who allow nothing to interfere with their own decision, pleasing themselves, irascible, passionate, scorners, obstinate, forming no design, not loquacious, indolent, making an improper use of leisure, familiar, wholly abandoned to pleasures of women, adulterers, immodest, in faith untrue, importunate, daring, penurious, spoliators, remarkable; as regards fellowship, useful; as regards friendship, useless.
42. Justin, First Apology, 13 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13. What sober-minded man, then, will not acknowledge that we are not atheists, worshipping as we do the Maker of this universe, and declaring, as we have been taught, that He has no need of streams of blood and libations and incense; whom we praise to the utmost of our power by the exercise of prayer and thanksgiving for all things wherewith we are supplied, as we have been taught that the only honour that is worthy of Him is not to consume by fire what He has brought into being for our sustece, but to use it for ourselves and those who need, and with gratitude to Him to offer thanks by invocations and hymns for our creation, and for all the means of health, and for the various qualities of the different kinds of things, and for the changes of the seasons; and to present before Him petitions for our existing again in incorruption through faith in Him. Our teacher of these things is Jesus Christ, who also was born for this purpose, and was crucified under Pontius Pilate, procurator of Jud a, in the times of Tiberius C sar; and that we reasonably worship Him, having learned that He is the Son of the true God Himself, and holding Him in the second place, and the prophetic Spirit in the third, we will prove. For they proclaim our madness to consist in this, that we give to a crucified man a place second to the unchangeable and eternal God, the Creator of all; for they do not discern the mystery that is herein, to which, as we make it plain to you, we pray you to give heed.
43. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 3, 19 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Justin: It is this about which we are at a loss, and with reason, because, while you endure such things, you do not observe all the other customs which we are now discussing. This circumcision is not, however, necessary for all men, but for you alone, in order that, as I have already said, you may suffer these things which you now justly suffer. Nor do we receive that useless baptism of cisterns, for it has nothing to do with this baptism of life. Wherefore also God has announced that you have forsaken Him, the living fountain, and dug for yourselves broken cisterns which can hold no water. Even you, who are the circumcised according to the flesh, have need of our circumcision; but we, having the latter, do not require the former. For if it were necessary, as you suppose, God would not have made Adam uncircumcised; would not have had respect to the gifts of Abel when, being uncircumcised, he offered sacrifice and would not have been pleased with the uncircumcision of Enoch, who was not found, because God had translated him. Lot, being uncircumcised, was saved from Sodom, the angels themselves and the Lord sending him out. Noah was the beginning of our race; yet, uncircumcised, along with his children he went into the ark. Melchizedek, the priest of the Most High, was uncircumcised; to whom also Abraham the first who received circumcision after the flesh, gave tithes, and he blessed him: after whose order God declared, by the mouth of David, that He would establish the everlasting priest. Therefore to you alone this circumcision was necessary, in order that the people may be no people, and the nation no nation; as also Hosea, one of the twelve prophets, declares. Moreover, all those righteous men already mentioned, though they kept no Sabbaths, were pleasing to God; and after them Abraham with all his descendants until Moses, under whom your nation appeared unrighteous and ungrateful to God, making a calf in the wilderness: wherefore God, accommodating Himself to that nation, enjoined them also to offer sacrifices, as if to His name, in order that you might not serve idols. Which precept, however, you have not observed; nay, you sacrificed your children to demons. And you were commanded to keep Sabbaths, that you might retain the memorial of God. For His word makes this announcement, saying, 'That you may know that I am God who redeemed you.' Ezekiel 20:12
44. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

107b. בחברון מלך שבע שנים ובירושלים מלך שלשים ושלש שנים וכתיב (שמואל ב ה, ה) בחברון מלך על יהודה שבע שנים וששה חדשים וגו' והני ששה חדשים לא קחשיב ש"מ נצטרע,אמר לפניו רבש"ע מחול לי על אותו עון מחול לך (תהלים פו, יז) עשה עמי אות לטובה ויראו שונאי ויבושו כי אתה ה' עזרתני ונחמתני א"ל בחייך איני מודיע אבל אני מודיע בחיי שלמה בנך,בשעה שבנה שלמה את בית המקדש ביקש להכניס ארון לבית קדשי הקדשים דבקו שערים זה בזה אמר עשרים וארבעה רננות ולא נענה אמר (תהלים כד, ז) שאו שערים ראשיכם והנשאו פתחי עולם ויבא מלך הכבוד מי זה מלך הכבוד ה' עזוז וגבור ה' גבור מלחמה ונאמר (תהלים כד, ט) שאו שערים ראשיכם ושאו פתחי עולם ויבא מלך הכבוד וגו' ולא נענה,כיון שאמר (דברי הימים ב ו, מב) ה' אלהים אל תשב פני משיחך זכרה לחסדי דויד עבדך מיד נענה באותה שעה נהפכו פני שונאי דוד כשולי קדירה וידעו כל ישראל שמחל לו הקב"ה על אותו העון,גחזי דכתיב וילך אלישע דמשק להיכא אזל א"ר יוחנן שהלך להחזיר גחזי בתשובה ולא חזר אמר לו חזור בך אמר לו כך מקובלני ממך החוטא ומחטיא את הרבים אין מספיקין בידו לעשות תשובה,מאי עבד איכא דאמרי אבן שואבת תלה לחטאת ירבעם והעמידה בין שמים לארץ ואיכא דאמרי שם חקק בפיה והיתה מכרזת ואומרת אנכי ולא יהיה לך,וא"ד רבנן דחה מקמיה שנאמר (מלכים ב ו, א) ויאמרו בני הנביאים אל אלישע הנה [נא] המקום אשר אנחנו יושבים שם לפניך צר ממנו מכלל דעד השתא לא הוו (פיישי) [צר],תנו רבנן לעולם תהא שמאל דוחה וימין מקרבת לא כאלישע שדחפו לגחזי בשתי ידים [ולא כרבי יהושע בן פרחיה שדחפו ליש"ו בשתי ידים],גחזי דכתיב (מלכים ב ה, כג) ויאמר נעמן הואל וקח ככרים (ויפצר) [ויפרץ] בו ויצר ככרים כסף וגו' ויאמר אליו אלישע מאין גחזי ויאמר לא הלך עבדך אנה ואנה ויאמר אליו לא לבי הלך כאשר הפך איש מעל מרכבתו לקראתך העת לקחת את הכסף ולקחת בגדים וזיתים וכרמים וצאן ובקר ועבדים ושפחות ומי שקל כולי האי כסף ובגדים הוא דשקל,אמר רבי יצחק באותה שעה היה אלישע יושב ודורש בשמונה שרצים נעמן שר צבא מלך ארם היה מצורע אמרה ליה ההיא רביתא דאישתבאי מארעא ישראל אי אזלת לגבי אלישע מסי לך כי אתא א"ל זיל טבול בירדן א"ל אחוכי קא מחייכת בי אמרי ליה הנהו דהוו בהדיה מאי נפקא לך מינה זיל נסי אזל וטבל בירדנא ואיתסי אתא אייתי ליה כל הני דנקיט לא צבי לקבולי מיניה גחזי איפטר מקמיה אלישע אזל שקל מאי דשקל ואפקיד,כי אתא חזייה אלישע לצרעת דהוה פרחא עילויה רישיה א"ל רשע הגיע עת ליטול שכר שמנה שרצים וצרעת נעמן תדבק בך ובזרעך עד עולם ויצא מלפניו מצורע כשלג: (מלכים ב ז, ג) וארבעה אנשים היו מצורעים פתח השער אמר ר' יוחנן גחזי ושלשה בניו,[הוספה מחסרונות הש"ס: רבי יהושע בן פרחיה מאי הוא כדקטלינהו ינאי מלכא לרבנן אזל רבי יהושע בן פרחיה ויש"ו לאלכסנדריא של מצרים כי הוה שלמא שלח לי' שמעון בן שטח מני ירושלים עיר הקודש ליכי אלכסנדרי' של מצרים אחותי בעלי שרוי בתוכך ואנכי יושבת שוממה,קם אתא ואתרמי ליה ההוא אושפיזא עבדו ליה יקרא טובא אמר כמה יפה אכסניא זו אמר ליה רבי עיניה טרוטות אמר ליה רשע בכך אתה עוסק אפיק ארבע מאה שיפורי ושמתיה,אתא לקמיה כמה זמנין אמר ליה קבלן לא הוי קא משגח ביה יומא חד הוה קא קרי קריאת שמע אתא לקמיה סבר לקבולי אחוי ליה בידיה הוא סבר מידחא דחי ליה אזל זקף לבינתא והשתחוה לה אמר ליה הדר בך אמר ליה כך מקובלני ממך כל החוטא ומחטיא את הרבים אין מספיקין בידו לעשות תשובה ואמר מר יש"ו כישף והסית והדיח את ישראל:],תניא א"ר שמעון בן אלעזר יצר תינוק ואשה תהא שמאל דוחה וימין מקרבת,ת"ר ג' חלאים חלה אלישע אחד שגירה דובים בתינוקות ואחד שדחפו לגחזי בשתי ידים ואחד שמת בו [שנא' (מלכים ב יג, יד) ואלישע חלה את חליו וגו'],עד אברהם לא היה זקנה כל דחזי לאברהם אמר האי יצחק כל דחזי ליצחק אמר האי אברהם בעא אברהם רחמי דליהוי ליה זקנה שנאמר (בראשית כד, א) ואברהם זקן בא בימים עד יעקב לא הוה חולשא בעא רחמי והוה חולשא שנאמר (בראשית מח, א) ויאמר ליוסף הנה אביך חולה עד אלישע לא הוה איניש חליש דמיתפח ואתא אלישע ובעא רחמי ואיתפח שנא' (מלכים ב יג, יד) ואלישע חלה את חליו אשר ימות בו:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big דור המבול אין להם חלק לעוה"ב ואין עומדין בדין שנא' (בראשית ו, ג) לא ידון רוחי באדם לעולם לא דין ולא רוח דור הפלגה אין להם חלק לעולם הבא שנאמר (בראשית יא, ח) ויפץ ה' אותם משם על פני כל הארץ (וכתיב ומשם הפיצם) ויפץ ה' אותם בעוה"ז ומשם הפיצם ה' לעולם הבא אנשי סדום אין להם חלק לעולם הבא שנא' (בראשית יג, יג) ואנשי סדום רעים וחטאים לה' מאד רעים בעולם הזה וחטאים לעולם הבא אבל עומדין בדין,ר' נחמיה אומר אלו ואלו אין עומדין בדין שנאמר (תהלים א, ה) על כן לא יקומו 107b. bin Hebron he reigned seven years, and in Jerusalem he reigned thirty-three years”(I Kings 2:11). bAnd it is written: “In Hebron he reigned over Judah seven years and six monthsand in Jerusalem he reigned for thirty-three years over all Israel and Judah” (II Samuel 5:5). bAnd those six months,the prophet bdid not tallythem as part of the forty years of King David’s reign. bConclude from itthat there were six months that he was not considered king because he bwas afflicted with leprosy. /b,David bsaid before Himafter this: bMaster of the Universe, pardon me for this sin.God said to him: bIt is forgiven for you.David requested: b“Perform on my behalf a sign for good, that they that hate me may see it and be put to shame”(Psalms 86:17); show me a sign in my lifetime so that everyone will know that You have forgiven me. God bsaid to him: In your lifetime I will not makeit bknownthat you were forgiven, bbut I will makeit bknown in the lifetime of your son, Solomon. /b,The Gemara explains: bWhen Solomon built the Templeand bsought to bring the Ark into the Holy of Holies,the bgates clung togetherand could not be opened. Solomon buttered twenty-four songsof praise, bandhis prayer bwas not answered. He said: “Lift up your heads, you gates, and be you lifted up, you everlasting doors, that the King of glory may come in. Who is the King of glory? The Lord strong and mighty, the Lord mighty in battle”(Psalms 24:7–8). bAnd it is stated: “Lift up your heads, you gates, yea, lift them up, you everlasting doors, that the King of glory may come in.Who then is the King of glory? The Lord of hosts; He is the King of glory. Selah” (Psalms 24:9–10), band he was not answered. /b, bOnce he said: “O Lord God, turn not away the face of Your anointed; remember the good deeds of David Your servant”(II Chronicles 6:42), bhe was immediately answered,and the gates opened (II Chronicles 7:1). bAt that moment, the faces of all of David’s enemies turneddark blike thecharred bbottom of a pot. And all of the Jewish people knew that the Holy One, Blessed be He, had forgiven him for that sin,as it was only by David’s merit that Solomon’s prayer was answered.,§ The mishna states that bGehazi,the attendant of Elisha, has no share in the World-to-Come. The Gemara explains that this is bas it is written: And Elisha went to Damascus(see II Kings 8:7). bWhere did he go,and for what purpose? bRabbi Yoḥa says: He went to cause Gehazi to repent, but he did not repent.Elisha bsaid to him: Repent.Gehazi bsaid to him: Thisis the tradition that bI received from you: Whoever sins and causes the masses to sin is not given the opportunity to repent. /b, bWhat did he dothat caused the masses to sin? bThere arethose bwho saythat bhe hung a magnetic rock on Jeroboam’s sin,i.e., on the golden calf that Jeroboam established as an idol, so that bhe suspended it between heaven and earth,i.e., he caused it to hover above the ground. This seemingly miraculous occurrence caused the people to worship it even more devoutly than before. bAnd there arethose bwho say: He engravedthe sacred bnameof God bon its mouth, and it would declare and say: “I amthe Lord your God” (Exodus 20:2), band: “You shall not haveother gods” (Exodus 20:3). The idol would quote the two prohibitions from the Ten Commandments that prohibit idol worship, causing the people to worship it even more devoutly than before., bAnd there arethose bwho say:Gehazi bpushed the Sagesaway bfromcoming bbefore him,i.e., he prevented them from learning from Elisha, bas it is stated: “And the sons of the prophets said to Elisha, behold this place where we are staying before you is too cramped for us”(II Kings 6:1). It may be derived bby inference that until now they were not numerousand the place was not bcrampedfor them, as Gehazi would turn people away., bThe Sages taught: Always have the lefthand bdrivesinners baway and the right drawthem bnear,so that the sinner will not totally despair of atonement. This is bunlike Elisha, who pushed away Gehazi with his two handsand caused him to lose his share in the World-to-Come, band unlike Yehoshua ben Peraḥya, who pushed away Jesus the Nazarene with his two hands. /b,Elisha drove bGehaziaway, bas it is written: “And Naaman said: Be content, take two talents. And he urged him, and bound two talents of silverin two bags, with two changes of garments” (II Kings 5:23). Naaman offered Gehazi payment for the help Elisha had given him. The verse states: b“And Elisha said to him: Where from, Gehazi? And he said: Your servant went nowhere at all. And he said to him: Went not my heart with you, when the man turned back from his chariot to meet you? Is it the time to receive silver and to receive garments, and olive groves, and vineyards, and sheep and cattle, and menservants and maidservants?”(II Kings 5:25–26). The Gemara asks: bAnd didGehazi btake all that? It ismerely bsilver and garments that he took. /b, bRabbi Yitzḥak says:This was the incident involving Gehazi: bAt that moment, Elisha was sitting and teachingthe ihalakhotof the beightimpure bcreeping animals.Now bNaaman, the general of the army of Aram, was a leper. A certain young Jewish woman who had been taken captive from Eretz Yisrael said to him: If you go to Elisha, he will heal you. WhenNaaman bcameto him, Elisha bsaid to him: Go immerse in the Jordan.Naaman bsaid to him: Are you mocking meby suggesting that this will cure me? bThosecompanions bwho were withNaaman bsaid to him: What is the difference to you? Go, tryit. Naaman bwent and immersed in the Jordan and was healed.Naaman bcameand bbrought toElisha ball thoseitems bthat he hadtaken with him from Aram, and Elisha bdid not agree to receivethem bfrom him. Gehazi took leave from before Elishaand bwentand btookfrom Naaman bwhat he took, andhe bdepositedthem., bWhenGehazi bcame, Elisha saw the leprosy that had grown onGehazi’s bhead.Elisha bsaid to him: Wicked one! The time has arrived to takeyour breward forstudying the matter of bthe eight creeping animals.Since the silver Gehazi received was his reward for studying the matter of the eight creeping animals, Elisha enumerated eight items that Gehazi sought to purchase with the silver that he took. Then Elisha said to Gehazi: b“The leprosy of Naaman shall cleave to you and to your seed forever. And he went out of his presence a leper as white as snow”(II Kings 5:27). With regard to the verse: b“And there were four men afflicted with leprosy at the entrance of the gate”(II Kings 7:3), bRabbi Yoḥa says:These were bGehazi and his three sons,as he and his descendants were cursed.,§ bWhat isthe incident involving bYehoshua ben Peraḥya?The Gemara relates: bWhen King Yannai was killing the Sages, Yehoshua ben Peraḥya and Jesus,his student, bwent to Alexandria of Egypt. When there was peacebetween King Yannai and the Sages, bShimon ben Shataḥ senta message btoYehoshua ben Peraḥya: bFrom me, Jerusalem, the holy city, to you, Alexandria of Egypt: My sister, my husband is located among you and I sit desolate.The head of the Sages of Israel is out of the country and Jerusalem requires his return.,Yehoshua ben Peraḥya understood the message, barose, came, and happenedto arrive at ba certain innon the way to Jerusalem. bThey treated him with great honor.Yehoshua ben Peraḥya bsaid: How beautiful is this inn.Jesus, his student, bsaid to him:But bmy teacher, the eyes ofthe innkeeper’s wife bare narrow [ iterutot /i].Yehoshua ben Peraḥya bsaid to him: Wicked one!Do byou involve yourself with regard to thatmatter, the appearance of a married woman? bHe produced four hundred ishofarotand ostracized him. /b,Jesus bcame beforeYehoshua ben Peraḥya bseveral timesand bsaid to him: Accept our,i.e., my, repentance. Yehoshua ben Peraḥya btook no notice of him. One dayYehoshua ben Peraḥya bwas reciting iShema /iand Jesus bcame before himwith the same request. Yehoshua ben Peraḥya bintended to accept hisrequest, and bsignaled him with his handto wait until he completed his prayer. Jesus did not understand the signal and bthought: He is driving me away. He wentand bstood a brickupright to serve as an idol band he bowed to it.Yehoshua ben Peraḥya then bsaid toJesus: bRepent.Jesus bsaid to him: Thisis the tradition that bI received from you: Whoever sins and causes the masses to sin is not given the opportunity to repent. And the Master says: Jesus performed sorcery, incitedJews to engage in idolatry, band led Israel astray.Had Yehoshua ben Peraḥya not caused him to despair of atonement, he would not have taken the path of evil., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar says:With regard to the evil binclination,to ba child, andto ba woman, have the lefthand bdrivethem baway and the right drawthem bnear.Total rejection of the evil inclination will lead to inaction, unlike channeling its power in a positive direction. One should not draw them too near, lest they lead him to sin, but one should not drive his wife or his child away completely, lest he cause them to abandon the path of righteousness., bThe Sages taught: Elisha fell ill with three illnesses: Oneillness was due to the fact bthat he incited bears toattack and eat bchildren(see II Kings 2:24–25); band onewas due to the fact bthat he pushed Gehazi away with two handsand caused him to despair of atonement; band onewas the illness bfrom which he died, as it is stated: “And Elisha was fallen ill of his illnessfrom which he was to die” (II Kings 13:14), indicating that he had previously suffered other illnesses.,Apropos the death of Elisha, the Gemara says: bUntilthe time of bAbraham there was no aging,and the old and the young looked the same. bAnyone who saw Abraham said: That is Isaac,and banyone who saw Isaac said: That is Abraham. Abraham prayed for mercy, that he would undergo aging, as it is stated: “And Abraham was old, well stricken in age”(Genesis 24:1). There is no mention of aging before that verse. bUntilthe time of bJacob there was no weakness,i.e., illness. Jacob bprayed for mercy and there was weakness, as it is stated: “And one said to Joseph: Behold, your father is ill”(Genesis 48:1). bUntilthe time of bElisha, there was no ill person who recovered, and Elisha came and prayed for mercy and recovered, as it is stated: “And Elisha was fallen ill of his illness from which he was to die”(II Kings 13:14). That is the first mention of a person who was ill and who did not die from that illness.,mishna The members of bthe generation of the flood have no share in the World-to-Come and will not stand in judgmentat the end of days, bas it is stated: “My soul shall not abide [ iyadon /i] in man forever”(Genesis 6:3); bneitherwill they stand in bjudgment [ idin /i] norshall their bsoulsbe restored to them. The members of bthe generation of the dispersion have no share in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And the Lord scattered them from there upon the face of all the earth”(Genesis 11:8), band it is written: “And from there did the Lord scatter themupon the face of all the earth” (Genesis 11:9). b“And the Lord scattered them”indicates bin this world; “and from there did the Lord scatter them”indicates bfor the World-to-Come. The people of Sodom have no share in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And the men of Sodom were wicked and sinners before the Lord exceedingly”(Genesis 13:13). b“Wicked”indicates bin this world; “and sinners”indicates bfor the World-to-Come. But they will stand in judgmentand they will be sentenced to eternal contempt., bRabbi Neḥemya says:Both bthese,the people of Sodom, band those,the members of the generation of the flood, bwill not stand in judgment, as it is stated: “Therefore the wicked shall not stand /b
45. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 2.25.5-2.25.8 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

2.25.5. Thus publicly announcing himself as the first among God's chief enemies, he was led on to the slaughter of the apostles. It is, therefore, recorded that Paul was beheaded in Rome itself, and that Peter likewise was crucified under Nero. This account of Peter and Paul is substantiated by the fact that their names are preserved in the cemeteries of that place even to the present day. 2.25.6. It is confirmed likewise by Caius, a member of the Church, who arose under Zephyrinus, bishop of Rome. He, in a published disputation with Proclus, the leader of the Phrygian heresy, speaks as follows concerning the places where the sacred corpses of the aforesaid apostles are laid: 2.25.7. But I can show the trophies of the apostles. For if you will go to the Vatican or to the Ostian way, you will find the trophies of those who laid the foundations of this church. 2.25.8. And that they both suffered martyrdom at the same time is stated by Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, in his epistle to the Romans, in the following words: You have thus by such an admonition bound together the planting of Peter and of Paul at Rome and Corinth. For both of them planted and likewise taught us in our Corinth. And they taught together in like manner in Italy, and suffered martyrdom at the same time. I have quoted these things in order that the truth of the history might be still more confirmed.
46. Origen, Against Celsus, 5.25-5.26 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.25. Let us next notice the statements of Celsus, which follow the preceding, and which are as follow: As the Jews, then, became a peculiar people, and enacted laws in keeping with the customs of their country, and maintain them up to the present time, and observe a mode of worship which, whatever be its nature, is yet derived from their fathers, they act in these respects like other men, because each nation retains its ancestral customs, whatever they are, if they happen to be established among them. And such an arrangement appears to be advantageous, not only because it has occurred to the mind of other nations to decide some things differently, but also because it is a duty to protect what has been established for the public advantage; and also because, in all probability, the various quarters of the earth were from the beginning allotted to different superintending spirits, and were thus distributed among certain governing powers, and in this manner the administration of the world is carried on. And whatever is done among each nation in this way would be rightly done, wherever it was agreeable to the wishes (of the superintending powers), while it would be an act of impiety to get rid of the institutions established from the beginning in the various places. By these words Celsus shows that the Jews, who were formerly Egyptians, subsequently became a peculiar people, and enacted laws which they carefully preserve. And not to repeat his statements, which have been already before us, he says that it is advantageous to the Jews to observe their ancestral worship, as other nations carefully attend to theirs. And he further states a deeper reason why it is of advantage to the Jews to cultivate their ancestral customs, in hinting dimly that those to whom was allotted the office of superintending the country which was being legislated for, enacted the laws of each land in co-operation with its legislators. He appears, then, to indicate that both the country of the Jews, and the nation which inhabits it, are superintended by one or more beings, who, whether they were one or more, co-operated with Moses, and enacted the laws of the Jews. 5.26. We must, he says, observe the laws, not only because it has occurred to the mind of others to decide some things differently, but because it is a duty to protect what has been enacted for the public advantage, and also because, in all probability, the various quarters of the earth were from the beginning allotted to different superintending spirits, and were distributed among certain governing powers, and in this manner the administration of the world is carried on. Thus Celsus, as if he had forgotten what he had said against the Jews, now includes them in the general eulogy which he passes upon all who observe their ancestral customs, remarking: And whatever is done among each nation in this way, would be rightly done whenever agreeable to the wishes (of the superintendents). And observe here, whether he does not openly, so far as he can, express a wish that the Jew should live in the observance of his own laws, and not depart from them, because he would commit an act of impiety if he apostatized; for his words are: It would be an act of impiety to get rid of the institutions established from the beginning in the various places. Now I should like to ask him, and those who entertain his views, who it was that distributed the various quarters of the earth from the beginning among the different superintending spirits; and especially, who gave the country of the Jews, and the Jewish people themselves, to the one or more superintendents to whom it was allotted? Was it, as Celsus would say, Jupiter who assigned the Jewish people and their country to a certain spirit or spirits? And was it his wish, to whom they were thus assigned, to enact among them the laws which prevail, or was it against his will that it was done? You will observe that, whatever be his answer, he is in a strait. But if the various quarters of the earth were not allotted by some one being to the various superintending spirits, then each one at random, and without the superintendence of a higher power, divided the earth according to chance; and yet such a view is absurd, and destructive in no small degree of the providence of the God who presides over all things.
47. Anon., Hekhalot Zutarti, 351-375, 350



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abuse Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 214
accusation,against paul Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 217
acts and anti-judaism Matthews (2010), Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity, 31
acts and racial discourse Matthews (2010), Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity, 31
acts of the apostles,textual tradition Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 557
acts of the apostles Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 84; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 407, 414
agabus Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 111
agrippa ii Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 111; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 549, 584
akiva Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 407
ambrose Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 119
animals,sacred,protecting the byproducts of Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 218
antiochus iv Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 224
antiochus iv epiphanes Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 575
apocryphal Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 197
apollos,new testament image of Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 336
apollos Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 336
apologetic,level of greek Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 760
apologetic,portrait of paul Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 213, 214, 217
apologetic Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 213
apologist Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 213, 214
apostle,lukan understanding Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 557
apostle Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 549
apostles Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 84
aramaic Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 87; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 599
ardashir Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 71
aristotle Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 760
ascent to heaven Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 407, 414
asceticism Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 119
athens Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 87, 197, 213
austerity Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 119
authority,traditional Jaffee (2001), Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE, 52
babylonia Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 71
baptism,acts of apostles Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 556, 557
baptism,filial identity Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 556
baptism,holy spirits role Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 556, 557
baptism,lukan understanding Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 556, 557
baptism,luke-acts,inconsistencies Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 556, 557
baptism,paul Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 556
baptism Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 336
begging Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 214
bernice (berenice) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 584
caesaraea philippi Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 549
caesars denarius Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 119
calendar,intercalation Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 47
calendar (lunar,solar) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 47
captatio benevolentiae Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 217
celsus Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 213, 214
cicero Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 132
circumcision Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 575
city-states Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 760
claudius lysias Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 111
clement of alexandria Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 132
colossian assembly,correspondence Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 132
communion with the divine world,concealment,see hiddenness Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 407
communities Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 71
comparative method Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 1
consecration,of trees Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 218
consecration,protections for derivatives and byproducts of Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 218
conversion Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 71; Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 336
corinth Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 336
cornelius Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 549
creation,creator Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 407
cynics/cynicism Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 197
damascus Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 224
death Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 71
death of paul Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 111
death penalty Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 111
defense Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 217
deissmann,adolf Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 87
dibelius,martin Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 213, 217
dining Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 132
double dreams and visions,peter and cornelius,apologetic agendas Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 336
double dreams and visions,peter and cornelius,peter-paul parallel Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 336
double dreams and visions,peter and cornelius Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 336
doubt Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 104
dualism Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 119
education,pauline Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 87
education Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 760
egyptian Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 47
ephesian assembly,correspondence Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 132
ephesus Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 336
epicureanism,christians Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 213
epicureanism,paul Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 213
epimenides Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 760
epiphany Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 224
eschatology Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 104
ethnicity Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 132
euripides Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 760
fasting Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 47
fate Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 111
father Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 214
felix Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 111
ferguson,e. Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 556, 557
festus Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 217; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 111; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 584
four who entered pardes,the story of the Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 407
freedperson Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 132
gamaliel Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 407
gamaliel (gamliel) the elder,r. Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 47, 549, 584, 599
gamaliel (gamliel) the younger,r. Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 47
gentile Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 575
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 549
gentiles Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 2
glory,hope of Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 104
grace Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 104
graeco-roman (law/custom) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 575
greek,language Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 599
halakha,in the new testament Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 549
hayyot Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 407
hebrew bible Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 400
hebrew language Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 599
hekdesh,protection of Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 218
heliodorus Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 224
hellenism,hellenistic Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 599
heracles/hercules Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 197
herod antipas Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 549
high (chief) priest Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 47, 549, 575
holy of holies Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 407
homer Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 132; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 599
identity of jesus christ in pre-existence,earthly life,death,risen and exalted life Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 104
influence Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 1, 2
instruction,religious Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 760
jerusalem Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 1; Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 87, 197, 213; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 111
jerusalem council Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 92
jesus Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 224
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 549
jesus christ Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 119
jews Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 111
john (the baptist) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 575
john the baptist Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 336
josephus Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 71; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 575, 584
judaism and christianity Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 5
judean (geographical-political) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 575
king Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 71
koine Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 760
law,biblical/rabbinic—see also,halakhah Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 400
law/law Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 111
letter,pauline Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 87, 197, 760
letters,ancient Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 5
lexicography Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 87
lieu,judith Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 71
lieu,samuel Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 71
lucian Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 214
luke Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 111; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 549
luke (evangelist) Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 336
maase merkava Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 407
macedonian Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 47
magic Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 71
mani Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 71
marketplace Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 213, 214
martial Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 132
mattathias Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 575
menander Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 760
merkava xiii–xvi,xix Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 407
mesene Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 71
midrash,genealogies of Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 1, 2
midrash/midrashim Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 400
miriam Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 47
mishnah Bird and Harrower (2021), The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers, 31
missionary,pauline Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 87
money Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 119
moses Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 407; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 47, 584
mystery Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 407
names,divine,barbara Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 407, 414
nero Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 197; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 584
new testament—see also,christianity Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 400
oral or written ~ Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 599
overbeck,franz Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 214
pagan,paganism Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 575
papyrusi Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 87
paradigm Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 213
paradise,pardes,entered pardes Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 407, 414
patronage Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 132
paul,and protecting derivatives of agricultural consecrations Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 218
paul,and proto-rabbinic tradition Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 218
paul,apostle,travels Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 84
paul,as pastor Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 197
paul,baptismal theology Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 556
paul,gospel of Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 132
paul Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 224; Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 132; Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 71; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 407, 414; Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 215
paul (saul) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 47, 549, 575, 584, 599
paul (the apostle) Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 111
paul jewish identity of Matthews (2010), Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity, 31
paul of tarsus,and apollos Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 336
paul of tarsus Jaffee (2001), Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE, 52
paul pharisee Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 549, 584
peregrinus proteus Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 214
persuasion Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 197
peter (cephas,simon –) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 584
pharisaic tradition/halakha Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 47
pharisees,in josephus Jaffee (2001), Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE, 52
pharisees,in rabbinic literature Jaffee (2001), Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE, 52
pharisees,the Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 400
pharisees/pharisaism Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 1
pharisees Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 218; Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 71; Jaffee (2001), Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE, 52; Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 87
philo Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 599
philosopher,moral Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 213
philosopher Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 760
philosophy Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 5, 30
pleasure Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 197, 213, 214, 217
poverty Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 119
prayer Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 400
preaching Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 213, 214
prophecy Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 111
proverb Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 217
qumran,sectarians of Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 218
qumran/qumran community Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 400
qumran documents Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 575, 584
rabban gamaliel (i and ii) Jaffee (2001), Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE, 52
rabban gamliel Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 1, 2
rabban shimon b. gamaliel Jaffee (2001), Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE, 52
rabbinic tradition/literature,movement Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 599
rabbis,and the idea of sanctity Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 218
rabbis,and the protection of derivatives of agricultural consecrations Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 218
rabbis,the Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 400
rabbis Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 599
ramsay,william Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 84
redaction/writing of mishna Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 599
relative,father Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 71
repentance,as euphemism for conversion Matthews (2010), Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity, 31
resurrection,of christ Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 217
resurrection belief,complex basis of Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 104
revelation Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 104
revolt/war,under nero (great ~) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 575
rhetoric,pauls use of Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 30
rhetoric Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 87, 760
rhetorical devices Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 5
righteousness Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 215
roman empire Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 132
rome (city) Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 132
rosh ha-shana (new year) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 47
rufinus Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 119
römer,cornelia Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 71
sabbath Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 47, 549
sacrifice,and atonement Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 1012
sacrilege Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 218
sadducean Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 549
sadducees Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 218; Jaffee (2001), Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE, 52; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 599
sanders,ed p. Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 215
secrecy Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 414
seleucus iv Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 224
seneca Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 197
shimon ben gamaliel the elder Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 47
shiur koma Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 407
sicarii Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 575
sidonius apollinaris Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 132
simeon Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 549
simon the zealot Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 575
slave/slavery Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 214
socrates Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 214
song of songs Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 407
spain Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 132
stephanas/stephen Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 575, 599
stoicism,and paul Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 197
stoicism Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 197, 213, 214
style Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 760
sukkot (tabernacles) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 47
sunday Alikin (2009), The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering, 41
system,halakhic ~ Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 47
tannaim (early rabbis),tannaic Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 47
tarsus Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 87, 197
temple,in jerusalem,in rabbinic writings Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 218
temple,protecting byproducts of Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 218
temple Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 1012; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 407, 414
temple (jerusalem) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 47
tertullian Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 197
text-interpretive Jaffee (2001), Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE, 52
tora (see also pentateuch) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 599
tradition,pharisaic Jaffee (2001), Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE, 52
ulysses Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 197
unnik,willem c. van Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 87, 197, 760
vision Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 407, 414
vision of merkava Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 414
wealth Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 119
weapon Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 197, 213, 214, 217
worship Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 407, 414
yom kippur (day of atonement) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 47
zeal (for the law) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 575
zealot,zealots Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 575
ôphthê' Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 224