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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8243
New Testament, Acts, 21.27-21.36


Ὡς δὲ ἔμελλον αἱ ἑπτὰ ἡμέραι συντελεῖσθαι, οἱ ἀπὸ τῆς Ἀσίας Ἰουδαῖοι θεασάμενοι αὐτὸν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ συνέχεον πάντα τὸν ὄχλον καὶ ἐπέβαλαν ἐπʼ αὐτὸν τὰς χεῖραςWhen the seven days were almost completed, the Jews from Asia, when they saw him in the temple, stirred up all the multitude and laid hands on him


κράζοντες Ἄνδρες Ἰσραηλεῖται, βοηθεῖτε· οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ ἄνθρωπος ὁ κατὰ τοῦ λαοῦ καὶ τοῦ νόμου καὶ τοῦ τόπου τούτου πάντας πανταχῇ διδάσκων, ἔτι τε καὶ Ἕλληνας εἰσήγαγεν εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν καὶ κεκοίνωκεν τὸν ἅγιον τόπον τοῦτον.crying out, "Men of Israel, help! This is the man who teaches all men everywhere against the people, and the law, and this place. Moreover, he also brought Greeks into the temple, and has defiled this holy place!


ἦσαν γὰρ προεωρακότες Τρόφιμον τὸν Ἐφέσιον ἐν τῇ πόλει σὺν αὐτῷ, ὃν ἐνόμιζον ὅτι εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν εἰσήγαγεν ὁ Παῦλος.For they had seen Trophimus, the Ephesian, with him in the city, and they supposed that Paul had brought him into the temple.


ἐκινήθη τε ἡ πόλις ὅλη καὶ ἐγένετο συνδρομὴ τοῦ λαοῦ, καὶ ἐπιλαβόμενοι τοῦ Παύλου εἷλκον αὐτὸν ἔξω τοῦ ἱεροῦ, καὶ εὐθέως ἐκλείσθησαν αἱ θύραι.All the city was moved, and the people ran together. They seized Paul and dragged him out of the temple. Immediately the doors were shut.


Ζητούντων τε αὐτὸν ἀποκτεῖναι ἀνέβη φάσις τῷ χιλιάρχῳ τῆς σπείρης ὅτι ὅλη συνχύννεται ἸερουσαλήμAs they were trying to kill him, news came up to the commanding officer of the regiment that all Jerusalem was in an uproar.


ὃς ἐξαυτῆς παραλαβὼν στρατιώτας καὶ ἑκατοντάρχας κατέδραμεν ἐπʼ αὐτούς, οἱ δὲ ἰδόντες τὸν χιλίαρχον καὶ τοὺς στρατιώτας ἐπαύσαντο τύπτοντες τὸν Παῦλον.Immediately he took soldiers and centurions, and ran down to them. They, when they saw the chief captain and the soldiers, stopped beating Paul.


τότε ἐγγίσας ὁ χιλίαρχος ἐπελάβετο αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐκέλευσε δεθῆναι ἁλύσεσι δυσί, καὶ ἐπυνθάνετο τίς εἴη καὶ τί ἐστιν πεποιηκώς·Then the commanding officer came near, arrested him, commanded him to be bound with two chains, and inquired who he was and what he had done.


ἄλλοι δὲ ἄλλο τι ἐπεφώνουν ἐν τῷ ὄχλῳ· μὴ δυναμένου δὲ αὐτοῦ γνῶναι τὸ ἀσφαλὲς διὰ τὸν θόρυβον ἐκέλευσεν ἄγεσθαι αὐτὸν εἰς τὴν παρεμβολήν.Some shouted one thing, and some another, among the crowd. When he couldn't find out the truth because of the noise, he commanded him to be brought into the barracks.


ὅτε δὲ ἐγένετο ἐπὶ τοὺς ἀναβαθμούς, συνέβη βαστάζεσθαι αὐτὸν ὑπὸ τῶν στρατιωτῶν διὰ τὴν βίαν τοῦ ὄχλουWhen he came to the stairs, it happened that he was carried by the soldiers because of the violence of the crowd;


ἠκολούθει γὰρ τὸ πλῆθος τοῦ λαοῦ κράζοντες Αἶρε αὐτόν.for the multitude of the people followed after, crying out, "Away with him!


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

33 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 19.11, 19.19, 25.8, 25.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.11. הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמֵת לְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ אָדָם וְטָמֵא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 19.19. וְהִזָּה הַטָּהֹר עַל־הַטָּמֵא בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וְחִטְּאוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָהֵר בָּעָרֶב׃ 25.8. וַיָּבֹא אַחַר אִישׁ־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־הַקֻּבָּה וַיִּדְקֹר אֶת־שְׁנֵיהֶם אֵת אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־קֳבָתָהּ וַתֵּעָצַר הַמַּגֵּפָה מֵעַל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.11. פִּינְחָס בֶּן־אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן הֵשִׁיב אֶת־חֲמָתִי מֵעַל בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּקַנְאוֹ אֶת־קִנְאָתִי בְּתוֹכָם וְלֹא־כִלִּיתִי אֶת־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּקִנְאָתִי׃ 19.11. He that toucheth the dead, even any man’s dead body, shall be unclean seven days;" 19.19. And the clean person shall sprinkle upon the unclean on the third day, and on the seventh day; and on the seventh day he shall purify him; and he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and shall be clean at even." 25.8. And he went after the man of Israel into the chamber, and thrust both of them through, the man of Israel, and the woman through her belly. So the plague was stayed from the children of Israel." 25.11. ’Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, hath turned My wrath away from the children of Israel, in that he was very jealous for My sake among them, so that I consumed not the children of Israel in My jealousy."
2. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.10. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they, seeing with their eyes, and hearing with their ears, and understanding with their heart, return, and be healed.’"
3. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.1, 1.162, 1.261, 3.89, 3.120, 3.124-3.126, 3.205 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. The genera and heads of all special laws, which are called "the ten commandments," have been discussed with accuracy in the former treatise. We must now proceed to consider the particular commands as we read them in the subsequent passages of the holy scriptures; and we will begin with that which is turned into ridicule by people in general. 1.162. Or the creatures which are fit to be offered as sacrifices, some are land animals, and some are such as fly through the air. Passing over, therefore, the infinite varieties of birds, God chose only two classes out of them all, the turtledove and the pigeon; because the pigeon is by nature the most gentle of all those birds which are domesticated and gregarious, and the turtle-dove the most gentle of those which love solitude. 1.261. The body then, as I have already said, he purifies with ablutions and bespringklings, and does not allow a person after he has once washed and sprinkled himself, at once to enter within the sacred precincts, but bids him wait outside for seven days, and to be besprinkled twice, on the third day and on the seventh day; and after this it commands him to wash himself once more, and then it admits him to enter the sacred precincts and to share in the sacred ministrations.XLIX. 3.89. Or shall we say that to those who have done no wrong the temple is still inaccessible until they have washed themselves, and sprinkled themselves, and purified themselves with the accustomed purifications; but that those who are guilty of indelible crimes, the pollution of which no length of time will ever efface, may approach and dwell among those holy seats; though no decent person, who has any regard for holy things would even receive them in his house?XVI. 3.120. The sacred law says that the man, who has been killed without any intention that he should be so on the part of him who killed him, has been given up by God into the hands of his slayers; {8}{#ex 21:13.} in this way designing to make an excuse for the man who appears to have slain him as if he had slain a guilty person. 3.124. And the cause of the first of these injunctions was this. The tribe which has been mentioned received these cities as a reward for a justifiable and holy slaughter, which we must look upon as the most illustrious and important of all the gallant actions that were ever performed. 3.125. For when the prophet, after having been called up to the loftiest and most sacred of all the mountains in that district, was divinely instructed in the generic outlines of all the special laws, {10}{#ex 32:1.} and was out of sight of his people for many days; those of the people who were not of a peaceable disposition filled every place with the evils which arise from anarchy, and crowned all their iniquity with open impiety, turning into ridicule all those excellent and beautiful lessons concerning the honour due to the one true and living God, and having made a golden bull, an imitation of the Egyptian Typhos, and brought to it unholy sacrifices, and festivals unhallowed, and instituted profane and impious dances, with songs and hymns instead of lamentations; 3.126. then the tribe aforesaid, being very terribly indigt at their sudden departure from their previous customs, and being enflamed with zeal by reason of their natural disposition which hated iniquity, all became full of rage and of divine enthusiasm, and arming themselves, as at one signal, and with great contempt and one uimous attack, came upon the people, drunk thus with a twofold intoxication of impiety and of wine, beginning with their nearest and dearest friends and relations, thinking those who loved God to be their only relations and friends. And in a very small portion of the day, four-and-twenty thousand men were slain; the calamities of whom were a warning to those who would otherwise have joined themselves to their iniquity, but who now were alarmed lest they should suffer a similar fate.
5. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 155 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

155. How then did he look upon the great division of Rome which is on the other side of the river Tiber, which he was well aware was occupied and inhabited by the Jews? And they were mostly Roman citizens, having been emancipated; for, having been brought as captives into Italy, they were manumitted by those who had bought them for slaves, without ever having been compelled to alter any of their hereditary or national observances.
6. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 18.9, 20.97 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18.9. Such were the consequences of this, that the customs of our fathers were altered, and such a change was made, as added a mighty weight toward bringing all to destruction, which these men occasioned by their thus conspiring together; for Judas and Sadduc, who excited a fourth philosophic sect among us, and had a great many followers therein, filled our civil government with tumults at present, and laid the foundations of our future miseries, by this system of philosophy, which we were before unacquainted withal 18.9. 3. But Vitellius came into Judea, and went up to Jerusalem; it was at the time of that festival which is called the Passover. Vitellius was there magnificently received, and released the inhabitants of Jerusalem from all the taxes upon the fruits that were bought and sold, and gave them leave to have the care of the high priest’s vestments, with all their ornaments, and to have them under the custody of the priests in the temple, which power they used to have formerly 20.97. 1. Now it came to pass, while Fadus was procurator of Judea, that a certain magician, whose name was Theudas, persuaded a great part of the people to take their effects with them, and follow him to the river Jordan; for he told them he was a prophet, and that he would, by his own command, divide the river, and afford them an easy passage over it;
7. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.253-2.264, 2.409, 5.205 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.253. This Felix took Eleazar the arch-robber, and many that were with him, alive, when they had ravaged the country for twenty years together, and sent them to Rome; but as to the number of robbers whom he caused to be crucified, and of those who were caught among them, and whom he brought to punishment, they were a multitude not to be enumerated. 2.254. 3. When the country was purged of these, there sprang up another sort of robbers in Jerusalem, which were called Sicarii, who slew men in the daytime, and in the midst of the city; 2.255. this they did chiefly at the festivals, when they mingled themselves among the multitude, and concealed daggers under their garments, with which they stabbed those that were their enemies; and when any fell down dead, the murderers became a part of those that had indignation against them; by which means they appeared persons of such reputation, that they could by no means be discovered. 2.256. The first man who was slain by them was Jonathan the high priest, after whose death many were slain every day, while the fear men were in of being so served was more afflicting than the calamity itself; 2.257. and while everybody expected death every hour, as men do in war, so men were obliged to look before them, and to take notice of their enemies at a great distance; nor, if their friends were coming to them, durst they trust them any longer; but, in the midst of their suspicions and guarding of themselves, they were slain. Such was the celerity of the plotters against them, and so cunning was their contrivance. 2.258. 4. There was also another body of wicked men gotten together, not so impure in their actions, but more wicked in their intentions, which laid waste the happy state of the city no less than did these murderers. 2.259. These were such men as deceived and deluded the people under pretense of Divine inspiration, but were for procuring innovations and changes of the government; and these prevailed with the multitude to act like madmen, and went before them into the wilderness, as pretending that God would there show them the signals of liberty. 2.261. 5. But there was an Egyptian false prophet that did the Jews more mischief than the former; for he was a cheat, and pretended to be a prophet also, and got together thirty thousand men that were deluded by him; 2.262. these he led round about from the wilderness to the mount which was called the Mount of Olives, and was ready to break into Jerusalem by force from that place; and if he could but once conquer the Roman garrison and the people, he intended to domineer over them by the assistance of those guards of his that were to break into the city with him. 2.263. But Felix prevented his attempt, and met him with his Roman soldiers, while all the people assisted him in his attack upon them, insomuch that when it came to a battle, the Egyptian ran away, with a few others, while the greatest part of those that were with him were either destroyed or taken alive; but the rest of the multitude were dispersed every one to their own homes, and there concealed themselves. 2.264. 6. Now, when these were quieted, it happened, as it does in a diseased body, that another part was subject to an inflammation; for a company of deceivers and robbers got together, and persuaded the Jews to revolt, and exhorted them to assert their liberty, inflicting death on those that continued in obedience to the Roman government, and saying, that such as willingly chose slavery ought to be forced from such their desired inclinations; 2.409. At the same time Eleazar, the son of Aias the high priest, a very bold youth, who was at that time governor of the temple, persuaded those that officiated in the Divine service to receive no gift or sacrifice for any foreigner. And this was the true beginning of our war with the Romans; for they rejected the sacrifice of Caesar on this account; 5.205. for its height was fifty cubits; and its doors were forty cubits; and it was adorned after a most costly manner, as having much richer and thicker plates of silver and gold upon them than the other. These nine gates had that silver and gold poured upon them by Alexander, the father of Tiberius.
8. Juvenal, Satires, 14.100, 14.103 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Mishnah, Miqvaot, 8.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.1. The land of Israel is clean and its mikvaot are clean. The mikvaot of the nations outside the land are valid for those who had a seminal emission even though they have been filled by a pump-beam; Those in the land of Israel: when outside the entrance [to the city] are valid even for menstruants, and those within the entrance [to the city] are valid for those who had a seminal emission but invalid for all [others] who are unclean. Rabbi Eliezer says: those which are near to a city or to a road are unclean because of laundering; but those at a distance are clean."
10. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 9.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.6. If one steals the sacred vessel called a “kasvah” (Numbers 4:7), or cursed by the name of an idol, or has sexual relations with an Aramean (non-Jewish) woman, he is punished by zealots. If a priest performed the temple service while impure, his fellow priests do not bring him to the court, but rather the young priests take him out into the courtyard and split his skull with clubs. A layman who performed the service in the Temple: Rabbi Akiva says: “He is strangled.” But the Sages say: “[His death is] at the hands of heaven.”"
11. Mishnah, Yoma, 3.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.10. Ben Katin made twelve spigots for the laver, for there had been before only two. He also made a mechanism for the laver, in order that its water should not become unfit by remaining overnight. King Monbaz had all the handles of all the vessels used on Yom HaKippurim made of gold. His mother Helena made a golden candelabrum over the opening of the Hekhal. She also made a golden tablet, on which the portion concerning the suspected adulteress was inscribed. For Nicanor miracles happened to his doors. And they were all mentioned for praise."
12. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.15-1.17, 4.3, 5.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.15. but just as he who called you is holy, you yourselves also be holy in all of your behavior; 1.16. because it is written, "You shall be holy; for I am holy. 1.17. If you call on him as Father, who without respect of persons judges according to each man's work, pass the time of your living as strangers here in reverent fear: 4.3. For we have spent enough of our past time living in doing the desire of the Gentiles, and to have walked in lewdness, lusts, drunken binges, orgies, carousings, and abominable idolatries. 5.9. Withstand him steadfast in your faith, knowing that your brothers who are in the world are undergoing the same sufferings.
13. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 8.1, 12.1, 16.1-16.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.1. Now concerning things sacrificed to idols: We know that we allhave knowledge. Knowledge puffs up, but love builds up. 12.1. Now concerning spiritual gifts, brothers, I don't want you tobe ignorant. 16.1. Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I commandedthe assemblies of Galatia, you do likewise. 16.2. On the first day ofthe week, let each one of you save, as he may prosper, that nocollections be made when I come. 16.3. When I arrive, I will sendwhoever you approve with letters to carry your gracious gift toJerusalem. 16.4. If it is appropriate for me to go also, they will gowith me.
14. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 3.6, 8.13, 11.13, 11.21-11.22, 11.24, 11.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15. New Testament, Acts, 1, 1.1, 1.3, 2, 2.10, 2.15, 3, 4, 5, 5.33, 5.34, 5.35, 5.36, 5.37, 5.38, 5.39, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.25, 7.26, 7.27, 7.28, 7.29, 7.30, 7.31, 7.32, 7.33, 7.34, 7.35, 7.36, 7.37, 7.38, 7.39, 7.40, 7.41, 7.42, 7.43, 7.44, 7.45, 7.46, 7.47, 7.48, 7.49, 7.50, 7.51, 7.52, 7.53, 7.58, 7.59, 7.60, 8, 9.1, 9.2, 9.9, 10, 10.1-11.18, 10.3, 10.30, 10.34, 10.35, 10.40, 11.19, 11.20, 11.21, 11.22, 11.23, 11.24, 11.25, 11.26, 12.2, 12.3, 12.11, 13.41, 13.44, 13.45, 13.46, 13.47, 13.48, 13.49, 13.50, 13.51, 13.52, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.19, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.7, 16.12, 16.18, 16.20, 17.5, 17.6, 17.7, 17.8, 17.9, 17.12, 17.13, 17.16, 17.17, 18.13, 18.18, 18.25, 20.2, 20.3, 20.17, 20.18, 20.19, 20.20, 20.21, 20.22, 20.23, 20.24, 20.25, 20.26, 20.27, 20.28, 20.29, 20.30, 20.31, 20.32, 20.33, 20.34, 20.35, 20.36, 20.37, 20.38, 21.4, 21.5, 21.7, 21.10, 21.11, 21.12, 21.13, 21.14, 21.15, 21.20, 21.21, 21.22, 21.23, 21.24, 21.25, 21.26, 21.28, 21.29, 21.30, 21.31, 21.32, 21.33, 21.34, 21.35, 21.36, 21.38, 22.19, 22.22, 23.12, 23.14, 23.21, 23.27, 24.1, 24.5, 24.8, 24.11, 24.14, 24.17, 24.18, 24.19, 24.24, 25.6, 25.8, 25.11, 25.13, 25.14, 26.11, 26.13, 26.22, 27.7, 27.20, 28, 28.7, 28.17, 28.18, 28.19, 28.20, 28.21, 28.22, 28.23, 28.24, 28.25, 28.27 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16. New Testament, Colossians, 2.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. in whom you were also circumcised with a circumcision not made with hands, in the putting off of the body of the sins of the flesh, in the circumcision of Christ;
17. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.11-2.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. Therefore remember that once you, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called "uncircumcision" by that which is called "circumcision," (in the flesh, made by hands); 2.12. that you were at that time separate from Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covets of the promise, having no hope and without God in the world. 2.13. But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off are made near in the blood of Christ. 2.14. For he is our peace, who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of partition 2.15. having abolished in the flesh the hostility, the law of commandments contained in ordices, that he might create in himself one new man of the two, making peace; 2.16. and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, having killed the hostility thereby. 2.17. He came and preached peace to you who were far off and to those who were near. 2.18. For through him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father. 2.19. So then you are no longer strangers and sojourners, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God 2.20. being built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the chief cornerstone; 2.21. in whom the whole building, fitted together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord; 2.22. in whom you also are built together for a habitation of God in the Spirit.
18. New Testament, Galatians, 2.2, 2.4, 2.11-2.12, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.2. I went up byrevelation, and I laid before them the gospel which I preach among theGentiles, but privately before those who were respected, for fear thatI might be running, or had run, in vain. 2.4. Thiswas because of the false brothers secretly brought in, who stole in tospy out our liberty which we have in Christ Jesus, that they mightbring us into bondage; 2.11. But when Peter came to Antioch, I resisted him to the face,because he stood condemned. 2.12. For before some people came fromJames, he ate with the Gentiles. But when they came, he drew back andseparated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision. 3.4. Did you suffer so many things in vain, if it is indeedin vain?
19. New Testament, Philippians, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.2. Beware of the dogs, beware of the evil workers, beware of the false circumcision.
20. New Testament, Romans, 9.20, 15.26, 15.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.20. But indeed, O man, who are you to reply against God? Will the thing formed ask him who formed it, "Why did you make me like this? 15.26. For it has been the good pleasure of Macedonia and Achaia to make a certain contribution for the poor among the saints who are at Jerusalem. 15.31. that I may be delivered from those who are disobedient in Judea, and that my service which I have for Jerusalem may be acceptable to the saints;
21. New Testament, John, 2.1, 2.19-2.20, 4.43, 11.6, 11.9, 11.17, 12.1, 20.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. The third day, there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee. Jesus' mother was there. 2.19. Jesus answered them, "Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up. 2.20. The Jews therefore said, "Forty-six years was this temple in building, and will you raise it up in three days? 4.43. After the two days he went out from there and went into Galilee. 11.6. When therefore he heard that he was sick, he stayed two days in the place where he was. 11.9. Jesus answered, "Aren't there twelve hours of daylight? If a man walks in the day, he doesn't stumble, because he sees the light of this world. 11.17. So when Jesus came, he found that he had been in the tomb four days already. 12.1. Then six days before the Passover, Jesus came to Bethany, where Lazarus was, who had been dead, whom he raised from the dead. 20.26. After eight days again his disciples were inside, and Thomas was with them. Jesus came, the doors being locked, and stood in the midst, and said, "Peace be to you.
22. New Testament, Luke, 1.3, 1.5, 1.59, 2.1, 2.21, 2.44, 2.46, 3.1, 3.4, 4.2, 4.16-4.30, 9.22, 9.28, 12.11, 13.14, 13.31, 13.33, 17.4, 17.26, 17.28, 18.32-18.33, 19.12-19.27, 20.1, 21.12, 23.1-23.4, 23.6-23.12, 23.26, 24.7, 24.13, 24.18, 24.21, 24.29, 24.46, 24.53 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. it seemed good to me also, having traced the course of all things accurately from the first, to write to you in order, most excellent Theophilus; 1.5. There was in the days of Herod, the king of Judea, a certain priest named Zacharias, of the priestly division of Abijah. He had a wife of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elizabeth. 1.59. It happened on the eighth day, that they came to circumcise the child; and they would have called him Zacharias, after the name of the father. 2.1. Now it happened in those days, that a decree went out from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be enrolled. 2.21. When eight days were fulfilled for the circumcision of the child, his name was called Jesus, which was given by the angel before he was conceived in the womb. 2.44. but supposing him to be in the company, they went a day's journey, and they looked for him among their relatives and acquaintances. 2.46. It happened after three days they found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the teachers, both listening to them, and asking them questions. 3.1. Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of the region of Ituraea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene 3.4. As it is written in the book of the words of Isaiah the prophet, "The voice of one crying in the wilderness, 'Make ready the way of the Lord. Make his paths straight. 4.2. for forty days, being tempted by the devil. He ate nothing in those days. Afterward, when they were completed, he was hungry. 4.16. He came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. He entered, as was his custom, into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read. 4.17. The book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. He opened the book, and found the place where it was written 4.18. The Spirit of the Lord is on me, Because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim release to the captives, Recovering of sight to the blind, To deliver those who are crushed 4.19. And to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord. 4.20. He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on him. 4.21. He began to tell them, "Today, this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing. 4.22. All testified about him, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth, and they said, "Isn't this Joseph's son? 4.23. He said to them, "Doubtless you will tell me this parable, 'Physician, heal yourself! Whatever we have heard done at Capernaum, do also here in your hometown.' 4.24. He said, "Most assuredly I tell you, no prophet is acceptable in his hometown. 4.25. But truly I tell you, there were many widows in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the the sky was shut up three years and six months, when a great famine came over all the land. 4.26. Elijah was sent to none of them, except to Zarephath, in the land of Sidon, to a woman who was a widow. 4.27. There were many lepers in Israel in the time of Elisha the prophet, yet not one of them was cleansed, except Naaman, the Syrian. 4.28. They were all filled with wrath in the synagogue, as they heard these things. 4.29. They rose up, threw him out of the city, and led him to the brow of the hill that their city was built on, that they might throw him off the cliff. 4.30. But he, passing through the midst of them, went his way. 9.22. saying, "The Son of Man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the elders, chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and the third day be raised up. 9.28. It happened about eight days after these sayings, that he took with him Peter, John, and James, and went up onto the mountain to pray. 12.11. When they bring you before the synagogues, the rulers, and the authorities, don't be anxious how or what you will answer, or what you will say; 13.14. The ruler of the synagogue, being indigt because Jesus had healed on the Sabbath, said to the multitude, "There are six days in which men ought to work. Therefore come on those days and be healed, and not on the Sabbath day! 13.31. On that same day, some Pharisees came, saying to him, "Get out of here, and go away, for Herod wants to kill you. 13.33. Nevertheless I must go on my way today and tomorrow and the next day, for it can't be that a prophet perish outside of Jerusalem.' 17.4. If he sins against you seven times in the day, and seven times turns again, saying, 'I repent,' you shall forgive him. 17.26. As it happened in the days of Noah, even so will it be also in the days of the Son of Man. 17.28. Likewise, even as it happened in the days of Lot: they ate, they drank, they bought, they sold, they planted, they built; 18.32. For he will be delivered up to the Gentiles, will be mocked, treated shamefully, and spit on. 18.33. They will scourge and kill him. On the third day, he will rise again. 19.12. He said therefore, "A certain nobleman went into a far country to receive for himself a kingdom, and to return. 19.13. He called ten servants of his, and gave them ten minas, and told them, 'Conduct business until I come.' 19.14. But his citizens hated him, and sent an envoy after him, saying, 'We don't want this man to reign over us.' 19.15. It happened when he had come back again, having received the kingdom, that he commanded these servants, to whom he had given the money, to be called to him, that he might know what they had gained by conducting business. 19.16. The first came before him, saying, 'Lord, your mina has made ten more minas.' 19.17. He said to him, 'Well done, you good servant! Because you were found faithful in a very little, you shall have authority over ten cities.' 19.18. The second came, saying, 'Your mina, Lord, has made five minas.' 19.19. So he said to him, 'And you are to be over five cities.' 19.20. Another came, saying, 'Lord, behold, your mina, which I kept laid away in a handkerchief 19.21. for I feared you, because you are an exacting man. You take up that which you didn't lay down, and reap that which you didn't sow.' 19.22. He said to him, 'Out of your own mouth will I judge you, you wicked servant! You knew that I am an exacting man, taking up that which I didn't lay down, and reaping that which I didn't sow. 19.23. Then why didn't you deposit my money in the bank, and at my coming, I might have earned interest on it?' 19.24. He said to those who stood by, 'Take the mina away from him, and give it to him who has the ten minas.' 19.25. They said to him, 'Lord, he has ten minas!' 19.26. 'For I tell you that to everyone who has, will more be given; but from him who doesn't have, even that which he has will be taken away from him. 19.27. But bring those enemies of mine who didn't want me to reign over them here, and kill them before me.' 20.1. It happened on one of those days, as he was teaching the people in the temple and preaching the gospel, that the chief priests and scribes came to him with the elders. 21.12. But before all these things, they will lay their hands on you and will persecute you, delivering you up to synagogues and prisons, bringing you before kings and governors for my name's sake. 23.1. The whole company of them rose up and brought him before Pilate. 23.2. They began to accuse him, saying, "We found this man perverting the nation, forbidding paying taxes to Caesar, and saying that he himself is Christ, a king. 23.3. Pilate asked him, "Are you the King of the Jews?"He answered him, "So you say. 23.4. Pilate said to the chief priests and the multitudes, "I find no basis for a charge against this man. 23.6. But when Pilate heard Galilee mentioned, he asked if the man was a Galilean. 23.7. When he found out that he was in Herod's jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod, who was also in Jerusalem during those days. 23.8. Now when Herod saw Jesus, he was exceedingly glad, for he had wanted to see him for a long time, because he had heard many things about him. He hoped to see some miracle done by him. 23.9. He questioned him with many words, but he gave no answers. 23.10. The chief priests and the scribes stood, vehemently accusing him. 23.11. Herod with his soldiers humiliated him and mocked him. Dressing him in luxurious clothing, they sent him back to Pilate. 23.12. Herod and Pilate became friends with each other that very day, for before that they were enemies with each other. 23.26. When they led him away, they grabbed one Simon of Cyrene, coming from the country, and laid on him the cross, to carry it after Jesus. 24.7. saying that the Son of Man must be delivered up into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again? 24.13. Behold, two of them were going that very day to a village named Emmaus, which was sixty stadia from Jerusalem. 24.18. One of them, named Cleopas, answered him, "Are you the only stranger in Jerusalem who doesn't know the things which have happened there in these days? 24.21. But we were hoping that it was he who would redeem Israel. Yes, and besides all this, it is now the third day since these things happened. 24.29. They urged him, saying, "Stay with us, for it is almost evening, and the day is almost over."He went in to stay with them. 24.46. He said to them, "Thus it is written, and thus it was necessary for the Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead the third day 24.53. and were continually in the temple, praising and blessing God. Amen.
23. New Testament, Mark, 1.3, 8.2, 8.31, 9.2, 9.5, 9.31, 10.33-10.34, 13.9, 14.1, 14.58, 15.1, 15.21, 15.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. The voice of one crying in the wilderness, 'Make ready the way of the Lord! Make his paths straight!' 8.2. I have compassion on the multitude, because they have stayed with me now three days, and have nothing to eat. 8.31. He began to teach them that the Son of Man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the elders, the chief priests, and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again. 9.2. After six days Jesus took with him Peter, James, and John, and brought them up onto a high mountain privately by themselves, and he was changed into another form in front of them. 9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah. 9.31. For he was teaching his disciples, and said to them, "The Son of Man is being handed over to the hands of men, and they will kill him; and when he is killed, on the third day he will rise again. 10.33. Behold, we are going up to Jerusalem. The Son of Man will be delivered to the chief priests and the scribes. They will condemn him to death, and will deliver him to the Gentiles. 10.34. They will mock him, spit on him, scourge him, and kill him. On the third day he will rise again. 13.9. But watch yourselves, for they will deliver you up to councils. You will be beaten in synagogues. You will stand before rulers and kings for my sake, for a testimony to them. 14.1. It was now two days before the feast of the Passover and the unleavened bread, and the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might sieze him by deception, and kill him. 14.58. We heard him say, 'I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and in three days I will build another made without hands.' 15.1. Immediately in the morning the chief priests, with the elders and scribes, and the whole council, held a consultation, and bound Jesus, and carried him away, and delivered him up to Pilate. 15.21. They compelled one passing by, coming from the country, Simon of Cyrene, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to go with them, that he might bear his cross. 15.29. Those who passed by blasphemed him, wagging their heads, and saying, "Ha! You who destroy the temple, and build it in three days
24. New Testament, Matthew, 2.1, 4.2, 6.34, 10.17, 11.12, 12.40, 15.32, 16.21, 17.1, 20.2, 20.6, 20.12, 20.19, 23.24, 23.30, 24.37-24.38, 26.2, 26.61, 27.40, 27.63-27.64 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, behold, wise men from the east came to Jerusalem, saying 4.2. When he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he was hungry afterward. 6.34. Therefore don't be anxious for tomorrow, for tomorrow will be anxious for itself. Each day's own evil is sufficient. 10.17. But beware of men: for they will deliver you up to councils, and in their synagogues they will scourge you. 11.12. From the days of John the Baptizer until now, the Kingdom of Heaven suffers violence, and the violent take it by force. 12.40. For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the whale, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. 15.32. Jesus summoned his disciples and said, "I have compassion on the multitude, because they continue with me now three days and have nothing to eat. I don't want to send them away fasting, or they might faint on the way. 16.21. From that time, Jesus began to show his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem and suffer many things from the elders, chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and the third day be raised up. 17.1. After six days, Jesus took with him Peter, James, and John his brother, and brought them up into a high mountain by themselves. 20.2. When he had agreed with the laborers for a denarius a day, he sent them into his vineyard. 20.6. About the eleventh hour he went out, and found others standing idle. He said to them, 'Why do you stand here all day idle?' 20.12. saying, 'These last have spent one hour, and you have made them equal to us, who have borne the burden of the day and the scorching heat!' 20.19. and will hand him over to the Gentiles to mock, to scourge, and to crucify; and the third day he will be raised up. 23.24. You blind guides, who strain out a gnat, and swallow a camel! 23.30. and say, 'If we had lived in the days of our fathers, we wouldn't have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets.' 24.37. As the days of Noah were, so will be the coming of the Son of Man. 24.38. For as in those days which were before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noah entered into the ark 26.2. You know that after two days the Passover is coming, and the Son of Man will be delivered up to be crucified. 26.61. and said, "This man said, 'I am able to destroy the temple of God, and to build it in three days.' 27.40. and saying, "You who destroy the temple, and build it in three days, save yourself! If you are the Son of God, come down from the cross! 27.63. saying, "Sir, we remember what that deceiver said while he was still alive: 'After three days I will rise again.' 27.64. Command therefore that the tomb be made secure until the third day, lest perhaps his disciples come at night and steal him away, and tell the people, 'He is risen from the dead;' and the last deception will be worse than the first.
25. Tacitus, Annals, 2.85 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.85.  In the same year, bounds were set to female profligacy by stringent resolutions of the senate; and it was laid down that no woman should trade in her body, if her father, grandfather, or husband had been a Roman knight. For Vistilia, the daughter of a praetorian family, had advertised her venality on the aediles' list — the normal procedure among our ancestors, who imagined the unchaste to be sufficiently punished by the avowal of their infamy. Her husband, Titidius Labeo, was also required to explain why, in view of his wife's manifest guilt, he had not invoked the penalty of the law. As he pleaded that sixty days, not yet elapsed, were allowed for deliberation, it was thought enough to pass sentence on Vistilia, who was removed to the island of Seriphos. — Another debate dealt with the proscription of the Egyptian and Jewish rites, and a senatorial edict directed that four thousand descendants of enfranchised slaves, tainted with that superstition and suitable in point of age, were to be shipped to Sardinia and there employed in suppressing brigandage: "if they succumbed to the pestilential climate, it was a cheap loss." The rest had orders to leave Italy, unless they had renounced their impious ceremonial by a given date.
26. Tacitus, Histories, 5.5.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. Tosefta, Miqvaot, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

28. Tosefta, Kippurim, 2.4-2.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

29. Tosefta, Shevi It, 4.6-4.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

30. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

26a. יקחו ספרים ספרים לוקחין תורה,אבל אם מכרו תורה לא יקחו ספרים ספרים לא יקחו מטפחות מטפחות לא יקחו תיבה תיבה לא יקחו בית הכנסת בית הכנסת לא יקחו את הרחוב,וכן במותריהן:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big בני העיר שמכרו רחובה של עיר אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן זו דברי ר' מנחם בר יוסי סתומתאה אבל חכ"א הרחוב אין בו משום קדושה,ור' מנחם בר יוסי מאי טעמיה הואיל והעם מתפללין בו בתעניות ובמעמדות ורבנן ההוא אקראי בעלמא:,בית הכנסת לוקחין תיבה: אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן לא שנו אלא בית הכנסת של כפרים אבל בית הכנסת של כרכין כיון דמעלמא אתו ליה לא מצו מזבני ליה דהוה ליה דרבים,אמר רב אשי האי בי כנישתא דמתא מחסיא אף על גב דמעלמא אתו לה כיון דאדעתא דידי קאתו אי בעינא מזבנינא לה,מיתיבי א"ר יהודה מעשה בבית הכנסת של טורסיים שהיה בירושלים שמכרוה לרבי אליעזר ועשה בה כל צרכיו והא התם דכרכים הוה ההיא בי כנישתא זוטי הוה ואינהו עבדוה,מיתיבי (ויקרא יד, לד) בבית ארץ אחוזתכם אחוזתכם מיטמא בנגעים ואין ירושלים מיטמא בנגעים אמר רבי יהודה אני לא שמעתי אלא מקום מקדש בלבד,הא בתי כנסיות ובתי מדרשות מיטמאין אמאי הא דכרכין הוו אימא א"ר יהודה אני לא שמעתי אלא מקום מקודש בלבד,במאי קמיפלגי ת"ק סבר לא נתחלקה ירושלים לשבטים ורבי יהודה סבר נתחלקה ירושלים לשבטים,ובפלוגתא דהני תנאי,דתניא מה היה בחלקו של יהודה הר הבית הלשכות והעזרות ומה היה בחלקו של בנימין אולם והיכל ובית קדשי הקדשים,ורצועה היתה יוצאת מחלקו של יהודה ונכנסת בחלקו של בנימין ובה מזבח בנוי והיה בנימין הצדיק מצטער עליה בכל יום לבולעה שנאמר (דברים לג, יב) חופף עליו כל היום לפיכך זכה בנימין ונעשה אושפיזכן לשכינה,והאי תנא סבר לא נתחלקה ירושלים לשבטים דתניא אין משכירים בתים בירושלים מפני שאינן שלהן ר"א (בר צדוק) אומר אף לא מטות לפיכך עורות קדשים בעלי אושפיזין נוטלין אותן בזרוע,אמר אביי ש"מ אורח ארעא למישבק אינש גולפא ומשכא באושפיזיה,אמר רבא לא שנו אלא שלא מכרו שבעה טובי העיר במעמד אנשי העיר אבל מכרו שבעה טובי העיר במעמד אנשי העיר אפילו 26a. bthey may purchase scrollsof the Prophets and the Writings. If they sold bscrollsof the Prophets and Writings, bthey may purchase a Torahscroll., bHowever,the proceeds of a sale of a sacred item may not be used to purchase an item of a lesser degree of sanctity. Therefore, bif they sold a Torahscroll, bthey may notuse the proceeds to bpurchase scrollsof the Prophets and the Writings. If they sold bscrollsof the Prophets and Writings, bthey may not purchase wrapping cloths.If they sold bwrapping cloths, they may not purchase an ark.If they sold ban ark, they may not purchase a synagogue.If they sold ba synagogue, they may not purchase a town square. /b, bAnd similarly,the same limitation applies btoany bsurplus fundsfrom the sale of sacred items, i.e., if after selling an item and purchasing something of a greater degree of sanctity there remain additional, unused funds, the leftover funds are subject to the same principle and may be used to purchase only something of a degree of sanctity greater than that of the original item., strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna states: bResidents of a town who sold the town squaremay purchase a synagogue with the proceeds. Concerning this mishna, bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: This is the statement of Rabbi Menaḥem bar Yosei, cited unattributed. However, the Rabbis say: The town square does not have any sanctity.Therefore, if it is sold, the residents may use the money from the sale for any purpose., bAnd Rabbi Menaḥem bar Yosei, what is his reasonfor claiming that the town square has sanctity? bSince the people pray inthe town square boncommunal bfast days and onnon-priestly bwatches,it is defined as a place of prayer and as such has sanctity. bAnd the Rabbis,why do they disagree? They maintain bthatuse of the town square bis merely an irregular occurrence.Consequently, the town square is not to be defined as a place of prayer, and so it has no sanctity.,§ The mishna states: If they sold ba synagogue, they may purchase an ark.The Gemara cites a qualification to this ihalakha /i: bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: They taughtthis bonlywith regard to ba synagogue of a village,which is considered the property of the residents of that village. bHowever,with regard to ba synagogue of a city, sincepeople bcome to it from theoutside bworld,the residents of the city bare not able to sell it, because it isconsidered to be the property bof the publicat large and does not belong exclusively to the residents of the city., bRav Ashi said: This synagogue of Mata Meḥasya, althoughpeople bfrom theoutside bworld come to it, since they come at my discretion,as I established it, and everything is done there in accordance with my directives, bif I wish, I can sell it. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionto Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani’s statement, from a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yehuda said:There was ban incident involving a synagogue of bronze workers [ itursiyyim /i] that was in Jerusalem, which they sold to Rabbi Eliezer, and he used it for all hisown bneeds.The Gemara asks: bBut wasn’tthe synagogue bthereone bof cities,as Jerusalem is certainly classified as a city; why were they permitted to sell it? The Gemara explains: bThatone bwas a small synagogue, andit was the bronze workers bthemselveswho bbuilt it.Therefore, it was considered exclusively theirs, and they were permitted to sell it.,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom another ibaraita /i: The verse states with regard to leprosy of houses: “And I put the plague of leprosy bin a house of the land of your possession”(Leviticus 14:34), from which it may be inferred: b“Your possession,”i.e., a privately owned house, bcan become ritually impure with leprosy, buta house in bJerusalem cannot become ritually impure with leprosy,as property there belongs collectively to the Jewish people and is not privately owned. bRabbi Yehuda said: I heardthis distinction stated bonlywith regard to bthe site of the Temple alone,but not with regard to the entire city of Jerusalem.,The Gemara explains: From Rabbi Yehuda’s statement, it is apparent that only the site of the Temple cannot become ritually impure, bbut synagogues and study hallsin Jerusalem bcan become ritually impure. Whyshould this be true given bthat they areowned by the bcity?The Gemara answers: Emend the ibaraitaand bsayas follows: bRabbi Yehuda said: I heardthis distinction stated bonlywith regard to ba sacred site,which includes the Temple, synagogues, and study halls., bWith regard to whatprinciple do the first itannaand Rabbi Yehuda bdisagree? The first itannaholdsthat bJerusalem was not apportioned to the tribes,i.e., it was never assigned to any particular tribe, but rather it belongs collectively to the entire nation. bAnd Rabbi Yehuda holds: Jerusalem was apportioned to the tribes,and it is only the site of the Temple itself that belongs collectively to the entire nation.,The Gemara notes: They each follow a different opinion bin the disputebetween bthese itanna’im /i: /b,One itannaholds that Jerusalem was apportioned to the tribes, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWhatpart of the Temple bwas in thetribal bportion of Judah? The Temple mount, theTemple bchambers, and theTemple bcourtyards. And what was in thetribal bportion of Benjamin? The Entrance Hall, the Sanctuary, and the Holy of Holies. /b, bAnd a stripof land bissued forth from the portion of Judah and entered into the portion of Benjamin, and uponthat strip bthe altar was built, andthe tribe of bBenjamin, the righteous, would agonize over it every daydesiring bto absorb itinto its portion, due to its unique sanctity, bas it is statedin Moses’ blessing to Benjamin: b“He covers it throughout the day,and he dwells between his shoulders” (Deuteronomy 33:12). The phrase “covers it” is understood to mean that Benjamin is continually focused upon that site. bTherefore, Benjamin was privileged by becoming the host [ iushpizekhan /i] of theDivine Presence, as the Holy of Holies was built in his portion., bAnd thisother itannaholdsthat bJerusalem was not apportioned to the tribes, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may not rent out houses in Jerusalem, due tothe fact bthatthe houses bdo not belong tothose occupying them. Rather, as is true for the entire city, they are owned collectively by the nation. bRabbi Elazar bar Tzadok says: Even beds may notbe hired out. bTherefore,in the case of the bhides ofthe renter’s bofferingsthat the innkeepers take in lieu of payment, the binnkeepersare considered to be btaking them by force,as they did not have a right to demand payment.,Apropos the topic of inns, the Gemara reports: bAbaye said: Learn fromthis ibaraitathat bit is proper etiquettefor ba person to leavehis wine bflask andthe bhideof the animal that he slaughtered bat his inn,i.e., the inn where he stayed, as a gift for the service he received.,§ The Gemara returns its discussion of the mishna: bRava said: They taughtthat there is a limitation on what may be purchased with the proceeds of the sale of a synagogue bonly when the seven representatives of the townwho were appointed to administer the town’s affairs bhad not soldthe synagogue bin an assembly of the residents of the town. However,if bthe seven representatives of the town had soldit bin an assembly of the residents of the town,then beven /b
31. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14b. כיון דהך גזור ברישא הא תו למה לי אלא הך גזור ברישא והדר גזור בכולהו ידים,וטבול יום טבול יום דאורייתא הוא דכתיב (ויקרא כב, ז) ובא השמש וטהר סמי מכאן טבול יום,והאוכלין שנטמאו במשקין במשקין דמאי אילימא במשקין הבאין מחמת שרץ דאוריי' נינהו דכתיב (ויקרא יא, לד) וכל משקה אשר ישתה אלא במשקין הבאין מחמת ידים וגזירה משום משקין הבאין מחמת שרץ,והכלים שנטמאו במשקין כלים דאיטמאו במשקין דמאי אילימא במשקין דזב דאוריי' נינהו דכתיב (ויקרא טו, ח) וכי ירוק הזב בטהור מה שביד טהור טמאתי לך אלא במשקין הבאין מחמת שרץ וגזירה משום משקין דזב,וידים תלמידי שמאי והלל גזור שמאי והלל גזור דתניא יוסי בן יועזר איש צרידה ויוסי בן יוחנן איש ירושלים גזרו טומאה על ארץ העמים ועל כלי זכוכית שמעון בן שטח תיקן כתובה לאשה וגזר טומאה על כלי מתכות שמאי והלל גזרו טומאה על הידים,וכ"ת שמאי וסיעתו והלל וסיעתו והאמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל י"ח דבר גזרו ובי"ח נחלקו ואילו הלל ושמאי לא נחלקו אלא בג' מקומות דא"ר הונא בג' מקומות נחלקו ותו לא וכ"ת אתו אינהו גזור לתלות ואתו תלמידייהו וגזרו לשרוף והאמר אילפא ידים תחלת גזירתן לשריפה אלא אתו אינהו גזור ולא קבלו מינייהו ואתו תלמידייהו גזרו וקבלו מינייהו,ואכתי שלמה גזר דא"ר יהודה אמר שמואל בשעה שתיקן שלמה עירובין ונטילת ידים יצתה בת קול ואמרה (משלי כג, טו) בני אם חכם לבך ישמח לבי גם אני (משלי כז, יא) חכם בני ושמח לבי ואשיבה חורפי דבר אתא 14b. bonce they decreed that first, why do I need thatdecree of impurity on hands that touch a sacred scroll bas well?Once the Sages decreed impurity on hands in general, there is no longer a necessity to decree impurity on hands that touched a Torah scroll, as hands are impure in any case. bRather,certainly the Sages bdecreedimpurity on bthis,hands that touched a Torah scroll, bfirst. And then they decreedimpurity bon all hands. /b,Among the decrees listed in the mishna, there is the decree that contact with one who bimmersed himself during the daydisqualifies iteruma /i. The Gemara asks: bOne who immersed himself during the daytransmits impurity by bTorahlaw, as it is written: “One who touches it remains impure until evening. He should not eat of the consecrated items and he must wash his flesh with water. bAnd the sun sets and it is purified.Afterward, he may eat from the teruma, for it is his bread” (Leviticus 22:6–7). Consequently, until sunset he is prohibited by Torah law from touching consecrated items, and the same is true for iteruma /i. The Gemara answers: bDelete from here,from the list of decrees in the mishna, bone who immersed himself during the day. /b, bAndamong the decrees that were listed, there is also the decree concerning the impurity of bthe foods that became impurethrough contact bwith liquids.The Gemara asks: bWith liquids thatbecame impure due to contact with bwhatsource of impurity? bIf you saythat the mishna is referring to bliquids that cometo be impure bdue tocontact with ba creeping animal, they areimpure bby Torah law, as it is writtenwith regard to the impurity of creeping animals: b“And every liquid that is drunkin any vessel, will be impure” (Leviticus 11:34). bRather,the mishna is referring to bliquids that cometo be impure bdue tocontact with impure bhands.The Sages issued this bdecree due to liquids that cometo be impure bthroughcontact with ba creeping animal. /b, bAndamong the decrees that were listed, there is also the decree concerning bthe vessels that became impurethrough contact bwith liquids.The Gemara asks: bVessels that became impuredue to contact bwith liquids thatbecame impure due to contact with bwhatsource of impurity? bIf you saythat they become impure due to contact bwith liquidssecreted by ba izav /i,e.g., spittle, urine, etc., bthey areimpure bby Torah law, as it is written: “And if a izavspits on a pure personand he should wash his clothes and wash in water and he is impure until the evening” (Leviticus 15:8). The Sages interpreted homiletically: bWhatever is in the hand of the pure person I made impure for you.Not only did the person who came into contact with the liquids of the izavbecome impure, but the objects in his hand did as well. bRather,here it is referring bto liquids that cometo be impure bdue tocontact with ba creeping animal,which by Torah law do not transmit impurity to vessels. bAndthe Sages issued ba decreewith regard to those liquids bdue totheir similarity to the bliquids of a izav /i. /b,Among the list of items in the mishna with regard to which the disciples of Shammai and Hillel instituted decrees, were the hands of any person who did not purify himself for the sake of purity of iteruma /i. If he came into contact with iteruma /i, the Sages decreed it impure. The Gemara asks: bAndwith regard to bhands,was it bthe disciples of Shammai and Hillelwho bissued the decreeof impurity? bShammai and Hillelthemselves bissued the decree. As it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bYosei ben Yo’ezer of Tzereida and Yosei ben Yoḥa of Jerusalem decreed impurity on the land of the nations,that the land outside Eretz Yisrael transmits impurity; bandthey decreed impurity bon glass vessels,even though glass is not listed in the Torah among the vessels that can become impure. bShimon ben Shataḥ institutedthe formula of ba woman’s marriage contract andalso bdecreedspecial bimpurity on metal vessels. Shammai and Hillel decreed impurity on the hands. /b, bAnd if you saythat the ibaraitais referring to bShammai and his faction and Hillel and his faction, didn’t Rav Yehuda saythat bShmuel said: With regard to eighteen matters they issued decreesthat day, band with regard tothose beighteenmatters bthey disagreedprior to that? The eighteen disputes were only between the disciples of Shammai and Hillel, bwhereas Hillel and Shammaithemselves bargued only in three places.Clearly, they were neither party to the disputes nor the decrees. bAs Rav Huna said:Shammai and Hillel bdisagreed inonly bthree places and no more. And if you saythat Hillel and Shammai bcameand bdecreedthat iterumathat came into contact with hands bwould be in abeyance, and their students came and decreed to burn iterumathat came into contact with hands, then the following difficulty arises. bDidn’t Ilfa,one of the Sages, bsay:With regard to bhands,from bthe beginning their decreewas that iterumathat comes into contact with them is bto be burned?According to Ilfa, there is no uncertainty. iTerumathat came into contact with definite impurity is burned. iTerumathat is in abeyance may not be destroyed. One must wait until it becomes definitely impure or decomposes on its own. bRather,the explanation is that bthey came and issued a decree andthe people bdid not acceptthe decree bfrom them, and their disciples came and issued a decree and they acceptedit bfrom them. /b,The Gemara asks further: bStill,the matter is not clear, as the decree of hands was bissuedby King bSolomon. As Rav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said: At the time that Solomon institutedthe ordices of ieiruvandof bwashing handsto purify them from their impurity, ba Divine Voice emerged and saidin his praise: b“My son, if your heart is wise my heart will be glad, even mine”(Proverbs 23:15), and so too: b“My son, be wise and make my heart glad, that I may respond to those who taunt me”(Proverbs 27: 11). The Gemara responds: bCame /b
32. Augustine, The City of God, 6.11 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

6.11. Seneca, among the other superstitions of civil theology, also found fault with the sacred things of the Jews, and especially the sabbaths, affirming that they act uselessly in keeping those seventh days, whereby they lose through idleness about the seventh part of their life, and also many things which demand immediate attention are damaged. The Christians, however, who were already most hostile to the Jews, he did not dare to mention, either for praise or blame, lest, if he praised them, he should do so against the ancient custom of his country, or, perhaps, if he should blame them, he should do so against his own will. When he was speaking concerning those Jews, he said, When, meanwhile, the customs of that most accursed nation have gained such strength that they have been now received in all lands, the conquered have given laws to the conquerors. By these words he expresses his astonishment; and, not knowing what the providence of God was leading him to say, subjoins in plain words an opinion by which he showed what he thought about the meaning of those sacred institutions: For, he says, those, however, know the cause of their rites, while the greater part of the people know not why they perform theirs. But concerning the solemnities of the Jews, either why or how far they were instituted by divine authority, and afterwards, in due time, by the same authority taken away from the people of God, to whom the mystery of eternal life was revealed, we have both spoken elsewhere, especially when we were treating against the Manich ans, and also intend to speak in this work in a more suitable place.
33. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 135, 139, 134

134. he would not escape detection, for he made it clear that the power of God pervaded the whole of the law.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
accusation, against paul Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 14
achaia Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 14
acts, diaspora jews in jerusalem Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
acts and anti-judaism Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 61
agape Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
agrippa i Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376
agrippa ii Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
alexander (alabarch of alexandria), gift to temple Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
alexandrian jewry Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
aliyah (to torah) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
anti-semitism Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 13
antioch (syrian) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376, 378
apologetic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 378, 553
apostle, jerusalem Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 14
apostle Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376, 378, 553
apostles (apostoli), of patriarch Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
asia minor, inscriptions Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
asia minor, synagogues Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
asia minor Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376
augustus (oktavian) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
barnabas Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376
bernice (berenice) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
caesaraea philippi Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
christianity, and greek/pagan religion, and judaism Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 234
christianos Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 176
christians, gentile, in the jewish temple Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 234
christians, gentile, jewish Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 234
churches/tradition of paul pauline Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 378
circumcision Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376, 378, 553
compassion, conversion, significance of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 141
contribution, corinthian Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 14
corinth Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376
cornelius Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 176
criminal Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 4, 13
criminalization Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 4, 13
culture, cultural affiliations in galilee Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 176
cyrus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 378
decorations (in synagogue) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
diaspora Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 113, 376, 378
discourse Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 13
egyptian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 474
elders Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
eleazar (son of high-priest ananias) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 474
election (of israel) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 378
felix Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 474
fourth philosophy (josephus) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 378
freedmen (libertines), synagogue in jerusalem Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
gamaliel (gamliel) the elder, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
gentile, mission Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 14
gentile Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 113, 553
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376, 378, 474, 553
god-fearer, god-fearing Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
hadrian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 378
halakha in diaspora Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 113
hellenists Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 176
herod, herod the great Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 350
herod antipas Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
herod the great Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
herodian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
herodians, herodian dynasty Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
high (chief) priest Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 113, 553
high priest Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
historical tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 378
hymns Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
idolatry Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
imperial sociology Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 169
ioudaioi Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 13
israel Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 116
james (brother of jesus) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376, 378
jerusalem, contribution for Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 14
jerusalem Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 13
jerusalem church Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 378, 474
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 378, 474
jewish, leadership Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 13
jewish-christian group, commmunity Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 378, 474
jewish-christian tradition, custom Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 378
jewish Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 13
jews and gentiles, hostility between deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 141
josephus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 378, 474
judaea (roman province; see also yehud) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 378, 474
judaize, judaizing (ioudaïzein) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 378
judas the galilean Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 378
judea Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 13
judea (region) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376, 378
judean (geographical-political) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
judgement, final Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 350
juvenal Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 116
law in paul Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376, 378
leadership, women Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
levitical/ritual purity Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 113
luke, cyrenean jews in jerusalem Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
luke Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376, 553
lynching Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 13
mark, cyrenean jews in jerusalem Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
memory Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 4
messianic woes Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 350
minors, torah reading Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
missionary, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 14
missionary activity Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
monobaz, gift to the temple Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
monotheism, exclusive Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 116
moses Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 113, 376
new testament, as source Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 234
nicanor, gift to temple Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
novels, greek, trial scenes Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 4
of jesus Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 350
origen Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 234
patriarch, patriarchate, appointments Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
paul, cilicia Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
paul, his activity/attitudes to the law, jesus and sacrifice Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 234
paul Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 116
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376, 378, 474, 553
paul death of Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 61
paul pharisee Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
penner, todd Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 61
periodisation of history Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 350
peter Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 176
phineas Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 474
pilgrims, pilgrimage, jerusalem Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
police, roman military Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 13
prayer, jewry, rome Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
preacher, preaching Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
prison Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 4
purification ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 113, 376
purity system Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 113
quirinius Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
reading, minors Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
reading, women Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
reconciliation, ethnic deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 141
reversal Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 264
revolt/war, under nero (great ~) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 378, 474
rhetoric Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 13
rhetorical analysis Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 13
ritual Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 113
roman, citizen Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
roman, empire Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376
roman synagogues, theodotos inscription Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
rome, churches/christians in Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 474
sacrifice, animal, in christianity, to the christian god or to saints Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 234
sacrifice, animal, in judaism v, vi Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 234
sadducees Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
seneca Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 116
septuagint Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 264
sermon (derashah), homily, sanctus Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
sermon (derashah), homily, second temple period Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
shammai, school Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 378, 474
shammai (see also subject index) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 378
sicarii Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 474
stephen Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 176; Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
stobi synagogue, inscription Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
stobi synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
stone moldings/carvings Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
syria Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
tacitus, freedmen Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
tannaim (early rabbis), tannaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 113
temple, jerusalem deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 141
temple (jerusalem), stephens criticism Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 176
temple (jerusalem) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 113
temple (jewish) in jerusalem, christians and the Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 234
temple ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 113, 376, 474
temporal terminology\n, ἡμέρα Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 350
theodotos inscription, diaspora synagogue in jerusalem Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
theology, greek Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 13
tiberius Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 553
torah deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 141
women, leadership Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
women, liturgical roles' Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
women, position of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 113
women, torah reading Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 56
yose(f) ben yohanan Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 113
yosef (yosi) ben yoezer Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 113
zeal (for the law) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376
zealot, zealots Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 378, 474