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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8243
New Testament, Acts, 21-26


nannan, When it happened that we had parted from them and had set sail, we came with a straight course to Cos, and the next day to Rhodes, and from there to Patara. , Having found a ship crossing over to Phoenicia, we went aboard, and set sail. , When we had come in sight of Cyprus, leaving it on the left hand, we sailed to Syria, and landed at Tyre, for there the ship was to unload her cargo. , Having found disciples, we stayed there seven days. These said to Paul through the Spirit, that he should not go up to Jerusalem. , When it happened that we had accomplished the days, we departed and went on our journey. They all, with wives and children, brought us on our way until we were out of the city. Kneeling down on the beach, we prayed. , After saying goodbye to each other, we went on board the ship, and they returned home again. , When we had finished the voyage from Tyre, we arrived at Ptolemais. We greeted the brothers, and stayed with them one day. , On the next day, we, who were Paul's companions, departed, and came to Caesarea. We entered into the house of Philip the evangelist, who was one of the seven, and stayed with him. , Now this man had four virgin daughters who prophesied. , As we stayed there some days, a certain prophet named Agabus came down from Judea. , Coming to us, and taking Paul's belt, he bound his own feet and hands, and said, "Thus says the Holy Spirit: 'So will the Jews at Jerusalem bind the man who owns this belt, and will deliver him into the hands of the Gentiles.'", When we heard these things, both we and they of that place begged him not to go up to Jerusalem. , Then Paul answered, "What are you doing, weeping and breaking my heart? For I am ready not only to be bound, but also to die at Jerusalem for the name of the Lord Jesus.", When he would not be persuaded, we ceased, saying, "The Lord's will be done.", After these days we took up our baggage and went up to Jerusalem. , Some of the disciples from Caesarea also went with us, bringing one Mnason of Cyprus, an early disciple, with whom we would stay. , When we had come to Jerusalem, the brothers received us gladly. , The day following, Paul went in with us to James; and all the elders were present. , When he had greeted them, he reported one by one the things which God had worked among the Gentiles through his ministry. , They, when they heard it, glorified God. They said to him, "You see, brother, how many thousands there are among the Jews of those who have believed, and they are all zealous for the law. , They have been informed about you, that you teach all the Jews who are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, telling them not to circumcise their children neither to walk after the customs. , What then? The assembly must certainly meet, for they will hear that you have come. , Therefore do what we tell you. We have four men who have a vow on them. , Take them, and purify yourself with them, and pay their expenses for them, that they may shave their heads. Then all will know that there is no truth in the things that they have been informed about you, but that you yourself also walk keeping the law. , But concerning the Gentiles who believe, we have written our decision that they should observe no such thing, except that they should keep themselves from food offered to idols, from blood, from strangled things, and from sexual immorality.", Then Paul took the men, and the next day, purified himself and went with them into the temple, declaring the fulfillment of the days of purification, until the offering was offered for every one of them. , When the seven days were almost completed, the Jews from Asia, when they saw him in the temple, stirred up all the multitude and laid hands on him, , crying out, "Men of Israel, help! This is the man who teaches all men everywhere against the people, and the law, and this place. Moreover, he also brought Greeks into the temple, and has defiled this holy place!", For they had seen Trophimus, the Ephesian, with him in the city, and they supposed that Paul had brought him into the temple. , All the city was moved, and the people ran together. They seized Paul and dragged him out of the temple. Immediately the doors were shut. , As they were trying to kill him, news came up to the commanding officer of the regiment that all Jerusalem was in an uproar. , Immediately he took soldiers and centurions, and ran down to them. They, when they saw the chief captain and the soldiers, stopped beating Paul. , Then the commanding officer came near, arrested him, commanded him to be bound with two chains, and inquired who he was and what he had done. , Some shouted one thing, and some another, among the crowd. When he couldn't find out the truth because of the noise, he commanded him to be brought into the barracks. , When he came to the stairs, it happened that he was carried by the soldiers because of the violence of the crowd; , for the multitude of the people followed after, crying out, "Away with him!", As Paul was about to be brought into the barracks, he asked the commanding officer, "May I say something to you?"He said, "Do you know Greek? , Aren't you then the Egyptian, who before these days stirred up to sedition and led out into the wilderness the four thousand men of the Assassins?", But Paul said, "I am a Jew, from Tarsus in Cilicia, a citizen of no insignificant city. I beg you, allow me to speak to the people.", When he had given him permission, Paul, standing on the stairs, beckoned with his hand to the people. When there was a great silence, he spoke to them in the Hebrew language, saying


nannan, "Brothers and fathers, listen to the defense which I now make to you.", When they heard that he spoke to them in the Hebrew language, they were even more quiet. He said, , "I am indeed a Jew, born in Tarsus of Cilicia, but brought up in this city at the feet of Gamaliel, instructed according to the strict manner of the law of our fathers, being zealous for God, even as you all are this day. , I persecuted this Way to the death, binding and delivering into prisons both men and women. , As also the high priest and all the council of the elders testify, from whom also I received letters to the brothers, and journeyed to Damascus to bring them also who were there to Jerusalem in bonds to be punished. , It happened that, as I made my journey, and came close to Damascus, about noon, suddenly there shone from the sky a great light around me. , I fell to the ground, and heard a voice saying to me, 'Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me?' , I answered, 'Who are you, Lord?' He said to me, 'I am Jesus of Nazareth, whom you persecute.' , "Those who were with me indeed saw the light and were afraid, but they didn't understand the voice of him who spoke to me. , I said, 'What shall I do, Lord?' The Lord said to me, 'Arise, and go into Damascus. There you will be told about all things which are appointed for you to do.' , When I couldn't see for the glory of that light, being led by the hand of those who were with me, I came into Damascus. , One Ananias, a devout man according to the law, well reported of by all the Jews who lived there, , came to me, and standing by me said to me, 'Brother Saul, receive your sight!' In that very hour I looked up at him. , He said, 'The God of our fathers has appointed you to know his will, and to see the Righteous One, and to hear a voice from his mouth. , For you will be a witness for him to all men of what you have seen and heard. , Now why do you wait? Arise, be baptized, and wash away your sins, calling on the name of the Lord.' , "It happened that, when I had returned to Jerusalem, and while I prayed in the temple, I fell into a trance, , and saw him saying to me, 'Hurry and get out of Jerusalem quickly, because they will not receive testimony concerning me from you.' , I said, 'Lord, they themselves know that I imprisoned and beat in every synagogue those who believed in you. , When the blood of Stephen, your witness, was shed, I also was standing by, and consenting to his death, and guarding the cloaks of those who killed him.' , "He said to me, 'Depart, for I will send you out far from here to the Gentiles.'", They listened to him until he said that, then they lifted up their voice, and said, "Rid the earth of this fellow, for he isn't fit to live!", As they cried out, and threw off their cloaks, and threw dust into the air, , the commanding officer commanded him to be brought into the barracks, ordering him to be examined by scourging, that he might know for what crime they shouted against him like that. , When they had tied him up with thongs, Paul asked the centurion who stood by, "Is it lawful for you to scourge a man who is a Roman, and not found guilty?", When the centurion heard it, he went to the commanding officer and told him, "Watch what you are about to do, for this man is a Roman!", The commanding officer came and asked him, "Tell me, are you a Roman?"He said, "Yes.", The commanding officer answered, "I bought my citizenship for a great price."Paul said, "But I was born a Roman.", Immediately those who were about to examine him departed from him, and the commanding officer also was afraid when he realized that he was a Roman, because he had bound him. , But on the next day, desiring to know the truth about why he was accused by the Jews, he freed him from the bonds, and commanded the chief priests and all the council to come together, and brought Paul down and set him before them.


nannan, Paul, looking steadfastly at the council, said, "Brothers, I have lived before God in all good conscience until this day.", The high priest, Ananias, commanded those who stood by him to strike him on the mouth. , Then Paul said to him, "God will strike you, you whitewashed wall! Do you sit to judge me according to the law, and command me to be struck contrary to the law?", Those who stood by said, "Do you malign God's high priest?", Paul said, "I didn't know, brothers, that he was high priest. For it is written, 'You shall not speak evil of a ruler of your people.'", But when Paul perceived that the one part were Sadducees and the other Pharisees, he cried out in the council, "Men and brothers, I am a Pharisee, a son of Pharisees. Concerning the hope and resurrection of the dead I am being judged!", When he had said this, an argument arose between the Pharisees and Sadducees, and the assembly was divided. , For the Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, neither angel, nor spirit; but the Pharisees confess all of these. , A great clamor arose, and some of the scribes of the Pharisees part stood up, and contended, saying, "We find no evil in this man. But if a spirit or angel has spoken to him, let's not fight against God!", When a great argument arose, the commanding officer, fearing that Paul would be torn in pieces by them, commanded the soldiers to go down and take him by force from among them, and bring him into the barracks. , The following night, the Lord stood by him, and said, "Cheer up, Paul, for as you have testified about me at Jerusalem, so you must testify also at Rome.", When it was day, some of the Jews banded together, and bound themselves under a curse, saying that they would neither eat nor drink until they had killed Paul. , There were more than forty people who had made this conspiracy. , They came to the chief priests and the elders, and said, "We have bound ourselves under a great curse, to taste nothing until we have killed Paul. , Now therefore, you with the council inform the commanding officer that he should bring him down to you tomorrow, as though you were going to judge his case more exactly. We are ready to kill him before he comes near.", But Paul's sister's son heard of their lying in wait, and he came and entered into the barracks and told Paul. , Paul summoned one of the centurions, and said, "Bring this young man to the commanding officer, for he has something to tell him.", So he took him, and brought him to the commanding officer, and said, "Paul, the prisoner, summoned me and asked me to bring this young man to you, who has something to tell you.", The commanding officer took him by the hand, and going aside, asked him privately, "What is it that you have to tell me?", He said, "The Jews have agreed to ask you to bring down Paul tomorrow to the council, as though intending to inquire somewhat more accurately concerning him. , Therefore don't yield to them, for more than forty men lie in wait for him, who have bound themselves under a curse neither to eat nor to drink until they have killed him. Now they are ready, looking for the promise from you.", So the commanding officer let the young man go, charging him, "Tell no one that you have told these things to me.", He called to himself two of the centurions, and said, "Prepare two hundred soldiers to go as far as Caesarea, with seventy horsemen, and two hundred men armed with spears, at the third hour of the night.", He asked them to provide animals, that they might set Paul on one, and bring him safely to Felix the governor. , He wrote a letter like this: , "Claudius Lysias to the most excellent governor Felix: Greetings. , "This man was seized by the Jews, and was about to be killed by them, when I came with the soldiers and rescued him, having learned that he was a Roman. , Desiring to know the cause why they accused him, I brought him down to their council. , I found him to be accused about questions of their law, but to have nothing laid to his charge worthy of death or of bonds. , When I was told that the Jews lay in wait for the man, I sent him to you immediately, charging his accusers also to bring their accusations against him before you. Farewell.", So the soldiers, carrying out their orders, took Paul and brought him by night to Antipatris. , But on the next day they left the horsemen to go with him, and returned to the barracks. , They, when they came to Caesarea and delivered the letter to the governor, presented Paul also before him. , When the governor had read it, he asked what province he was from. When he understood that he was from Cilicia, he said, , "I will hear you fully when your accusers also arrive." He commanded that he be kept in Herod's palace.


nannan, After five days, the high priest, Ananias, came down with certain elders and an orator, one Tertullus. They informed the governor against Paul. , When he was called, Tertullus began to accuse him, saying, "Seeing that by you we enjoy much peace, and that excellent measures are coming to this nation, , we accept it in all ways and in all places, most excellent Felix, with all thankfulness. , But, that I don't delay you, I entreat you to bear with us and hear a few words. , For we have found this man to be a plague, an instigator of insurrections among all the Jews throughout the world, and a ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes. , He even tried to profane the temple. We arrested him. , , By examining him yourself you may ascertain all these things of which we accuse him.", The Jews also joined in the attack, affirming that these things were so. , When the governor had beckoned to him to speak, Paul answered, "Because I know that you have been a judge of this nation for many years, I cheerfully make my defense, , seeing that you can recognize that it is not more than twelve days since I went up to worship at Jerusalem. , In the temple they didn't find me disputing with anyone or stirring up a crowd, either in the synagogues, or in the city. , Nor can they prove to you the things whereof they now accuse me. , But this I confess to you, that after the Way, which they call a sect, so I serve the God of our fathers, believing all things which are according to the law, and which are written in the prophets; , having hope toward God, which these also themselves look for, that there will be a resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust. , Herein I also practice always having a conscience void of offense toward God and men. , Now after some years, I came to bring gifts to the needy to my nation, and offerings; , amid which certain Jews from Asia found me purified in the temple, with no crowd, nor yet with tumult. , They ought to have been here before you, and to make accusation, if they had anything against me. , Or else let these men themselves say what injustice they found in me when I stood before the council, , unless it is for this one thing that I cried standing among them, 'Concerning the resurrection of the dead I am being judged before you today!'", But Felix, having more exact knowledge concerning the Way, deferred them, saying, "When Lysias, the commanding officer, comes down, I will decide your case.", He ordered the centurion that Paul should be kept in custody, and should have some privileges, and not to forbid any of his friends to serve him or to visit him. , But after some days, Felix came with Drusilla, his wife, who was a Jewess, and sent for Paul, and heard him concerning the faith in Christ Jesus. , As he reasoned about righteousness, self-control, and the judgment to come, Felix was terrified, and answered, "Go your way for this time, and when it is convenient for me, I will summon you.", He hoped that way that money would be given to him by Paul, that he might release him. Therefore also he sent for him more often, and talked with him. , But when two years were fulfilled, Felix was succeeded by Porcius Festus, and desiring to gain favor with the Jews, Felix left Paul in bonds.


nannan, Festus therefore, having come into the province, after three days went up to Jerusalem from Caesarea. , Then the high priest and the principal men of the Jews informed him against Paul, and they begged him, , asking a favor against him, that he would send for him to Jerusalem; plotting to kill him on the way. , However Festus answered that Paul was kept in custody at Caesarea, and that he himself was about to depart shortly. , "Let them therefore," said he, "that are in power among you go down with me, and if there is anything wrong in the man, let them accuse him.", When he had stayed among them more than ten days, he went down to Caesarea, and on the next day he sat on the judgment seat, and commanded Paul to be brought. , When he had come, the Jews who had come down from Jerusalem stood around him, bringing against him many and grievous charges which they could not prove, , while he said in his defense, "Neither against the law of the Jews, nor against the temple, nor against Caesar, have I sinned at all.", But Festus, desiring to gain favor with the Jews, answered Paul and said, "Will you go up to Jerusalem, and there be judged of these things before me?", But Paul said, "I am standing before Caesar's judgment seat, where I ought to be tried. I have done no wrong to the Jews, as you also know very well. , For if I have done wrong, and have committed anything worthy of death, I don't refuse to die; but if none of those things is true that these accuse me of, no one can give me up to them. I appeal to Caesar!", Then Festus, when he had conferred with the council, answered, "You have appealed to Caesar. To Caesar you will go.", Now when some days had passed, Agrippa the King and Bernice arrived at Caesarea, and greeted Festus. , As they stayed there many days, Festus laid Paul's case before the King, saying, "There is a certain man left a prisoner by Felix; , about whom, when I was at Jerusalem, the chief priests and the elders of the Jews informed me, asking for a sentence against him. , To whom I answered that it is not the custom of the Romans to give up any man to destruction, before the accused have met the accusers face to face, and have had opportunity to make his defense concerning the matter laid against him. , When therefore they had come together here, I didn't delay, but on the next day sat on the judgment seat, and commanded the man to be brought. , Concerning whom, when the accusers stood up, they brought no charge of such things as I supposed; , but had certain questions against him of their own religion, and of one Jesus, who was dead, whom Paul affirmed to be alive. , I, being perplexed how to inquire concerning these things, asked whether he would go to Jerusalem and there be judged concerning these matters. , But when Paul had appealed to be kept for the decision of the emperor, I commanded him to be kept until I could send him to Caesar.", Agrippa said to Festus, "I also would like to hear the man myself.""Tomorrow," he said, "you will hear him.", So on the next day, when Agrippa and Bernice had come with great pomp, and they had entered into the place of hearing with the commanding officers and principal men of the city, at the command of Festus, Paul was brought in. , Festus said, "King Agrippa, and all men who are here present with us, you see this man, about whom all the multitude of the Jews petitioned me, both at Jerusalem and here, crying that he ought not to live any longer. , But when I found that he had committed nothing worthy of death, and as he himself appealed to the emperor I determined to send him. , Of whom I have no certain thing to write to my lord. Therefore I have brought him forth before you, and especially before you, king Agrippa, that, after examination, I may have something to write. , For it seems to me unreasonable, in sending a prisoner, not to also specify the charges against him.


nannan, Agrippa said to Paul, "You may speak for yourself."Then Paul stretched out his hand, and made his defense. , "I think myself happy, King Agrippa, that I am to make my defense before you this day concerning all the things whereof I am accused by the Jews, , especially because you are expert in all customs and questions which are among the Jews. Therefore I beg you to hear me patiently. , "Indeed, all the Jews know my way of life from my youth up, which was from the beginning among my own nation and at Jerusalem; , having known me from the first, if they are willing to testify, that after the strictest sect of our religion I lived a Pharisee. , Now I stand here to be judged for the hope of the promise made by God to our fathers, , which our twelve tribes, earnestly serving night and day, hope to attain. Concerning this hope I am accused by the Jews, King Agrippa! , Why is it judged incredible with you, if God does raise the dead? , "I myself most assuredly thought that I ought to do many things contrary to the name of Jesus of Nazareth. , This I also did in Jerusalem. I both shut up many of the saints in prisons, having received authority from the chief priests, and when they were put to death I gave my vote against them. , Punishing them often in all the synagogues, I tried to make them blaspheme. Being exceedingly enraged against them, I persecuted them even to foreign cities. , "Whereupon as I journeyed to Damascus with the authority and commission from the chief priests, , at noon, O King, I saw on the way a light from the sky, brighter than the sun, shining around me and those who traveled with me. , When we had all fallen to the earth, I heard a voice saying to me in the Hebrew language, 'Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me? It is hard for you to kick against the goads.' , "I said, 'Who are you, Lord?' "He said, 'I am Jesus, whom you persecute. , But arise, and stand on your feet, for to this end have I appeared to you, to appoint you a servant and a witness both of the things which you have seen, and of the things which I will reveal to you; , delivering you from the people, and from the Gentiles, to whom I send you, , to open their eyes, that they may turn from darkness to light and from the power of Satan to God, that they may receive remission of sins and an inheritance among those who are sanctified by faith in me.' , "Therefore, King Agrippa, I was not disobedient to the heavenly vision, , but declared first to them of Damascus, at Jerusalem, and throughout all the country of Judea, and also to the Gentiles, that they should repent and turn to God, doing works worthy of repentance. , For this reason the Jews seized me in the temple, and tried to kill me. , Having therefore obtained the help that is from God, I stand to this day testifying both to small and great, saying nothing but what the prophets and Moses did say should come, , how the Christ must suffer, and how he first by the resurrection of the dead should proclaim light both to these people and to the Gentiles.", As he thus made his defense, Festus said with a loud voice, "Paul, you are crazy! Your great learning is driving you insane!", But he said, "I am not crazy, most excellent Festus, but boldly declare words of truth and reasonableness. , For the king knows of these things, to whom also I speak freely. For I am persuaded that none of these things is hidden from him, for this has not been done in a corner. , King Agrippa, do you believe the prophets? I know that you believe.", Agrippa said to Paul, "With a little persuasion are you trying to make me a Christian?", Paul said, "I pray to God, that whether with little or with much, not only you, but also all that hear me this day, might become such as I am, except for these bonds.", The king rose up with the governor, and Bernice, and those who sat with them. , When they had withdrawn, they spoke one to another, saying, "This man does nothing worthy of death or of bonds.", Agrippa said to Festus, "This man might have been set free if he had not appealed to Caesar.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

48 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 8.21, 17.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.21. וַיָּרַח יְהוָה אֶת־רֵיחַ הַנִּיחֹחַ וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־לִבּוֹ לֹא־אֹסִף לְקַלֵּל עוֹד אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה בַּעֲבוּר הָאָדָם כִּי יֵצֶר לֵב הָאָדָם רַע מִנְּעֻרָיו וְלֹא־אֹסִף עוֹד לְהַכּוֹת אֶת־כָּל־חַי כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי׃ 17.14. וְעָרֵל זָכָר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִמּוֹל אֶת־בְּשַׂר עָרְלָתוֹ וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי הֵפַר׃ 8.21. And the LORD smelled the sweet savour; and the LORD said in His heart: ‘I will not again curse the ground any more for man’s sake; for the imagination of man’s heart is evil from his youth; neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done." 17.14. And the uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his people; he hath broken My covet.’"
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 9.11-9.12 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

9.11. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא אָקִים אֶת־סֻכַּת דָּוִיד הַנֹּפֶלֶת וְגָדַרְתִּי אֶת־פִּרְצֵיהֶן וַהֲרִסֹתָיו אָקִים וּבְנִיתִיהָ כִּימֵי עוֹלָם׃ 9.12. לְמַעַן יִירְשׁוּ אֶת־שְׁאֵרִית אֱדוֹם וְכָל־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר־נִקְרָא שְׁמִי עֲלֵיהֶם נְאֻם־יְהוָה עֹשֶׂה זֹּאת׃ 9.11. In that day will I raise up The tabernacle of David that is fallen, And close up the breaches thereof, And I will raise up his ruins, And I will build it as in the days of old;" 9.12. That they may possess the remt of Edom, And all the nations, upon whom My name is called, Saith the LORD that doeth this."
4. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.9-6.10, 61.1-61.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.9. וַיֹּאמֶר לֵךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ לָעָם הַזֶּה שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמוֹעַ וְאַל־תָּבִינוּ וּרְאוּ רָאוֹ וְאַל־תֵּדָעוּ׃ 61.1. שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ בַּיהוָה תָּגֵל נַפְשִׁי בֵּאלֹהַי כִּי הִלְבִּישַׁנִי בִּגְדֵי־יֶשַׁע מְעִיל צְדָקָה יְעָטָנִי כֶּחָתָן יְכַהֵן פְּאֵר וְכַכַּלָּה תַּעְדֶּה כֵלֶיהָ׃ 61.1. רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח יְהוָה אֹתִי לְבַשֵּׂר עֲנָוִים שְׁלָחַנִי לַחֲבֹשׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב לִקְרֹא לִשְׁבוּיִם דְּרוֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִים פְּקַח־קוֹחַ׃ 61.2. לִקְרֹא שְׁנַת־רָצוֹן לַיהוָה וְיוֹם נָקָם לֵאלֹהֵינוּ לְנַחֵם כָּל־אֲבֵלִים׃ 6.9. And He said: ‘Go, and tell this people: Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not." 6.10. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they, seeing with their eyes, and hearing with their ears, and understanding with their heart, return, and be healed.’" 61.1. The spirit of the Lord God is upon me; Because the LORD hath anointed me To bring good tidings unto the humble; He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the eyes to them that are bound;" 61.2. To proclaim the year of the LORD’S good pleasure, And the day of vengeance of our God; To comfort all that mourn;"
5. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 14.4 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

14.4. וְעָמְדוּ רַגְלָיו בַּיּוֹם־הַהוּא עַל־הַר הַזֵּתִים אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם מִקֶּדֶם וְנִבְקַע הַר הַזֵּיתִים מֵחֶצְיוֹ מִזְרָחָה וָיָמָּה גֵּיא גְּדוֹלָה מְאֹד וּמָשׁ חֲצִי הָהָר צָפוֹנָה וְחֶצְיוֹ־נֶגְבָּה׃ 14.4. And His feet shall stand in that day upon the mount of Olives, Which is before Jerusalem on the east, And the mount of Olives shall cleft in the midst thereof Toward the east and toward the west, So that there shall be a very great valley; And half of the mountain shall remove toward the north, And half of it toward the south."
6. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.15. and removed the marks of circumcision, and abandoned the holy covet. They joined with the Gentiles and sold themselves to do evil.
7. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 6.5, 7.1, 10.34 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.5. The altar was covered with abominable offerings which were forbidden by the laws. 7.1. It happened also that seven brothers and their mother were arrested and were being compelled by the king, under torture with whips and cords, to partake of unlawful swine's flesh.' 10.34. The men within, relying on the strength of the place, blasphemed terribly and hurled out wicked words.'
8. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 49.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

49.8. It was Ezekiel who saw the vision of glory which God showed him above the chariot of the cherubim.
9. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.261 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.261. The body then, as I have already said, he purifies with ablutions and bespringklings, and does not allow a person after he has once washed and sprinkled himself, at once to enter within the sacred precincts, but bids him wait outside for seven days, and to be besprinkled twice, on the third day and on the seventh day; and after this it commands him to wash himself once more, and then it admits him to enter the sacred precincts and to share in the sacred ministrations.XLIX.
10. Strabo, Geography, 7.3.4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7.3.4. However, it is perhaps superfluous to disturb the reading that has had approval for so many years; for it is much more credible that the people were called Mysi at first and that later their name was changed to what it is now. And as for the term Abii, one might interpret it as meaning those who are without hearth: and live on wagons quite as well as those who are bereft; for since, in general, injustices arise only in connection with contracts and a too high regard for property, so it is reasonable that those who, like the Abii, live cheaply, on slight resources, should have been called most just. In fact, the philosophers who put justice next to self-restraint strive above all things for frugality and personal independence; and consequently extreme self-restraint diverts some of them to the Cynical mode of life. But as for the statement that they live bereft of women, the poet suggests nothing of the sort, and particularly in the country of the Thracians and of those of their number who are Getae. And see the statement of Meder about them, which, as one may reasonably suppose, was not invented by him but taken from history: All the Thracians, and most of all we Getae (for I too boast that I am of this stock) are not very continent; and a little below he sets down the proofs of their incontinence in their relations with women: For every man of us marries ten or eleven women, and some, twelve or more; but if anyone meets death before he has married more than four or five, he is lamented among the people there as a wretch without bride and nuptial song. Indeed, these facts are confirmed by the other writers as well. Further, it is not reasonable to suppose that the same people regard as wretched a life without many women, and yet at the same time regard as pious and just a life that is wholly bereft of women. And of course to regard as both god-fearing and capnobatae those who are without women is very much opposed to the common notions on that subject; for all agree in regarding the women as the chief founders of religion, and it is the women who provoke the men to the more attentive worship of the gods, to festivals, and to supplications, and it is a rare thing for a man who lives by himself to be found addicted to these things. See again what the same poet says when he introduces as speaker the man who is vexed by the money spent by the women in connection with the sacrifices: The gods are the undoing of us, especially us married men, for we must always be celebrating some festival; and again when he introduces the Woman-hater, who complains about these very things: we used to sacrifice five times a day, and seven female attendants would beat the cymbals all round us, while others would cry out to the gods. So, then, the interpretation that the wifeless men of the Getae are in a special way reverential towards the gods is clearly contrary to reason, whereas the interpretation that zeal for religion is strong in this tribe, and that because of their reverence for the gods the people abstain from eating any living thing, is one which, both from what Poseidonius and from what the histories in general tell us, should not be disbelieved.
11. Anon., Didache, 9-10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. But after you are filled, thus give thanks: We thank You, holy Father, for Your holy name which You caused to tabernacle in our hearts, and for the knowledge and faith and immortality, which You made known to us through Jesus Your Servant; to You be the glory forever. You, Master almighty, created all things for Your name's sake; You gave food and drink to men for enjoyment, that they might give thanks to You; but to us You freely gave spiritual food and drink and life eternal through Your Servant. Before all things we thank You that You are mighty; to You be the glory forever. Remember, Lord, Your Church, to deliver it from all evil and to make it perfect in Your love, and gather it from the four winds, sanctified for Your kingdom which You have prepared for it; for Yours is the power and the glory forever. Let grace come, and let this world pass away. Hosanna to the God (Son) of David! If any one is holy, let him come; if any one is not so, let him repent. Maran atha. Amen. But permit the prophets to make Thanksgiving as much as they desire.
12. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 12.145, 12.241, 20.51-20.53, 20.101, 20.200 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.145. 4. And these were the contents of this epistle. He also published a decree through all his kingdom in honor of the temple, which contained what follows: “It shall be lawful for no foreigner to come within the limits of the temple round about; which thing is forbidden also to the Jews, unless to those who, according to their own custom, have purified themselves. 12.241. Wherefore they desired his permission to build them a Gymnasium at Jerusalem. And when he had given them leave, they also hid the circumcision of their genitals, that even when they were naked they might appear to be Greeks. Accordingly, they left off all the customs that belonged to their own country, and imitated the practices of the other nations. 20.51. Now her coming was of very great advantage to the people of Jerusalem; for whereas a famine did oppress them at that time, and many people died for want of what was necessary to procure food withal, queen Helena sent some of her servants to Alexandria with money to buy a great quantity of corn, and others of them to Cyprus, to bring a cargo of dried figs. 20.52. And as soon as they were come back, and had brought those provisions, which was done very quickly, she distributed food to those that were in want of it, and left a most excellent memorial behind her of this benefaction, which she bestowed on our whole nation. 20.53. And when her son Izates was informed of this famine, he sent great sums of money to the principal men in Jerusalem. However, what favors this queen and king conferred upon our city Jerusalem shall be further related hereafter. 20.101. Under these procurators that great famine happened in Judea, in which queen Helena bought corn in Egypt at a great expense, and distributed it to those that were in want, as I have related already.
13. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.650, 2.204-2.225, 2.227-2.247, 2.249-2.250, 2.252-2.278, 2.280-2.408, 4.562, 6.125-6.126 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.205. but the senate, upon the reference of the consuls, Sentius Saturninus, and Pomponius Secundus, gave orders to the three regiments of soldiers that staid with them to keep the city quiet, and went up into the capitol in great numbers, and resolved to oppose Claudius by force, on account of the barbarous treatment they had met with from Caius; and they determined either to settle the nation under an aristocracy, as they had of old been governed, or at least to choose by vote such a one for emperor as might be worthy of it. 2.208. He added further, that he would administer the government as a good prince, and not like a tyrant; for that he would be satisfied with the honor of being called emperor, but would, in every one of his actions, permit them all to give him their advice; for that although he had not been by nature for moderation, yet would the death of Caius afford him a sufficient demonstration how soberly he ought to act in that station. 2.209. 3. This message was delivered by Agrippa; to which the senate replied, that since they had an army, and the wisest counsels on their side, they would not endure a voluntary slavery. And when Claudius heard what answer the senate had made, he sent Agrippa to them again, with the following message: That he could not bear the thoughts of betraying them that had given their oaths to be true to him; and that he saw he must fight, though unwillingly, against such as he had no mind to fight; 2.211. 4. In the meantime, one of the soldiers belonging to the senate drew his sword, and cried out, “O my fellow soldiers, what is the meaning of this choice of ours, to kill our brethren, and to use violence to our kindred that are with Claudius? while we may have him for our emperor whom no one can blame, and who hath so many just reasons [to lay claim to the government]! and this with regard to those against whom we are going to fight!” 2.212. When he had said this, he marched through the whole senate, and carried all the soldiers along with him. Upon which all the patricians were immediately in a great fright at their being thus deserted. But still, because there appeared no other way whither they could turn themselves for deliverance, they made haste the same way with the soldiers, and went to Claudius. 2.213. But those that had the greatest luck in flattering the good fortune of Claudius betimes met them before the walls with their naked swords, and there was reason to fear that those that came first might have been in danger, before Claudius could know what violence the soldiers were going to offer them, had not Agrippa run before, and told him what a dangerous thing they were going about, and that unless he restrained the violence of these men, who were in a fit of madness against the patricians, he would lose those on whose account it was most desirable to rule, and would be emperor over a desert. 2.214. 5. When Claudius heard this, he restrained the violence of the soldiery, and received the senate into the camp, and treated them after an obliging manner, and went out with them presently to offer their thank-offerings to God, which were proper upon, his first coming to the empire. 2.215. Moreover, he bestowed on Agrippa his whole paternal kingdom immediately, and added to it, besides those countries that had been given by Augustus to Herod, Trachonitis and Auranitis, and still, besides these, that kingdom which was called the kingdom of Lysanias. 2.216. This gift he declared to the people by a decree, but ordered the magistrates to have the donation engraved on tables of brass, and to be set up in the capitol. 2.218. 6. So now riches flowed in to Agrippa by his enjoyment of so large a dominion; nor did he abuse the money he had on small matters, but he began to encompass Jerusalem with such a wall, which, had it been brought to perfection, had made it impracticable for the Romans to take it by siege; 2.219. but his death, which happened at Caesarea, before he had raised the walls to their due height, prevented him. He had then reigned three years, as he had governed his tetrarchies three other years. 2.222. and these, as I have formerly said, were the children of Aristobulus the son of Herod, which Aristobulus and Alexander were born to Herod by Mariamne, and were slain by him. But as for Alexander’s posterity, they reigned in Armenia. 2.223. 1. Now after the death of Herod, king of Chalcis, Claudius set Agrippa, the son of Agrippa, over his uncle’s kingdom, while Cumanus took upon him the office of procurator of the rest, which was a Roman province, and therein he succeeded Alexander; under which Cumanus began the troubles, and the Jews’ ruin came on; 2.224. for when the multitude were come together to Jerusalem, to the feast of unleavened bread, and a Roman cohort stood over the cloisters of the temple(for they always were armed, and kept guard at the festivals, to prevent any innovation which the multitude thus gathered together might make), one of the soldiers pulled back his garment, and cowering down after an indecent manner, turned his breech to the Jews, and spake such words as you might expect upon such a posture. 2.227. and the violence with which they crowded to get out was so great, that they trod upon each other, and squeezed one another, till ten thousand of them were killed, insomuch that this feast became the cause of mourning to the whole nation, and every family lamented [their own relations]. 2.228. 2. Now there followed after this another calamity, which arose from a tumult made by robbers; for at the public road of Bethhoron, one Stephen, a servant of Caesar, carried some furniture, which the robbers fell upon and seized. 2.229. Upon this Cumanus sent men to go round about to the neighboring villages, and to bring their inhabitants to him bound, as laying it to their charge that they had not pursued after the thieves, and caught them. Now here it was that a certain soldier, finding the sacred book of the law, tore it to pieces, and threw it into the fire. 2.231. Accordingly, he, perceiving that the multitude would not be quiet unless they had a comfortable answer from him, gave order that the soldier should be brought, and drawn through those that required to have him punished, to execution, which being done, the Jews went their ways. 2.232. 3. After this there happened a fight between the Galileans and the Samaritans; it happened at a village called Geman, which is situated in the great plain of Samaria; where, as a great number of Jews were going up to Jerusalem to the feast [of tabernacles,] a certain Galilean was slain; 2.233. and besides, a vast number of people ran together out of Galilee, in order to fight with the Samaritans. But the principal men among them came to Cumanus, and besought him that, before the evil became incurable, he would come into Galilee, and bring the authors of this murder to punishment; for that there was no other way to make the multitude separate without coming to blows. However, Cumanus postponed their supplications to the other affairs he was then about, and sent the petitioners away without success. 2.234. 4. But when the affair of this murder came to be told at Jerusalem, it put the multitude into disorder, and they left the feast; and without any generals to conduct them, they marched with great violence to Samaria; nor would they be ruled by any of the magistrates that were set over them 2.235. but they were managed by one Eleazar, the son of Dineus, and by Alexander, in these their thievish and seditious attempts. These men fell upon those that were in the neighborhood of the Acrabatene toparchy, and slew them, without sparing any age, and set the villages on fire. 2.236. 5. But Cumanus took one troop of horsemen, called the troop of Sebaste, out of Caesarea, and came to the assistance of those that were spoiled; he also seized upon a great number of those that followed Eleazar, and slew more of them. 2.237. And as for the rest of the multitude of those that went so zealously to fight with the Samaritans, the rulers of Jerusalem ran out, clothed with sackcloth, and having ashes on their heads, and begged of them to go their ways, lest by their attempt to revenge themselves upon the Samaritans they should provoke the Romans to come against Jerusalem; to have compassion upon their country and temple, their children and their wives, and not bring the utmost dangers of destruction upon them, in order to avenge themselves upon one Galilean only. 2.238. The Jews complied with these persuasions of theirs, and dispersed themselves; but still there were a great number who betook themselves to robbing, in hopes of impunity; and rapines and insurrections of the bolder sort happened over the whole country. 2.239. And the men of power among the Samaritans came to Tyre, to Ummidius Quadratus, the president of Syria, and desired that they that had laid waste the country might be punished: 2.241. 6. But Quadratus put both parties off for that time, and told them, that when he should come to those places, he would make a diligent inquiry after every circumstance. After which he went to Caesarea, and crucified all those whom Cumanus had taken alive; 2.242. and when from thence he was come to the city Lydda, he heard the affair of the Samaritans, and sent for eighteen of the Jews, whom he had learned to have been concerned in that fight, and beheaded them; 2.243. but he sent two others of those that were of the greatest power among them, and both Jonathan and Aias, the high priests, as also Aus the son of this Aias, and certain others that were eminent among the Jews, to Caesar; as he did in like manner by the most illustrious of the Samaritans. 2.244. He also ordered that Cumanus [the procurator] and Celer the tribune should sail to Rome, in order to give an account of what had been done to Caesar. When he had finished these matters, he went up from Lydda to Jerusalem, and finding the multitude celebrating their feast of unleavened bread without any tumult, he returned to Antioch. 2.245. 7. Now when Caesar at Rome had heard what Cumanus and the Samaritans had to say (where it was done in the hearing of Agrippa, who zealously espoused the cause of the Jews, as in like manner many of the great men stood by Cumanus), he condemned the Samaritans, and commanded that three of the most powerful men among them should be put to death; he banished Cumanus 2.246. and sent Celer bound to Jerusalem, to be delivered over to the Jews to be tormented; that he should be drawn round the city, and then beheaded. 2.247. 8. After this Caesar sent Felix, the brother of Pallas, to be procurator of Galilee, and Samaria, and Perea, and removed Agrippa from Chalcis unto a greater kingdom; for he gave him the tetrarchy which had belonged to Philip, which contained Batanea, Trachonitis, and Gaulonitis: he added to it the kingdom of Lysanias, and that province [Abilene] which Varus had governed. 2.249. whom he had married to Nero; he had also another daughter by Petina, whose name was Antonia. 2.252. 2. Nero therefore bestowed the kingdom of the Lesser Armenia upon Aristobulus, Herod’s son, and he added to Agrippa’s kingdom four cities, with the toparchies to them belonging; I mean Abila, and that Julias which is in Perea, Taricheae also, and Tiberias of Galilee; but over the rest of Judea he made Felix procurator. 2.253. This Felix took Eleazar the arch-robber, and many that were with him, alive, when they had ravaged the country for twenty years together, and sent them to Rome; but as to the number of robbers whom he caused to be crucified, and of those who were caught among them, and whom he brought to punishment, they were a multitude not to be enumerated. 2.254. 3. When the country was purged of these, there sprang up another sort of robbers in Jerusalem, which were called Sicarii, who slew men in the daytime, and in the midst of the city; 2.255. this they did chiefly at the festivals, when they mingled themselves among the multitude, and concealed daggers under their garments, with which they stabbed those that were their enemies; and when any fell down dead, the murderers became a part of those that had indignation against them; by which means they appeared persons of such reputation, that they could by no means be discovered. 2.256. The first man who was slain by them was Jonathan the high priest, after whose death many were slain every day, while the fear men were in of being so served was more afflicting than the calamity itself; 2.257. and while everybody expected death every hour, as men do in war, so men were obliged to look before them, and to take notice of their enemies at a great distance; nor, if their friends were coming to them, durst they trust them any longer; but, in the midst of their suspicions and guarding of themselves, they were slain. Such was the celerity of the plotters against them, and so cunning was their contrivance. 2.258. 4. There was also another body of wicked men gotten together, not so impure in their actions, but more wicked in their intentions, which laid waste the happy state of the city no less than did these murderers. 2.259. These were such men as deceived and deluded the people under pretense of Divine inspiration, but were for procuring innovations and changes of the government; and these prevailed with the multitude to act like madmen, and went before them into the wilderness, as pretending that God would there show them the signals of liberty. 2.261. 5. But there was an Egyptian false prophet that did the Jews more mischief than the former; for he was a cheat, and pretended to be a prophet also, and got together thirty thousand men that were deluded by him; 2.262. these he led round about from the wilderness to the mount which was called the Mount of Olives, and was ready to break into Jerusalem by force from that place; and if he could but once conquer the Roman garrison and the people, he intended to domineer over them by the assistance of those guards of his that were to break into the city with him. 2.263. But Felix prevented his attempt, and met him with his Roman soldiers, while all the people assisted him in his attack upon them, insomuch that when it came to a battle, the Egyptian ran away, with a few others, while the greatest part of those that were with him were either destroyed or taken alive; but the rest of the multitude were dispersed every one to their own homes, and there concealed themselves. 2.264. 6. Now, when these were quieted, it happened, as it does in a diseased body, that another part was subject to an inflammation; for a company of deceivers and robbers got together, and persuaded the Jews to revolt, and exhorted them to assert their liberty, inflicting death on those that continued in obedience to the Roman government, and saying, that such as willingly chose slavery ought to be forced from such their desired inclinations; 2.265. for they parted themselves into different bodies, and lay in wait up and down the country, and plundered the houses of the great men, and slew the men themselves, and set the villages on fire; and this till all Judea was filled with the effects of their madness. And thus the flame was every day more and more blown up, till it came to a direct war. 2.266. 7. There was also another disturbance at Caesarea:—those Jews who were mixed with the Syrians that lived there, raising a tumult against them. The Jews pretended that the city was theirs, and said that he who built it was a Jew, meaning king Herod. The Syrians confessed also that its builder was a Jew; but they still said, however, that the city was a Grecian city; for that he who set up statues and temples in it could not design it for Jews. 2.267. On which account both parties had a contest with one another; and this contest increased so much, that it came at last to arms, and the bolder sort of them marched out to fight; for the elders of the Jews were not able to put a stop to their own people that were disposed to be tumultuous, and the Greeks thought it a shame for them to be overcome by the Jews. 2.268. Now these Jews exceeded the others in riches and strength of body; but the Grecian part had the advantage of assistance from the soldiery; for the greatest part of the Roman garrison was raised out of Syria; and being thus related to the Syrian part, they were ready to assist it. 2.269. However, the governors of the city were concerned to keep all quiet, and whenever they caught those that were most for fighting on either side, they punished them with stripes and bonds. Yet did not the sufferings of those that were caught affright the remainder, or make them desist; but they were still more and more exasperated, and deeper engaged in the sedition. 2.271. 1. Now it was that Festus succeeded Felix as procurator, and made it his business to correct those that made disturbances in the country. So he caught the greatest part of the robbers, and destroyed a great many of them. 2.272. But then Albinus, who succeeded Festus, did not execute his office as the other had done; nor was there any sort of wickedness that could be named but he had a hand in it. 2.273. Accordingly, he did not only, in his political capacity, steal and plunder every one’s substance, nor did he only burden the whole nation with taxes, but he permitted the relations of such as were in prison for robbery, and had been laid there, either by the senate of every city, or by the former procurators, to redeem them for money; and nobody remained in the prisons as a malefactor but he who gave him nothing. 2.274. At this time it was that the enterprises of the seditious at Jerusalem were very formidable; the principal men among them purchasing leave of Albinus to go on with their seditious practices; while that part of the people who delighted in disturbances joined themselves to such as had fellowship with Albinus; 2.275. and everyone of these wicked wretches were encompassed with his own band of robbers, while he himself, like an arch-robber, or a tyrant, made a figure among his company, and abused his authority over those about him, in order to plunder those that lived quietly. 2.276. The effect of which was this, that those who lost their goods were forced to hold their peace, when they had reason to show great indignation at what they had suffered; but those who had escaped were forced to flatter him that deserved to be punished, out of the fear they were in of suffering equally with the others. Upon the whole, nobody durst speak their minds, but tyranny was generally tolerated; and at this time were those seeds sown which brought the city to destruction. 2.277. 2. And although such was the character of Albinus, yet did Gessius Florus who succeeded him, demonstrate him to have been a most excellent person, upon the comparison; for the former did the greatest part of his rogueries in private, and with a sort of dissimulation; but Gessius did his unjust actions to the harm of the nation after a pompous manner; and as though he had been sent as an executioner to punish condemned malefactors, he omitted no sort of rapine, or of vexation; 2.278. where the case was really pitiable, he was most barbarous, and in things of the greatest turpitude he was most impudent. Nor could anyone outdo him in disguising the truth; nor could anyone contrive more subtle ways of deceit than he did. He indeed thought it but a petty offense to get money out of single persons; so he spoiled whole cities, and ruined entire bodies of men at once, and did almost publicly proclaim it all the country over, that they had liberty given them to turn robbers, upon this condition, that he might go shares with them in the spoils they got. 2.281. But as he was present, and stood by Cestius, he laughed at their words. However, Cestius, when he had quieted the multitude, and had assured them that he would take care that Florus should hereafter treat them in a more gentle manner, returned to Antioch. 2.282. Florus also conducted him as far as Caesarea, and deluded him, though he had at that very time the purpose of showing his anger at the nation, and procuring a war upon them, by which means alone it was that he supposed he might conceal his enormities; 2.283. for he expected that if the peace continued, he should have the Jews for his accusers before Caesar; but that if he could procure them to make a revolt, he should divert their laying lesser crimes to his charge, by a misery that was so much greater; he therefore did every day augment their calamities, in order to induce them to a rebellion. 2.284. 4. Now at this time it happened that the Grecians at Caesarea had been too hard for the Jews, and had obtained of Nero the government of the city, and had brought the judicial determination: at the same time began the war, in the twelfth year of the reign of Nero, and the seventeenth of the reign of Agrippa, in the month of Artemisius [Jyar]. 2.285. Now the occasion of this war was by no means proportionable to those heavy calamities which it brought upon us. For the Jews that dwelt at Caesarea had a synagogue near the place, whose owner was a certain Cesarean Greek: the Jews had endeavored frequently to have purchased the possession of the place, and had offered many times its value for its price; 2.286. but as the owner overlooked their offers, so did he raise other buildings upon the place, in way of affront to them, and made workingshops of them, and left them but a narrow passage, and such as was very troublesome for them to go along to their synagogue. Whereupon the warmer part of the Jewish youth went hastily to the workmen, and forbade them to build there; 2.287. but as Florus would not permit them to use force, the great men of the Jews, with John the publican, being in the utmost distress what to do, persuaded Florus, with the offer of eight talents, to hinder the work. 2.288. He then, being intent upon nothing but getting money, promised he would do for them all they desired of him, and then went away from Caesarea to Sebaste, and left the sedition to take its full course, as if he had sold a license to the Jews to fight it out. 2.289. 5. Now on the next day, which was the seventh day of the week, when the Jews were crowding apace to their synagogue, a certain man of Caesarea, of a seditious temper, got an earthen vessel, and set it with the bottom upward, at the entrance of that synagogue, and sacrificed birds. This thing provoked the Jews to an incurable degree, because their laws were affronted, and the place was polluted. 2.291. Hereupon Jucundus, the master of the horse, who was ordered to prevent the fight, came thither, and took away the earthen vessel, and endeavored to put a stop to the sedition; but when he was overcome by the violence of the people of Caesarea, the Jews caught up their books of the law, and retired to Narbata, which was a place to them belonging, distant from Caesarea sixty furlongs. 2.292. But John, and twelve of the principal men with him, went to Florus, to Sebaste, and made a lamentable complaint of their case, and besought him to help them; and with all possible decency, put him in mind of the eight talents they had given him; but he had the men seized upon and put in prison, and accused them for carrying the books of the law out of Caesarea. 2.293. 6. Moreover, as to the citizens of Jerusalem, although they took this matter very ill, yet did they restrain their passion; but Florus acted herein as if he had been hired, and blew up the war into a flame, and sent some to take seventeen talents out of the sacred treasure, and pretended that Caesar wanted them. 2.294. At this the people were in confusion immediately, and ran together to the temple, with prodigious clamors, and called upon Caesar by name, and besought him to free them from the tyranny of Florus. 2.295. Some also of the seditious cried out upon Florus, and cast the greatest reproaches upon him, and carried a basket about, and begged some spills of money for him, as for one that was destitute of possessions, and in a miserable condition. Yet was not he made ashamed hereby of his love of money, but was more enraged, and provoked to get still more; 2.296. and instead of coming to Caesarea, as he ought to have done, and quenching the flame of war, which was beginning thence, and so taking away the occasion of any disturbances, on which account it was that he had received a reward [of eight talents], he marched hastily with an army of horsemen and footmen against Jerusalem, that he might gain his will by the arms of the Romans, and might, by his terror, and by his threatenings, bring the city into subjection. 2.297. 7. But the people were desirous of making Florus ashamed of his attempt, and met his soldiers with acclamations, and put themselves in order to receive him very submissively. 2.298. But he sent Capito, a centurion, beforehand, with fifty soldiers, to bid them go back, and not now make a show of receiving him in an obliging manner, whom they had so foully reproached before; 2.299. and said that it was incumbent on them, in case they had generous souls, and were free speakers, to jest upon him to his face, and appear to be lovers of liberty, not only in words, but with their weapons also. 2.301. 8. Now at this time Florus took up his quarters at the palace; and on the next day he had his tribunal set before it, and sat upon it, when the high priests, and the men of power, and those of the greatest eminence in the city, came all before that tribunal; 2.302. upon which Florus commanded them to deliver up to him those that had reproached him, and told them that they should themselves partake of the vengeance to them belonging, if they did not produce the criminals; but these demonstrated that the people were peaceably disposed, and they begged forgiveness for those that had spoken amiss; 2.303. for that it was no wonder at all that in so great a multitude there should be some more daring than they ought to be, and, by reason of their younger age, foolish also; and that it was impossible to distinguish those that offended from the rest, while every one was sorry for what he had done, and denied it out of fear of what would follow: 2.304. that he ought, however, to provide for the peace of the nation, and to take such counsels as might preserve the city for the Romans, and rather for the sake of a great number of innocent people to forgive a few that were guilty, than for the sake of a few of the wicked to put so large and good a body of men into disorder. 2.305. 9. Florus was more provoked at this, and called out aloud to the soldiers to plunder that which was called the Upper Market-place, and to slay such as they met with. So the soldiers, taking this exhortation of their commander in a sense agreeable to their desire of gain, did not only plunder the place they were sent to, but forcing themselves into every house, they slew its inhabitants; 2.306. o the citizens fled along the narrow lanes, and the soldiers slew those that they caught, and no method of plunder was omitted; they also caught many of the quiet people, and brought them before Florus, whom he first chastised with stripes, and then crucified. 2.307. Accordingly, the whole number of those that were destroyed that day, with their wives and children (for they did not spare even the infants themselves), was about three thousand and six hundred. 2.308. And what made this calamity the heavier was this new method of Roman barbarity; for Florus ventured then to do what no one had done before, that is, to have men of the equestrian order whipped and nailed to the cross before his tribunal; who, although they were by birth Jews, yet were they of Roman dignity notwithstanding. 2.309. 1. About this very time king Agrippa was going to Alexandria, to congratulate Alexander upon his having obtained the government of Egypt from Nero; 2.311. but he would not comply with her request, nor have any regard either to the multitude of those already slain, or to the nobility of her that interceded, but only to the advantage he should make by this plundering; 2.312. nay, this violence of the soldiers broke out to such a degree of madness, that it spent itself on the queen herself; for they did not only torment and destroy those whom they had caught under her very eyes, but indeed had killed herself also, unless she had prevented them by flying to the palace, and had staid there all night with her guards, which she had about her for fear of an insult from the soldiers. 2.313. Now she dwelt then at Jerusalem, in order to perform a vow which she had made to God; for it is usual with those that had been either afflicted with a distemper, or with any other distresses, to make vows; and for thirty days before they are to offer their sacrifices, to abstain from wine, and to shave the hair of their head. 2.314. Which things Bernice was now performing, and stood barefoot before Florus’s tribunal, and besought him [to spare the Jews]. Yet could she neither have any reverence paid to her, nor could she escape without some danger of being slain herself. 2.315. 2. This happened upon the sixteenth day of the month Artemisius [Jyar]. Now, on the next day, the multitude, who were in a great agony, ran together to the Upper Marketplace, and made the loudest lamentations for those that had perished; and the greatest part of the cries were such as reflected on Florus; 2.316. at which the men of power were affrighted, together with the high priests, and rent their garments, and fell down before each of them, and besought them to leave off, and not to provoke Florus to some incurable procedure, besides what they had already suffered. 2.317. Accordingly, the multitude complied immediately, out of reverence to those that had desired it of them, and out of the hope they had that Florus would do them no more injuries. 2.318. 3. So Florus was troubled that the disturbances were over, and endeavored to kindle that flame again, and sent for the high priests, with the other eminent persons, and said, the only demonstration that the people would not make any other innovations should be this,—that they must go out and meet the soldiers that were ascending from Caesarea, whence two cohorts were coming; 2.319. and while these men were exhorting the multitude so to do, he sent beforehand, and gave directions to the centurions of the cohorts, that they should give notice to those that were under them not to return the Jews’ salutations; and that if they made any reply to his disadvantage, they should make use of their weapons. 2.321. 4. At this time it was that every priest, and every servant of God, brought out the holy vessels, and the ornamental garments wherein they used to minister in sacred things.—The harpers also, and the singers of hymns, came out with their instruments of music, and fell down before the multitude, and begged of them that they would preserve those holy ornaments to them, and not provoke the Romans to carry off those sacred treasures. 2.322. You might also see then the high priests themselves, with dust sprinkled in great plenty upon their heads, with bosoms deprived of any covering but what was rent; these besought every one of the eminent men by name, and the multitude in common, that they would not for a small offense betray their country to those that were desirous to have it laid waste; 2.323. aying, “What benefit will it bring to the soldiers to have a salutation from the Jews? or what amendment of your affairs will it bring you, if you do not now go out to meet them? 2.324. and that if they saluted them civilly, all handle would be cut off from Florus to begin a war; that they should thereby gain their country, and freedom from all further sufferings; and that, besides, it would be a sign of great want of command of themselves, if they should yield to a few seditious persons, while it was fitter for them who were so great a people to force the others to act soberly.” 2.325. 5. By these persuasions, which they used to the multitude and to the seditious, they restrained some by threatenings, and others by the reverence that was paid them. After this they led them out, and they met the soldiers quietly, and after a composed manner, and when they were come up with them, they saluted them; but when they made no answer, the seditious exclaimed against Florus, which was the signal given for falling upon them. 2.326. The soldiers therefore encompassed them presently, and struck them with their clubs; and as they fled away, the horsemen trampled them down, so that a great many fell down dead by the strokes of the Romans, and more by their own violence in crushing one another. 2.327. Now there was a terrible crowding about the gates, and while everybody was making haste to get before another, the flight of them all was retarded, and a terrible destruction there was among those that fell down, for they were suffocated, and broken to pieces by the multitude of those that were uppermost; nor could any of them be distinguished by his relations in order to the care of his funeral; 2.328. the soldiers also who beat them, fell upon those whom they overtook, without showing them any mercy, and thrust the multitude through the place called Bezetha, as they forced their way, in order to get in and seize upon the temple, and the tower Antonia. Florus also being desirous to get those places into his possession, brought such as were with him out of the king’s palace, and would have compelled them to get as far as the citadel [Antonia]; 2.329. but his attempt failed, for the people immediately turned back upon him, and stopped the violence of his attempt; and as they stood upon the tops of their houses, they threw their darts at the Romans, who, as they were sorely galled thereby, because those weapons came from above, and they were not able to make a passage through the multitude, which stopped up the narrow passages, they retired to the camp which was at the palace. 2.331. This cooled the avarice of Florus; for whereas he was eager to obtain the treasures of God [in the temple], and on that account was desirous of getting into Antonia, as soon as the cloisters were broken down, he left off his attempt; he then sent for the high priests and the Sanhedrin, and told them that he was indeed himself going out of the city, but that he would leave them as large a garrison as they should desire. 2.332. Hereupon they promised that they would make no innovations, in case he would leave them one band; but not that which had fought with the Jews, because the multitude bore ill will against that band on account of what they had suffered from it; so he changed the band as they desired, and, with the rest of his forces, returned to Caesarea. 2.333. 1. However, Florus contrived another way to oblige the Jews to begin the war, and sent to Cestius, and accused the Jews falsely of revolting [from the Roman government], and imputed the beginning of the former fight to them, and pretended they had been the authors of that disturbance, wherein they were only the sufferers. Yet were not the governors of Jerusalem silent upon this occasion, but did themselves write to Cestius, as did Bernice also, about the illegal practices of which Florus had been guilty against the city; 2.334. who, upon reading both accounts, consulted with his captains [what he should do]. Now some of them thought it best for Cestius to go up with his army, either to punish the revolt, if it was real, or to settle the Roman affairs on a surer foundation, if the Jews continued quiet under them; but he thought it best himself to send one of his intimate friends beforehand, to see the state of affairs, and to give him a faithful account of the intentions of the Jews. 2.335. Accordingly, he sent one of his tribunes, whose name was Neopolitanus, who met with king Agrippa as he was returning from Alexandria, at Jamnia, and told him who it was that sent him, and on what errand he was sent. 2.336. 2. And here it was that the high priests, and men of power among the Jews, as well as the Sanhedrin, came to congratulate the king [upon his safe return]; and after they had paid him their respects, they lamented their own calamities, and related to him what barbarous treatment they had met with from Florus. 2.337. At which barbarity Agrippa had great indignation, but transferred, after a subtle manner, his anger towards those Jews whom he really pitied, that he might beat down their high thoughts of themselves, and would have them believe that they had not been so unjustly treated, in order to dissuade them from avenging themselves. 2.338. So these great men, as of better understanding than the rest, and desirous of peace, because of the possessions they had, understood that this rebuke which the king gave them was intended for their good; but as to the people, they came sixty furlongs out of Jerusalem, and congratulated both Agrippa and Neopolitanus; 2.339. but the wives of those that had been slain came running first of all and lamenting. The people also, when they heard their mourning, fell into lamentations also, and besought Agrippa to assist them: they also cried out to Neopolitanus, and complained of the many miseries they had endured under Florus; and they showed them, when they were come into the city, how the marketplace was made desolate, and the houses plundered. 2.341. where he called the multitude together, and highly commended them for their fidelity to the Romans, and earnestly exhorted them to keep the peace; and having performed such parts of Divine worship at the temple as he was allowed to do, he returned to Cestius. 2.342. 3. But as for the multitude of the Jews, they addressed themselves to the king, and to the high priests, and desired they might have leave to send ambassadors to Nero against Florus, and not by their silence afford a suspicion that they had been the occasion of such great slaughters as had been made, and were disposed to revolt, alleging that they should seem to have been the first beginners of the war, if they did not prevent the report by showing who it was that began it; 2.343. and it appeared openly that they would not be quiet, if anybody should hinder them from sending such an embassage. But Agrippa, although he thought it too dangerous a thing for them to appoint men to go as the accusers of Florus, yet did he not think it fit for him to overlook them, as they were in a disposition for war. 2.344. He therefore called the multitude together into a large gallery, and placed his sister Bernice in the house of the Asamoneans, that she might be seen by them (which house was over the gallery, at the passage to the upper city, where the bridge joined the temple to the gallery), and spake to them as follows:— 2.345. 4. “Had I perceived that you were all zealously disposed to go to war with the Romans, and that the purer and more sincere part of the people did not propose to live in peace, I had not come out to you, nor been so bold as to give you counsel; for all discourses that tend to persuade men to do what they ought to do are superfluous, when the hearers are agreed to do the contrary. 2.346. But because some are earnest to go to war because they are young, and without experience of the miseries it brings, and because some are for it out of an unreasonable expectation of regaining their liberty, and because others hope to get by it, and are therefore earnestly bent upon it, that in the confusion of your affairs they may gain what belongs to those that are too weak to resist them, I have thought it proper to get you all together, and to say to you what I think to be for your advantage; that so the former may grow wiser, and change their minds, and that the best men may come to no harm by the ill conduct of some others. 2.347. And let not anyone be tumultuous against me, in case what they hear me say does not please them; for as to those that admit of no cure, but are resolved upon a revolt, it will still be in their power to retain the same sentiments after my exhortation is over; but still my discourse will fall to the ground, even with a relation to those that have a mind to hear me, unless you will all keep silence. 2.348. I am well aware that many make a tragical exclamation concerning the injuries that have been offered you by your procurators, and concerning the glorious advantages of liberty; but before I begin the inquiry, who you are that must go to war, and who they are against whom you must fight,—I shall first separate those pretenses that are by some connected together; 2.349. for if you aim at avenging yourselves on those that have done you injury, why do you pretend this to be a war for recovering your liberty? but if you think all servitude intolerable, to what purpose serve your complaints against your particular governors? for if they treated you with moderation, it would still be equally an unworthy thing to be in servitude. 2.351. but when you reproach men greatly for small offenses, you excite those whom you reproach to be your adversaries; for this will only make them leave off hurting you privately, and with some degree of modesty, and to lay what you have waste openly. 2.352. Now nothing so much damps the force of strokes as bearing them with patience; and the quietness of those who are injured diverts the injurious persons from afflicting. But let us take it for granted that the Roman ministers are injurious to you, and are incurably severe; yet are they not all the Romans who thus injure you; nor hath Caesar, against whom you are going to make war, injured you: it is not by their command that any wicked governor is sent to you; for they who are in the west cannot see those that are in the east; nor indeed is it easy for them there even to hear what is done in these parts. 2.353. Now it is absurd to make war with a great many for the sake of one: to do so with such mighty people for a small cause; and this when these people are not able to know of what you complain: 2.354. nay, such crimes as we complain of may soon be corrected, for the same procurator will not continue forever; and probable it is that the successors will come with more moderate inclinations. But as for war, if it be once begun, it is not easily laid down again, nor borne without calamities coming therewith. 2.355. However, as to the desire of recovering your liberty, it is unseasonable to indulge it so late; whereas you ought to have labored earnestly in old time that you might never have lost it; for the first experience of slavery was hard to be endured, and the struggle that you might never have been subject to it would have been just; 2.356. but that slave who hath been once brought into subjection, and then runs away, is rather a refractory slave than a lover of liberty; for it was then the proper time for doing all that was possible, that you might never have admitted the Romans [into your city], when Pompey came first into the country. 2.357. But so it was, that our ancestors and their kings, who were in much better circumstances than we are, both as to money, and [strong] bodies, and [valiant] souls, did not bear the onset of a small body of the Roman army. And yet you, who have now accustomed yourselves to obedience from one generation to another, and who are so much inferior to those who first submitted, in your circumstances will venture to oppose the entire empire of the Romans. 2.358. While those Athenians, who, in order to preserve the liberty of Greece, did once set fire to their own city; who pursued Xerxes, that proud prince, when he sailed upon the land, and walked upon the sea, and could not be contained by the seas, but conducted such an army as was too broad for Europe; and made him run away like a fugitive in a single ship, and brake so great a part of Asia as the Lesser Salamis; are yet at this time servants to the Romans; and those injunctions which are sent from Italy become laws to the principal governing city of Greece. 2.359. Those Lacedemonians also who got the great victories at Thermopylae and Platea, and had Agesilaus [for their king], and searched every corner of Asia, are contented to admit the same lords. 2.361. Moreover, ten thousand other nations there are who had greater reason than we to claim their entire liberty, and yet do submit. You are the only people who think it a disgrace to be servants to those to whom all the world hath submitted. What sort of an army do you rely on? What are the arms you depend on? Where is your fleet, that may seize upon the Roman seas? and where are those treasures which may be sufficient for your undertakings? 2.362. Do you suppose, I pray you, that you are to make war with the Egyptians, and with the Arabians? Will you not carefully reflect upon the Roman empire? Will you not estimate your own weakness? Hath not your army been often beaten even by your neighboring nations, while the power of the Romans is invincible in all parts of the habitable earth? 2.363. nay, rather they seek for somewhat still beyond that; for all Euphrates is not a sufficient boundary for them on the east side, nor the Danube on the north; and for their southern limit, Libya hath been searched over by them, as far as countries uninhabited, as is Cadiz their limit on the west; nay, indeed, they have sought for another habitable earth beyond the ocean, and have carried their arms as far as such British islands as were never known before. 2.364. What therefore do you pretend to? Are you richer than the Gauls, stronger than the Germans, wiser than the Greeks, more numerous than all men upon the habitable earth? What confidence is it that elevates you to oppose the Romans? 2.365. Perhaps it will be said, It is hard to endure slavery. Yes; but how much harder is this to the Greeks, who were esteemed the noblest of all people under the sun! These, though they inhabit in a large country, are in subjection to six bundles of Roman rods. It is the same case with the Macedonians, who have juster reason to claim their liberty than you have. 2.366. What is the case of five hundred cities of Asia? Do they not submit to a single governor, and to the consular bundle of rods? What need I speak of the Heniochi, and Colchi and the nation of Tauri, those that inhabit the Bosphorus, and the nations about Pontus, and Meotis 2.367. who formerly knew not so much as a lord of their own, but are now subject to three thousand armed men, and where forty long ships keep the sea in peace, which before was not navigable, and very tempestuous? 2.368. How strong a plea may Bithynia, and Cappadocia, and the people of Pamphylia, the Lycians, and Cilicians, put in for liberty! But they are made tributary without an army. What are the circumstances of the Thracians, whose country extends in breadth five days’ journey, and in length seven, and is of a much more harsh constitution, and much more defensible, than yours, and by the rigor of its cold sufficient to keep off armies from attacking them? do not they submit to two thousand men of the Roman garrisons? 2.369. Are not the Illyrians, who inhabit the country adjoining, as far as Dalmatia and the Danube, governed by barely two legions? by which also they put a stop to the incursions of the Dacians. And for the 2.371. Moreover, if great advantages might provoke any people to revolt, the Gauls might do it best of all, as being so thoroughly walled round by nature; on the east side by the Alps, on the north by the river Rhine, on the south by the Pyrenean mountains, and on the west by the ocean. 2.372. Now, although these Gauls have such obstacles before them to prevent any attack upon them, and have no fewer than three hundred and five nations among them, nay have, as one may say, the fountains of domestic happiness within themselves, and send out plentiful streams of happiness over almost the whole world, these bear to be tributary to the Romans, and derive their prosperous condition from them; 2.373. and they undergo this, not because they are of effeminate minds, or because they are of an ignoble stock, as having borne a war of eighty years in order to preserve their liberty; but by reason of the great regard they have to the power of the Romans, and their good fortune, which is of greater efficacy than their arms. These Gauls, therefore, are kept in servitude by twelve hundred soldiers, which are hardly so many as are their cities; 2.374. nor hath the gold dug out of the mines of Spain been sufficient for the support of a war to preserve their liberty, nor could their vast distance from the Romans by land and by sea do it; nor could the martial tribes of the Lusitanians and Spaniards escape; no more could the ocean, with its tide, which yet was terrible to the ancient inhabitants. 2.375. Nay, the Romans have extended their arms beyond the pillars of Hercules, and have walked among the clouds, upon the Pyrenean mountains, and have subdued these nations. And one legion is a sufficient guard for these people, although they were so hard to be conquered, and at a distance so remote from Rome. 2.376. Who is there among you that hath not heard of the great number of the Germans? You have, to be sure, yourselves seen them to be strong and tall, and that frequently, since the Romans have them among their captives everywhere; 2.377. yet these Germans, who dwell in an immense country, who have minds greater than their bodies, and a soul that despises death, and who are in a rage more fierce than wild beasts, have the Rhine for the boundary of their enterprises, and are tamed by eight Roman legions. Such of them as were taken captive became their servants; and the rest of the entire nation were obliged to save themselves by flight. 2.378. Do you also, who depend on the walls of Jerusalem, consider what a wall the Britons had; for the Romans sailed away to them, and subdued them while they were encompassed by the ocean, and inhabited an island that is not less than [the continent of] this habitable earth; and four legions are a sufficient guard to so large an island: 2.379. And why should I speak much more about this matter, while the Parthians, that most warlike body of men, and lords of so many nations, and encompassed with such mighty forces, send hostages to the Romans? whereby you may see, if you please, even in Italy, the noblest nation of the East, under the notion of peace, submitting to serve them. 2.381. Nor indeed have the Cyrenians, derived from the Lacedemonians, nor the Marmaridae, a nation extended as far as the regions uninhabitable for want of water, nor have the Syrtes, a place terrible to such as barely hear it described, the Nasamons and Moors, and the immense multitude of the Numidians, been able to put a stop to the Roman valor. 2.382. And as for the third part of the habitable earth [Africa], whose nations are so many that it is not easy to number them, and which is bounded by the Atlantic Sea and the pillars of Hercules, and feeds an innumerable multitude of Ethiopians, as far as the Red Sea, these have the Romans subdued entirely. 2.383. And besides the annual fruits of the earth, which maintain the multitude of the Romans for eight months in the year, this, over and above, pays all sorts of tribute, and affords revenues suitable to the necessities of the government. Nor do they, like you, esteem such injunctions a disgrace to them, although they have but one Roman legion that abides among them. 2.384. And indeed what occasion is there for showing you the power of the Romans over remote countries, when it is so easy to learn it from Egypt, in your neighborhood? 2.385. This country is extended as far as the Ethiopians, and Arabia the Happy, and borders upon India; it hath seven million five hundred thousand men, besides the inhabitants of Alexandria, as may be learned from the revenue of the poll tax; yet it is not ashamed to submit to the Roman government, although it hath Alexandria as a grand temptation to a revolt, by reason it is so full of people and of riches, and is besides exceeding large 2.386. its length being thirty furlongs, and its breadth no less than ten; and it pays more tribute to the Romans in one month than you do in a year; nay, besides what it pays in money, it sends corn to Rome that supports it for four months [in the year]: it is also walled round on all sides, either by almost impassable deserts, or seas that have no havens, or by rivers, or by lakes; 2.387. yet have none of these things been found too strong for the Roman good fortune; however, two legions that lie in that city are a bridle both for the remoter parts of Egypt, and for the parts inhabited by the more noble Macedonians. 2.388. Where then are those people whom you are to have for your auxiliaries? Must they come from the parts of the world that are uninhabited? for all that are in the habitable earth are [under the] Romans. Unless any of you extend his hopes as far as beyond the Euphrates, and suppose that those of your own nation that dwell in Adiabene will come to your assistance 2.389. (but certainly these will not embarrass themselves with an unjustifiable war, nor, if they should follow such ill advice, will the Parthians permit them so to do); for it is their concern to maintain the truce that is between them and the Romans, and they will be supposed to break the covets between them, if any under their government march against the Romans. 2.391. Reflect upon it, how impossible it is for your zealous observation of your religious customs to be here preserved, which are hard to be observed even when you fight with those whom you are able to conquer; and how can you then most of all hope for God’s assistance, when, by being forced to transgress his law, you will make him turn his face from you? 2.392. and if you do observe the custom of the Sabbath days, and will not be prevailed on to do anything thereon, you will easily be taken, as were your forefathers by Pompey, who was the busiest in his siege on those days on which the besieged rested. 2.393. But if in time of war you transgress the law of your country, I cannot tell on whose account you will afterward go to war; for your concern is but one, that you do nothing against any of your forefathers; 2.394. and how will you call upon God to assist you, when you are voluntarily transgressing against his religion? Now, all men that go to war do it either as depending on Divine or on human assistance; but since your going to war will cut off both those assistances, those that are for going to war choose evident destruction. 2.395. What hinders you from slaying your children and wives with your own hands, and burning this most excellent native city of yours? for by this mad prank you will, however, escape the reproach of being beaten. 2.396. But it were best, O my friends, it were best, while the vessel is still in the haven, to foresee the impending storm, and not to set sail out of the port into the middle of the hurricanes; for we justly pity those who fall into great misfortunes without foreseeing them; but for him who rushes into manifest ruin, he gains reproaches [instead of commiseration]. 2.397. But certainly no one can imagine that you can enter into a war as by an agreement, or that when the Romans have got you under their power, they will use you with moderation, or will not rather, for an example to other nations, burn your holy city, and utterly destroy your whole nation; for those of you who shall survive the war will not be able to find a place whither to flee, since all men have the Romans for their lords already, or are afraid they shall have hereafter. 2.398. Nay, indeed, the danger concerns not those Jews that dwell here only, but those of them which dwell in other cities also; for there is no people upon the habitable earth which have not some portion of you among them 2.399. whom your enemies will slay, in case you go to war, and on that account also; and so every city which hath Jews in it will be filled with slaughter for the sake only of a few men, and they who slay them will be pardoned; but if that slaughter be not made by them, consider how wicked a thing it is to take arms against those that are so kind to you. 2.401. I call to witness your sanctuary, and the holy angels of God, and this country common to us all, that I have not kept back anything that is for your preservation; and if you will follow that advice which you ought to do, you will have that peace which will be common to you and to me; but if you indulge your passions, you will run those hazards which I shall be free from.” 2.402. 5. When Agrippa had spoken thus, both he and his sister wept, and by their tears repressed a great deal of the violence of the people; but still they cried out, that they would not fight against the Romans, but against Florus, on account of what they had suffered by his means. 2.403. To which Agrippa replied, that what they had already done was like such as make war against the Romans; “for you have not paid the tribute which is due to Caesar and you have cut off the cloisters [of the temple] from joining to the tower Antonia. 2.404. You will therefore prevent any occasion of revolt if you will but join these together again, and if you will but pay your tribute; for the citadel does not now belong to Florus, nor are you to pay the tribute money to Florus.” 2.405. 1. This advice the people hearkened to, and went up into the temple with the king and Bernice, and began to rebuild the cloisters; the rulers also and senators divided themselves into the villages, and collected the tributes, and soon got together forty talents, which was the sum that was deficient. 2.406. And thus did Agrippa then put a stop to that war which was threatened. Moreover, he attempted to persuade the multitude to obey Florus, until Caesar should send one to succeed him; but they were hereby more provoked, and cast reproaches upon the king, and got him excluded out of the city; nay, some of the seditious had the impudence to throw stones at him. 2.407. So when the king saw that the violence of those that were for innovations was not to be restrained, and being very angry at the contumelies he had received, he sent their rulers, together with their men of power, to Florus, to Caesarea, that he might appoint whom he thought fit to collect the tribute in the country, while he retired into his own kingdom. 2.408. 2. And at this time it was that some of those that principally excited the people to go to war made an assault upon a certain fortress called Masada. They took it by treachery, and slew the Romans that were there, and put others of their own party to keep it. 4.562. and imitated not only the ornaments, but also the lusts of women, and were guilty of such intolerable uncleanness, that they invented unlawful pleasures of that sort. And thus did they roll themselves up and down the city, as in a brothel house, and defiled it entirely with their impure actions; 6.125. Have not you been allowed to put up the pillars thereto belonging, at due distances, and on it to engrave in Greek, and in your own letters, this prohibition, that no foreigner should go beyond that wall. 6.126. Have not we given you leave to kill such as go beyond it, though he were a Roman? And what do you do now, you pernicious villains? Why do you trample upon dead bodies in this temple? and why do you pollute this holy house with the blood of both foreigners and Jews themselves?
14. Josephus Flavius, Life, 26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.5-2.6, 3.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.5. They wash hands for [eating] unconsecrated [food], and [second] tithe, and for terumah [heave-offering]. But for sacred food they must immerse [their hands in a mikveh]. With regard to the [water of] purification, if one’s hands became impure, one’s [whole] body is impure." 2.6. If he immersed for unconsecrated [food], and was presumed to be fit to eat unconsecrated [food], he is prohibited from [eating second] tithe. If he immersed for [second] tithe, and was presumed to be fit to eat [second] tithe, he is prohibited from [eating] terumah. If he immersed for terumah, and was presumed to be fit to eat terumah, he is prohibited from [eating] holy things. If he immersed for holy things, and was presumed to be fit to eat holy things he is prohibited from [touching the waters of] purification. If one immersed for something possessing a stricter [degree of holiness], one is permitted [to have contact with] something possessing a lighter [degree of holiness]. If he immersed but without special intention, it is as though he had not immersed." 3.6. Tax-collectors who entered a house, and similarly thieves who restored [stolen] vessels are believed if they say, “We have not touched [anything].” And in Jerusalem they are believed in regard to sacred things, and during a festival also in regard to terumah."
16. Mishnah, Keritot, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.1. There are four persons who require a ceremony of atonement, and there are four who bring a sacrifice for willful as well as for inadvertent transgression. The following are those who require a ceremony of atonement: the zav, the zavah, the woman who gave birth and the metzora. Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob said: also a convert is regarded as a person who still requires a ceremony of atonement until the blood has been sprinkled for him; the same applies to the nazirite with reference to wine, haircutting and uncleanness."
17. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 5.1, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. They used to examine witnesses with seven inquiries: In what week of years? In what year? In what month? On what date in the month? On what day? In what hour? In what place? Rabbi Yose says: [They only asked:] On what day? In what hour? In what place? [Moreover they asked:] Do you recognize him? Did you warn him? If one had committed idolatry [they asked the witnesses:] What did he worship and how did he worship it?" 6.1. When the trial is completed he [the condemned] is led forth to be stoned. The place of stoning was outside of the court, as it is says, “Bring out him that has cursed” (Lev. 24:14). A man was stationed at the door of the court with the handkerchiefs in his hand, and a man on a horse was stationed at a distance yet within sight of him. If one says, ‘I have something [further] to state in his favor’, he [the signaler] waves the handkerchief, and the man on the horse runs and stops them. And even if he [the convict] himself says, ‘I have something to plead in my own favor’, he is brought back, even four or five times, providing, however, that there is substance in his assertion. If then they find him innocent, they discharge him. But if not, he goes forth to be stoned, and a herald precedes him [crying]: so and so, the son of so and so, is going forth to be stoned because he committed such and such an offense, and so and so are his witnesses. Whoever knows anything in his favor, let him come and state it.”"
18. Mishnah, Yoma, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.3. A man may not enter the Temple courtyard or to worship even if he was clean until he immerses himself. Five immersions and ten sanctifications did the high priest perform on that day. And all in sanctity in the Bet Haparvah with the exception of this one alone."
19. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the chosen ones who are living as strangers in the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia
20. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.9, 7.18, 11.16, 11.23-11.34, 14.34, 16.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. God is faithful, through whom you were calledinto the fellowship of his Son, Jesus Christ, our Lord. 7.18. Was anyone called having been circumcised? Let him not becomeuncircumcised. Has anyone been called in uncircumcision? Let him not becircumcised. 11.16. But if any man seems to be contentious, we have nosuch custom, neither do God's assemblies. 11.23. For I received from the Lord that which also I delivered toyou, that the Lord Jesus on the night in which he was betrayed tookbread. 11.24. When he had given thanks, he broke it, and said, "Take,eat. This is my body, which is broken for you. Do this in memory ofme. 11.25. In the same way he also took the cup, after supper,saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood. Do this, as often asyou drink, in memory of me. 11.26. For as often as you eat this breadand drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord's death until he comes. 11.27. Therefore whoever eats this bread or drinks the Lord's cup i unworthy manner will be guilty of the body and the blood of theLord. 11.28. But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of thebread, and drink of the cup. 11.29. For he who eats and drinks in anunworthy manner eats and drinks judgment to himself, if he doesn'tdiscern the Lord's body. 11.30. For this cause many among you are weakand sickly, and not a few sleep. 11.31. For if we discerned ourselves,we wouldn't be judged. 11.32. But when we are judged, we are punishedby the Lord, that we may not be condemned with the world. 11.33. Therefore, my brothers, when you come together to eat, wait one foranother. 11.34. But if anyone is hungry, let him eat at home, lestyour coming together be for judgment. The rest I will set in orderwhenever I come. 14.34. let your wives keepsilent in the assemblies, for it has not been permitted for them tospeak; but let them be in subjection, as the law also says. 16.19. The assemblies of Asia greet you. Aquila and Priscilla greetyou much in the Lord, together with the assembly that is in theirhouse.
21. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.1, 2.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, Silvanus, and Timothy, to the assembly of the Thessalonians in God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 2.14. For you, brothers, became imitators of the assemblies of God which are in Judea in Christ Jesus; for you also suffered the same things from your own countrymen, even as they did from the Jews;
22. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

23. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 3.6-3.7, 3.14-3.15, 6.2, 11.4, 11.13, 11.23-11.26, 12.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

24. New Testament, Acts, 1, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.11, 2, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 2.19, 2.20, 2.21, 2.41, 2.42, 2.43, 2.44, 2.45, 2.46, 2.47, 3, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.21, 4.22, 4.23, 4.24, 4.25, 4.26, 4.27, 4.28, 4.29, 4.30, 4.31, 5.12, 5.13, 5.14, 6.1, 7, 7.51, 7.52, 7.53, 7.54, 7.55, 7.56, 8, 8.1, 8.14, 8.15, 8.16, 8.17, 9, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24, 9.25, 10, 10.1, 10.1-11.18, 10.2, 10.4, 10.9, 10.10, 10.11, 10.12, 10.13, 10.14, 10.15, 10.16, 10.38, 10.44, 10.45, 10.46, 10.47, 10.48, 11, 11.3, 11.18, 11.26, 11.28, 11.29, 11.30, 12, 13, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.9, 13.14, 13.15, 13.16, 13.17, 13.18, 13.19, 13.20, 13.21, 13.22, 13.23, 13.24, 13.25, 13.26, 13.27, 13.28, 13.29, 13.30, 13.31, 13.32, 13.33, 13.34, 13.35, 13.36, 13.37, 13.38, 13.39, 13.40, 13.41, 13.42, 13.43, 13.44, 13.45, 13.46, 13.47, 13.48, 13.49, 13.50, 13.51, 13.52, 14, 14.1, 15, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.12, 15.13, 15.14, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17, 15.18, 15.19, 15.20, 15.21, 15.22, 15.23, 15.24, 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.28, 15.29, 16, 16.1, 16.2, 16.3, 16.4, 16.5, 16.6, 16.7, 16.11, 16.35, 17, 17.4, 17.12, 18, 18.4, 18.18, 18.21, 19, 19.1, 19.2, 19.3, 19.4, 19.5, 19.6, 19.7, 19.10, 19.17, 20, 20.3, 20.4, 20.6, 20.13, 20.21, 20.22, 20.23, 21.2, 21.4, 21.11, 21.16, 21.17, 21.18, 21.19, 21.20, 21.21, 21.22, 21.23, 21.24, 21.25, 21.26, 21.28, 21.29, 21.30, 21.31, 21.32, 21.33, 21.34, 21.35, 21.36, 21.37, 21.38, 21.39, 22, 22.3, 22.12, 22.13, 22.14, 22.15, 22.16, 22.17, 22.18, 22.19, 22.20, 22.21, 23, 23.6, 23.29, 24, 24.5, 24.14, 24.15, 24.17, 24.18, 24.27, 25, 25.8, 25.9, 25.10, 25.13-26.32, 25.22, 25.25, 26, 26.4, 26.6, 26.7, 26.8, 26.17, 26.18, 26.31, 26.32, 27, 28, 28.17, 28.18, 28.19, 28.20, 28.21, 28.22, 28.23, 28.24, 28.25, 28.26, 28.27, 28.28, 28.29, 28.30, 28.31 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. New Testament, James, 1.1, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, to the twelve tribes which are in the Dispersion: Greetings. 4.3. You ask, and don't receive, because you ask amiss, so that you may spend it for your pleasures.
26. New Testament, Philemon, 2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

27. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.22. in whom you also are built together for a habitation of God in the Spirit.
28. New Testament, Galatians, 1, 1.13, 1.14, 1.15, 1.16, 2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.14, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 3.20, 3.21, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 3.25, 3.26, 3.27, 3.28, 3.29, 4.21-5.1, 4.24, 4.25, 4.26, 5.1, 5.2, 6.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

29. New Testament, Philippians, 4.18-4.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.18. But I have all things, and abound. I am filled, having received from Epaphroditus the things that came from you, a sweet-smelling fragrance, an acceptable and well-pleasing sacrifice to God. 4.19. My God will supply every need of yours according to his riches in glory in Christ Jesus. 4.20. Now to our God and Father be the glory forever and ever! Amen.
30. New Testament, Romans, 1.16-2.29, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.21, 4.22, 4.23, 4.24, 4.25, 7.5, 7.12, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 8, 8.2, 9, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24, 9.25, 9.26, 10, 10.4, 14.14, 15, 15.19, 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.28, 15.29, 15.30, 15.31, 16, 16.3, 16.4, 16.5, 16.6, 16.7, 16.8, 16.9, 16.10, 16.11, 16.12, 16.13, 16.14, 16.15, 16.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

31. New Testament, John, 1.1, 1.30, 11.50, 15.18-15.21, 15.23, 15.25-15.27, 19.2-19.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 1.30. This is he of whom I said, 'After me comes a man who is preferred before me, for he was before me.' 11.50. nor do you consider that it is advantageous for us that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation not perish. 15.18. If the world hates you, you know that it has hated me before it hated you. 15.19. If you were of the world, the world would love its own. But because you are not of the world, since I chose you out of the world, therefore the world hates you. 15.20. Remember the word that I said to you: 'A servant is not greater than his lord.' If they persecuted me, they will also persecute you. If they kept my word, they will keep yours also. 15.21. But all these things will they do to you for my name's sake, because they don't know him who sent me. 15.23. He who hates me, hates my Father also. 15.25. But this happened so that the word may be fulfilled which was written in their law, 'They hated me without a cause.' 15.26. When the Counselor has come, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth, who proceeds from the Father, he will testify about me. 15.27. You will also testify, because you have been with me from the beginning. 19.2. The soldiers twisted thorns into a crown, and put it on his head, and dressed him in a purple garment. 19.3. They kept saying, "Hail, King of the Jews!" and they kept slapping him.
32. New Testament, Luke, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5-2.52, 1.32, 1.33, 2.25, 2.26, 2.27, 2.28, 2.29, 2.30, 2.31, 2.32, 2.33, 2.34, 2.35, 2.36, 2.37, 2.38, 2.48, 3.1, 3.2, 4.18, 9.44, 12.10, 12.11, 18.32, 21.6, 22.14, 22.15, 22.16, 22.17, 22.18, 22.19, 22.20, 23.51, 24.7, 24.21, 24.53 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Since many have undertaken to set in order a narrative concerning those matters which have been fulfilled among us
33. New Testament, Mark, 1.4, 9.5, 13.2, 14.22-14.25, 15.15-15.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. John came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching the baptism of repentance for forgiveness of sins. 9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah. 13.2. Jesus said to him, "Do you see these great buildings? There will not be left here one stone on another, which will not be thrown down. 14.22. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had blessed, he broke it, and gave to them, and said, "Take, eat. This is my body. 14.23. He took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave to them. They all drank of it. 14.24. He said to them, "This is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many. 14.25. Most assuredly I tell you, I will no more drink of the fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it anew in the Kingdom of God. 15.15. Pilate, wishing to please the multitude, released Barabbas to them, and handed over Jesus, when he had flogged him, to be crucified. 15.16. The soldiers led him away within the court, which is the Praetorium; and they called together the whole cohort. 15.17. They clothed him with purple, and weaving a crown of thorns, they put it on him. 15.18. They began to salute him, "Hail, King of the Jews! 15.19. They struck his head with a reed, and spat on him, and bowing their knees, did homage to him. 15.20. When they had mocked him, they took the purple off of him, and put his own garments on him. They led him out to crucify him.
34. New Testament, Matthew, 3.15, 10.17-10.20, 19.12, 23.15, 24.2, 26.26-26.29, 27.26-27.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.15. But Jesus, answering, said to him, "Allow it now, for this is the fitting way for us to fulfill all righteousness." Then he allowed him. 10.17. But beware of men: for they will deliver you up to councils, and in their synagogues they will scourge you. 10.18. Yes, and you will be brought before governors and kings for my sake, for a testimony to them and to the Gentiles. 10.19. But when they deliver you up, don't be anxious how or what you will say, for it will be given you in that hour what you will say. 10.20. For it is not you who speak, but the Spirit of your Father who speaks in you. 19.12. For there are eunuchs who were born that way from their mother's womb, and there are eunuchs who were made eunuchs by men; and there are eunuchs who made themselves eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven's sake. He who is able to receive it, let him receive it. 23.15. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you travel around by sea and land to make one proselyte; and when he becomes one, you make him twice as much of a son of Gehenna as yourselves. 24.2. But he answered them, "Don't you see all of these things? Most assuredly I tell you, there will not be left here one stone on another, that will not be thrown down. 26.26. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, gave thanks for it, and broke it. He gave to the disciples, and said, "Take, eat; this is my body. 26.27. He took the cup, gave thanks, and gave to them, saying, "All of you drink it 26.28. for this is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many for the remission of sins. 26.29. But I tell you that I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on, until that day when I drink it anew with you in my Father's kingdom. 27.26. Then he released to them Barabbas, but Jesus he flogged and delivered to be crucified. 27.27. Then the governor's soldiers took Jesus into the Praetorium, and gathered the whole garrison together against him. 27.28. They stripped him, and put a scarlet robe on him. 27.29. They braided a crown of thorns and put it on his head, and a reed in his right hand; and they kneeled down before him, and mocked him, saying, "Hail, King of the Jews! 27.30. They spat on him, and took the reed and struck him on the head. 27.31. When they had mocked him, they took the robe off of him, and put his clothes on him, and led him away to crucify him.
35. Tosefta, Negaim, 8.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

36. Tosefta, Shabbat, 15.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

37. Chariton, Chaereas And Callirhoe, 5.1.6, 6.4.10 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

38. Justin, First Apology, 67 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

67. And we afterwards continually remind each other of these things. And the wealthy among us help the needy; and we always keep together; and for all things wherewith we are supplied, we bless the Maker of all through His Son Jesus Christ, and through the Holy Ghost. And on the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the country gather together to one place, and the memoirs of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read, as long as time permits; then, when the reader has ceased, the president verbally instructs, and exhorts to the imitation of these good things. Then we all rise together and pray, and, as we before said, when our prayer is ended, bread and wine and water are brought, and the president in like manner offers prayers and thanksgivings, according to his ability, and the people assent, saying Amen; and there is a distribution to each, and a participation of that over which thanks have been given, and to those who are absent a portion is sent by the deacons. And they who are well to do, and willing, give what each thinks fit; and what is collected is deposited with the president, who succours the orphans and widows and those who, through sickness or any other cause, are in want, and those who are in bonds and the strangers sojourning among us, and in a word takes care of all who are in need. But Sunday is the day on which we all hold our common assembly, because it is the first day on which God, having wrought a change in the darkness and matter, made the world; and Jesus Christ our Saviour on the same day rose from the dead. For He was crucified on the day before that of Saturn (Saturday); and on the day after that of Saturn, which is the day of the Sun, having appeared to His apostles and disciples, He taught them these things, which we have submitted to you also for your consideration.
39. Tertullian, To Scapula, 3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3. However, as we have already remarked, it cannot but distress us that no state shall bear unpunished the guilt of shedding Christian blood; as you see, indeed, in what took place during the presidency of Hilarian, for when there had been some agitation about places of sepulture for our dead, and the cry arose, No are - no burial-grounds for the Christians, it came that their own are, their threshing-floors, were a-wanting, for they gathered in no harvests. As to the rains of the bygone year, it is abundantly plain of what they were intended to remind men - of the deluge, no doubt, which in ancient times overtook human unbelief and wickedness; and as to the fires which lately hung all night over the walls of Carthage, they who saw them know what they threatened; and what the preceding thunders pealed, they who were hardened by them can tell. All these things are signs of God's impending wrath, which we must needs publish and proclaim in every possible way; and in the meanwhile we must pray it may be only local. Sure are they to experience it one day in its universal and final form, who interpret otherwise these samples of it. That sun, too, in the metropolis of Utica, with light all but extinguished, was a portent which could not have occurred from an ordinary eclipse, situated as the lord of day was in his height and house. You have the astrologers, consult them about it. We can point you also to the deaths of some provincial rulers, who in their last hours had painful memories of their sin in persecuting the followers of Christ. Vigellius Saturninus, who first here used the sword against us, lost his eyesight. Claudius Lucius Herminianus in Cappadocia, enraged that his wife had become a Christian, had treated the Christians with great cruelty: well, left alone in his palace, suffering under a contagious malady, he boiled out in living worms, and was heard exclaiming, Let nobody know of it, lest the Christians rejoice, and Christian wives take encouragement. Afterwards he came to see his error in having tempted so many from their steadfastness by the tortures he inflicted, and died almost a Christian himself. In that doom which overtook Byzantium, C cilius Capella could not help crying out, Christians, rejoice! Yes, and the persecutors who seem to themselves to have acted with impunity shall not escape the day of judgment. For you we sincerely wish it may prove to have been a warning only, that, immediately after you had condemned Mavilus of Adrumetum to the wild beasts, you were overtaken by those troubles, and that even now for the same reason you are called to a blood-reckoning. But do not forget the future.
40. Tertullian, On The Soul, 9.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

41. Tertullian, On Baptism, 18 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

18. But they whose office it is, know that baptism is not rashly to be administered. Give to every one who begs you, has a reference of its own, appertaining especially to almsgiving. On the contrary, this precept is rather to be looked at carefully: Give not the holy thing to the dogs, nor cast your pearls before swine; Matthew 7:6 and, Lay not hands easily on any; share not other men's sins. If Philip so easily baptized the chamberlain, let us reflect that a manifest and conspicuous evidence that the Lord deemed him worthy had been interposed. Acts 8:26-40 The Spirit had enjoined Philip to proceed to that road: the eunuch himself, too, was not found idle, nor as one who was suddenly seized with an eager desire to be baptized; but, after going up to the temple for prayer's sake, being intently engaged on the divine Scripture, was thus suitably discovered - to whom God had, unasked, sent an apostle, which one, again, the Spirit bade adjoin himself to the chamberlain's chariot. The Scripture which he was reading falls in opportunely with his faith: Philip, being requested, is taken to sit beside him; the Lord is pointed out; faith lingers not; water needs no waiting for; the work is completed, and the apostle snatched away. But Paul too was, in fact, 'speedily' baptized: for Simon, his host, speedily recognized him to be an appointed vessel of election. God's approbation sends sure premonitory tokens before it; every petition may both deceive and be deceived. And so, according to the circumstances and disposition, and even age, of each individual, the delay of baptism is preferable; principally, however, in the case of little children. For why is it necessary - if (baptism itself) is not so necessary - that the sponsors likewise should be thrust into danger? Who both themselves, by reason of mortality, may fail to fulfil their promises, and may be disappointed by the development of an evil disposition, in those for whom they stood? The Lord does indeed say, Forbid them not to come unto me. Let them come, then, while they are growing up; let them come while they are learning, while they are learning whither to come; let them become Christians when they have become able to know Christ. Why does the innocent period of life hasten to the remission of sins? More caution will be exercised in worldly matters: so that one who is not trusted with earthly substance is trusted with divine! Let them know how to ask for salvation, that you may seem (at least) to have given to him that asks. For no less cause must the unwedded also be deferred - in whom the ground of temptation is prepared, alike in such as never were wedded by means of their maturity, and in the widowed by means of their freedom - until they either marry, or else be more fully strengthened for continence. If any understand the weighty import of baptism, they will fear its reception more than its delay: sound faith is secure of salvation.
42. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

92a. והמלקט לו עצמות טובל ואוכל בקדשים,גר שנתגייר בע"פ ב"ש אומרים טובל ואוכל את פסחו לערב וב"ה אומרים הפורש מן הערלה כפורש מן הקבר:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מ"ט קא סבר אנינות דלילה דרבנן וגבי פסח לא העמידו דבריהם במקום כרת גבי קדשים העמידו דבריהם במקום עשה:,השומע על מתו וכו': מלקט עצמות הא בעי הזאת שלישי ושביעי אימא שליקטו לו עצמות:,גר שנתגייר וכו': אמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן מחלוקת בערל נכרי,דב"ה סברי גזירה שמא יטמא לשנה הבאה ויאמר אישתקד מי לא טבלתי ואכלתי עכשיו נמי אטבול ואוכל ולא ידע דאשתקד נכרי הוה ולא מקבל טומאה עכשיו ישראל ומקבל טומאה,וב"ש סברי לא גזרינן אבל ערל ישראל דברי הכל טובל ואוכל את פסחו לערב ולא גזרינן ערל ישראל משום ערל נכרי,תניא נמי הכי אמר ר"ש בן אלעזר לא נחלקו ב"ש וב"ה על ערל ישראל שטובל ואוכל את פסחו לערב על מה נחלקו על ערל נכרי שב"ש אומרים טובל ואוכל את פסחו לערב וב"ה אומרים הפורש מן הערלה כפורש מן הקבר:,אמר רבא ערל הזאה ואיזמל העמידו דבריהן במקום כרת אונן ומצורע ובית הפרס לא העמידו דבריהן במקום כרת,ערל הא דאמרן,הזאה דאמר מר הזאה שבות ואינו דוחה את השבת,איזמל דתניא כשם שאין מביאין אותו דרך רשות הרבים כך אין מביאין אותו דרך גגות ודרך חצרות ודרך קרפיפות,אונן הא דאמרן,מצורע מאי היא דתניא מצורע שחל שמיני שלו בערב הפסח וראה קרי בו ביום טובל ואוכל,אמרו חכמים אע"פ שטבול יום אינו נכנס זה נכנס מוטב יבא עשה שיש בו כרת וידחה עשה שאין בו כרת,וא"ר יוחנן דבר תורה אפילו עשה אין בו שנאמר (דברי הימים ב כ, ה) ויעמד יהושפט בקהל יהודה וירושלים בבית ה' לפני החצר החדשה מאי חצר החדשה שחדשו בו דבר ואמרו טבול יום לא יכנס במחנה לויה,בית הפרס דתנן ושוין ב"ש וב"ה 92a. bAnd one who gathersthe bbonesof his parents, who are buried in a temporary location for their flesh to decay and who is moving them to a permanent burial place must also observe a day of acute mourning by rabbinic decree. These mourners bimmerse and eatall types of bsacrificial foodat night. Since in these cases, even during the day, the mourning is by rabbinic decree, the Sages did not extend it into the evening.,With regard to ba convert who converted on Passover eve, Beit Shammai say: He immerses and eats his Paschal lamb in the evening. And Beit Hillel say: One who separates from the foreskinby being circumcised is ritually impure, blike one who separates from the graveafter coming in contact with a corpse. Consequently, he must first observe the seven-day purification process necessary to remove ritual impurity imparted by a corpse. Only then, from the eighth day onward, may he partake of sacrificial meat., strongGEMARA: /strong bWhat is the reasonthat an acute mourner may eat the Paschal lamb in the evening? The itannaof the mishna bholdsthat the observance of bacute mourning at nightafter the day of one’s relative’s death bis a rabbinicprohibition. bAnd with regard to the Paschal lamb,the Sages waived their prohibition because bthey did not uphold their statementprohibiting consumption of sacrificial food bin a situationin which doing so would violate a prohibition that carries the punishment bof ikaret /i,as is the case with one who neglects to offer the Paschal lamb. On the other hand, bwith regard toother bsacrificial food,they maintained the prohibition, because bthey upheld their statement in a situationin which neglecting to eat the sacrificial food entails only the neglect of ba positive mitzva. /b,We learned in the mishna: bOne who hears aboutthe death of bhis deadrelative more than thirty days after the death and one who gathers bones immerse and eat sacrificial food in the evening. The Gemara expresses surprise: Can this apply to bone who gathers bones? Butby doing so he came in contact with the bones of a corpse, and bhe needs sprinkling onthe bthird and seventhdays in order to become ritually pure. The Gemara answers: Emend the teaching of the mishna and instead bsay:One bfor whom they gathered bones,meaning that other people gathered the bones of his parents to transfer them to a new grave but he himself did not touch them, has a rabbinical requirement to observe a day of acute mourning, but he is not ritually impure.,We learned in the mishna: With regard to ba convert who convertedon Passover eve, there is a dispute between Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel as to whether he may immerse and eat the Paschal sacrifice in the evening. The Gemara discusses the scope of this dispute: bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa saidthat bthe dispute is about an uncircumcised gentilethat was circumcised and converted on Passover eve., bBeit Hillel holdthat bthere is a rabbinic decreedue to a concern that bperhaps he will become contaminatedby a corpse bin the following year and he will say: Last year,even though I had come in contact with a corpse previous to Passover, bdid I not immerse and eatthe Paschal lamb without completing the purification process for impurity imparted by a corpse? bNow also, I will immerse and eat. And he does not knowand understand bthat last year,before his conversion on Passover eve, bhe was a gentile andtherefore bhe was not susceptible to ritual impurity,because gentiles do not contract ritual impurity according to Torah law, but bnow he is a Jew and is susceptible to ritual impurity.Therefore, the Sages decreed that he should complete the seven-day purification process for impurity imparted by a corpse before he can partake of sacrificial food in order to avoid such a mistake., bAnd Beit Shammai hold that we do not make a decreedue to this concern. bButwith regard to ban uncircumcised Jewwho for some reason had not been circumcised until Passover eve, ball agree that he may immerse and eat his Paschal lamb in the evening.The concern that he will err the following year does not apply, band we do not decreein the case of an buncircumcised Jewwho was circumcised on Passover eve, bdue toconcern that the case will be confused with that of ban uncircumcised gentilewho was circumcised and converted on Passover eve., bThat was also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel did not disagree aboutthe fact that ban uncircumcised Jewwho was circumcised on Passover eve bmay immerse and eat his Paschal lamb in the evening. With regard to what did they disagree? With regard to an uncircumcised gentilewho converted on Passover eve. bBeit Shammai saythat bhe may immerse and eat his Paschal lamb in the evening, and Beit Hillel saythat bone who separates from the foreskin isritually impure blike one who separates from the grave. /b, bRava said:With regard to ban uncircumcisedgentile who converted, bsprinklingthe purification waters to purify impurity imparted by a corpse, banda circumcision bscalpel [ iizmel /i],the Sages bupheld their statementeven bin a situationin which doing so would violate a prohibition that carries the punishment bof ikaret /i.However, with regard to ban acute mourner, a leper, and a ibeit haperas /i,an area in which a doubt exists concerning the location of a grave or a corpse, bthey did not uphold their statement in a situationin which doing so would violate a prohibition that carries the punishment bof ikaret /i. /b,The Gemara details all the cases Rava referred to: The case of ban uncircumcisedgentile who converted is bas we have saidpreviously. Beit Hillel disqualify a convert from offering the Paschal lamb, despite the fact that neglecting to do so renders one liable to receive ikaret /i.,The case of bsprinklingthe purification waters to purify impurity imparted by a corpse is bas the Master saidin a mishna: bSprinklingis prohibited on Shabbat due to brabbinic decree, and it does not override Shabbateven on Passover eve, despite the fact that one who requires sprinkling will then be unable to offer the Paschal lamb.,The case of the circumcision bscalpelis bas it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: If a circumcision scalpel was not brought to the location of the baby from before Shabbat, bjust as we may not bring it through a public domainin violation of Torah law, bsotoo bwe may not bring it through roofs, through courtyards, and through enclosures,even though carrying in this manner is prohibited by rabbinic decree. One who has an uncircumcised member of his household may not bring a Paschal lamb and is liable for ikaret /i. The Sages maintained the prohibition of carrying the scalpel in all circumstances, even when doing so would mean the baby would remain uncircumcised on Passover eve, preventing his household from offering a Paschal lamb.,The Gemara lists the cases where the Sages waived their prohibition in the face of a prohibition carrying the punishment of ikaret /i: The case of an bacute mourner is that which we saidin the mishna.,The case of the bleper, what is it?It is bas it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA leperis ritually impure and must undergo an involved, eight-day purification process, which culminates on the eighth day with the bringing of various offerings in the Temple. If his beighth day occurs on Passover eve,such that it would be possible to bring his offerings and be fit to partake of the Paschal lamb that evening, band he saw an occurrenceof semen bon that day,and one who experiences such a discharge is ritually impure and prohibited from entering the Temple, bhe may immersein order to purify himself from the discharge and then bring his offerings band eatthe Paschal lamb at night., bThe Sages said: Althoughnormally, with regard to ritual impurity from seminal discharge, bone who has immersed on that day may not enterthe Temple until nightfall, bthis one may enter.The reason is that bit is better for a positive mitzva that hasa punishment of ikaret /i,i.e., the bringing of the Paschal lamb, bto come and override a positive mitzva that does not havea punishment of ikaret /i,i.e., the mitzva of “They shall send out from the camp every leper and whoever has had issue, and whoever is unclean by the dead” (Numbers 5:2), which requires the removal from the Temple of one who has immersed that day and will become pure only upon nightfall., bAndfurthermore, bRabbi Yoḥa said: By Torah law, there is not even a positive mitzvathat restricts one who has immersed that day and will become pure only upon nightfall from entering the Temple, bas it is stated: “And Jehoshaphat stood in the congregation of Judea and Jerusalem, in the House of the Lord, before the new courtyard”(II Chronicles 20:5). bWhatis indicated by identifying the courtyards as bthe new courtyard?It indicates bthat they innovated something in it, and they said: One who has immersed on that daybut will become pure only upon nightfall bmay not enter the Levite camp,which includes the entire Temple Mount. This suggests that the prohibition is of rabbinic origin and is not a positive mitzva.,The case of a ibeit haperas /i,in which the Sages did not uphold their decree, is bas it was taughtin a mishna: bAnd Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel agree /b
43. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

71b. מעת לעת,והתני לודאה יום הבראתו כיום הולדו מאי לאו מה יום הולדו לא בעינן מעת לעת אף יום הבראתו לא בעינן מעת לעת,לא עדיף יום הבראתו מיום הולדו דאילו יום הולדו לא בעינן מעת לעת ואילו יום הבראתו בעינן מעת לעת,רב פפא אמר כגון דכאיב ליה עיניה לינוקא ואיתפח ביני וביני,רבא אמר כגון שהיו אביו ואמו חבושין בבית האסורין,רב כהנא בריה דרב נחמיה אמר כגון טומטום שנקרע ונמצא זכר ביני וביני,רב שרביא אמר כגון שהוציא ראשו חוץ לפרוזדור,ומי חיי והתניא כיון שיצא לאויר העולם נפתח הסתום ונסתם הפתוח שאלמלא כן אין יכול לחיות אפילו שעה אחת,הכא במאי עסקינן כגון דזנתיה אישתא אישתא דמאן אילימא אישתא דידיה אי הכי כל שבעה בעי אלא דזנתיה אישתא דאימיה ואיבעית אימא ה"מ היכא דלא מעוי אבל היכא דמעוי מחייא חיי,אמר ר' יוחנן משום רבי בנאה ערל מקבל הזאה שכן מצינו באבותינו שקבלו הזאה כשהן ערלים שנאמר (יהושע ד, יט) והעם עלו מן הירדן בעשור לחדש הראשון,בעשרה לא מהילי משום חולשא דאורחא הזאה אימת עביד להו לאו כשהן ערלים,ודלמא לא עבוד פסח כלל לא ס"ד דכתיב (יהושע ה, י) ויעשו את הפסח,מתקיף לה מר זוטרא ודלמא פסח הבא בטומאה היה א"ל רב אשי תניא בהדיא מלו וטבלו ועשו פסחיהן בטהרה,אמר רבה בר יצחק אמר רב לא ניתנה פריעת מילה לאברהם אבינו שנאמר (יהושע ה, ב) בעת ההיא אמר ה' אל יהושע עשה לך חרבות צורים וגו',ודלמא הנך דלא מהול דכתיב (יהושע ה, ה) כי מולים היו כל העם היוצאים וכל העם הילודים וגו',א"כ מאי שוב אלא לאו לפריעה ומאי שנית,לאקושי סוף מילה לתחלת מילה מה תחלת מילה מעכבת אף סוף מילה מעכבין בו דתנן אלו הן ציצין המעכבין את המילה בשר החופה את [רוב] העטרה ואין אוכל בתרומה,אמר רבינא ואיתימא רב ירמיה בר אבא אמר רב בשר החופה את רוב גובהה של עטרה,ובמדבר מאי טעמא לא מהול איבעית אימא משום חולשא דאורחא 71b. that during the recovery period one must wait bfromthe btimethe seven days began btothe exact same btimeseven days later, i.e., seven complete twenty-four-hour periods. Therefore, if the child recovered in the afternoon of a particular day, one is required to wait until that same time of day a week later, and only then is he circumcised.,The Gemara asks: bDidn’tthe Sage bfrom Lod teachthat bthe day of his healing is like the day of his birth? What, is it notthat bjust aswith regard to bthe day of his birth we need notwait bfromthe btimehe is born btothe same btimeon the eighth day to circumcise him, bso too,with regard to bthe day of his healing we need notwait bfromthe btimehe heals btothe same btimeseven days later?,The Gemara refutes this argument: bNo, the day of his healing is superior to the day of his birth: Whilefrom bthe day of his birthuntil circumcision bwe need notwait bfromthe btimehe is born btothe same btimeon the eighth day to circumcise him, i.e., the child may be circumcised already at the start of the eighth day, from bthe day of his healing we needto wait seven complete days bfromthe btimehe heals btothe same btimeseven days later.,The Gemara suggests other circumstances where a male child may be present at the time of the eating of the Paschal lamb but absent at the time of its preparation. bRav Pappa said:This would take place, bfor example, if the baby’s eye hurt himon the eighth day following his birth, which occurred on the eve of Passover, band he recovered in the meantimebetween the time of the preparation of the Paschal lamb and the time of its eating. In the case of a minor ailment such as eye pain, circumcision is not performed as long as the pain persists, but it may be performed as soon as the child has recovered, without first waiting seven days., bRava said:This would occur, bfor example, ifthe infant’s bfather and mother were incarcerated in a prisonat the time of the preparation of the Paschal lamb, and they slaughtered their offering by way of an agent, and there was no one available to circumcise the infant, and the parents were released from prison before the time for eating the Paschal lamb arrived., bRav Kahana, son of Rav Neḥemya, said:This would occur, bfor example,if the infant was ba itumtum /i,one whose external sexual organs are indeterminate and it is unclear whether the infant is male or female, and bin the meantimebetween the time of the preparation of the Paschal lamb and the time of its eating, bhe was tornopen, his gender was revealed, band he was foundto be ba male,so that the obligation to circumcise him went into effect., bRav Sherevya said:This would occur, bfor example, ifseven days earlier the baby had already bextended his head,but not the rest of his body, bout of the corridorto his mother’s womb. In such a situation he is considered born, but he is fit for circumcision only after his entire body has emerged. If this occurs between the time of the preparation of the Paschal lamb and the time of its eating, the child’s father may not eat of the offering until he has circumcised his son.,The Gemara poses a question: bButin a case such as this, bcanthe child blivefor such a long period with only his head outside? bIsn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOncea baby bemerges into the air of the world,that which had been bclosed,the mouth and nostrils, bopen, andthat which had been bopen,the umbilical cord, from which the child had previously received its sustece, bcloses, as, if thisdid bnotoccur bit could not live for even an hour,as it has no other way to receive nutrition. If so, this child whose head alone emerged from his mother’s womb would certainly starve, as it cannot take in any sustece.,The Gemara answers: bWith whatcase bare we dealing here?It is, bfor example,a case bwhere he was sustained bythe heat of ba feverand therefore did not need to eat. The Gemara asks: bWhose fever? If we sayit is bhis own fever,i.e., the baby himself had a fever, bif so,it should be bnecessaryto wait ba full sevendays after his entire body exits the womb before he can be circumcised, in accordance with the ihalakhagoverning an infant who was ill. bRather,it must be bthat he was sustained by his mother’s fever. And if you wish, saythat bthisprinciple that a child cannot survive in such conditions bapplies only when he does not cry, but when he cries hecan blive,as his crying indicates that he has already started to breathe.,§ bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Bena’a: An uncircumcisedman bmay receivethe bsprinklingof the water mixed with the ashes of a red heifer in order to purify himself from ritual impurity imparted by a human corpse, as we do not say that this sprinkling is ineffective as long as he is uncircumcised. bAs we found that our forefathers receivedthe bsprinkling when they were uncircumcised, as it is stated: “And the people came up out of the Jordan on the tenth day of the first month”(Joshua 4:19), and the verses go on to relate that the men were all later circumcised before sacrificing the Paschal lamb on the fourteenth (see Joshua 5:10).,The Gemara clarifies: bOn the tenthday itself bthey did not circumcisethemselves bdue to the wearinesscaused by btheir journey. When,then, bwasthe bsprinkling done to themin order to remove the ritual impurity resulting from contact with a corpse, so that they would be fit to bring the Paschal lamb on the fourteenth? The first sprinkling must have taken place no later than the tenth, as there is a four-day waiting period between the first and second sprinklings. In that case, bwasn’tthe initial sprinkling performed bwhen they werestill buncircumcised?This proves that an one who is uncircumcised may receive the sprinkling of the purification waters.,The Gemara counters: bBut perhaps they did not sacrificethe bPaschal lamb at all.The Gemara answers: bThis cannot enter your mind, as it is written: “And they kept the Passover”(Joshua 5:10), meaning they brought the Paschal lamb., bMar Zutra strongly objects to this: But perhaps it was a Paschal lamb that comes ina state of bimpurity?If the majority of the community is ritually impure due to contact with a corpse, they may all sacrifice their Paschal lambs even though they are ritually impure, and there is no need for any sprinkling. bRav Ashi said to him: It is taught explicitlyin a ibaraitathat bthey circumcisedthemselves, bimmersedin a ritual bath, band performedthe ritual of btheir Paschal lambs ina state of bpurity. /b, bRabba bar Yitzḥak saidthat bRav said: Themitzva of buncoveringthe corona during bcircumcision was not given to our Patriarch Abraham.The command given to Avraham included only the mitzva of circumcision itself, i.e., the removal of the foreskin, but not the uncovering of the corona, i.e., the folding back of the thin membrane that lies under the foreskin. bAs it is stated: “At that time the Lord said to Joshua: Make yourself knives of flint,and circumcise again the children of Israel a second time” (Joshua 5:2). Why was it necessary to circumcise them? Apparently, it is because before the Torah was given on Mount Sinai, some of them had been circumcised in the manner of Abraham, without uncovering the corona, and therefore they needed to be circumcised a second time in accordance with the Torah law that requires uncovering the corona.,The Gemara asks: How may it be inferred that those who were already circumcised required a second circumcision? bPerhapsthe verse is referring to bthose who had not been circumcised at all, as it is written: “For all the people who came out were circumcised; but all the people who were bornin the wilderness…had not been circumcised” (Joshua 5:5)?,The Gemara responds: bIf so,that it was only those who had never been circumcised who required circumcision, bwhat isthe meaning of “circumcise bagain,”which indicates that they had to be circumcised a second time? bRather, is it notreferring bto uncoveringthe corona? bAnd what isthe meaning of b“a second time,”stated in the same verse? This phrase appears redundant, as the verse already stated: “Circumcise again.”,The Gemara explains: It comes bto equate the end of circumcision,when it is necessary to circumcise a second time in order to correct an improperly performed circumcision, bwith the beginning of circumcision: Just asan incomplete performance at bthe beginning of circumcision invalidatesthe circumcision, bso too,incomplete performance at bthe end of circumcision,i.e., the foreskin not being fully removed, binvalidatesthe circumcision. bAs we learnedin a mishna ( iShabbat137a): bThese are the shredsof flesh bthat invalidate the circumcisionif they are not cut. The essential element of circumcision is the removal of bthe flesh that covers most of the corona,and a child who was not circumcised in this manner is considered uncircumcised, band he does not partake of iteruma /i. /b,With regard to this issue bRavina said, and some sayit was bRav Yirmeya bar Abbawho said that bRav said:When the mishna mentioned most of the corona, it meant bthe flesh that covers most of the height of the coronaas well as most of its circumference.,The Gemara returns to the incident involving Joshua. bAnd what is the reasonthat bthey did not circumcisethemselves bin the wildernessafter the Torah had already been given? The Gemara answers: bIf you wish, sayit was bdue to the wearinesscaused by btheir journey.Since they were traveling continuously, they were too weak to undergo circumcision.
44. Cyprian, Letters, 64 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

45. Cyprian, Letters, 64 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

46. Cyprian, Letters, 64 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

47. Cyprian, Letters, 64 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

48. Epiphanius, Panarion, 49.1.3 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 122
achaia Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 478
acts of paul and thecla (acta pauli et theclae) Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 534
acts of the apostles, familiar and foreign Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 608
acts of the apostles, godfearers Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 608
acts of the apostles, jews and greeks Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 608
acts of the apostles Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 238; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 608
acts of the apostles history and Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 272
agabus Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 111
agrippa Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 105
agrippa ii Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 111; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 550
alke, christian lady Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 534
alms(giving) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 550
ammia, montanist prophet Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 534
analysis for rhetorical criminalization (arc) Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 96
antioch (syrian) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 478, 483, 550, 570
antioch of pisidia Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
antiochus, iii Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 494
anxiety dreams and nightmares Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 337, 344
aphrodite Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 139, 142
apologetic, portrait of paul Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 381
apologists (christian), and jewish sacrifice Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 280
apostle Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 190, 192; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 478, 483, 550, 570, 579
apostolate, (com)mission Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 483
asia minor Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 478, 570
authority Papaioannou et al., Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 172; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou, Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 172; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
babylon Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 139
baptism, before council of nicaea Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 480
baptism, third century Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 480
barbarian Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 139
barnabas Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 570
bernice (berenice) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 550
blasphemy Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 82
boyarin, daniel, on followers of jesus Cohn, The Memory of the Temple and the Making of the Rabbis (2013) 148
caesaraea philippi Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 550
caesarea Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
callirhoe Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 139, 142
catechumenate, before council of nicaea Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 480
celsus Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 235
chaereas Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 139, 142
chariton Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 142
christian myth, nascent christian, community, outlook of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 190
christian myth, pre-christian Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 192
christianity, and greek/pagan religion, and judaism Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 230, 232, 235
christianity, and greek/pagan religion Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 238
christianity/christians, majority church Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 534
christianity/christians, martyrdom Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 534
christianity/christians, spread Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 534
christianity/christians, women Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 534
christians, as social/ethnic category Cohn, The Memory of the Temple and the Making of the Rabbis (2013) 148
christians, gentile, in the jewish temple Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 230, 232, 235
christians, gentile, jewish Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 230, 232, 238, 280
christians, gentile Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 238
christians Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 82
cicero Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 96
circumcision, eighth–day Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 114, 119, 120, 122, 123
circumcision, of jesus Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 122
circumcision, of timothy Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 120, 121, 122, 123
circumcision Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 11; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 608; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 550
citizenship Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 96, 97
claudius Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 36; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 570
claudius lysias Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 111
colonia caesarea Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 608
condemnation Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 82
corinth Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 238; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 579
court, foreign Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 139
court, in jerusalem Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 139
court, persian Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 139, 142
criminal Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 82, 96, 97, 139
criminalization Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 82, 96, 97, 142
critical race theory (crt) Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 96
crucifixion, jesus death Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 192
cyrus Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 139
damascus Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
daughters of philippos, christian prophets Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 534
david, the king, hut/booth of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 192
death of paul Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 111
death penalty Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 111
devotion Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 308
diaspora Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 308; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 608; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 483
dio cassius Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 36
dionysius of miletus Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 139
discourse Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 97
dissimulation, divine Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 344
divine speech, dissimulating Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 344
double dreams and visions, peter and cornelius, apologetic agendas Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 337
double dreams and visions, peter and cornelius, peter-paul parallel Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 337
double dreams and visions, peter and cornelius Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 337
early high christology Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 308
ebionites (sect) Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 282
egyptian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 570; Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 96, 97, 139
emotional responses to dreams, fear Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 337, 344
epiphanius Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 282
eschatology, eschatological Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
ethnicity Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 96, 97
eucharist, before nicaea Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 480
eucharist, new testament period Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 480
eucharist, second-century rome Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 480
eucharist Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 280
execution, death penalty Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 82
execution Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 142
faith Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
fate Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 111
father Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 308
felix Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 111; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 550, 570
feminism, black Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 96
festus Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 111; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 550, 570
fiction, hellenistic and roman Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 344
food laws, permitted and non-permitted species Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 339
food laws Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 67
gender Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 139
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 478, 483, 550, 570, 579
gentiles, gentile, nations Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 190, 192
geography of asia minor Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 9
glory Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 308
god-fearers Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 282
godfearers Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 608
gospel of the circumcision Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 570, 579
halakha, intensification Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 67
helena, queen of adiabene Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 478
hellenism, hellenistic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 570
hellenistic, jewish hellenistic, diaspora Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 190
hellenistic, jewish hellenistic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 192
heresy named after founder Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 534
herod agrippa i Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 36
hierarchization Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 96, 97
high priest Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 308
hillel, school of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 483
holy spirit, as agent of moral transformation Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 67
holy spirit, churchs possession of Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 575
holy spirit, lukan conception Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 575, 581
holy spirit, saul of tarsus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 581
holy spirit Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 67
homer Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 36
hope Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
household Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 381
human, nonhumanity Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 96, 97
human, subhumanity Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 96
human Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 96, 97
human condition Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 381
identity Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 139
idols, food offered to Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 570
immersion, in m. pesahim, yerushalmi and bavli, as proselyte baptism Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 320
immersion, in m. pesahim, yerushalmi and bavli, as statutory immersion required of all about to enter the temple Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 320
imperialism Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 142
inscriptions, christian Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 534
irony Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 67, 271
israel, the people of, redemption/restoration of, the kingdom of, israelite Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 192
james (brother of jesus) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 570
jerusalem Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 322; Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 308; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 111, 112; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 190, 192
jerusalem church Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 478, 483
jerusalem council, decree of Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 238
jesus, agent of holy spirit in luke-acts Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 575
jesus, disciples, early followers, messianic movement Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 192
jesus, failure of his messianic enterprise vii Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 190
jesus, rejection Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 192
jesus/christ (and law, sacrifice/sacrificial vocabulary) Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 235, 293
jesus Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 190
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 483
jew-gentile, association Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 67
jew-gentile, table-fellowship Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 67
jewish Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 96, 139
jewish war Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 96
jews, jewry, jewish, jewish matrix, jewish setting, anti-jewish, non-jewish Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 190
jews Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 111, 112
josephus Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 10; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 550
judaea (roman province; see also yehud) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 478, 483, 550, 570
judea, judah Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 190
juliana, christian lady Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 534
junia, christian woman Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 534
junius eugenius, christian official and bishop of laodikeia Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 534
justice, divine Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 142
justice Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 97, 139, 142
juvenal Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 96
kaisareia below mt. argaios (mazaka) Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 534
kuessos Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 534
laodikeia katakekaumene Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 534
law, jewish Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 235, 293
law/law Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 111, 112
law in paul Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 570
liberalism Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 96
luke-acts, pneumatology, incoherence Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 581
luke Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 111; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 478, 550, 570
macedonia Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 478
marcion Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 114
marketplace Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 381
martyrs/martyrdom Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 534
mary (mother of jesus) Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 10
maximilla, christian prophetess Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 534
maximinus daia, emperor Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 534
meat-eating / feast / meal, sacrifice and/as Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 238
message of salvation Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
metaphors, sacrificial Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 280
missionary, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 381
mnason of cyprus Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 232, 282
monotheism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 308
moses Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 570
mount of olives Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 192
nazarenes Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
neolithic/chalcolithic age (ca. Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 9, 534
nero Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 36; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 381; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 550
nestorianus, senator Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 534
new testament, as source Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 230, 232, 235, 238
observance of law Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 478, 483
obstinacy Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
order Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 82
origen, christian writer Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 534
origen Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 235
parallels/parallelism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 381
parousia, delay of Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 322
passover Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 105
paul, as pastor Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 381
paul, his activity/attitudes to the law, jesus and sacrifice Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 230, 232, 235, 280
paul, his epistles Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 235
paul, pauline, paulinism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 308
paul Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 494; Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 105, 114, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 130
paul (apostle) Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 534
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 478, 483, 550, 570, 579
paul (the apostle) Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 111, 112
paul of tarsus Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 10, 36
periodisation of history Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 322
persecution Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 308
persecutions of christians Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 534
persia Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 139
peter's vision, abolitionist reading" Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 43, 339
peter's vision, non-abolitionist reading" Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 10, 337
peter Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 130
peter (cephas, simon –) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 483, 570
pharisees Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 10, 36
philippi (macedonia) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 478
philo Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 192
philo of alexandria Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 10, 36
pleasure Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 381
pliny the younger Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 36
plutarch Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 36; Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 96
pneumatology, lukan Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 575, 581
police, commanders Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 96
police, militarized Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 96
police Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 82, 97
politics, of luke/acts Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 322
politics, of respectability Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 97
polycarp of smyrna, bishop and martyr Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 534
pontius pilate Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 36
poor, the Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 478
porneia (zenut, unchastity) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 570
power Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 82, 97, 142
priest, priesthood Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 308
priscilla, christian woman Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 534
priscilla, montanist prophetess Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 534
prophecy Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 111
prophet, prophecy, prophetic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 190
prophet Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
prophetic, paul as Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 381
punishment Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 192; Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 82
purity, impurity, defilement, cleansing, language Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 67
purity, moral Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 120
purity, ritual Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 105
quintilian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 550
quintilla, christian prophetess Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 534
race Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 96
racializing assemblages Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 96
regulation of religious rites Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 494
religion Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 105
resurrection Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
revelation and guidance, contrasting modes Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 337
revolt/war, under nero (great ~) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 483
rhetoric, rhetorical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 570
rhetoric Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 96, 97
rights Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 97
ritual purity Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 494
roads Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 272
roman, sacrifice, roman Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 238
roman Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 238
roman empire Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 82
rome, policy towards jews Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 494
rome, roman Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 308
rome Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
sacrifice, animal, cessation of Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 293
sacrifice, animal, in christianity, lack of v Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 280
sacrifice, animal, in christianity, objection to Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 280
sacrifice, animal, in greek religion v, vi Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 238
sacrifice, animal, in judaism v, vi Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 230, 232, 235, 280
sacrifice Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 308
sacrilegium Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 494
sanhedrin Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
scriptures Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
shammai, school Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 483
shechemites Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 494
silas Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 36
sin, idolatry Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 10, 67
sin, sexual Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 10, 67
spirit (of god), holy spirit, gift of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 190
status Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 82, 97, 139
stephen Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 192; Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 119
summary justice, jewish Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 494
surveillance Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 82
synagogue Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 381; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 190
tarsus Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 96, 139
tavia (or gavia), chrstian lady Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 534
teachers Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 534