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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8243
New Testament, Acts, 17.4-17.8


καί τινες ἐξ αὐτῶν ἐπείσθησαν καὶ προσεκληρώθησαν τῷ Παύλῳ καὶ [τῷ] Σίλᾳ, τῶν τε σεβομένων Ἑλλήνων πλῆθος πολὺ γυναικῶν τε τῶν πρώτων οὐκ ὀλίγαι.Some of them were persuaded, and joined Paul and Silas, of the devout Greeks a great multitude, and not a few of the chief women.


Ζηλώσαντες δὲ οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι καὶ προσλαβόμενοι τῶν ἀγοραίων ἄνδρας τινὰς πονηροὺς καὶ ὀχλοποιήσαντες ἐθορύβουν τὴν πόλιν, καὶ ἐπιστάντες τῇ οἰκίᾳ Ἰάσονος ἐζήτουν αὐτοὺς προαγαγεῖν εἰς τὸν δῆμον·But the disobedient Jews gathered some wicked men from the marketplace, and gathering a crowd, set the city in an uproar. Assaulting the house of Jason, they sought to bring them out to the people.


μὴ εὑρόντες δὲ αὐτοὺς ἔσυρον Ἰάσονα καί τινας ἀδελφοὺς ἐπὶ τοὺς πολιτάρχας, βοῶντες ὅτι Οἱ τὴν οἰκουμένην ἀναστατώσαντες οὗτοι καὶ ἐνθάδε πάρεισινWhen they didn't find them, they dragged Jason and certain brothers before the rulers of the city, crying, "These who have turned the world upside down have come here also


οὓς ὑποδέδεκται Ἰάσων· καὶ οὗτοι πάντες ἀπέναντι τῶν δογμάτων Καίσαρος πράσσουσι, βασιλέα ἕτερον λέγοντες εἶναι Ἰησοῦν.whom Jason has received. These all act contrary to the decrees of Caesar, saying that there is another king, Jesus!


ἐτάραξαν δὲ τὸν ὄχλον καὶ τοὺς πολιτάρχας ἀκούοντας ταῦταThe multitude and the rulers of the city were troubled when they heard these things.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

30 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Jonah, 1.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.16. וַיִּירְאוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים יִרְאָה גְדוֹלָה אֶת־יְהוָה וַיִּזְבְּחוּ־זֶבַח לַיהוָה וַיִּדְּרוּ נְדָרִים׃ 1.16. Then the men feared the LORD exceedingly; and they offered a sacrifice unto the LORD, and made vows."
2. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.9-6.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.9. וַיֹּאמֶר לֵךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ לָעָם הַזֶּה שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמוֹעַ וְאַל־תָּבִינוּ וּרְאוּ רָאוֹ וְאַל־תֵּדָעוּ׃ 6.9. And He said: ‘Go, and tell this people: Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not." 6.10. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they, seeing with their eyes, and hearing with their ears, and understanding with their heart, return, and be healed.’"
3. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 282, 281 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

281. Concerning the holy city I must now say what is necessary. It, as I have already stated, is my native country, and the metropolis, not only of the one country of Judaea, but also of many, by reason of the colonies which it has sent out from time to time into the bordering districts of Egypt, Phoenicia, Syria in general, and especially that part of it which is called Coelo-Syria, and also with those more distant regions of Pamphylia, Cilicia, the greater part of Asia Minor as far as Bithynia, and the furthermost corners of Pontus. And in the same manner into Europe, into Thessaly, and Boeotia, and Macedonia, and Aetolia, and Attica, and Argos, and Corinth and all the most fertile and wealthiest districts of Peloponnesus.
4. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 9.209, 11.169, 14.110, 16.164 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.209. and upon the rise of a most terrible storm, which was so great that the ship was in danger of sinking, the mariners, the master, and the pilot himself, made prayers and vows, in case they escaped the sea: but Jonah lay still and covered [in the ship,] without imitating any thing that the others did; 11.169. “You know, O Jews, that God hath kept our fathers, Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in mind continually, and for the sake of their righteousness hath not left off the care of you. Indeed he hath assisted me in gaining this authority of the king to raise up our wall, and finish what is wanting of the temple. 16.164. But if any one be caught stealing their holy books, or their sacred money, whether it be out of the synagogue or public school, he shall be deemed a sacrilegious person, and his goods shall be brought into the public treasury of the Romans.
5. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.463, 2.560, 7.45 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.463. o the daytime was spent in shedding of blood, and the night in fear,—which was of the two the more terrible; for when the Syrians thought they had ruined the Jews, they had the Judaizers in suspicion also; and as each side did not care to slay those whom they only suspected on the other, so did they greatly fear them when they were mingled with the other, as if they were certainly foreigners. 7.45. and as the succeeding kings treated them after the same manner, they both multiplied to a great number, and adorned their temple gloriously by fine ornaments, and with great magnificence, in the use of what had been given them. They also made proselytes of a great many of the Greeks perpetually, and thereby, after a sort, brought them to be a portion of their own body. 7.45. yet did Vespasian suspect the matter, and made an inquiry how far it was true. And when he understood that the accusation laid against the Jews was an unjust one, he cleared them of the crimes charged upon them, and this on account of Titus’s concern about the matter, and brought a deserved punishment upon Jonathan; for he was first tormented, and then burnt alive.
6. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.123 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.123. for as to the Grecians, we are rather remote from them in place than different from them in our institutions, insomuch that we have no enmity with them, nor any jealousy of them. On the contrary, it hath so happened, that many of them have come over to our laws, and some of them have continued in their observation, although others of them had not courage enough to persevere, and so departed from them again;
7. Juvenal, Satires, 3.58-3.66, 3.109-3.125, 14.96-14.106 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the chosen ones who are living as strangers in the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia
9. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 7.5, 10.25, 11.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.5. Don't deprive one another, unless it is by consent for aseason, that you may give yourselves to fasting and prayer, and may betogether again, that Satan doesn't tempt you because of your lack ofself-control. 10.25. Whatever is sold in the butcher shop, eat, asking no questionfor the sake of conscience 11.5. But every woman praying or prophesying with her head unveileddishonors her head. For it is one and the same thing as if she wereshaved.
10. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.2-1.10, 2.2, 2.12, 2.14-2.17, 4.1-4.12, 5.1-5.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. We always give thanks to God for all of you, mentioning you in our prayers 1.3. remembering without ceasing your work of faith and labor of love and patience of hope in our Lord Jesus Christ, before our God and Father. 1.4. We know, brothers loved by God, that you are chosen 1.5. and that our gospel came to you not in word only, but also in power, and in the Holy Spirit, and with much assurance. You know what kind of men we showed ourselves to be among you for your sake. 1.6. You became imitators of us, and of the Lord, having received the word in much affliction, with joy of the Holy Spirit 1.7. so that you became an example to all who believe in Macedonia and in Achaia. 1.8. For from you has sounded forth the word of the Lord, not only in Macedonia and Achaia, but also in every place your faith toward God has gone forth; so that we need not to say anything. 1.9. For they themselves report concerning us what kind of a reception we had from you; and how you turned to God from idols, to serve a living and true God 1.10. and to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead -- Jesus, who delivers us from the wrath to come. 2.2. but having suffered before and been shamefully treated, as you know, at Philippi, we grew bold in our God to tell you the gospel of God in much conflict. 2.12. to the end that you should walk worthily of God, who calls you into his own kingdom and glory. 2.14. For you, brothers, became imitators of the assemblies of God which are in Judea in Christ Jesus; for you also suffered the same things from your own countrymen, even as they did from the Jews; 2.15. who killed both the Lord Jesus and their own prophets, and drove us out, and didn't please God, and are contrary to all men; 2.16. forbidding us to speak to the Gentiles that they may be saved; to fill up their sins always. But wrath has come on them to the uttermost. 2.17. But we, brothers, being bereaved of you for a short season, in presence, not in heart, tried even harder to see your face with great desire 4.1. Finally then, brothers, we beg and exhort you in the Lord Jesus, that as you received from us how you ought to walk and to please God, that you abound more and more. 4.2. For you know what charge we gave you through the Lord Jesus. 4.3. For this is the will of God: your sanctification, that you abstain from sexual immorality 4.4. that each one of you know how to possess himself of his own vessel in sanctification and honor 4.5. not in the passion of lust, even as the Gentiles who don't know God; 4.6. that no one should take advantage of and wrong a brother or sister in this matter; because the Lord is an avenger in all these things, as also we forewarned you and testified. 4.7. For God called us not for uncleanness, but in sanctification. 4.8. Therefore he who rejects doesn't reject man, but God, who has also given his Holy Spirit to you. 4.9. But concerning brotherly love, you have no need that one write to you. For you yourselves are taught by God to love one another 4.10. for indeed you do it toward all the brothers who are in all Macedonia. But we exhort you, brothers, that you abound more and more; 4.11. and that you make it your ambition to lead a quiet life, and to do your own business, and to work with your own hands, even as we charged you; 4.12. that you may walk properly toward those who are outside, and may have need of nothing. 5.1. But concerning the times and the seasons, brothers, you have no need that anything be written to you. 5.2. For you yourselves know well that the day of the Lord comes like a thief in the night. 5.3. For when they are saying, "Peace and safety," then sudden destruction will come on them, like birth pains on a pregt woman; and they will in no way escape. 5.4. But you, brothers, aren't in darkness, that the day should overtake you like a thief. 5.5. You are all sons of light, and sons of the day. We don't belong to the night, nor to darkness 5.6. so then let's not sleep, as the rest do, but let's watch and be sober. 5.7. For those who sleep, sleep in the night, and those who are drunken are drunken in the night. 5.8. But let us, since we belong to the day, be sober, putting on the breastplate of faith and love, and, for a helmet, the hope of salvation. 5.9. For God didn't appoint us to wrath, but to the obtaining of salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ 5.10. who died for us, that, whether we wake or sleep, we should live together with him.
11. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 2.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.12. But I don't permit a woman to teach, nor to exercise authority over a man, but to be in quietness.
12. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 11.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 1.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. having been reminded of the unfeigned faith that is in you; which lived first in your grandmother Lois, and your mother Eunice, and, I am persuaded, in you also.
14. New Testament, Acts, 1.14, 2.14, 2.33, 2.36, 2.37, 2.38, 2.39, 2.40, 2.41, 2.46, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 3.20, 3.21, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 3.25, 3.26, 4.24, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5.12, 5.14, 6.9, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 8.14, 8.15, 8.16, 8.17, 8.18, 8.19, 8.20, 8.21, 8.22, 8.23, 8.24, 8.25, 8.26, 8.27, 8.28, 8.29, 8.30, 8.31, 8.32, 8.33, 8.34, 8.35, 8.36, 8.37, 8.38, 8.39, 8.40, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.36, 9.37, 9.38, 9.39, 9.40, 9.41, 10.1-11.18, 10.2, 10.22, 10.34, 10.35, 10.36, 10.37, 10.38, 10.39, 10.40, 10.41, 10.42, 10.43, 10.44, 10.45, 10.46, 10.47, 10.48, 11.28, 12.12, 12.13, 13, 13.5, 13.14, 13.15, 13.16, 13.17, 13.18, 13.19, 13.20, 13.21, 13.22, 13.23, 13.24, 13.25, 13.26, 13.27, 13.28, 13.29, 13.30, 13.31, 13.32, 13.33, 13.34, 13.35, 13.36, 13.37, 13.38, 13.39, 13.40, 13.41, 13.42, 13.43, 13.44, 13.45, 13.46, 13.47, 13.48, 13.49, 13.50, 13.51, 13.52, 14, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 14.11, 14.12, 14.13, 14.14, 14.15, 14.16, 14.17, 14.18, 14.19, 15, 15.14, 15.21, 15.25, 16, 16.1, 16.2, 16.3, 16.4, 16.5, 16.9, 16.10, 16.11, 16.12, 16.13, 16.14, 16.15, 16.16, 16.17, 16.18, 16.19, 16.20, 16.21, 16.22, 16.23, 16.24, 16.25, 16.26, 16.27, 16.28, 16.29, 16.30, 16.31, 16.32, 16.33, 16.34, 16.35, 16.36, 16.37, 17, 17.1, 17.2, 17.3, 17.5, 17.6, 17.7, 17.8, 17.9, 17.10, 17.11, 17.12, 17.13, 17.14, 17.15, 17.16, 17.17, 17.18, 17.19, 17.20, 17.21, 17.22, 17.23, 17.24, 17.25, 17.26, 17.27, 17.28, 17.29, 17.30, 17.31, 17.32, 17.33, 17.34, 18, 18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 18.4, 18.5, 18.6, 18.7, 18.8, 18.9, 18.10, 18.11, 18.12, 18.13, 18.14, 18.15, 18.16, 18.17, 18.18, 18.19, 18.20, 18.21, 18.24, 18.25, 18.26, 19, 19.1, 19.2, 19.3, 19.4, 19.5, 19.6, 19.7, 19.8, 19.9, 19.10, 19.17, 19.21, 19.23, 19.24, 19.25, 19.26, 19.27, 19.28, 19.29, 19.30, 19.31, 19.32, 19.33, 19.34, 19.35, 19.36, 19.37, 19.38, 19.39, 19.40, 19.41, 20, 20.21, 21, 21.9, 21.10, 21.11, 21.21, 21.28, 22.6, 22.7, 22.8, 22.9, 22.10, 22.11, 22.12, 22.13, 22.14, 22.15, 22.16, 24.26, 24.27, 26.6, 26.22, 26.23, 26.24, 26.27, 28.17, 28.18, 28.19, 28.20, 28.21, 28.22, 28.23, 28.24, 28.25, 28.26, 28.27, 28.28, 28.29, 28.30, 28.31 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.14. All these with one accord continued steadfastly in prayer and supplication, with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brothers.
15. New Testament, James, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, to the twelve tribes which are in the Dispersion: Greetings.
16. New Testament, Philemon, 2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

17. New Testament, Colossians, 1.1-1.10, 2.1-2.20, 3.1-3.10, 4.1-4.12, 5.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus through the will of God, and Timothy our brother 1.2. to the saints and faithful brothers in Christ at Colossae: Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ. 1.3. We give thanks to God the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, praying always for you 1.4. having heard of your faith in Christ Jesus, and of the love which you have toward all the saints 1.5. because of the hope which is laid up for you in the heavens, whereof you heard before in the word of the truth of the gospel 1.6. which has come to you; even as it is in all the world and is bearing fruit and increasing, as it does in you also, since the day you heard and knew the grace of God in truth; 1.7. even as you learned of Epaphras our beloved fellow servant, who is a faithful minister of Christ on our behalf 1.8. who also declared to us your love in the Spirit. 1.9. For this cause, we also, since the day we heard this, don't cease praying and making requests for you, that you may be filled with the knowledge of his will in all spiritual wisdom and understanding 1.10. that you may walk worthily of the Lord, to please him in all respects, bearing fruit in every good work, and increasing in the knowledge of God; 2.1. For I desire to have you know how greatly I struggle for you, and for those at Laodicea, and for as many as have not seen my face in the flesh; 2.2. that their hearts may be comforted, they being knit together in love, and gaining all riches of the full assurance of understanding, that they may know the mystery of God, both of the Father and of Christ 2.3. in whom are all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge hidden. 2.4. Now this I say that no one may delude you with persuasiveness of speech. 2.5. For though I am absent in the flesh, yet am I with you in the spirit, rejoicing and seeing your order, and the steadfastness of your faith in Christ. 2.6. As therefore you received Christ Jesus, the Lord, walk in him 2.7. rooted and built up in him, and established in the faith, even as you were taught, abounding in it in thanksgiving. 2.8. Be careful that you don't let anyone rob you through his philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the elements of the world, and not after Christ. 2.9. For in him all the fullness of the Godhead dwells bodily 2.10. and in him you are made full, who is the head of all principality and power; 2.11. in whom you were also circumcised with a circumcision not made with hands, in the putting off of the body of the sins of the flesh, in the circumcision of Christ; 2.12. having been buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the working of God, who raised him from the dead. 2.13. You were dead through your trespasses and the uncircumcision of your flesh. He made you alive together with him, having forgiven us all our trespasses; 2.14. having wiped out the handwriting in ordices that was against us, which was contrary to us: and he has taken it out of the way, nailing it to the cross; 2.15. having stripped the principalities and the powers, he made a show of them openly, triumphing over them in it. 2.16. Let no man therefore judge you in eating, or in drinking, or with respect to a feast day or a new moon or a Sabbath day 2.17. which are a shadow of the things to come; but the body is Christ's. 2.18. Let no one rob you of your prize by a voluntary humility and worshipping of the angels, dwelling in the things which he has not seen, vainly puffed up by his fleshly mind 2.19. and not holding firmly to the Head, from whom all the body, being supplied and knit together through the joints and ligaments, grows with God's growth. 2.20. If you died with Christ from the elements of the world, why, as though living in the world, do you subject yourselves to ordices 3.1. If then you were raised together with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated on the right hand of God. 3.2. Set your mind on the things that are above, not on the things that are on the earth. 3.3. For you died, and your life is hidden with Christ in God. 3.4. When Christ, our life, is revealed, then you will also be revealed with him in glory. 3.5. Put to death therefore your members which are on the earth: sexual immorality, uncleanness, depraved passion, evil desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry; 3.6. for which things' sake the wrath of God comes on the sons of disobedience. 3.7. You also once walked in those, when you lived in them; 3.8. but now you also put them all away: anger, wrath, malice, slander, and shameful speaking out of your mouth. 3.9. Don't lie to one another, seeing that you have put off the old man with his doings 3.10. and have put on the new man, that is being renewed in knowledge after the image of his Creator 4.1. Masters, give to your servants that which is just and equal, knowing that you also have a Master in heaven. 4.2. Continue steadfastly in prayer, watching therein with thanksgiving; 4.3. praying together for us also, that God may open to us a door for the word, to speak the mystery of Christ, for which I am also in bonds; 4.4. that I may reveal it as I ought to speak. 4.5. Walk in wisdom toward those who are outside, redeeming the time. 4.6. Let your speech always be with grace, seasoned with salt, that you may know how you ought to answer each one. 4.7. All my affairs will be made known to you by Tychicus, the beloved brother, faithful servant, and fellow bondservant in the Lord. 4.8. I am sending him to you for this very purpose, that he may know your circumstances and comfort your hearts 4.9. together with Onesimus, the faithful and beloved brother, who is one of you. They will make known to you everything that is going on here. 4.10. Aristarchus, my fellow prisoner greets you, and Mark, the cousin of Barnabas (concerning whom you received commandments, "if he comes to you, receive him") 4.11. and Jesus who is called Justus, who are of the circumcision. These are my only fellow workers for the Kingdom of God, men who have been a comfort to me. 4.12. Epaphras, who is one of you, a servant of Christ, salutes you, always striving for you in his prayers, that you may stand perfect and complete in all the will of God.
18. New Testament, Philippians, 4.2-4.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.2. I exhort Euodia, and I exhort Syntyche, to think the same way in the Lord. 4.3. Yes, I beg you also, true yoke-fellow, help these women, for they labored with me in the gospel, with Clement also, and the rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the book of life.
19. New Testament, Romans, 16.1-16.8, 16.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

16.1. I commend to you Phoebe, our sister, who is a servant of the assembly that is at Cenchreae 16.2. that you receive her in the Lord, in a way worthy of the saints, and that you assist her in whatever matter she may need from you, for she herself also has been a helper of many, and of my own self. 16.3. Greet Prisca and Aquila, my fellow workers in Christ Jesus 16.4. who for my life, laid down their own necks; to whom not only I give thanks, but also all the assemblies of the Gentiles. 16.5. Greet the assembly that is in their house. Greet Epaenetus, my beloved, who is the first fruits of Achaia to Christ. 16.6. Greet Mary, who labored much for us. 16.7. Greet Andronicus and Junias, my relatives and my fellow prisoners, who are notable among the apostles, who also were in Christ before me. 16.8. Greet Amplias, my beloved in the Lord. 16.23. Gaius, my host and host of the whole assembly, greets you. Erastus, the treasurer of the city, greets you, as does Quartus, the brother.
20. New Testament, John, 1.18, 14.6, 18.37 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. 14.6. Jesus said to him, "I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father, except through me. 18.37. Pilate therefore said to him, "Are you a king then?"Jesus answered, "You say that I am a king. For this reason I have been born, and for this reason I have come into the world, that I should testify to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth listens to my voice.
21. New Testament, Luke, 2.34, 3.1, 8.1-8.4, 10.38-10.42, 12.51, 13.10-13.13, 15.17, 19.1-19.8, 20.20-20.26, 24.46-24.49 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.34. and Simeon blessed them, and said to Mary, his mother, "Behold, this child is set for the falling and the rising of many in Israel, and for a sign which is spoken against. 3.1. Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of the region of Ituraea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene 8.1. It happened soon afterwards, that he went about through cities and villages, preaching and bringing the good news of the Kingdom of God. With him were the twelve 8.2. and certain women who had been healed of evil spirits and infirmities: Mary who was called Magdalene, from whom seven demons had gone out; 8.3. and Joanna, the wife of Chuzas, Herod's steward; Susanna; and many others; who ministered to them from their possessions. 8.4. When a great multitude came together, and people from every city were coming to him, he spoke by a parable. 10.38. It happened as they went on their way, he entered into a certain village, and a certain woman named Martha received him into her house. 10.39. She had a sister called Mary, who also sat at Jesus' feet, and heard his word. 10.40. But Martha was distracted with much serving, and she came up to him, and said, "Lord, don't you care that my sister left me to serve alone? Ask her therefore to help me. 10.41. Jesus answered her, "Martha, Martha, you are anxious and troubled about many things 10.42. but one thing is needed. Mary has chosen the good part, which will not be taken away from her. 12.51. Do you think that I have come to give peace in the earth? I tell you, no, but rather division. 13.10. He was teaching in one of the synagogues on the Sabbath day. 13.11. Behold, there was a woman who had a spirit of infirmity eighteen years, and she was bent over, and could in no way straighten herself up. 13.12. When Jesus saw her, he called her, and said to her, "Woman, you are freed from your infirmity. 13.13. He laid his hands on her, and immediately she stood up straight, and glorified God. 15.17. But when he came to himself he said, 'How many hired servants of my father's have bread enough to spare, and I'm dying with hunger! 19.1. He entered and was passing through Jericho. 19.2. There was a man named Zacchaeus. He was a chief tax collector, and he was rich. 19.3. He was trying to see who Jesus was, and couldn't because of the crowd, because he was short. 19.4. He ran on ahead, and climbed up into a sycamore tree to see him, for he was to pass that way. 19.5. When Jesus came to the place, he looked up and saw him, and said to him, "Zacchaeus, hurry and come down, for today I must stay at your house. 19.6. He hurried, came down, and received him joyfully. 19.7. When they saw it, they all murmured, saying, "He has gone in to lodge with a man who is a sinner. 19.8. Zacchaeus stood and said to the Lord, "Behold, Lord, half of my goods I give to the poor. If I have wrongfully exacted anything of anyone, I restore four times as much. 20.20. They watched him, and sent out spies, who pretended to be righteous, that they might trap him in something he said, so as to deliver him up to the power and authority of the governor. 20.21. They asked him, "Teacher, we know that you say and teach what is right, and aren't partial to anyone, but truly teach the way of God. 20.22. Is it lawful for us to pay taxes to Caesar, or not? 20.23. But he perceived their craftiness, and said to them, "Why do you test me? 20.24. Show me a denarius. Whose image and inscription are on it?"They answered, "Caesar's. 20.25. He said to them, "Then give to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's. 20.26. They weren't able to trap him in his words before the people. They marveled at his answer, and were silent. 24.46. He said to them, "Thus it is written, and thus it was necessary for the Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead the third day 24.47. and that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name to all the nations, beginning at Jerusalem. 24.48. You are witnesses of these things. 24.49. Behold, I send forth the promise of my Father on you. But wait in the city of Jerusalem until you are clothed with power from on high.
22. New Testament, Matthew, 10.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.34. Don't think that I came to send peace on the earth. I didn't come to send peace, but a sword.
23. Suetonius, Claudius, 25.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Tosefta, Megillah, 3.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 9.9 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

9.9. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי גָּדוֹל הַשָּׁלוֹם, שֶׁכָּל הַבְּרָכוֹת כְּלוּלוֹת בּוֹ, (תהלים כט, יא): ה' עֹז לְעַמּוֹ יִתֵּן ה' יְבָרֵךְ אֶת עַמּוֹ בַשָּׁלוֹם. חִזְקִיָּה אָמַר תַּרְתֵּי, חִזְקִיָּה אָמַר גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁכָּל הַמִּצְווֹת כְּתִיב בְּהוּ (שמות כג, ד ה): כִּי תִרְאֶה, כִּי תִפְגַע, (דברים כב, ו): כִּי יִקָּרֵא, אִם בָּאת מִצְוָה לְיָדְךָ אַתָּה זָקוּק לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ וְאִם לָאו אִי אַתָּה זָקוּק לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ, בְּרַם הָכָא (תהלים לד, טו): בַּקֵּשׁ שָׁלוֹם וְרָדְפֵהוּ, בַּקְשֵׁהוּ לִמְקוֹמְךָ וְרָדְפֵהוּ לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר. חִזְקִיָּה אָמַר חוֹרֵי, גָּדוֹל הַשָּׁלוֹם שֶׁבְּכָל הַמַּסָּעוֹת כְּתִיב (במדבר לג, ה): וַיִּסְעוּ וַיַּחֲנוּ, נוֹסְעִים בְּמַחְלֹקֶת וְחוֹנִים בְּמַחְלֹקֶת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבָּאוּ כֻלָּם לִפְנֵי הַר סִינַי נַעֲשׂוּ כֻּלָּם חֲנָיָה אַחַת, הֲדָא דִּכְתִיב (שמות יט, ב): וַיִּחַן שָׁם יִשְׂרָאֵל, וַיַּחֲנוּ שָׁם בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא וַיִּחַן שָׁם יִשְׂרָאֵל, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי שָׁעָה שֶׁאֲנִי נוֹתֵן תּוֹרָה לְבָנָי. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר תְּלַת, בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁדִּבְּרוּ הַכְּתוּבִים דִּבְרֵי בַּדָּאוּת בַּתּוֹרָה בִּשְׁבִיל לְהַטִּיל שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אַבְרָהָם לְשָׂרָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית יח, יב): אַחֲרֵי בְלֹתִי הָיְתָה לִי עֶדְנָה וַאדֹנִי זָקֵן, אֲבָל לְאַבְרָהָם לֹא אָמַר כֵּן אֶלָּא (בראשית יח, יג): וַאֲנִי זָקַנְתִּי. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר חוֹרֵי, גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁדִּבְּרוּ הַכְּתוּבִים לָשׁוֹן בָּדוּי בַּנְּבִיאִים בִּשְׁבִיל לְהַטִּיל שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אִישׁ לְאִשְׁתּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שופטים יג, ג): הִנֵּה נָא אַתְּ עֲקָרָה וְלֹא יָלַדְתְּ וְהָרִית וְיָלַדְתְּ בֵּן, אֲבָל לְמָנוֹחַ לֹא אָמַר כֵּן אֶלָּא (שופטים יג, יג): מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר אָמַרְתִּי אֶל הָאִשָּׁה תִּשָּׁמֵר, מִכָּל מָקוֹם סַמָּנִים הִיא צְרִיכָה. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר חוֹרֵי גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם, מַה אִם הָעֶלְיוֹנִים שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם לֹא קִנְאָה וְלֹא שִׂנְאָה וְלֹא תַּחְרוּת וְלֹא מַצּוֹת וְרִיבוֹת וְלֹא מַחְלֹקֶת וְלֹא עַיִן רָעָה צְרִיכִין שָׁלוֹם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (איוב כה, ב): עֹשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם בִּמְרוֹמָיו, הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם כָּל הַמִּדּוֹת הַלָּלוּ עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. אָמַר רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁדִּבְּרוּ הַכְּתוּבִים לְשׁוֹן בַּדָּיוּת בַּתּוֹרָה לְהַטִּיל שָׁלוֹם בֵּין יוֹסֵף לְאֶחָיו, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית נ, יז): כֹּה תֹאמְרוּן לְיוֹסֵף אָנָא שָׂא נָא, וְלֹא אַשְׁכְּחָן בְּיַעֲקֹב דְּפַקַד כְּלוּם, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁעַת מִלְחָמָה אֵין פּוֹתְחִין אֶלָּא בְּשָׁלוֹם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דברים כ, י): כִּי תִקְרַב אֶל עִיר וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן בֶּן רַבִּי יוֹסֵי גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁשְּׁמוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא נִקְרָא שָׁלוֹם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שופטים ו, כד): וַיִּקְרָא לוֹ ה' שָׁלוֹם. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּם בַּר יוּדָן, מִכָּאן שֶׁאָסוּר לוֹ לְאָדָם לִשְׁאֹל בִּשְׁלוֹם חֲבֵרוֹ בְּמָקוֹם מְטֻנָּף. תָּנֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁשֵּׁם הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁנִּכְתַּב בִּקְדֻשָּׁה אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יִמָּחֶה בַּמַּיִם כְּדֵי לְהַטִּיל שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אִישׁ לְאִשְׁתּוֹ. רַבִּי מֵאִיר הֲוָה יָתִיב וְדָרִישׁ בְּלֵילֵי שַׁבַּתָּא הֲוָה תַּמָּן חָדָא אִתְּתָא יַצִּיבָא וְשָׁמְעָה לֵיהּ תָּנְתָא מִדְרָשָׁא, אַמְתִּינַת עַד דִּיחֲסַל מִמִּדְרָשׁ, אָזְלָה לְבֵיתָהּ אַשְׁכְּחָא בּוּצִינָא טָפֵי, אֲמַר לָהּ בַּעְלָהּ אָן הֲוֵית, אָמְרָה לֵיהּ אֲנָא יָתִיבָא וְשָׁמְעָה קָלֵיהּ דָּרוֹשָׁה, אֲמַר לָהּ כֵּן וְכֵן לָא אִעַיַּלְתְּ לְהָכָא עַד דַּאֲזַלְתְּ וְרוֹקַת בְּאַנְפֵּי דָרוֹשָׁה, יְתִיבָא שַׁבַּתָּא קַמַּיְיתָא תִּנְיָנָא וּתְלִיתָא, אֲמָרִין לָהּ מְגֵירָתָא כַּדּוּ אַתּוּן צְהִיבִין, אֲתֵינָן עִמָּךְ לְגַבֵּי דָּרוֹשָׁה, כֵּיוָן דְּחָמֵי יַתְהוֹן רַבִּי מֵאִיר צָפָה בְּרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ, אֲמַר לְהוֹ אִית מִנְּכוֹן אִתְּתָא דְּחַכִּימָא לְמִלְחַשׁ בְּעֵינָא, אֲמָרִין לָהּ מְגֵירָתָא כַּדּוּ אַתְּ אָזְלַת וְרוֹקַת בְּאַנְפֵּיהּ וְתִשְׁרֵי לְבַעֲלִךְ, כֵּיוָן דְּיָתְבָא קַמֵּי אִידְחִילַת מִינֵיהּ, אֲמָרָה לֵיהּ רַבִּי לֵית אֲנָא חַכִּימָא לְמִילְחַשׁ עֵינָא, אֲמַר לָהּ אֲפִלּוּ הָכֵי רוֹקִי בְּאַנְפִּי שְׁבַע זִמְנִין וַאֲנָא מִינְשִׁים, עָבְדָה הָכִין. אֲמַר לָהּ אִיזִילִי אִמְרִי לְבַעֲלִיךָ אַתְּ אֲמַרְתְּ חָדָא זִימְנָא וַאֲנָא רָקֵית שְׁבַע זִימְנִין. אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו רַבִּי כָּךְ מְבַזִּין אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, לָא הֲוָה לָךְ לְמֵימַר לְחַד מִינָן לְמִלְחַשׁ לָךְ, אֲמַר לְהוֹ לָא דַּיּוֹ לְמֵאִיר לִהְיוֹת שָׁוֶה לְקוֹנוֹ, דְּתָנֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁשֵּׁם הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁנִּכְתַּב בִּקְדֻשָּׁה אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יִמָּחֶה עַל הַמַּיִם בִּשְׁבִיל לְהַטִּיל שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אִישׁ לְאִשְׁתּוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן חֲלַפְתָּא גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁכְּשֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת עוֹלָמוֹ עָשָׂה שָׁלוֹם בֵּין הָעֶלְיוֹנִים לַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן בָּרָא מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים וּמִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית א, א): בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ, בַּשֵּׁנִי בָּרָא מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית א, ו): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי רָקִיעַ, בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי בָּרָא מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, (בראשית א, ט): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִקָּווּ הַמַּיִם, בָּרְבִיעִי מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים, (בראשית א, יד): יְהִי מְאֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם, בַּחֲמִישִׁי בָּרָא מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, (בראשית א, כ): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם, בַּשִּׁשִּׁי בָּא לִבְראוֹת אָדָם, אָמַר אִם אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים הֲרֵי הָעֶלְיוֹנִים רַבִּים מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים בְּרִיאָה אַחַת, אִם אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים הֲרֵי הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים רַבִּים עַל הָעֶלְיוֹנִים בְּרִיאָה אַחַת, מֶה עָשָׂה בְּרָאוֹ מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים וּמִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ב, ז): וַיִּיצֶר ה' אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן הָאֲדָמָה מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, (בראשית ב, ז): וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים, רַבִּי מָנֵי דִּשְׁאַב וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי, גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁכָּל הַבְּרָכוֹת וְטוֹבוֹת וְנֶחָמוֹת שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְבִיאָן עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל, חוֹתְמִין בְּשָׁלוֹם, בִּקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע פּוֹרֵס סֻכַּת שָׁלוֹם, בַּתְּפִלָּה עוֹשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם, בְּבִרְכַּת כֹּהֲנִים (במדבר ו, כו): וְיָשֵׂם לְךָ שָׁלוֹם. וְאֵין לִי אֶלָּא בַּבְּרָכוֹת בַּקָּרְבָּנוֹת מִנַיִן, (ויקרא ז, לז): זֹאת הַתּוֹרָה לָעֹלָה לַמִּנְחָה וְלַחַטָּאת וְלָאָשָׁם וְלַמִּלּוּאִים וּלְזֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים. אֵין לִי אֶלָּא בַּכְּלָל, בַּפְּרָט מִנַּיִן, (ויקרא ו, ב): זֹאת תּוֹרַת הָעֹלָה, (ויקרא ו, ז): זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַמִּנְחָה, (ויקרא ו, יח): זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַחַטָּאת, (ויקרא ז, א): זֹאת תּוֹרַת הָאָשָׁם, (ויקרא ז, יא): זֹאת תּוֹרַת זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים, וְאֵין לִי אֶלָּא בְּקָרְבְּנוֹת יָחִיד, בְּקָרְבְּנוֹת צִבּוּר מִנַּיִן, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (במדבר כט, לט): אֵלֶּה תַּעֲשׂוּ לַה' בְּמוֹעֲדֵיכֶם, וּמְסַיֵּם בִּשְׁלָמִים. וְאֵין לִי אֶלָּא בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה בָּעוֹלָם הַבָּא מִנַּיִן, (ישעיה סו, יב): הִנְנִי נֹטֶה אֵלֶיהָ כְּנָהָר שָׁלוֹם. רַבָּנָן אָמְרוּ גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁכְּשֶׁמֶּלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ בָּא אֵינוֹ פּוֹתֵחַ אֶלָּא בְּשָׁלוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה נב, ז): מַה נָּאווּ עַל הֶהָרִים רַגְלֵי מְבַשֵּׂר מַשְׁמִיעַ שָׁלוֹם. 9.9. Said Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai: Peace is so great that all blessings are included in it (Ps. 29:11) “Hashem will give strength to His people, Hashem will bless His people with peace”. Hizkiah said two things. Hizkiah said: Peace is so great that all mitzvot are written [in the conditional form] (Exodus 23:4-5) “If you see” “If you encounter” (Deut. 22:6) “If you happen by” – if a mitzvah came to your hand, you are bound to do it. However, here (Ps. 34:15) “Seek peace and pursue it.” Seek – [this word applies] in your own place; pursue – [this word applies] in any other place. Hizkiah said gave another explanation: Peace is so great that about every travelling of the children of Israel it is written ‘and they travelled’ ‘and they encamped’ they travelled disputing [with each other] and encamped disputing. But when they arrived at Mount Sinai they did one single encampment, as it is written ‘and Israel encamped [verb in singular] there’ – it is not written ‘they encamped there’, rather, it is written ‘he encamped there.’ At the moment the Holy One of Blessing said ‘this is the moment I will give Torah to the children of Israel’"
26. Apuleius, The Golden Ass, 11 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. Tertullian, Apology, 40.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

28. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

38a. אלא מדרבנן וקרא אסמכתא בעלמא,אמר רב שמואל בר רב יצחק אמר רב כל הנאכל כמות שהוא חי אין בו משום בישולי עובדי כוכבים בסורא מתנו הכי בפומבדיתא מתנו הכי אמר רב שמואל בר רב יצחק אמר רב כל שאינו נאכל על שולחן מלכים ללפת בו את הפת אין בו משום בישולי עובדי כוכבים,מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו דגים קטנים וארדי ודייסא,אמר רב אסי אמר רב דגים קטנים מלוחים אין בהן משום בישולי עובדי כוכבים אמר רב יוסף אם צלאן עובד כוכבים סומך ישראל עליהם משום עירובי תבשילין ואי עבדינהו עובד כוכבים כסא דהרסנא אסור,פשיטא מהו דתימא הרסנא עיקר קמ"ל קימחא עיקר,אמר רב ברונא אמר רב עובד כוכבים שהצית את האור באגם כל החגבים שבאגם אסורין ה"ד אילימא דלא ידע הי טהור והי טמא מאי איריא עובד כוכבים אפילו ישראל נמי אלא משום בישולי עובדי כוכבים,כי האי גוונא מי אסיר והאמר רב חנן בר אמי א"ר פדת א"ר יוחנן האי עובד כוכבים דחריך רישא שרי למיכל מיניה אפילו מריש אוניה אלמא לעבורי שער קמיכוין ה"נ לגלויי אגמא קא מיכוין,לעולם דלא ידע הי טהור והי טמא ומעשה שהיה בעובד כוכבים היה,גופא אמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן האי עובד כוכבים דחריך רישא שרי למיכל מיניה אפילו מריש אוניה אמר רבינא הלכך האי עובד כוכבים דשדא סיכתא לאתונא וקבר בה ישראל קרא מעיקרא שפיר דמי פשיטא מהו דתימא לבשולי מנא קא מיכוין קמ"ל לשרורי מנא קא מיכוין,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל הניח ישראל בשר על גבי גחלים ובא עובד כוכבים והפך בו מותר היכי דמי אילימא דאי לא הפך ביה הוה בשיל פשיטא אלא לאו דאי לא הפך לא הוה בשיל אמאי מותר בישולי של עובדי כוכבים נינהו,לא צריכא דאי לא הפך הוה בשיל בתרתי שעי והשתא קא בשיל בחדא שעתא מהו דתימא קרובי בישולא מילתא היא קמ"ל,והאמר ר' אסי א"ר יוחנן כל שהוא כמאכל בן דרוסאי אין בו משום בישולי עובדי כוכבים הא אינו כמאכל בן דרוסאי יש בו משום בשולי עובדי כוכבים,התם כגון דאותביה בסילתא ושקליה עובד כוכבים ואותביה בתנורא,תניא נמי הכי מניח ישראל בשר על גבי גחלים ובא עובד כוכבים ומהפך בו עד שיבא ישראל מבית הכנסת או מבית המדרש ואינו חושש שופתת אשה קדירה על גבי כירה ובאת עובדת כוכבים 38a. bRather,the cooking of gentiles is prohibited bby rabbinic law, and the verseis cited as ba mere support. /b,The Gemara discusses the particulars of the prohibition against eating the cooking of gentiles. bRav Shmuel bar Rav Yitzḥak saysthat bRav says: Anyitem bthat is eaten as it is,i.e., braw, is not subject tothe prohibition against eating bthe cooking of gentiles.The Gemara remarks: bInthe study hall in bSura, they taught it thisway. bIn Pumbedita, they taught it like this: Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yitzḥak saysthat bRav says: Anyitem bthat is not eaten together with bread on the table of kings is not subject tothe prohibition against eating bthe cooking of gentiles.In other words, foods that are not eaten by distinguished individuals are not subject to this prohibition.,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the practical difference bbetweenthese two opinions? The practical difference bbetween themis with regard to bsmall fish, mushrooms, and porridge.These foods are not eaten raw, but they are not eaten by distinguished individuals. Consequently, these foods are prohibited according to the version taught in Sura, but permitted according to the version taught in Pumbedita., bRav Asi saysthat bRav says: Small, salted fish are not subject tothe prohibition of bthe cooking of gentiles,because they can be eaten raw. bRav Yosef says: If a gentile roastedthese fish, ba Jew may rely upon them foruse in the mitzva of ba joining of cooked foods,which must be prepared in order to permit cooking for Shabbat on a Festival that occurs on a Friday. bAnd if a gentile made theminto ikasa deharsena /i,a dish of fish fried in oil and flour, the dish is bprohibited.In this case, since the flour had not been edible, it is considered the cooked food of a gentile.,The Gemara asks: Isn’t that bobvious?What reason would there be to think that ikasa deharsenaprepared by a gentile is permitted? The Gemara answers: This is taught blest you saythat the bsalted fish,which one is permitted to eat even if cooked by gentiles, is the bessentialcomponent. Therefore, Rav Yosef bteaches usthat bthe flouris the bessentialcomponent, and the dish is therefore considered the cooked food of a gentile., bRav Beruna saysthat bRav says:In the case of ba gentile who ignited a fire in the meadow, all the locusts thatwere burned bin the meadow are prohibited.The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstancesof this case? bIf we saythat the reason they are prohibited is bthat one nolonger bknows which are kosher and which are non-kosheras a result of their burning, bwhydoes Rav Beruna bspecificallydiscuss a case involving ba gentile? Evenif ba Jewburned the meadow, they would balsobe prohibited for the same reason. bRather,this is referring to a case where all the locusts were kosher, and the prohibition is bdue to the cooking of gentiles,as the locusts were effectively cooked by a gentile.,The Gemara raises an objection: bDoes anyoneactually bprohibitthe cooking of gentiles in ba case like this? But doesn’t Rav Ḥa bar Ami saythat bRabbi Pedat saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:With regard to bthis gentile who singed the headof an animal, bit is permitted to eatpart bof it, even from the tip of the ear,which is fully cooked? The Gemara remarks: bEvidently,this is permitted because the gentile merely bintends to remove the hairand not to cook the ears. bHere, too,it ought to be permitted because he merely bintends to clear the meadow,not to cook the locusts.,The Gemara answers: bActually,this is referring to a case where there is a mixture of different types of locusts, and they are prohibited because one does bnot know which are kosher and which are non-kosher. Andthe reason Rav Beruna specified that the case involved a gentile is because bthe incident that occurredhappened to have boccurred withthe involvement of ba gentile. /b,§ The Gemara addresses bthematter bitself: Rabba bar bar Ḥana saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:With regard to bthis gentile who singed the headof an animal, it is bpermitted to eatpart bof it, even from the tip of the ear,which is fully cooked. bRavina said: Therefore,with regard to bthis gentile who threwa moist bpeg into the ovenin order to dry it out and harden it, band a Jew hadalready binserted a gourdin the oven bfrom the outset,the gourd is bpermitted,even though it was in effect cooked by a gentile. The reason is that the gentile had no intention to cook the vegetable. The Gemara asks: Isn’t that bobvious?The Gemara answers: It was necessary to teach this, blest you saythat the gentile bintends to cook the vessel,i.e., the peg, by softening it. Therefore Ravina bteaches usthat bhe intendsonly bto harden the vessel. /b,§ The Gemara continues the discussion with regard to the cooking of gentiles by examining the ihalakhaof meat cooked by both a gentile and a Jew. bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says:If ba Jew placed meat uponflaming bcoals and a gentile came and turnedthe meat bover,the meat is bpermitted.The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstancesof this case? bIf we say thatit is a case where bifthe gentile bhad not turned overthe meat bit would have cookedanyway, it is bobviousthat the meat is permitted, as the gentile’s actions did not actually alter the food. The Gemara suggests: bRather, is it nota case bwhere, ifthe gentile bhad not turned it over, it would not have cooked?But if so, bwhy is it permitted?In such a case, the meat biscertainly considered to be bthe cooking of gentilesand ought to be prohibited.,The Gemara explains: bNo,it is bnecessaryto teach this ihalakhawith regard to a case bwhere ifthe gentile bhad not turned overthe meat, bit would have cooked in two hours, and nowthat he did turn it over, bit will cook inonly bone hour. Lest you saythat bhastening the cookingprocess bisa significant bmatter,and therefore food whose preparation is expedited by a gentile is prohibited, Ravina bteaches usotherwise.,The Gemara asks: bBut doesn’t Rabbi Asi saythat bRabbi Yoḥa says: Anyitem bthathas been cooked blike the food of ben Derosai,i.e., partially cooked so that it is just about edible, bis not subject tothe prohibition of bthe cooking of gentiles? Consequently,if bit is notcooked blike the food of ben Derosai, it is subject tothe prohibition of bthe cooking of gentiles.Accordingly, meat whose cooking was expedited by a gentile ought to be prohibited, as this ruling includes cases where it had not been cooked like the food of ben Derosai at the time of the gentile’s intervention.,The Gemara answers: bThere,Rabbi Asi was referring to a case bwherethe Jew bhad placedthe meat that was not yet cooked like the food of ben Derosai bin a basketwhere it would not have cooked at all, band a gentile took it and placed it in the oven.Rabbi Asi was teaching that in such a case, when the current cooking process has yet to begin, the meat is prohibited if it had not already been cooked like the food of ben Derosai. By contrast, in the case addressed by Rabbi Yehuda, the meat was already cooking and the gentile’s actions hastened the process, but did not initiate it. In other words, the issue of cooked food like the food of ben Derosai is relevant only if the gentile takes a dish that is not being cooked at present.,The Gemara adds: bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA Jew may place meat onhot bcoals andlet ba gentile come and turn it overas necessary buntil the Jew comesback bfrom the synagogue or from the study hall, andthe Jew need bnot be concernedfor the prohibition of eating cooking of gentiles. Similarly, a Jewish bwoman may set a pot upon the stove andlet ba gentile woman come /b
29. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

22a. שקרא ושנה ולא שימש תלמידי חכמים,אתמר קרא ושנה ולא שימש ת"ח ר' אלעזר אומר הרי זה עם הארץ ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר הרי זה בור ר' ינאי אומר ה"ז כותי,רב אחא בר יעקב אומר הרי זה מגוש אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מסתברא כרב אחא בר יעקב דאמרי אינשי רטין מגושא ולא ידע מאי אמר תני תנא ולא ידע מאי אמר,ת"ר איזהו ע"ה כל שאינו קורא ק"ש שחרית וערבית בברכותיה דברי ר' מאיר וחכ"א כל שאינו מניח תפילין בן עזאי אומר כל שאין לו ציצית בבגדו ר' יונתן בן יוסף אמר כל שיש לו בנים ואינו מגדלן ללמוד תורה אחרים אומרים אפילו קורא ושונה ולא שימש ת"ח זהו ע"ה,קרא ולא שנה הרי זה בור לא קרא ולא שנה עליו הכתוב אומר (ירמיהו לא, כז) וזרעתי את בית ישראל ואת בית יהודה זרע אדם וזרע בהמה,(משלי כד, כא) ירא את ה' בני ומלך ועם שונים אל תתערב אמר רבי יצחק אלו ששונים הלכות פשיטא מהו דתימא שונין בחטא וכדרב הונא דאמר רב הונא כיון שעבר אדם עבירה ושנה בה הותרה לו קמ"ל,תנא התנאים מבלי עולם מבלי עולם ס"ד אמר רבינא שמורין הלכה מתוך משנתן תניא נמי הכי א"ר יהושע וכי מבלי עולם הן והלא מיישבי עולם הן שנאמר (חבקוק ג, ו) הליכות עולם לו אלא שמורין הלכה מתוך משנתן,אשה פרושה וכו' ת"ר בתולה צליינית ואלמנה שובבית וקטן שלא כלו לו חדשיו הרי אלו מבלי עולם,איני והאמר רבי יוחנן למדנו יראת חטא מבתולה וקיבול שכר מאלמנה יראת חטא מבתולה דר' יוחנן שמעה לההיא בתולה דנפלה אאפה וקאמרה רבש"ע בראת גן עדן ובראת גיהנם בראת צדיקים ובראת רשעים יהי רצון מלפניך שלא יכשלו בי בני אדם,קיבול שכר מאלמנה דההיא אלמנה דהואי בי כנישתא בשיבבותה כל יומא הות אתיא ומצלה בי מדרשיה דר' יוחנן אמר לה בתי לא בית הכנסת בשיבבותך אמרה ליה רבי ולא שכר פסיעות יש לי,כי קאמר כגון יוחני בת רטיבי,מאי קטן שלא כלו לו חדשיו הכא תרגימו זה ת"ח המבעט ברבותיו,רבי אבא אמר זה תלמיד שלא הגיע להוראה ומורה דא"ר אבהו אמר רב הונא אמר רב מאי דכתיב (משלי ז, כו) כי רבים חללים הפילה ועצומים כל הרוגיה כי רבים חללים הפילה זה ת"ח שלא הגיע להוראה ומורה ועצומים כל הרוגיה זה ת"ח שהגיע להוראה ואינו מורה 22a. is one bwho readthe Written Torah band learnedthe Mishna bbut did not serve Torah scholarsin order to learn the reasoning behind the ihalakhot /i. Since he believes himself knowledgeable, he issues halakhic rulings, but due to his lack of understanding he rules erroneously and is therefore considered wicked. His cunning is in his public display of knowledge, which misleads others into considering him a true Torah scholar., bIt was stated:With regard to one who breadthe Written Torah band learnedthe Mishna bbut did not serve Torah scholars, Rabbi Elazar says: Thisperson bis an ignoramus. Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: Thisperson bis a boor. Rabbi Yannai says: Thisperson biscomparable to ba Samaritan,who follows the Written Torah but not the traditions of the Sages., bRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov says: Thisperson biscomparable to ba sorcerer [ imagosh /i],who uses his knowledge to mislead people. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: It is reasonable toaccept the opinion of bRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov, as people sayproverbially: bThe sorcerer chants and does not know what he is saying;so too, bthe itannateachesthe Mishna band does not know what he is saying. /b,§ bThe Sages taught: Who is an ignoramus [ iam ha’aretz /i]?It is banyone who does not recite iShema /iin the bmorning and evening with its blessings;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say:It is banyone who does not don phylacteries. Ben Azzai says:It is banyone who does not have ritual fringes on his garment. Rabbi Yonatan ben Yosef said:It is banyone who has sons and does not raise them to study Torah. iAḥerimsay: Even if one readsthe Written Torah band learnsthe Mishna bbut does not serve Torah scholars, he is an ignoramus. /b,If one breadthe Written Torah bbut did not learnthe Mishna, bhe is a boor. With regard toone who bdid not read and did not learnat all, bthe verse states:“Behold, the days come, says the Lord, band I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah with the seed of man, and with the seed of beast”(Jeremiah 31:26). One who has not studied at all is comparable to a beast.,The verse states: b“My son, fear the Lord and the king; and meddle not with those who are repeating”(Proverbs 24:21). bRabbi Yitzḥak says: These areindividuals bwho repeatedly learnthe ihalakhot /ibut do not know the reasons behind them. The Gemara asks: bIsn’tthat bobvious?How else could the verse be understood? The Gemara answers: He states this blest you saythat the verse is referring to individuals who brepeatedlycommit bsins, andthis is bin accordance withthe words of bRav Huna, as Rav Huna says: Once a person committed a transgression and repeated it,in his eyes bit became permitted for him.Since the verse could be interpreted in this manner, Rabbi Yitzḥak bteaches usthat the verse is referring to those who learn without understanding., bIt was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe itanna’im /i,who recite the tannaitic sources by rote, bareindividuals bwho erode the world.The Gemara is puzzled by this statement: bCouldit benter your mindthat they are individuals bwho erode the world? Ravina says:This statement is referring to those bwho issue halakhic rulings basedon btheirknowledge of imishnayot /i. This is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yehoshua said: Are theyindividuals bwho erode the world? Aren’t they settling the world, as it is stated: “His ways [ ihalikhot /i] are eternal”(Habakkuk 3:6)? The Sages read the term ihalikhotas ihalakhot /i, inferring that one who learns ihalakhotattains eternal life. bRather,this is referring to those bwho issue halakhic rulings basedon btheirknowledge of imishnayot /i. /b,§ The mishna states that ban abstinent womanis among those who erode the world. bThe Sages taught: A maiden who praysconstantly, band a neighborly [ ishovavit /i] widowwho constantly visits her neighbors, band a child whose monthsof gestation bwere not completed,all bthese arepeople bwho erode the world. /b,The Gemara asks: bIs that so? But didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say: We learnedthe meaning of bfear of sin from a maiden, andthe significance of breceivingdivine breward from a widow.The meaning of bfear of sincan be learned bfrom a maiden, as Rabbi Yoḥa heard a certain maiden who fell on her facein prayer, band she was saying: Master of the Universe, You created the Garden of Eden and You created Gehenna, You createdthe brighteous and You createdthe bwicked. May it be Your will that men shall not stumble because of meand consequently go to Gehenna.,The significance of breceivingdivine brewardcan be learned bfrom a widow, asthere was ba certain widow in whose neighborhood there was a synagogue,and despite this bevery day she went and prayed in the study hall of Rabbi Yoḥa.Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to her: My daughter,is there bnot a synagogue in your neighborhood? She said to him: My teacher, don’t I attain a rewardfor all bthe stepsI take while walking to pray in the distant study hall?,The Gemara answers: bWhen it is statedin the ibaraitathat a maiden who prays constantly is one who erodes the world, it is referring, bfor example,to bYoḥani bat Retivi,who constantly prayed and pretended to be saintly but actually engaged in sorcery.,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of ba child whose monthsof gestation bwere not completed? Here,in Babylonia, bthey interpreted thisas alluding to an imperfect, incomplete bTorah scholar who scorns his teachers. /b, bRabbi Abba says: This is a student who has notyet battainedthe ability bto issuehalakhic brulings, andyet bhe issues rulingsand is therefore compared to a prematurely born child. This is bas Rabbi Abbahu saysthat bRav Huna saysthat bRav says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “For she has cast down many wounded; and a mighty host are all her slain”(Proverbs 7:26)? b“For she has cast down [ ihippila /i] many wounded”; thisis referring to ba Torah scholar who has notyet battainedthe ability bto issue rulings, andyet bhe issues rulings. “And a mighty host [ ive’atzumim /i] are all her slain”; thisis referring to ba Torah scholar who has attainedthe ability bto issue rulings, but does not issue rulingsand prevents the masses from learning Torah properly.
30. Origen, Against Celsus, 1.9, 3.75 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.9. He next proceeds to recommend, that in adopting opinions we should follow reason and a rational guide, since he who assents to opinions without following this course is very liable to be deceived. And he compares inconsiderate believers to Metragyrt, and soothsayers, and Mithr, and Sabbadians, and to anything else that one may fall in with, and to the phantoms of Hecate, or any other demon or demons. For as among such persons are frequently to be found wicked men, who, taking advantage of the ignorance of those who are easily deceived, lead them away whither they will, so also, he says, is the case among Christians. And he asserts that certain persons who do not wish either to give or receive a reason for their belief, keep repeating, Do not examine, but believe! and, Your faith will save you! And he alleges that such also say, The wisdom of this life is bad, but that foolishness is a good thing! To which we have to answer, that if it were possible for all to leave the business of life, and devote themselves to philosophy, no other method ought to be adopted by any one, but this alone. For in the Christian system also it will be found that there is, not to speak at all arrogantly, at least as much of investigation into articles of belief, and of explanation of dark sayings, occurring in the prophetical writings, and of the parables in the Gospels, and of countless other things, which either were narrated or enacted with a symbolic signification, (as is the case with other systems). But since the course alluded to is impossible, partly on account of the necessities of life, partly on account of the weakness of men, as only a very few individuals devote themselves earnestly to study, what better method could be devised with a view of assisting the multitude, than that which was delivered by Jesus to the heathen? And let us inquire, with respect to the great multitude of believers, who have washed away the mire of wickedness in which they formerly wallowed, whether it were better for them to believe without a reason, and (so) to have become reformed and improved in their habits, through the belief that men are chastised for sins, and honoured for good works or not to have allowed themselves to be converted on the strength of mere faith, but (to have waited) until they could give themselves to a thorough examination of the (necessary) reasons. For it is manifest that, (on such a plan), all men, with very few exceptions, would not obtain this (amelioration of conduct) which they have obtained through a simple faith, but would continue to remain in the practice of a wicked life. Now, whatever other evidence can be furnished of the fact, that it was not without divine intervention that the philanthropic scheme of Christianity was introduced among men, this also must be added. For a pious man will not believe that even a physician of the body, who restores the sick to better health, could take up his abode in any city or country without divine permission, since no good happens to men without the help of God. And if he who has cured the bodies of many, or restored them to better health, does not effect his cures without the help of God, how much more He who has healed the souls of many, and has turned them (to virtue), and improved their nature, and attached them to God who is over all things, and taught them to refer every action to His good pleasure, and to shun all that is displeasing to Him, even to the least of their words or deeds, or even of the thoughts of their hearts? 3.75. But as he afterwards says that the teacher of Christianity acts like a person who promises to restore patients to bodily health, but who prevents them from consulting skilled physicians, by whom his ignorance would be exposed, we shall inquire in reply, What are the physicians to whom you refer, from whom we turn away ignorant individuals? For you do not suppose that we exhort those to embrace the Gospel who are devoted to philosophy, so that you would regard the latter as the physicians from whom we keep away such as we invite to come to the word of God. He indeed will make no answer, because he cannot name the physicians; or else he will be obliged to betake himself to those of them who are ignorant, and who of their own accord servilely yield themselves to the worship of many gods, and to whatever other opinions are entertained by ignorant individuals. In either case, then, he will be shown to have employed to no purpose in his argument the illustration of one who keeps others away from skilled physicians. But if, in order to preserve from the philosophy of Epicurus, and from such as are considered physicians after his system, those who are deceived by them, why should we not be acting most reasonably in keeping such away from a dangerous disease caused by the physicians of Celsus, - that, viz., which leads to the annihilation of providence, and the introduction of pleasure as a good? But let it be conceded that we do keep away those whom we encourage to become our disciples from other philosopher-physicians - from the Peripatetics, for example, who deny the existence of providence and the relation of Deity to man - why shall we not piously train and heal those who have been thus encouraged, persuading them to devote themselves to the God of all things, and free those who yield obedience to us from the great wounds inflicted by the words of such as are deemed to be philosophers? Nay, let it also be admitted that we turn away from physicians of the sect of the Stoics, who introduce a corruptible god, and assert that his essence consists of a body, which is capable of being changed and altered in all its parts, and who also maintain that all things will one day perish, and that God alone will be left; why shall we not even thus emancipate our subjects from evils, and bring them by pious arguments to devote themselves to the Creator, and to admire the Father of the Christian system, who has so arranged that instruction of the most benevolent kind, and fitted for the conversion of souls, should be distributed throughout the whole human race? Nay, if we should cure those who have fallen into the folly of believing in the transmigration of souls through the teaching of physicians, who will have it that the rational nature descends sometimes into all kinds of irrational animals, and sometimes into that state of being which is incapable of using the imagination, why should we not improve the souls of our subjects by means of a doctrine which does not teach that a state of insensibility or irrationalism is produced in the wicked instead of punishment, but which shows that the labours and chastisements inflicted upon the wicked by God are a kind of medicines leading to conversion? For those who are intelligent Christians, keeping this in view, deal with the simple-minded, as parents do with very young children. We do not betake ourselves then to young persons and silly rustics, saying to them, Flee from physicians. Nor do we say, See that none of you lay hold of knowledge; nor do we assert that knowledge is an evil; nor are we mad enough to say that knowledge causes men to lose their soundness of mind. We would not even say that any one ever perished through wisdom; and although we give instruction, we never say, Give heed to me, but Give heed to the God of all things, and to Jesus, the giver of instruction concerning Him. And none of us is so great a braggart as to say what Celsus put in the mouth of one of our teachers to his acquaintances, I alone will save you. Observe here the lies which he utters against us! Moreover, we do not assert that true physicians destroy those whom they promise to cure.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
accusation, against christians Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 226
acts, synagogues, synagogues, asia minor Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116, 117
acts, synagogues, synagogues, greece Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116, 117
acts Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 202
acts of the apostles, familiar and foreign Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 608
acts of the apostles, godfearers Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 608
acts of the apostles, jews and greeks Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 608
acts of the apostles Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 608
alexandria Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217
alexandrian jewry Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116
amphipolis, city Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 73
antioch-of-pisidia, archisynagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 117
antioch-of-pisidia, synagogue, synagogue, and paul Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 117
aphrodisias Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 325
apocalyptic(ism) (see also dualism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217, 325
apollonia Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 73
apollos Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 140
apologetic, conversion Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 354
apologetic, portrait of paul Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 383, 754
apologist Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 226
apostle, paul as Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 383
apostle Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217
apuleius Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 754
aquila Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 140
aquila and prisca(-illa) Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 226
archives Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217
asia minor, acts Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116, 117
asia minor, archisynagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 117
asia minor, inscriptions Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116, 117
asia minor, synagogues Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116, 117
asia minor Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 325
athens, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116
athens Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 226, 754; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
baptism Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
benefaction Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 242
beroea, city Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 62, 81
berra, yogi Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 354
blessings, study Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116, 117
caligula Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 758
celsus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 226
charges against Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 242
christian Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 354
christian message Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
christianity, in acts Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 354
christianity, philosophy Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 354
christianity Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 354
church Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
circumcision Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 608
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 299, 516
claudius Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 758; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217
collegia Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 758
colonia caesarea Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 608
conversion, experience of Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 354
conversion Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 226, 354; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
corinth Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 754
deacons, women as Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 202
defense Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 226
diakonia women and Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 202
diaspora Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 608
domitian Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 758
dream, vision Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 190
egnatia (via) Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 73
ephesus Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
epigraphy, jewish Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 62
faith Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
family Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 242
galen Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 226
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 325
gentiles Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94, 105
god, fearer Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 383
god-fearer, god-fearing Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 325
god; gods Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 200
godfearers Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 608
good Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 200
gospels Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94, 105
hero Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 758
holy spirit, cornelius Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 579
holy spirit, lukan conception Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 579
holy spirit, samaritans Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 579
hospitality Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 202
hypatia (alexandrian philosopher) Conybeare, The Irrational Augustine (2006) 106
interior, interiorization Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 190
ioudaios Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 325
jews Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94, 105
judaea (roman province; see also yehud) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217
judaism Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 200; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 754
judean (geographical-political) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217
juvenal, street philosophers Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 754
kerygma Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
liber Conybeare, The Irrational Augustine (2006) 106
luke, synagogue, synagogue liturgy vs. christianity, paganism Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116
luke-acts, gendered agenda of Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 202
luke-acts, martha in Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 202
luke-acts, pneumatology, incoherence Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 579
luke Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94, 105; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217, 325
lydia, dealer in purple cloth Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 426
macedonia, imperial cult Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 62
macedonia, jewish communities Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 62
macedonia, koinon Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 62
macedonia, religious context Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 62
macedonia Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 117; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217, 325
martha contrasted with mary, diakonia of Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 202
martha lazarus), lukan portrait of Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 202
message Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
message from god/gods Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 325
mission of paul Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
missionary activity Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116
moses, origin of torah reading Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116
moses Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 325
nero Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 758
nurture Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 383
obstinacy Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
one Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 200
pagan Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 200
pagans Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
pastoral epistles Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 202
paul, as pastor Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 383
paul, gospel of Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 354
paul (apostle) Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 73, 81, 82
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217, 325
paul (the apostle) Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94, 105
paul and women Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 202
paul of tarsus Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 200
persuasion Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 226
philip, daughters of Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 202
philippi, city Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 62
philippi, synagogue/proseuche Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116
philippi (macedonia) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217
philosopher, philosophical Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
philosopher Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 754
philosophy (see also academic philosophy), doing philosophy' Conybeare, The Irrational Augustine (2006) 106
pisidia, berea Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116, 117
pisidia, christians, diaspora synagogues Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 501
pisidia, christians, philippi Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 117
pisidia, christians, thessalonica Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 117
pisidia, corinth Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 117
pleasure Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 226, 354, 383
pneumatology, lukan Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 579
preacher, preaching Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116
preaching, christian Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 354
preaching, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 354, 383
preaching Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 226, 754
prophecy, proof from Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 226
prophet Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94, 105
prophetic Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
prophets, women as Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 202
prophets Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 202
prophets (books of) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 117
proselyte, proselytism Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 325
proseuche (prayer house), diaspora, philippi Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 117, 501
protrepsis/protreptic Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 226
religion Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 200
repentance Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 354
resurrection Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 226; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
revelation Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
roman, empire Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 758; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217
roman Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 758
rome, therapeutae Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 501
rome, women Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 501
rome Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
sabbateion Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 117
sabbath, worship Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116, 117
sabbath Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 190
salamis Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116
salvation Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 754; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94, 105
septuagint Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
sign Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
silas/silvanus Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 73, 81, 82
silas Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 242
simeon Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
slaves, slavery Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 242
stephen Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
stobi, city Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 62
synagogue Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 226, 383, 754; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 325
synagogue prayer Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217
teachers, women as Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 202
teaching Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 754
tertullian Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 758
therapeutae, study Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116, 117
thessalonica, christian community Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 73, 81, 82
thessalonica, city Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 62
thessalonica, jewry Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 117
thessalonica, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116, 501
thessalonica Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 242
thessalonika Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217
tiber rising Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 758
tiberius Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 758
timothy, circumcision Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 608
timothy Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 81, 82
titus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 758
truth Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
vespasian Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 758
virtue Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 758
weapon Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 226
women, academy Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 501
women, attraction to judaism Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 117, 501
women, in the acts of the apostles Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 426
women, in the jesus movement Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 426
women, ministry of Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 202
women, pauls missionary activity Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 117, 501
women, seating, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 117, 501
women, synagogue attendance Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 501
women, torah reading Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 501
women and charity Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 202
women as prophets Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 202
women as teachers Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 202