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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8243
New Testament, Acts, 17.28-17.29


ἐν αὐτῷ γὰρ ζῶμεν καὶ κινούμεθα καὶ ἐσμέν, ὡς καί τινες τῶν καθʼ ὑμᾶς ποιητῶν εἰρήκασιν
85 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.16, 7.12, 11.10, 19.1, 19.5, 19.9, 19.14-19.15, 19.18-19.19, 32.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.16. לֹא תְנַסּוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר נִסִּיתֶם בַּמַּסָּה׃ 7.12. וְהָיָה עֵקֶב תִּשְׁמְעוּן אֵת הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים הָאֵלֶּה וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם וְשָׁמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְךָ אֶת־הַבְּרִית וְאֶת־הַחֶסֶד אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ׃ 19.1. כִּי־יַכְרִית יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֶת־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ אֶת־אַרְצָם וִירִשְׁתָּם וְיָשַׁבְתָּ בְעָרֵיהֶם וּבְבָתֵּיהֶם׃ 19.1. וְלֹא יִשָּׁפֵךְ דָּם נָקִי בְּקֶרֶב אַרְצְךָ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה וְהָיָה עָלֶיךָ דָּמִים׃ 19.5. וַאֲשֶׁר יָבֹא אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ בַיַּעַר לַחְטֹב עֵצִים וְנִדְּחָה יָדוֹ בַגַּרְזֶן לִכְרֹת הָעֵץ וְנָשַׁל הַבַּרְזֶל מִן־הָעֵץ וּמָצָא אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וָמֵת הוּא יָנוּס אֶל־אַחַת הֶעָרִים־הָאֵלֶּה וָחָי׃ 19.9. כִּי־תִשְׁמֹר אֶת־כָּל־הַמִּצְוָה הַזֹּאת לַעֲשֹׂתָהּ אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם לְאַהֲבָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְלָלֶכֶת בִּדְרָכָיו כָּל־הַיָּמִים וְיָסַפְתָּ לְךָ עוֹד שָׁלֹשׁ עָרִים עַל הַשָּׁלֹשׁ הָאֵלֶּה׃ 19.14. לֹא תַסִּיג גְּבוּל רֵעֲךָ אֲשֶׁר גָּבְלוּ רִאשֹׁנִים בְּנַחֲלָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר תִּנְחַל בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃ 19.15. לֹא־יָקוּם עֵד אֶחָד בְּאִישׁ לְכָל־עָוֺן וּלְכָל־חַטָּאת בְּכָל־חֵטְא אֲשֶׁר יֶחֱטָא עַל־פִּי שְׁנֵי עֵדִים אוֹ עַל־פִּי שְׁלֹשָׁה־עֵדִים יָקוּם דָּבָר׃ 19.18. וְדָרְשׁוּ הַשֹּׁפְטִים הֵיטֵב וְהִנֵּה עֵד־שֶׁקֶר הָעֵד שֶׁקֶר עָנָה בְאָחִיו׃ 19.19. וַעֲשִׂיתֶם לוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר זָמַם לַעֲשׂוֹת לְאָחִיו וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִקִּרְבֶּךָ׃ 32.8. בְּהַנְחֵל עֶלְיוֹן גּוֹיִם בְּהַפְרִידוֹ בְּנֵי אָדָם יַצֵּב גְּבֻלֹת עַמִּים לְמִסְפַּר בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 6.16. Ye shall not try the LORD your God, as ye tried Him in Massah." 7.12. And it shall come to pass, because ye hearken to these ordices, and keep, and do them, that the LORD thy God shall keep with thee the covet and the mercy which He swore unto thy fathers," 11.10. For the land, whither thou goest in to possess it, is not as the land of Egypt, from whence ye came out, where thou didst sow thy seed, and didst water it with thy foot, as a garden of herbs;" 19.1. When the LORD thy God shall cut off the nations, whose land the LORD thy God giveth thee, and thou dost succeed them, and dwell in their cities, and in their houses;" 19.5. as when a man goeth into the forest with his neighbour to hew wood, and his hand fetcheth a stroke with the axe to cut down the tree, and the head slippeth from the helve, and lighteth upon his neighbour, that he die; he shall flee unto one of these cities and live;" 19.9. if thou shalt keep all this commandment to do it, which I command thee this day, to love the LORD thy God, and to walk ever in His ways—then shalt thou add three cities more for thee, beside these three;" 19.14. Thou shalt not remove thy neighbour’s landmark, which they of old time have set, in thine inheritance which thou shalt inherit, in the land that the LORD thy God giveth thee to possess it." 19.15. One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth; at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall a matter be establishment" 19.18. And the judges shall inquire diligently; and, behold, if the witness be a false witness, and hath testified falsely against his brother;" 19.19. then shall ye do unto him, as he had purposed to do unto his brother; so shalt thou put away the evil from the midst of thee." 32.8. When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the children of men, He set the borders of the peoples according to the number of the children of Israel."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 13.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

13.9. וְהָיָה לְךָ לְאוֹת עַל־יָדְךָ וּלְזִכָּרוֹן בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ לְמַעַן תִּהְיֶה תּוֹרַת יְהוָה בְּפִיךָ כִּי בְּיָד חֲזָקָה הוֹצִאֲךָ יְהֹוָה מִמִּצְרָיִם׃ 13.9. And it shall be for a sign unto thee upon thy hand, and for a memorial between thine eyes, that the law of the LORD may be in thy mouth; for with a strong hand hath the LORD brought thee out of Egypt."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.26-1.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them."
4. Hebrew Bible, Job, 14.12, 41.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.12. וְאִישׁ שָׁכַב וְלֹא־יָקוּם עַד־בִּלְתִּי שָׁמַיִם לֹא יָקִיצוּ וְלֹא־יֵעֹרוּ מִשְּׁנָתָם׃ 41.3. מִי הִקְדִּימַנִי וַאֲשַׁלֵּם תַּחַת כָּל־הַשָּׁמַיִם לִי־הוּא׃ 14.12. So man lieth down and riseth not; Till the heavens be no more, they shall not awake, Nor be roused out of their sleep." 41.3. Who hath given Me anything beforehand, that I should repay him? Whatsoever is under the whole heaven is Mine."
5. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 2.7, 8.4-8.6, 16.10, 21.23, 35.8, 42.1, 68.18, 84.10, 139.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.7. אֲסַפְּרָה אֶל חֹק יְהוָה אָמַר אֵלַי בְּנִי אַתָּה אֲנִי הַיּוֹם יְלִדְתִּיךָ׃ 8.4. כִּי־אֶרְאֶה שָׁמֶיךָ מַעֲשֵׂי אֶצְבְּעֹתֶיךָ יָרֵחַ וְכוֹכָבִים אֲשֶׁר כּוֹנָנְתָּה׃ 8.5. מָה־אֱנוֹשׁ כִּי־תִזְכְּרֶנּוּ וּבֶן־אָדָם כִּי תִפְקְדֶנּוּ׃ 8.6. וַתְּחַסְּרֵהוּ מְּעַט מֵאֱלֹהִים וְכָבוֹד וְהָדָר תְּעַטְּרֵהוּ׃ 35.8. תְּבוֹאֵהוּ שׁוֹאָה לֹא־יֵדָע וְרִשְׁתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר־טָמַן תִּלְכְּדוֹ בְּשׁוֹאָה יִפָּל־בָּהּ׃ 42.1. לַמְנַצֵּחַ מַשְׂכִּיל לִבְנֵי־קֹרַח׃ 42.1. אוֹמְרָה לְאֵל סַלְעִי לָמָה שְׁכַחְתָּנִי לָמָּה־קֹדֵר אֵלֵךְ בְּלַחַץ אוֹיֵב׃ 68.18. רֶכֶב אֱלֹהִים רִבֹּתַיִם אַלְפֵי שִׁנְאָן אֲדֹנָי בָם סִינַי בַּקֹּדֶשׁ׃ 139.3. אָרְחִי וְרִבְעִי זֵרִיתָ וְכָל־דְּרָכַי הִסְכַּנְתָּה׃ 2.7. I will tell of the decree: The LORD said unto me: 'Thou art My son, this day have I begotten thee." 8.4. When I behold Thy heavens, the work of Thy fingers, The moon and the stars, which Thou hast established;" 8.5. What is man, that Thou art mindful of him? And the son of man, that Thou thinkest of him?" 8.6. Yet Thou hast made him but little lower than the angels, And hast crowned him with glory and honour." 16.10. For Thou wilt not abandon my soul to the nether-world; Neither wilt Thou suffer Thy godly one to see the pit." 35.8. Let destruction come upon him unawares; And let his net that he hath hid catch himself; With destruction let him fall therein." 42.1. For the Leader; Maschil of the sons of Korah." 68.18. The chariots of God are myriads, even thousands upon thousands; The Lord is among them, as in Sinai, in holiness." 84.10. Behold, O God our shield, and look upon the face of Thine anointed." 139.3. Thou measurest my going about and my lying down, And art acquainted with all my ways."
6. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 9.11-9.12 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

9.11. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא אָקִים אֶת־סֻכַּת דָּוִיד הַנֹּפֶלֶת וְגָדַרְתִּי אֶת־פִּרְצֵיהֶן וַהֲרִסֹתָיו אָקִים וּבְנִיתִיהָ כִּימֵי עוֹלָם׃ 9.12. לְמַעַן יִירְשׁוּ אֶת־שְׁאֵרִית אֱדוֹם וְכָל־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר־נִקְרָא שְׁמִי עֲלֵיהֶם נְאֻם־יְהוָה עֹשֶׂה זֹּאת׃ 9.11. In that day will I raise up The tabernacle of David that is fallen, And close up the breaches thereof, And I will raise up his ruins, And I will build it as in the days of old;" 9.12. That they may possess the remt of Edom, And all the nations, upon whom My name is called, Saith the LORD that doeth this."
7. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 1.5 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

1.5. רְאוּ בַגּוֹיִם וְהַבִּיטוּ וְהִתַּמְּהוּ תְּמָהוּ כִּי־פֹעַל פֹּעֵל בִּימֵיכֶם לֹא תַאֲמִינוּ כִּי יְסֻפָּר׃ 1.5. Look ye among the nations, and behold, And wonder marvellously; For, behold, a work shall be wrought in your days, Which ye will not believe though it be told you."
8. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.9-6.10, 7.14, 24.5, 40.13-40.14, 55.3, 61.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.9. וַיֹּאמֶר לֵךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ לָעָם הַזֶּה שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמוֹעַ וְאַל־תָּבִינוּ וּרְאוּ רָאוֹ וְאַל־תֵּדָעוּ׃ 7.14. לָכֵן יִתֵּן אֲדֹנָי הוּא לָכֶם אוֹת הִנֵּה הָעַלְמָה הָרָה וְיֹלֶדֶת בֵּן וְקָרָאת שְׁמוֹ עִמָּנוּ אֵל׃ 24.5. וְהָאָרֶץ חָנְפָה תַּחַת יֹשְׁבֶיהָ כִּי־עָבְרוּ תוֹרֹת חָלְפוּ חֹק הֵפֵרוּ בְּרִית עוֹלָם׃ 40.13. מִי־תִכֵּן אֶת־רוּחַ יְהוָה וְאִישׁ עֲצָתוֹ יוֹדִיעֶנּוּ׃ 40.14. אֶת־מִי נוֹעָץ וַיְבִינֵהוּ וַיְלַמְּדֵהוּ בְּאֹרַח מִשְׁפָּט וַיְלַמְּדֵהוּ דַעַת וְדֶרֶךְ תְּבוּנוֹת יוֹדִיעֶנּוּ׃ 55.3. הַטּוּ אָזְנְכֶם וּלְכוּ אֵלַי שִׁמְעוּ וּתְחִי נַפְשְׁכֶם וְאֶכְרְתָה לָכֶם בְּרִית עוֹלָם חַסְדֵי דָוִד הַנֶּאֱמָנִים׃ 61.2. לִקְרֹא שְׁנַת־רָצוֹן לַיהוָה וְיוֹם נָקָם לֵאלֹהֵינוּ לְנַחֵם כָּל־אֲבֵלִים׃ 6.9. And He said: ‘Go, and tell this people: Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not." 6.10. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they, seeing with their eyes, and hearing with their ears, and understanding with their heart, return, and be healed.’" 7.14. Therefore the Lord Himself shall give you a sign: behold, the young woman shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel." 24.5. The earth also is defiled under the inhabitants thereof; Because they have transgressed the laws, violated the statute, Broken the everlasting covet." 40.13. Who hath meted out the spirit of the LORD? Or who was His counsellor that he might instruct Him?" 40.14. With whom took He counsel, and who instructed Him, And taught Him in the path of right, And taught Him knowledge, And made Him to know the way of discernment?" 55.3. Incline your ear, and come unto Me; Hear, and your soul shall live; And I will make an everlasting covet with you, Even the sure mercies of David." 61.2. To proclaim the year of the LORD’S good pleasure, And the day of vengeance of our God; To comfort all that mourn;"
9. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 17.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

17.9. עָקֹב הַלֵּב מִכֹּל וְאָנֻשׁ הוּא מִי יֵדָעֶנּוּ׃ 17.9. The heart is deceitful above all things, And it is exceeding weak—who can know it?"
10. Homer, Iliad, 5.896, 14.231 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

5.896. /Howbeit I will no longer endure that thou shouldest be in pain, for thou art mine offspring, and it was to me that thy mother bare thee; but wert thou born of any other god, thus pestilent as thou art, then long ere this hadst thou been lower than the sons of heaven. 14.231. /and so came to Lemnos, the city of godlike Thoas. There she met Sleep, the brother of Death; and she clasped him by the hand, and spake and addressed him:Sleep, lord of all gods and of all men, if ever thou didst hearken to word of mine, so do thou even now obey
11. Aeschylus, Eumenides, 648-651, 647 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

647. ἀνδρὸς δʼ ἐπειδὰν αἷμʼ ἀνασπάσῃ κόνις
12. Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound, 822 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

822. δὸς ἥνπερ αἰτούμεσθα, μέμνησαι δέ που. Προμηθεύς
13. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 34.23 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

34.23. וַהֲקִמֹתִי עֲלֵיהֶם רֹעֶה אֶחָד וְרָעָה אֶתְהֶן אֵת עַבְדִּי דָוִיד הוּא יִרְעֶה אֹתָם וְהוּא־יִהְיֶה לָהֶן לְרֹעֶה׃ 34.23. And I will set up one shepherd over them, and he shall feed them, even My servant David; he shall feed them, and he shall be their shepherd."
14. Pindar, Fragments, 57 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

15. Aristophanes, Acharnians, 375 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

375. τῶν τ' αὖ γερόντων οἶδα τὰς ψυχὰς ὅτι
16. Euripides, Bacchae, 795, 794 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

794. θύοιμʼ ἂν αὐτῷ μᾶλλον ἢ θυμούμενος 794. I would sacrifice to the god rather
17. Plato, Apology of Socrates, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

17a. How you, men of Athens, have been affected by my accusers, I do not know; but I, for my part, almost forgot my own identity, so persuasively did they talk; and yet there is hardly a word of truth in what they have said. But I was most amazed by one of the many lies that they told—when they said that you must be on your guard not to be deceived by me
18. Plato, Euthyphro, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

3b. Socrates. Absurd things, my friend, at first hearing. For he says I am a maker of gods; and because I make new gods and do not believe in the old ones, he indicted me for the sake of these old ones, as he says. Euthyphro. I understand, Socrates; it is because you say the divine monitor keeps coming to you. So he has brought the indictment against you for making innovations in religion, and he is going into court to slander you, knowing that slanders on such subjects are readily accepted by the people. Why, they even laugh at me and say I am crazy
19. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

20. Xenophon, Memoirs, 1.1.1 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.1.1. I have often wondered by what arguments those who drew up the indictment against Socrates could persuade the Athenians that his life was forfeit to the state. The indictment against him was to this effect: Socrates is guilty of rejecting the gods acknowledged by the state and of bringing in strange deities: he is also guilty of corrupting the youth.
21. Aratus Solensis, Phaenomena, 10-16, 2-9, 1 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1. ἐκ Διὸς ἀρχώμεσθα, τὸν οὐδέποτʼ ἄνδρες ἐῶμεν
22. Aristobulus Cassandreus, Fragments, 4 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

23. Demosthenes, Orations, 1.16 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

24. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 7.88 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

25. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 3.36-3.51 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.36. quid iaces aut quid maeres aut cur succumbis cedisque fortunae? quae quae om. G 1 pervellere te forsitan potuerit et pungere, non potuit certe vires frangere. magna vis est in virtutibus; eas excita, si forte dormiunt. iam tibi aderit princeps fortitudo, quae te animo tanto esse coget, ut omnia, quae possint homini evenire, contemnas et pro nihilo putes. aderit temperantia, quae est eadem moderatio, a me quidem paulo ante appellata frugalitas, quae te turpiter et nequiter facere nihil patietur. patiatur X ( cf. coget 21 dicet 28) quid est autem nequius aut turpius ecfeminato eff. G 1 e corr. R 2 V rec viro? ne iustitia quidem sinet te ista facere, cui minimum esse videtur in hac causa loci; loqui X corr. V c? quae tamen ita dicet dupliciter esse te iniustum, cum et alienum adpetas, appetas V 2 qui mortalis natus condicionem conditionem GKV postules inmortalium et graviter feras te, quod utendum acceperis, reddidisse. 3.37. prudentiae vero quid quod R 1 respondebis docenti virtutem sese esse contentam, quo modo ad bene vivendum, sic etiam ad beate? quae si extrinsecus religata pendeat et non et oriatur et ante oriatur om. KR a se et rursus ad se revertatur et omnia sua complexa nihil quaerat aliunde, non intellego, cur aut verbis tam vehementer orda aut re tantopere expetenda videatur —ad haec bona me me V ( eras. si) si revocas, Epicure, pareo, sequor, utor te ipso duce, obliviscor etiam malorum, ut iubes, eoque facilius, quod ea ne in malis quidem ponenda censeo. sed traducis cogitationes meas ad voluptates. quas? corporis, credo, aut quae propter corpus vel recordatione vel spe cogitentur. num quid est aliud? rectene interpretor interprecor K 1 V sententiam tuam? solent enim isti negare nos intellegere, quid dicat Epicurus. 3.38. hoc dicit, et hoc ille acriculus agriculus X corr. V c me audiente Athenis senex Zeno, istorum acutissimus, contendere et magna voce dicere solebat: eum esse Epic. fr. 446 beatum, qui praesentibus voluptatibus frueretur confideretque se fruiturum aut in omni aut in magna parte vitae dolore non interveniente, aut si interveniret, si summus foret, futurum brevem, sin productior, plus habiturum iucundi quam mali; haec cogitantem fore beatum, praesertim cum cum add. V c si s R 2 ( ft. rectius, sed cf. fin. 1, 41 ad ea cum accedit) om. X et ante perceptis bonis contentus esset et nec mortem nec deos extimesceret. add. Hei. habes formam Epicuri vitae beatae verbis Zenonis expressam, nihil ut possit negari. Quid ergo? 3.39. huiusne vitae propositio et cogitatio aut Thyestem levare poterit aut Aeetam, aetam X ( ex aetem K 1 ) oetam K 2 R c? cf. p. 331,3 de quo paulo ante dixi, aut Telamonem pulsum patria exulantem atque egentem? in quo haec admiratio fiebat: Hi/cine hicine BR 2 haecine X est ille Te/lamon, Telamo Turn. sed cf. Str. p. 64 modo quem glo/ria ad caelum e/xtulit, Quem a/spectabant, cui/us ob os Grai Graii s Graj La. Lucr. 3, 374. cf. epist. 9, 26 o/ra obverteba/nt sua? Trag. inc. 93 3.40. quodsi cui, ut ait idem, simul animus cum re concidit animus rem condidit X corr. V c s , a gravibus illis antiquis philosophis petenda medicina est, non est non V est si non X ab his voluptariis. quam enim isti bonorum copiam dicunt? fac sane esse summum bonum non dolere—quamquam id non vocatur voluptas, sed non necesse est nunc omnia—: idne est, quo traducti luctum levemus? sit sane summum malum dolere: dolore in dolere corr. G 2 K 2 V 2 in eo igitur qui non est, si malo careat, continuone fruitur summo bono? 3.41. Quid tergiversamur, Epicure, nec fatemur eam nos dicere voluptatem, quam tu idem, cum os perfricuisti, soles dicere? sunt haec tua verba necne? in eo quidem libro, qui continet Epic. p. te/lous fr. 67 p. 119, 16 omnem disciplinam tuam,—fungar enim iam interpretis munere, ne quis me putet fingere—dicis haec: nec equidem habeo, quod intellegam bonum illud, detrahens eas voluptates quae sapore percipiuntur, detrahens eas quae rebus percipiuntur veneriis, detrahens eas quae rebus percipiuntur venereis detrahens add. in mg. V c om. rell. cf. praef. et locos ab Usenero ad fr. 67 congestos eas quae auditu e e Sor. et ( cf. 23 ex formis) cantibus, detrahens eas etiam quae ex formis percipiuntur oculis detrahens eas supra oculis add. K 2 suavis motiones, sive quae aliae voluptates in toto homine gignuntur quolibet quelibet V 1 quodlibet K 1 sensu. nec vero ita dici potest, mentis laetitiam solam esse in bonis. laetantem enim mentem ita novi: spe eorum omnium, quae supra dixi, fore forte G 1 K 1 ut natura is natura is naturalis X natura iis s potiens dolore careat. 3.42. atque haec quidem his verbis, quivis ut intellegat, quam voluptatem norit Epicurus. deinde paulo infra: saepe quaesivi inquit Epic. ib. fr. 69 ex is qui appellabantur sapientes, quid haberent quod in bonis quid in boni GV (quod V 2 ) R 1 (in exp. 1 ) quidboni K 1 quid in bonis K 2 B quod in bono Gr. relinquerent, si illa detraxissent, nisi si vellent voces iis fundere: nihil ab is potui cognoscere. qui si virtutes ebullire volent et sapientias, sapientiam V 2 nihil aliud dicent nisi eam viam, vi am K viam V ( exp. 2 ) vim quae fiant ureae vol. Non. quae G qua efficiantur eae eae haec K voluptates quas supra dixi. qui si ... 7 dixi Non. 26, 19 quae secuntur, sequuntur GR in eadem sententia sunt, totusque liber, qui est alt. est om. X add. V 2 de summo bono, refertus est et verbis et sententiis talibus. 3.43. ad hancine igitur vitam Telamonem illum revocabis, ut leves aegritudinem, et si quem tuorum adflictum maerore videris, videbis R 1 huic ut huic V tu huic Str. p. 58 ( non male, sed v. 10 ut pro et Non. C A D A ) acipenserem accipenserem X ( cf. fat. fr. 5 ) accipienserem Non. V 2 ( pen) (acup. fin. 2,91 cf. 24. 5 ) potius quam aliquem Socraticum libellum dabis? et si... 12 dabis Non. 550, 18 hydrauli h gD PA l l fere X hydraulis V 2 hortabere ut audiat voces potius quam Platonis? expones, exponens X corr. V 2 quae spectet, spectat K florida et varia? fasciculum ad naris admovebis? incendes odores et sertis redimiri iubebis et rosa? si vero aliquid etiam—, tum plane luctum omnem absterseris. 3.44. haec Epicuro confitenda sunt aut ea, quae modo expressa ad verbum dixi, tollenda de libro vel totus liber potius abiciundus; est enim confertus voluptatibus. Quaerendum igitur, quem ad modum aegritudine privemus privemur X corr. K 2 R 2 V 3 eum qui ita dicat: Pol mi/hi fortuna ma/gis nunc defit qua/m quam quod G 1 genus. Enn. Thyest. sc. 354 Na/mque namque neque K regnum su/ppetebat mi, mihi X corr. Grotius u/t scias, quanto e/ loco, Qua/ntis opibus, qui/bus de rebus la/psa fortuna a/ccidat. occidat Ribb. sed cf. Th. l. l. I p. 290 quid? huic calix mulsi impingendus est, ut plorare desinat, quid? plorare se desinat Non. 545, 20 aut aliquid eius modi? ecce tibi ex altera parte ab eodem poëta; ex opibus summis opis egens, Hector, haector X tuae —huic subvenire debemus; quaerit enim auxilium: Qui/d petam prae/sidi praesidii X aut e/xequar quo/ve nunc Ennius Andr. sc. 85. 6 Au/xilio e/xili exilii X (exillii K 1 ) de hiatu cf. Plaut. Aul. 142 al. ( Jacobsohn, Quaest. Plaut. Gött. 1904 p. 21 ) au/t fugae fugae s Bentl. fuga fre/ta sim? A/rce et urbe o/rba sum. quo a/ccidam? accedam X (accedam' K) corr. s quo a/pplicem? Cui/ nec arae pa/triae domi stant, fra/ctae et disiectae/ iacent, Fa/na flamma de/flagrata, to/sti alti alii X corr. M 2 s stant pa/rietes De/formati atque a/biete crispa— scitis quae sequantur, et illa in primis: ilium primis X corr. Tr. illud in primis V c s cf. p. 260, 26 O pa/ter, o patria, o Pri/ami domus, Saeptum a/ltisono cardi/ne templum! Vidi e/go te adstante dstantem X ( def. Va. ) sed m eras. in V astante p. 260, 22 ope ba/rbarica Tecti/s caelatis la/queatis, Auro e/bore instructam re/gifice. regificem X sed m exp. K 1 B 3.45. o poëtam egregium! quamquam ab his cantoribus Euphorionis Euphorioneis V ei in r. 1autc contemnitur. sentit omnia repentina et necopinata esse graviora; exaggeratis igitur regiis regis X corr. s opibus, quae videbantur sempiternae fore, quid adiungit? Haec o/mnia vidi infla/mmari, Enn. ib. 92.97 cf. p.260, 22 sqq. Priamo/ vi vitam evi/tari, Iovis a/ram sanguine sanguine KR c Non. sanguinem GR 1 V tu/rpari. Iovis... turpari Non. 181, 1 3.46. praeclarum carmen! est enim et rebus et verbis et modis lugubre. Eripiamus huic aegritudinem. quo modo? conlocemus in culcita plumea, psaltriam adducamus, eripiamus ... 341, 1 adducamus Non. 542, 17 aducamus G 1 R 1 V 1 ( corr. G 2 R c V 2 ) demus damus X supra a scr. V c aut 1 hedycrum, hedrycrum G 1 R 1 V 1 aut c hedrycum R 1 V 1 aedricrum G od. add. Po. psaltriam adducamus, hedychri incendamus scut. Mdv., sed he- dychrum unguentum est non suffimentum, Diosc, 1.58 al. nihil add. Se neque G. Dittmann qui litteris ad me datis scutellam idem esse statuit atque scutram Plaut. Persa 89 Cato agr. 157, 11; sed cf. p. 339, 15; 431, 27 odorum incendamus scutellam, dulciculae potionis aliquid videamus dulciculae videamus Prisc. GL. II p. 105, 21 Anon. Class. auct. ed. Mai 8, 165 et cibi? haec tandem bona sunt, quibus aegritudines gravissumae detrahantur? tu enim paulo ante ne intellegere interrogandi signa pos. Po. cf. § 43. 4 quidem te te quidem, W corr. Lb. We. cl. v. 24, ac. 2, 140. fin. 2, 7. 20. 30. nat. deor. 1, 111 alia ulla ulla V 2 W multa X dicebas. revocari igitur oportere a oportere a s oportet ea X (o. eum a V 3 ) maerore ad cogitationem bonorum conveniret mihi cum Epicuro, si, quid esset bonum, conveniret. Dicet aliquis: quid ergo? tu Epicurum existimas Epic. fr. 440 existimas s existimabas ista voluisse, aut libidinosas eius fuisse sententias? ego vero minime; video enim ab eo dici multa severe, multa praeclare. itaque, ut saepe dixi, de acumine agitur eius, non de moribus; quamvis spernat spert X (sperant G 1 ) corr. V c aut 1 voluptates eas quas modo laudavit, ego tamen meminero quod quid G videatur ei summum bonum. non enim verbo solum posuit voluptatem, sed explanavit quid diceret: saporem inquit et corporum complexum et ludos Epic. fr. 67 atque cantus et formas eas quibus oculi iucunde moveantur. num fingo, num mentior? cupio refelli. quid enim laboro nisi ut veritas in omni quaestione explicetur? 3.47. 'at at ad V idem ait non crescere voluptatem dolore fr. 419 detracto, detractos G 1 V 1 esse V c s om. X summamque esse voluptatem nihil dolere. dolore V 1 ' paucis verbis tria magna peccata: unum, quod secum ipse pugnat. modo enim ne suspicari quidem se quicquam bonum, nisi sensus quasi titillarentur titilarentur R 1 VG 2 ( ex titul.) voluptate; nunc autem summam voluptatem esse dolore carere: potestne magis secum ipse pugnare? alterum peccatum, quod, cum in natura tria sint, sunt G 1 unum gaudere, alterum dolere, tertium nec gaudere prius gaudere om. K 1 nec dolere, hic primum et tertium putat idem esse nec distinguit a non dolendo voluptatem. tertium peccatum commune cum quibusdam, quod, cum virtus maxime expetatur maxime expetatur in r. V c eiusque adipiscendae causa philosophia quaesita sit, ille a a om. G 1 virtute summum bonum separavit. 3.48. 'at at ac R 1 laudat Epic. fr. 507 saepe virtutem'. et quidem C. Gracchus, sqq. grachus G 1 (gracchi 23) K cum largitiones maximas fecisset et effudisset effundisset X corr. K 1 V 1 aerarium, verbis tamen defendebat aerarium. quid verba audiam, cum facta videam? L. L. add. V c om. X ( ut p. 223, 13 M. ante Crassum) cf. Verr. 4, 195 Piso ille Frugi semper contra legem frumentariam dixerat. is lege lata consularis ad frumentum accipiundum accipiendum G 1 K venerat. animum animam X corr. R 1? K 2 advertit Gracchus in contione Pisonem stantem; quaerit audiente p. R., qui sibi constet, cum ea lege frumentum petat, quam dissuaserit. dissuas serat G 1 nolim inquit mea bona, Gracche, tibi viritim dividere libeat, sed, si facias, facies K partem petam. parumne parumne satis ss. V 2 declaravit vir gravis et sapiens lege Sempronia patrimonium publicum dissupari? lege orationes Gracchi, patronum aerarii esse dices. 3.49. negat Epicurus sqq. Epic. fr. 506. 584. 459 iucunde posse vivi, nisi cum virtute vivatur, negat ullam in sapientem vim esse fortunae, tenuem victum antefert copioso, negat ullum esse tempus, quo sapiens non beatus sit. omnia philosopho digna, sed cum voluptate pugtia. non istam dicit voluptatem . dicat quamlibet; nempe eam dicit, in qua virtutis nulla pars insit. age, si voluptatem non intellegimus, ne dolorem quidem? nego igitur eius eius om. R 1 esse, qui quid X d del. in RV dolore dolorem X corr. s autem illi summum malum metiatur, mentionem facere virtutis. 3.50. Et queruntur quidam Epicurei, viri optimi—nam nullum genus est minus malitiosum—, me studiose dicere contra Epicurum. ita credo, de honore aut de dignitate contendimus. mihi summum in animo bonum videtur, illi autem in corpore, videtur in corp. K 1 mihi in virtute, illi in voluptate. et illi pugt, et quidem vicinorum fidem implorant—multi autem sunt, qui statim convolent —; ego sum is qui dicam me non laborare, actum habiturum, quod egerint. 3.51. quid enim? de bello Punico agitur? de quo ipso cum aliud M. Catoni, aliud L. Lentulo videretur, nulla inter eos concertatio concertatio er in r. V concertio K umquam fuit. hi nimis iracunde agunt, praesertim cum ab is non sane animosa defendatur sententia, pro qua non in senatu, non in contione, contentione R 1 non apud exercitum neque ad ad apud V 2 censores dicere audeant. sed cum istis alias, et eo quidem animo, nullum ut certamen instituam, verum dicentibus facile cedam; tantum admonebo, si maxime verum sit ad corpus omnia referre sapientem sive, ut honestius dicam, nihil facere nisi quod expediat, sive omnia referre ad utilitatem suam, quoniam haec plausibilia non sunt, ut in sinu in sinu insignum vel in signum RG 1 K 1 in sinum K 1 e corr. G 2 V gaudeant, gloriose loqui desit. Otto, Sprichw. 1656 Cyrenaicorum restat sententia;
26. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 17.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

17.3. He endowed them with strength like his own,and made them in his own image.
27. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 14, 13 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

28. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 13.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

13.16. Therefore let us put on the full armor of self-control, which is divine reason.
29. Demetrius, Style, 283 (1st cent. BCE

30. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 3.96 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

31. Strabo, Geography, 8.5.5, 17.3.25 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

8.5.5. Concerning the government of the Laconians and the changes that took place among them, one might omit most things as well known, but there are certain things which it is perhaps worthwhile to mention. For instance, they say that the Achaeans of Phthiotis came down with Pelops into the Peloponnesus, took up their abode in Laconia, and so far excelled in bravery that the Peloponnesus, which now for many ages had been called Argos, came to be called Achaean Argos, and the name was applied not only in a general way to the Peloponnesus, but also in a specific way to Laconia; at any rate, the words of the poet, Where was Menelaus? or was he not in Achaean Argos? are interpreted by some thus: or was he not in Laconia? And at the time of the return of the Heracleidae, when Philonomus betrayed the country to the Dorians, the Achaeans emigrated from Laconia to the country of the Ionians, the country that still today is called Achaea. But I shall speak of them in my description of Achaea. Now the new possessors of Laconia restrained themselves at first, but after they turned over the government to Lycurgus they so far surpassed the rest that they alone of the Greeks ruled over both land and sea, and they continued ruling the Greeks until they were deprived of their hegemony, first by the Thebans, and immediately after them by the Macedonians. However, they did not wholly yield even to the Macedonians, but, preserving their autonomy, always kept up a struggle for the primacy both with the rest of the Greeks and with the kings of the Macedonians. And when the Macedonians had been overthrown by the Romans, the Lacedemonians committed some slight offences against the praetors who were sent by the Romans, because at that time they were under the rule of tyrants and had a wretched government; but when they had recovered themselves, they were held in particular honor, and remained free, contributing to Rome nothing else but friendly services. But recently Eurycles has stirred up trouble among them, having apparently abused the friendship of Caesar unduly in order to maintain his authority over his subjects; but the trouble quickly came to an end, Eurycles retiring to his fate, and his son being averse to any friendship of this kind. And it also came to pass that the Eleuthero-Lacones got a kind of republican constitution, since the Perioeci and also the Helots, at the time when Sparta was under the rule of tyrants, were the first to attach themselves to the Romans. Now Hellanicus says that Eurysthenes and Procles drew up the constitution; but Ephorus censures Hellanicus, saying that he has nowhere mentioned Lycurgus and that he ascribes the work of Lycurgus to persons who had nothing to do with it. At any rate, Ephorus continues, it is to Lycurgus alone that a sanctuary has been erected and that annual sacrifices are offered, whereas Eurysthenes and Procles, although they were the founders, have not even been accorded the honor of having their respective descendants called Eurysthenidae and Procleidae; instead, the respective descendants are called Agidae, after Agis the son of Eurysthenes, and Eurypontidae, after Eurypon the son of Procles; for Agis and Eurypon reigned in an honorable way, whereas Eurysthenes and Procles welcomed foreigners and through these maintained their overlordship; and hence they were not even honored with the title of archegetae, an honor which is always paid to founders; and further, Pausanias, after he was banished because of the hatred of the Eurypontidae, the other royal house, and when he was in exile, prepared a discourse on the laws of Lycurgus, who belonged to the house that banished him, in which he also tells the oracles that were given out to Lycurgus concerning most of the laws. 17.3.25. The division into provinces has varied at different periods, but at present it is that established by Augustus Caesar; for after the sovereign power had been conferred upon him by his country for life, and he had become the arbiter of peace and war, he divided the whole empire into two parts, one of which he reserved to himself, the other he assigned to the (Roman) people. The former consisted of such parts as required military defence, and were barbarian, or bordered upon nations not as yet subdued, or were barren and uncultivated, which though ill provided with everything else, were yet well furnished with strongholds. and might thus dispose the inhabitants to throw off the yoke and rebel. All the rest, which were peaceable countries, and easily governed without the assistance of arms, were given over to the (Roman) people. Each of these parts was subdivided into several provinces, which received respectively the titles of 'provinces of Caesar' and 'provinces of the People.'To the former provinces Caesar appoints governors and administrators, and divides the (various) countries sometimes in one way, sometimes in another, directing his political conduct according to circumstances.But the people appoint commanders and consuls to their own provinces, which are also subject to divers divisions when expediency requires it.(Augustus Caesar) in his first organization of (the Empire) created two consular governments, namely, the whole of Africa in possession of the Romans, excepting that part which was under the authority, first of Juba, but now of his son Ptolemy; and Asia within the Halys and Taurus, except the Galatians and the nations under Amyntas, Bithynia, and the Propontis. He appointed also ten consular governments in Europe and in the adjacent islands. Iberia Ulterior (Further Spain) about the river Baetis and Celtica Narbonensis (composed the two first). The third was Sardinia, with Corsica; the fourth Sicily; the fifth and sixth Illyria, districts near Epirus, and Macedonia; the seventh Achaia, extending to Thessaly, the Aetolians, Acarians, and the Epirotic nations who border upon Macedonia; the eighth Crete, with Cyrenaea; the ninth Cyprus; the tenth Bithynia, with the Propontis and some parts of Pontus.Caesar possesses other provinces, to the government of which he appoints men of consular rank, commanders of armies, or knights; and in his (peculiar) portion (of the empire) there are and ever have been kings, princes, and (municipal) magistrates.
32. Aristobulus Milesius, Fragments, 4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

33. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 12.27-12.28, 12.61, 12.74-12.76, 12.81, 30.26 (1st cent. CE

12.27.  Now concerning the nature of the gods in general, and especially that of the ruler of the universe, first and foremost an idea regarding him and a conception of him common to the whole human race, to the Greeks and to the barbarians alike, a conception that is inevitable and innate in every creature endowed with reason, arising in the course of nature without the aid of human teacher and free from the deceit of any expounding priest, has made its way, and it rendered manifest God's kinship with man and furnished many evidences of the truth, which did not suffer the earliest and most ancient men to doze and grow indifferent to them; 12.28.  for inasmuch as these earlier men were not living dispersed far away from the divine being or beyond his borders apart by themselves, but had grown up in his company and had remained close to him in every way, they could not for any length of time continue to be unintelligent beings, especially since they had received from him intelligence and the capacity for reason, illumined as they were on every side by the divine and magnificent glories of heaven and the stars of sun and moon, by night and day encountering varied and dissimilar experiences, seeing wondrous sights and hearing manifold voices of winds and forest and rivers and sea, of animals tame and wild; while they themselves uttered a most pleasing and clear sound, and taking delight in the proud and intelligent quality of the human voice, attached symbols to the objects that reached their senses, so as to be able to name and designate everything perceived
34. Epictetus, Discourses, 1.14.11-1.14.14, 2.8.11-2.8.14, 4.12.12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

35. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.2. For as many as are of God and of Jesus Christ, they are with the bishop; and as many as shall repent and enter into the unity of the Church, these also shall be of God, that they may be living after Jesus Christ.
36. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.2. For as many as are of God and of Jesus Christ, they are with the bishop; and as many as shall repent and enter into the unity of the Church, these also shall be of God, that they may be living after Jesus Christ.
37. Ignatius, To The Trallians, 7.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.1. Be ye therefore on your guard against such men. And this will surely be, if ye be not puffed up and if ye be inseparable from [God] Jesus Christ and from the bishop and from the ordices of the Apostles.
38. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.167, 2.267 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.167. Moreover, he represented God as unbegotten, and immutable, through all eternity, superior to all mortal conceptions in pulchritude; and, though known to us by his power, yet unknown to us as to his essence. 2.267. Nor need we at all wonder that they thus treated such considerable men, when they did not spare even women also; for they very lately slew a certain priestess, because she was accused by somebody that she initiated people into the worship of strange gods, it having been forbidden so to do by one of their laws; and a capital punishment had been decreed to such as introduced a strange god;
39. Lucan, Pharsalia, 2.592-2.593, 8.872 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

40. New Testament, 1 John, 1.1, 2.2, 4.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. That which was from the beginning, that which we have heard, that which we have seen with our eyes, that which we saw, and our hands touched, concerning the Word of life 2.2. And he is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not for ours only, but also for the whole world. 4.11. Beloved, if God loved us in this way, we also ought to love one another.
41. New Testament, 1 Peter, 4.13, 4.19, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.13. But because you are partakers of Christ's sufferings, rejoice; that at the revelation of his glory also you may rejoice with exceeding joy. 4.19. Therefore let them also who suffer according to the will of God in doing good entrust their souls to him, as to a faithful Creator. 5.4. When the chief Shepherd is revealed, you will receive the crown of glory that doesn't fade away.
42. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.2, 6.12-6.20, 8.4-8.6, 9.9, 9.22, 10.1, 10.14-10.22, 10.30, 12.2, 12.4-12.31, 13.9-13.10, 15.3, 15.6, 15.20, 15.33 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. to the assembly of God whichis at Corinth; those who are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to besaints, with all who call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ in everyplace, both theirs and ours: 6.12. All things are lawful for me," but not all thingsare expedient. "All things are lawful for me," but I will not bebrought under the power of anything. 6.13. Foods for the belly, andthe belly for foods," but God will bring to nothing both it and them.But the body is not for sexual immorality, but for the Lord; and theLord for the body. 6.14. Now God raised up the Lord, and will alsoraise us up by his power. 6.15. Don't you know that your bodies aremembers of Christ? Shall I then take the members of Christ, and makethem members of a prostitute? May it never be! 6.16. Or don't you knowthat he who is joined to a prostitute is one body? For, "The two," sayshe, "will become one flesh. 6.17. But he who is joined to the Lord isone spirit. 6.18. Flee sexual immorality! "Every sin that a man doesis outside the body," but he who commits sexual immorality sins againsthis own body. 6.19. Or don't you know that your body is a temple ofthe Holy Spirit which is in you, which you have from God? You are notyour own 6.20. for you were bought with a price. Therefore glorifyGod in your body and in your spirit, which are God's. 8.4. Therefore concerning the eating of things sacrificed to idols, we knowthat no idol is anything in the world, and that there is no other Godbut one. 8.5. For though there are things that are called "gods,"whether in the heavens or on earth; as there are many "gods" and many"lords; 8.6. yet to us there is one God, the Father, of whom are allthings, and we for him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom areall things, and we live through him. 9.9. For it is written in the law of Moses,"You shall not muzzle an ox while it treads out the grain." Is it forthe oxen that God cares 9.22. To the weak I became asweak, that I might gain the weak. I have become all things to all men,that I may by all means save some. 10.1. Now I would not have you ignorant, brothers, that our fatherswere all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; 10.14. Therefore, my beloved, flee fromidolatry. 10.15. I speak as to wise men. Judge what I say. 10.16. Thecup of blessing which we bless, isn't it a communion of the blood ofChrist? The bread which we break, isn't it a communion of the body ofChrist? 10.17. Because we, who are many, are one bread, one body; forwe all partake of the one bread. 10.18. Consider Israel after theflesh. Don't those who eat the sacrifices have communion with the altar? 10.19. What am I saying then? That a thing sacrificed to idols isanything, or that an idol is anything? 10.20. But I say that thethings which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to demons, and notto God, and I don't desire that you would have communion with demons. 10.21. You can't both drink the cup of the Lord and the cup of demons.You can't both partake of the table of the Lord, and of the table ofdemons. 10.22. Or do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? Are we strongerthan he? 10.30. If I partake with thankfulness, why am Idenounced for that for which I give thanks? 12.2. You know that when you were heathen, you were ledaway to those mute idols, however you might be led. 12.4. Now there are various kinds of gifts, but the same Spirit. 12.5. There are various kinds of service, and the same Lord. 12.6. There are various kinds of workings, but the same God, who works allthings in all. 12.7. But to each one is given the manifestation of theSpirit for the profit of all. 12.8. For to one is given through theSpirit the word of wisdom, and to another the word of knowledge,according to the same Spirit; 12.9. to another faith, by the sameSpirit; and to another gifts of healings, by the same Spirit; 12.10. and to another workings of miracles; and to another prophecy; and toanother discerning of spirits; to another different kinds of languages;and to another the interpretation of languages. 12.11. But the one andthe same Spirit works all of these, distributing to each one separatelyas he desires. 12.12. For as the body is one, and has many members, and all themembers of the body, being many, are one body; so also is Christ. 12.13. For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whetherJews or Greeks, whether bond or free; and were all given to drink intoone Spirit. 12.14. For the body is not one member, but many. 12.15. If the foot would say, "Because I'm not the hand, I'm not part of thebody," it is not therefore not part of the body. 12.16. If the earwould say, "Because I'm not the eye, I'm not part of the body," it'snot therefore not part of the body. 12.17. If the whole body were aneye, where would the hearing be? If the whole were hearing, where wouldthe smelling be? 12.18. But now God has set the members, each one ofthem, in the body, just as he desired. 12.19. If they were all onemember, where would the body be? 12.20. But now they are many members,but one body. 12.21. The eye can't tell the hand, "I have no need foryou," or again the head to the feet, "I have no need for you. 12.22. No, much rather, those members of the body which seem to be weaker arenecessary. 12.23. Those parts of the body which we think to be lesshonorable, on those we bestow more abundant honor; and ourunpresentable parts have more abundant propriety; 12.24. whereas ourpresentable parts have no such need. But God composed the bodytogether, giving more abundant honor to the inferior part 12.25. thatthere should be no division in the body, but that the members shouldhave the same care for one another. 12.26. When one member suffers,all the members suffer with it. Or when one member is honored, all themembers rejoice with it. 12.27. Now you are the body of Christ, and members individually. 12.28. God has set some in the assembly: first apostles, secondprophets, third teachers, then miracle workers, then gifts of healings,helps, governments, and various kinds of languages. 12.29. Are allapostles? Are all prophets? Are all teachers? Are all miracle workers? 12.30. Do all have gifts of healings? Do all speak with variouslanguages? Do all interpret? 12.31. But earnestly desire the bestgifts. Moreover, I show a most excellent way to you. 13.9. For we know in part, and we prophesy in part; 13.10. but when thatwhich is complete has come, then that which is partial will be doneaway with. 15.3. For I delivered to youfirst of all that which I also received: that Christ died for our sinsaccording to the Scriptures 15.6. Then he appeared to overfive hundred brothers at once, most of whom remain until now, but somehave also fallen asleep. 15.20. But now Christ has been raised from the dead. He became thefirst fruits of those who are asleep. 15.33. Don't be deceived! "Evil companionships corrupt good morals.
43. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.9-1.10, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. For they themselves report concerning us what kind of a reception we had from you; and how you turned to God from idols, to serve a living and true God 1.10. and to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead -- Jesus, who delivers us from the wrath to come. 5.1. But concerning the times and the seasons, brothers, you have no need that anything be written to you.
44. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 1.17, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.17. Now to the King eternal, immortal, invisible, to God who alone is wise, be honor and glory forever and ever. Amen. 2.5. For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus
45. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 5.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

46. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 1.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.14. That good thing which was committed to you, guard through the Holy Spirit who dwells in us.
47. New Testament, Acts, 1.1, 1.7, 1.16, 2.14, 2.25, 2.26, 2.27, 2.28, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 3.20, 3.21, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 3.25, 3.26, 4.11, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5.20, 5.39, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 7, 7.60, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 8.14, 8.15, 8.16, 8.17, 8.18, 8.19, 8.20, 8.21, 8.22, 8.23, 8.24, 8.25, 8.26, 8.27, 8.28, 8.29, 8.30, 8.31, 8.32, 8.33, 8.34, 8.35, 8.36, 8.37, 8.38, 8.39, 8.40, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24, 9.25, 9.26, 9.27, 9.28, 9.29, 9.30, 9.31, 10, 10.1-11.18, 10.19, 10.20, 10.35, 10.36, 10.44, 10.45, 11.17, 12, 13.14, 13.15, 13.16, 13.17, 13.18, 13.19, 13.20, 13.21, 13.22, 13.23, 13.24, 13.25, 13.26, 13.27, 13.28, 13.29, 13.30, 13.31, 13.32, 13.33, 13.34, 13.35, 13.36, 13.37, 13.38, 13.39, 13.40, 13.41, 13.42, 13.43, 13.44, 13.45, 13.46, 13.47, 13.48, 13.49, 13.50, 13.51, 13.52, 14.1, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 14.11, 14.12, 14.13, 14.14, 14.15, 14.16, 14.17, 14.18, 14.19, 14.20, 14.28, 15, 15.21, 16.6, 16.7, 16.8, 16.9, 16.10, 16.11, 16.12, 16.13, 16.14, 16.15, 16.16, 16.17, 16.18, 16.19, 16.20, 16.21, 16.22, 16.23, 16.24, 16.25, 16.26, 16.27, 16.28, 16.29, 16.30, 16.31, 16.32, 16.33, 16.34, 16.37, 17, 17.1, 17.2, 17.3, 17.4, 17.5, 17.6, 17.7, 17.8, 17.9, 17.10, 17.11, 17.12, 17.13, 17.14, 17.15, 17.16, 17.17, 17.18, 17.19, 17.20, 17.21, 17.22, 17.23, 17.24, 17.25, 17.26, 17.27, 17.29, 17.30, 17.31, 17.32, 17.33, 17.34, 18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 18.4, 18.5, 18.6, 18.7, 18.8, 18.9, 18.10, 18.11, 18.12, 18.13, 18.14, 18.15, 18.16, 18.17, 18.18, 18.19, 18.26, 19.1, 19.2, 19.3, 19.4, 19.5, 19.6, 19.7, 19.8, 19.9, 19.10, 19.23, 19.24, 19.25, 19.26, 19.27, 19.28, 19.29, 19.30, 19.31, 19.32, 19.33, 19.34, 19.35, 19.36, 19.37, 19.38, 19.39, 19.40, 19.41, 20.2, 20.3, 20.4, 20.5, 20.6, 20.7, 20.8, 20.9, 20.10, 20.11, 20.12, 20.13, 20.14, 20.15, 20.17, 20.18, 20.19, 20.20, 20.21, 20.22, 20.23, 20.24, 20.25, 20.26, 20.27, 20.28, 20.29, 20.30, 20.31, 20.32, 20.33, 20.34, 20.35, 20.36, 20.37, 20.38, 22.3, 22.6, 22.7, 22.8, 22.9, 22.10, 22.11, 22.12, 22.13, 22.14, 22.15, 22.16, 22.17, 22.18, 22.19, 22.20, 22.21, 24.14, 25.18, 25.19, 26.9, 26.10, 26.11, 26.12, 26.13, 26.14, 26.15, 26.16, 26.17, 26.18, 26.19, 26.20, 26.21, 26.22, 26.23, 27.21, 28.3, 28.4, 28.5, 28.6, 28.7, 28.8, 28.9, 28.10, 28.11, 28.12, 28.13, 28.14, 28.15, 28.16, 28.17, 28.18, 28.19, 28.20, 28.21, 28.22, 28.23, 28.24, 28.25, 28.26, 28.27, 28.28, 28.29, 28.30, 28.31 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.1. The first book I wrote, Theophilus, concerned all that Jesus began both to do and to teach
48. New Testament, Apocalypse, 21.1-21.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

21.1. I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth have passed away, and the sea is no more. 21.2. I saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, made ready like a bride adorned for her husband. 21.3. I heard a loud voice out of heaven saying, "Behold, God's dwelling is with men, and he will dwell with them, and they will be his people, and God himself will be with them as their God. 21.4. He will wipe away from them every tear from their eyes. Death will be no more; neither will there be mourning, nor crying, nor pain, any more. The first things have passed away. 21.5. He who sits on the throne said, "Behold, I am making all things new." He said, "Write, for these words of God are faithful and true.
49. New Testament, James, 1.18, 2.19-2.20, 4.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. of his own will he brought us forth by the word of truth, that we should be a kind of first fruits of his creatures. 2.19. You believe that God is one. You do well. The demons also believe, and shudder. 2.20. But do you want to know, vain man, that faith apart from works is dead? 4.12. Only one is the lawgiver, who is able to save and to destroy. But who are you to judge another?
50. New Testament, Jude, 25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

51. New Testament, Philemon, 6, 24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

52. New Testament, Colossians, 1.16, 2.6, 2.8, 3.1, 3.11, 4.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.16. For by him were all things created, in the heavens and on the earth, things visible and things invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers; all things have been created through him, and for him. 2.6. As therefore you received Christ Jesus, the Lord, walk in him 2.8. Be careful that you don't let anyone rob you through his philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the elements of the world, and not after Christ. 3.1. If then you were raised together with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated on the right hand of God. 3.11. where there can't be Greek and Jew, circumcision and uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, bondservant, freeman; but Christ is all, and in all. 4.14. Luke, the beloved physician, and Demas greet you.
53. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.1, 1.4-1.15, 2.6, 2.13, 2.17-2.18, 4.4-4.16, 5.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus through the will of God, to the saints who are at Ephesus, and the faithful in Christ Jesus: 1.4. even as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we would be holy and without blemish before him in love; 1.5. having predestined us for adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his desire 1.6. to the praise of the glory of his grace, by which he freely bestowed favor on us in the Beloved 1.7. in whom we have our redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of his grace 1.8. which he made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence 1.9. making known to us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he purposed in him 1.10. to an administration of the fullness of the times, to sum up all things in Christ, the things in the heavens, and the things on the earth, in him; 1.11. in whom also we were assigned an inheritance, having been foreordained according to the purpose of him who works all things after the counsel of his will; 1.12. to the end that we should be to the praise of his glory, we who had before hoped in Christ: 1.13. in whom you also, having heard the word of the truth, the gospel of your salvation, -- in whom, having also believed, you were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise 1.14. who is a pledge of our inheritance, to the redemption of God's own possession, to the praise of his glory. 1.15. For this cause I also, having heard of the faith in the Lord Jesus which is among you, and the love which you have toward all the saints 2.6. and raised us up with him, and made us to sit with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus 2.13. But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off are made near in the blood of Christ. 2.17. He came and preached peace to you who were far off and to those who were near. 2.18. For through him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father. 4.4. There is one body, and one Spirit, even as you also were called in one hope of your calling; 4.5. one Lord, one faith, one baptism 4.6. one God and Father of all, who is over all, and through all, and in us all. 4.7. But to each one of us was the grace given according to the measure of the gift of Christ. 4.8. Therefore he says, "When he ascended on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts to men. 4.9. Now this, "He ascended," what is it but that he also first descended into the lower parts of the earth? 4.10. He who descended is the one who also ascended far above all the heavens, that he might fill all things. 4.11. He gave some to be apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, shepherds and teachers; 4.12. for the perfecting of the saints, to the work of serving, to the building up of the body of Christ; 4.13. until we all attain to the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to a full grown man, to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ; 4.14. that we may no longer be children, tossed back and forth and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the trickery of men, in craftiness, after the wiles of error; 4.15. but speaking truth in love, we may grow up in all things into him, who is the head, Christ; 4.16. from whom all the body, being fitted and knit together through that which every joint supplies, according to the working in measure of each individual part, makes the body increase to the building up of itself in love. 5.14. Therefore he says, "Awake, you who sleep, and arise from the dead, and Christ will shine on you.
54. New Testament, Galatians, 1.17-1.24, 2.2, 3.19-3.20, 3.26-3.28, 5.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.17. nor did I go up to Jerusalem to those whowere apostles before me, but I went away into Arabia. Then I returnedto Damascus. 1.18. Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem tovisit Peter, and stayed with him fifteen days. 1.19. But of the otherapostles I saw no one, except James, the Lord's brother. 1.20. Nowabout the things which I write to you, behold, before God, I'm notlying. 1.21. Then I came to the regions of Syria and Cilicia. 1.22. Iwas still unknown by face to the assemblies of Judea which were inChrist 1.23. but they only heard: "He who once persecuted us nowpreaches the faith that he once tried to destroy. 1.24. And theyglorified God in me. 2.2. I went up byrevelation, and I laid before them the gospel which I preach among theGentiles, but privately before those who were respected, for fear thatI might be running, or had run, in vain. 3.19. What then is the law? It was added because of transgressions,until the seed should come to whom the promise has been made. It wasordained through angels by the hand of a mediator. 3.20. Now amediator is not between one, but God is one. 3.26. For you are all sons ofGod, through faith in Christ Jesus. 3.27. For as many of you as werebaptized into Christ have put on Christ. 3.28. There is neither Jewnor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither malenor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. 5.26. Let's not becomeconceited, provoking one another, and envying one another.
55. New Testament, Hebrews, 2.10-2.12, 10.12, 12.18-12.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.10. For it became him, for whom are all things, and through whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to make the author of their salvation perfect through sufferings. 2.11. For both he who sanctifies and those who are sanctified are all from one, for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brothers 2.12. saying, "I will declare your name to my brothers. In the midst of the congregation I will sing your praise. 10.12. but he, when he had offered one sacrifice for sins for ever, sat down on the right hand of God; 12.18. For you have not come to a mountain that might be touched, and that burned with fire, and to blackness, darkness, tempest 12.19. the sound of a trumpet, and the voice of words; which those who heard it begged that not one more word should be spoken to them 12.20. for they could not stand that which was commanded, "If even an animal touches the mountain, it shall be stoned; 12.21. and so fearful was the appearance, that Moses said, "I am terrified and trembling. 12.22. But you have come to Mount Zion, and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to innumerable hosts of angels
56. New Testament, Philippians, 1.1, 1.27, 2.6-2.11, 2.17, 3.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul and Timothy, servants of Jesus Christ; To all the saints in Christ Jesus who are at Philippi, with the overseers and deacons: 1.27. Only let your manner of life be worthy of the gospel of Christ, that, whether I come and see you or am absent, I may hear of your state, that you stand firm in one spirit, with one soul striving for the faith of the gospel; 2.6. who, existing in the form of God, didn't consider it robbery to be equal with God 2.7. but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of men. 2.8. And being found in human form, he humbled himself, becoming obedient to death, yes, the death of the cross. 2.9. Therefore God also highly exalted him, and gave to him the name which is above every name; 2.10. that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those in heaven, those on earth, and those under the earth 2.11. and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. 2.17. Yes, and if I am poured out on the sacrifice and service of your faith, I rejoice, and rejoice with you all. 3.9. and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own, that which is of the law, but that which is through faith in Christ, the righteousness which is from God by faith;
57. New Testament, Romans, 1.2, 1.16, 1.18-1.28, 1.30-1.31, 2.1, 2.14-2.15, 2.17, 3.9, 3.25-3.26, 3.29-3.30, 5.11-5.12, 6.3, 6.5, 6.11, 7.23, 8.1, 8.22, 8.39, 9.3-9.5, 10.1-10.22, 10.25, 11.29, 11.33-11.36, 16.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. which he promised before through his prophets in the holy Scriptures 1.16. For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God for salvation for everyone who believes; for the Jew first, and also for the Greek. 1.18. For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness 1.19. because that which is known of God is revealed in them, for God revealed it to them. 1.20. For the invisible things of him since the creation of the world are clearly seen, being perceived through the things that are made, even his everlasting power and divinity; that they may be without excuse. 1.21. Because, knowing God, they didn't glorify him as God, neither gave thanks, but became vain in their reasoning, and their senseless heart was darkened. 1.22. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools 1.23. and traded the glory of the incorruptible God for the likeness of an image of corruptible man, and of birds, and four-footed animals, and creeping things. 1.24. Therefore God also gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to uncleanness, that their bodies should be dishonored among themselves 1.25. who exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen. 1.26. For this reason, God gave them up to vile passions. For their women changed the natural function into that which is against nature. 1.27. Likewise also the men, leaving the natural function of the woman, burned in their lust toward one another, men doing what is inappropriate with men, and receiving in themselves the due penalty of their error. 1.28. Even as they refused to have God in their knowledge, God gave them up to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not fitting; 1.30. backbiters, hateful to God, insolent, haughty, boastful, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents 1.31. without understanding, covet-breakers, without natural affection, unforgiving, unmerciful; 2.1. Therefore you are without excuse, O man, whoever you are who judge. For in that which you judge another, you condemn yourself. For you who judge practice the same things. 2.14. (for when Gentiles who don't have the law do by nature the things of the law, these, not having the law, are a law to themselves 2.15. in that they show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience testifying with them, and their thoughts among themselves accusing or else excusing them) 2.17. Indeed you bear the name of a Jew, and rest on the law, and glory in God 3.9. What then? Are we better than they? No, in no way. For we previously charged both Jews and Greeks, that they are all under sin. 3.25. whom God set forth to be an atoning sacrifice, through faith in his blood, for a demonstration of his righteousness through the passing over of prior sins, in God's forbearance; 3.26. to demonstrate his righteousness at this present time; that he might himself be just, and the justifier of him who has faith in Jesus. 3.29. Or is God the God of Jews only? Isn't he the God of Gentiles also? Yes, of Gentiles also 3.30. since indeed there is one God who will justify the circumcised by faith, and the uncircumcised through faith. 5.11. Not only so, but we also rejoice in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received the reconciliation. 5.12. Therefore, as sin entered into the world through one man, and death through sin; and so death passed to all men, because all sinned. 6.3. Or don't you know that all we who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? 6.5. For if we have become united with him in the likeness of his death, we will also be part of his resurrection; 6.11. Thus also consider yourselves also to be dead to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus our Lord. 7.23. but I see a different law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity under the law of sin which is in my members. 8.1. There is therefore now no condemnation to those who are in Christ Jesus, who don't walk according to the flesh, but according to the Spirit. 8.22. For we know that the whole creation groans and travails in pain together until now. 8.39. nor height, nor depth, nor any other created thing, will be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord. 9.3. For I could wish that I myself were accursed from Christ for my brothers' sake, my relatives according to the flesh 9.4. who are Israelites; whose is the adoption, the glory, the covets, the giving of the law, the service, and the promises; 9.5. of whom are the fathers, and from whom is Christ as concerning the flesh, who is over all, God, blessed forever. Amen. 10.1. Brothers, my heart's desire and my prayer to God is for Israel, that they may be saved. 10.2. For I testify about them that they have a zeal for God, but not according to knowledge. 10.3. For being ignorant of God's righteousness, and seeking to establish their own righteousness, they didn't subject themselves to the righteousness of God. 10.4. For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to everyone who believes. 10.5. For Moses writes about the righteousness of the law, "The one who does them will live by them. 10.6. But the righteousness which is of faith says this, "Don't say in your heart, 'Who will ascend into heaven?' (that is, to bring Christ down); 10.7. or, 'Who will descend into the abyss?' (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead.) 10.8. But what does it say? "The word is near you, in your mouth, and in your heart;" that is, the word of faith, which we preach: 10.9. that if you will confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus, and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. 10.10. For with the heart, one believes unto righteousness; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation. 10.11. For the Scripture says, "Whoever believes in him will not be put to shame. 10.12. For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; for the same Lord is Lord of all, and is rich to all who call on him. 10.13. For, "Whoever will call on the name of the Lord will be saved. 10.14. How then will they call on him in whom they have not believed? How will they believe in him whom they have not heard? How will they hear without a preacher? 10.15. And how will they preach unless they are sent? As it is written: "How beautiful are the feet of those who preach the gospel of peace, Who bring glad tidings of good things! 10.16. But they didn't all listen to the glad news. For Isaiah says, "Lord, who has believed our report? 10.17. So faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God. 10.18. But I say, didn't they hear? Yes, most assuredly, "Their sound went out into all the earth, Their words to the ends of the world. 10.19. But I ask, didn't Israel know? First Moses says, "I will provoke you to jealousy with that which is no nation, With a nation void of understanding I will make you angry. 10.20. Isaiah is very bold, and says, "I was found by those who didn't seek me. I was revealed to those who didn't ask for me. 10.21. But as to Israel he says, "All day long I stretched out my hands to a disobedient and contrary people. 11.29. For the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable. 11.33. Oh the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and the knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past tracing out! 11.34. For who has known the mind of the Lord? Or who has been his counselor? 11.35. Or who has first given to him, And it will be repaid to him again? 11.36. For of him, and through him, and to him, are all things. To him be the glory for ever! Amen.
58. New Testament, Titus, 1.1-1.2, 1.4, 1.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, a servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus Christ, according to the faith of God's elect, and the knowledge of the truth which is according to godliness 1.2. in hope of eternal life, which God, who can't lie, promised before eternal times; 1.4. to Titus, my true child according to a common faith: Grace, mercy, and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ our Savior. 1.12. One of them, a prophet of their own, said, "Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, and idle gluttons.
59. New Testament, John, 1.1-1.2, 1.13, 1.18, 4.24, 5.44, 8.41, 10.30, 10.38, 11.11-11.14, 11.24, 13.8, 14.6, 14.9-14.11, 14.20, 15.19, 16.32, 17.3, 17.11, 17.20-17.23, 18.37, 20.27, 21.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 1.2. The same was in the beginning with God. 1.13. who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. 1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. 4.24. God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth. 5.44. How can you believe, who receive glory from one another, and you don't seek the glory that comes from the only God? 8.41. You do the works of your father."They said to him, "We were not born of sexual immorality. We have one Father, God. 10.30. I and the Father are one. 10.38. But if I do them, though you don't believe me, believe the works; that you may know and believe that the Father is in me, and I in the Father. 11.11. He said these things, and after that, he said to them, "Our friend, Lazarus, has fallen asleep, but I am going so that I may awake him out of sleep. 11.12. The disciples therefore said, "Lord, if he has fallen asleep, he will recover. 11.13. Now Jesus had spoken of his death, but they thought that he spoke of taking rest in sleep. 11.14. So Jesus said to them plainly then, "Lazarus is dead. 11.24. Martha said to him, "I know that he will rise again in the resurrection at the last day. 13.8. Peter said to him, "You will never wash my feet!"Jesus answered him, "If I don't wash you, you have no part with me. 14.6. Jesus said to him, "I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father, except through me. 14.9. Jesus said to him, "Have I been with you such a long time, and do you not know me, Philip? He who has seen me has seen the Father. How do you say, 'Show us the Father?' 14.10. Don't you believe that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? The words that I tell you, I speak not from myself; but the Father who lives in me does his works. 14.11. Believe me that I am in the Father, and the Father in me; or else believe me for the very works' sake. 14.20. In that day you will know that I am in my Father, and you in me, and I in you. 15.19. If you were of the world, the world would love its own. But because you are not of the world, since I chose you out of the world, therefore the world hates you. 16.32. Behold, the time is coming, yes, and has now come, that you will be scattered, everyone to his own place, and you will leave me alone. Yet I am not alone, because the Father is with me. 17.3. This is eternal life, that they should know you, the only true God, and him whom you sent, Jesus Christ. 17.11. I am no more in the world, but these are in the world, and I am coming to you. Holy Father, keep them through your name which you have given me, that they may be one, even as we are. 17.20. Not for these only do I pray, but for those also who believe in me through their word 17.21. that they may all be one; even as you, Father, are in me, and I in you, that they also may be one in us; that the world may believe that you sent me. 17.22. The glory which you have given me, I have given to them; that they may be one, even as we are one; 17.23. I in them, and you in me, that they may be perfected into one; that the world may know that you sent me, and loved them, even as you loved me. 18.37. Pilate therefore said to him, "Are you a king then?"Jesus answered, "You say that I am a king. For this reason I have been born, and for this reason I have come into the world, that I should testify to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth listens to my voice. 20.27. Then he said to Thomas, "Reach here your finger, and see my hands. Reach here your hand, and put it into my side. Don't be unbelieving, but believing. 21.14. This is now the third time that Jesus was revealed to his disciples, after he had risen from the dead.
60. New Testament, Luke, 1.1-1.4, 3.22-3.38, 4.19, 9.19, 12.35-12.38, 12.45-12.48, 18.11, 19.8, 24.6, 24.39 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Since many have undertaken to set in order a narrative concerning those matters which have been fulfilled among us 1.2. even as those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word delivered them to us 1.3. it seemed good to me also, having traced the course of all things accurately from the first, to write to you in order, most excellent Theophilus; 1.4. that you might know the certainty concerning the things in which you were instructed. 3.22. and the Holy Spirit descended in a bodily form as a dove on him; and a voice came out of the sky, saying "You are my beloved Son. In you I am well pleased. 3.23. Jesus himself, when he began to teach, was about thirty years old, being the son (as was supposed) of Joseph, the son of Heli 3.24. the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, the son of Melchi, the son of Jannai, the son of Joseph 3.25. the son of Mattathias, the son of Amos, the son of Nahum, the son of Esli, the son of Naggai 3.26. the son of Maath, the son of Mattathias, the son of Semein, the son of Joseph, the son of Judah 3.27. the son of Joa, the son of Rhesa, the son of Zerubbabel, the son of Shealtiel, the son of Neri 3.28. the son of Melchi, the son of Addi, the son of Cosam, the son of Elmodam, the son of Er 3.29. the son of Josa, the son of Eliezer, the son of Jorim, the son of Matthat, the son of Levi 3.30. the son of Simeon, the son of Judah, the son of Joseph, the son of Jo, the son of Eliakim 3.31. the son of Melea, the son of Me, the son of Mattatha, the son of Nathan, the son of David 3.32. the son of Jesse, the son of Obed, the son of Boaz, the son of Salmon, the son of Nahshon 3.33. the son of Amminadab, the son of Aram, the son of Joram, the son of Hezron, the son of Perez, the son of Judah 3.34. the son of Jacob, the son of Isaac, the son of Abraham, the son of Terah, the son of Nahor 3.35. the son of Serug, the son of Reu, the son of Peleg, the son of Eber, the son of Shelah 3.36. the son of Cai, the son of Arphaxad, the son of Shem, the son of Noah, the son of Lamech 3.38. the son of Enos, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God. 4.19. And to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord. 9.19. They answered, "'John the Baptizer,' but others say, 'Elijah,' and others, that one of the old prophets is risen again. 12.35. Let your loins be girded and your lamps burning. 12.36. Be like men watching for their lord, when he returns from the marriage feast; that, when he comes and knocks, they may immediately open to him. 12.37. Blessed are those servants, whom the lord will find watching when he comes. Most assuredly I tell you, that he will dress himself, and make them recline, and will come and serve them. 12.38. They will be blessed if he comes in the second or third watch, and finds them so. 12.45. But if that servant says in his heart, 'My lord delays his coming,' and begins to beat the menservants and the maidservants, and to eat and drink, and to be drunken 12.46. then the lord of that servant will come in a day when he isn't expecting him, and in an hour that he doesn't know, and will cut him in two, and place his portion with the unfaithful. 12.47. That servant, who knew his lord's will, and didn't prepare, nor do what he wanted, will be beaten with many stripes 12.48. but he who didn't know, and did things worthy of stripes, will be beaten with few stripes. To whoever much is given, of him will much be required; and to whom much was entrusted, of him more will be asked. 18.11. The Pharisee stood and prayed to himself like this: 'God, I thank you, that I am not like the rest of men, extortioners, unrighteous, adulterers, or even like this tax collector. 19.8. Zacchaeus stood and said to the Lord, "Behold, Lord, half of my goods I give to the poor. If I have wrongfully exacted anything of anyone, I restore four times as much. 24.6. He isn't here, but is risen. Remember what he told you when he was still in Galilee 24.39. See my hands and my feet, that it is truly me. Touch me and see, for a spirit doesn't have flesh and bones, as you see that I have.
61. New Testament, Mark, 6.16, 9.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.16. But Herod, when he heard this, said, "This is John, whom I beheaded. He has risen from the dead. 9.9. As they were coming down from the mountain, he charged them that they should tell no one what things they had seen, until after the Son of Man had risen from the dead.
62. New Testament, Matthew, 1.23, 4.7, 11.5, 12.41, 19.17, 20.16, 23.8-23.10, 25.31-25.46 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.23. Behold, the virgin shall be with child, And shall bring forth a son. They shall call his name Immanuel;" Which is, being interpreted, "God with us. 4.7. Jesus said to him, "Again, it is written, 'You shall not test the Lord, your God.' 11.5. the blind receive their sight, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, and the poor have good news preached to them. 12.41. The men of Nineveh will stand up in the judgment with this generation, and will condemn it, for they repented at the preaching of Jonah; and behold, someone greater than Jonah is here. 19.17. He said to him, "Why do you call me good? No one is good but one, that is, God. But if you want to enter into life, keep the commandments. 20.16. So the last will be first, and the first last. For many are called, but few are chosen. 23.8. But don't you be called 'Rabbi,' for one is your teacher, the Christ, and all of you are brothers. 23.9. Call no man on the earth your father, for one is your Father, he who is in heaven. 23.10. Neither be called masters, for one is your master, the Christ. 25.31. But when the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then he will sit on the throne of his glory. 25.32. Before him all the nations will be gathered, and he will separate them one from another, as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats. 25.33. He will set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on the left. 25.34. Then the King will tell those on his right hand, 'Come, blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world; 25.35. for I was hungry, and you gave me food to eat; I was thirsty, and you gave me drink; I was a stranger, and you took me in; 25.36. naked, and you clothed me; I was sick, and you visited me; I was in prison, and you came to me.' 25.37. Then the righteous will answer him, saying, 'Lord, when did we see you hungry, and feed you; or thirsty, and give you a drink? 25.38. When did we see you as a stranger, and take you in; or naked, and clothe you? 25.39. When did we see you sick, or in prison, and come to you?' 25.40. The King will answer them, 'Most assuredly I tell you, inasmuch as you did it to one of the least of these my brothers, you did it to me.' 25.41. Then he will say also to those on the left hand, 'Depart from me, you cursed, into the eternal fire which is prepared for the devil and his angels; 25.42. for I was hungry, and you didn't give me food to eat; I was thirsty, and you gave me no drink; 25.43. I was a stranger, and you didn't take me in; naked, and you didn't clothe me; sick, and in prison, and you didn't visit me.' 25.44. Then they will also answer, saying, 'Lord, when did we see you hungry, or thirsty, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and didn't help you?' 25.45. Then he will answer them, saying, 'Most assuredly I tell you, inasmuch as you didn't do it to one of the least of these, you didn't do it to me.' 25.46. These will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life.
63. Plutarch, Whether An Old Man Should Engage In Public Affairs, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

64. Plutarch, On Tranquility of Mind, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

477c. and he comes to despise those who bewail and abuse life as a land of calamities or a place of exile appointed here for our souls? And Iam delighted with Diogenes, who, when he saw his host in Sparta preparing which much ado for a certain festival, said, "Does not a good man consider every day a festival?" and a very splendid one, to be sure, if we are sound of mind. For the universe is a most holy temple and most worthy of a god; into it man is introduced through birth as a spectator, not of hand-made or immovable images, but of those sensible representations of knowable things that the divine mind, says Plato, has revealed, representations which have innate within themselves the beginnings of life and motion
65. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 41.1-41.2, 83.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

66. Suetonius, Nero, 16.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

67. Tacitus, Histories, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.5.  Whatever their origin, these rites are maintained by their antiquity: the other customs of the Jews are base and abominable, and owe their persistence to their depravity. For the worst rascals among other peoples, renouncing their ancestral religions, always kept sending tribute and contributions to Jerusalem, thereby increasing the wealth of the Jews; again, the Jews are extremely loyal toward one another, and always ready to show compassion, but toward every other people they feel only hate and enmity. They sit apart at meals, and they sleep apart, and although as a race, they are prone to lust, they abstain from intercourse with foreign women; yet among themselves nothing is unlawful. They adopted circumcision to distinguish themselves from other peoples by this difference. Those who are converted to their ways follow the same practice, and the earliest lesson they receive is to despise the gods, to disown their country, and to regard their parents, children, and brothers as of little account. However, they take thought to increase their numbers; for they regard it as a crime to kill any late-born child, and they believe that the souls of those who are killed in battle or by the executioner are immortal: hence comes their passion for begetting children, and their scorn of death. They bury the body rather than burn it, thus following the Egyptians' custom; they likewise bestow the same care on the dead, and hold the same belief about the world below; but their ideas of heavenly things are quite the opposite. The Egyptians worship many animals and monstrous images; the Jews conceive of one god only, and that with the mind alone: they regard as impious those who make from perishable materials representations of gods in man's image; that supreme and eternal being is to them incapable of representation and without end. Therefore they set up no statues in their cities, still less in their temples; this flattery is not paid their kings, nor this honour given to the Caesars. But since their priests used to chant to the accompaniment of pipes and cymbals and to wear garlands of ivy, and because a golden vine was found in their temple, some have thought that they were devotees of Father Liber, the conqueror of the East, in spite of the incongruity of their customs. For Liber established festive rites of a joyous nature, while the ways of the Jews are preposterous and mean.
68. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 68.11 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

68.11. וַיִּקַח מֵאַבְנֵי הַמָּקוֹם (בראשית כח, יא), רַבִּי יְהוּדָה וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה וְרַבָּנָן, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אָמַר שְׁנֵים עֶשְׂרֵה אֲבָנִים נָטַל, כָּךְ גָּזַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁהוּא מַעֲמִיד שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שְׁבָטִים, אָמַר אַבְרָהָם לֹא הֶעֱמִידָן, יִצְחָק לֹא הֶעֱמִידָן, אֲנִי אִם מִתְאַחוֹת הֵן שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר אֲבָנִים זוֹ לָזוֹ יוֹדֵעַ אֲנִי שֶׁאֲנִי מַעֲמִיד שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שְׁבָטִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּתְאַחוּ שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר אֲבָנִים זוֹ לָזוֹ, יָדַע שֶׁהוּא מַעֲמִיד שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שְׁבָטִים. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר נָטַל שָׁלשׁ אֲבָנִים, אָמַר, אַבְרָהָם יִחֵד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שְׁמוֹ עָלָיו, יִצְחָק יִחֵד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שְׁמוֹ עָלָיו, וַאֲנִי אִם מִתְאַחוֹת הֵן שָׁלשׁ אֲבָנִים זוֹ לָזוֹ, יוֹדֵעַ אֲנִי שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְיַחֵד שְׁמוֹ עָלַי, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁנִּתְאַחוּ, יָדַע שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְיַחֵד שְׁמוֹ עָלָיו. רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי מִעוּט אֲבָנִים שְׁנַיִם, אַבְרָהָם יָצָא מִמֶּנּוּ פְּסֹלֶת, יִשְׁמָעֵאל וְכָל בְּנֵי קְטוּרָה. וְיִצְחָק יָצָא עֵשָׂו וְכָל אַלּוּפָיו. וַאֲנִי אִם מִתְאַחוֹת שְׁתֵּי אֲבָנִים זוֹ לָזוֹ, יוֹדֵעַ אֲנִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא הֵימֶנִּי פְּסֹלֶת. רַבִּי לֵוִי וְרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר זִמְרָא אָמַר עֲשָׂאָן כְּמִין מַרְזֵב וְנָתַן תַּחַת רֹאשׁוֹ, שֶׁהָיָה מִתְיָרֵא מִן הַחַיּוֹת. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי לֵוִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חָמָא בַּר חֲנִינָא אָמַר כְּתִיב (מיכה א, ג): כִּי הִנֵּה ה' יֹצֵא מִמְּקוֹמוֹ וְיָרַד וְדָרַךְ עַל בָּמֳתֵי אָרֶץ וגו', מִי שֶׁנִּגְלָה עָלָיו הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר אוֹתָן הָאֲבָנִים שֶׁנָּתַן יַעֲקֹב אָבִינוּ תַּחַת רֹאשׁוֹ נַעֲשׂוּ תַּחְתָּיו כְּמִטָּה וּכְפַרְנוֹס, מָה רְטִיבָה הִרְטִיב (שיר השירים א, יז): קֹרוֹת בָּתֵּינוּ אֲרָזִים וגו'. צַדִּיקִים וְצַדִּיקוֹת נְבִיאִים וּנְבִיאוֹת שֶׁיָּצְאוּ מִמֶּנּוּ. וַיִּשְׁכַּב בַּמָּקוֹם הַהוּא, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אָמַר כָּאן שָׁכַב אֲבָל כָּל אַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה שֶׁהָיָה טָמוּן בְּבֵית עֵבֶר לֹא שָׁכָב. וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר כָּאן שָׁכַב, אֲבָל כָּל עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה שֶׁעָמַד בְּבֵיתוֹ שֶׁל לָבָן לֹא שָׁכָב, וּמָה הָיָה אוֹמֵר, רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי אָמַר חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שִׁיר הַמַּעֲלוֹת שֶׁבְּסֵפֶר תְּהִלִּים, מַאי טַעְמֵיהּ (תהלים קכד, א): שִׁיר הַמַּעֲלוֹת לְדָוִד לוּלֵי ה' שֶׁהָיָה לָנוּ יֹאמַר נָא יִשְׂרָאֵל, יִשְׂרָאֵל סָבָא. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר כָּל סֵפֶר תְּהִלִּים הָיָה אוֹמֵר, מַה טַּעַם (תהלים כב, ד): וְאַתָּה קָדוֹשׁ יוֹשֵׁב תְּהִלּוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל, יִשְׂרָאֵל סָבָא.
69. Athenagoras, Apology Or Embassy For The Christians, 30 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

30. For if detestable and god-hated men had the reputation of being gods, and the daughter of Derceto, Semiramis, a lascivious and blood-stained woman, was esteemed a Syria goddess; and if, on account of Derceto, the Syrians worship doves and Semiramis (for, a thing impossible, a woman was changed into a dove: the story is in Ctesias), what wonder if some should be called gods by their people on the ground of their rule and sovereignty (the Sibyl, of whom Plato also makes mention, says:- It was the generation then the tenth, of men endow'd with speech, since forth the flood Had burst upon the men of former times, And Kronos, Japetus, and Titan reigned, Whom men, of Ouranos and Gaïa Proclaimed the noblest sons, and named them so, Because of men endowed with gift of speech They were the first); and others for their strength, as Heracles and Perseus; and others for their art, as Asclepius? Those, therefore, to whom either the subjects gave honour or the rulers themselves [assumed it], obtained the name, some from fear, others from revenge. Thus Antinous, through the benevolence of your ancestors towards their subjects, came to be regarded as a god. But those who came after adopted the worship without examination. The Cretans always lie; for they, O king, Have built a tomb to you who art not dead. Though you believe, O Callimachus, in the nativity of Zeus, you do not believe in his sepulchre; and while you think to obscure the truth, you in fact proclaim him dead, even to those who are ignorant; and if you see the cave, you call to mind the childbirth of Rhea; but when you see the coffin, you throw a shadow over his death, not considering that the unbegotten God alone is eternal. For either the tales told by the multitude and the poets about the gods are unworthy of credit, and the reverence shown them is superfluous (for those do not exist, the tales concerning whom are untrue); or if the births, the amours, the murders, the thefts, the castrations, the thunderbolts, are true, they no longer exist, having ceased to be since they were born, having previously had no being. And on what principle must we believe some things and disbelieve others, when the poets have written their stories in order to gain greater veneration for them? For surely those through whom they have got to be considered gods, and who have striven to represent their deeds as worthy of reverence, cannot have invented their sufferings. That, therefore, we are not atheists, acknowledging as we do God the Maker of this universe and His Logos, has been proved according to my ability, if not according to the importance of the subject.
70. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 1.19.91 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

71. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 2.17.2, 3.5.3, 3.12.9, 3.17.2, 3.18.7, 3.23.8, 4.9.2, 4.21.3, 4.22.1-4.22.2, 4.37.7, 4.38.1, 4.38.3, 4.40.2, 5.1.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

72. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 19-24, 4, 18 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. Justin: For since you have read, O Trypho, as you yourself admitted, the doctrines taught by our Saviour, I do not think that I have done foolishly in adding some short utterances of His to the prophetic statements. Wash therefore, and be now clean, and put away iniquity from your souls, as God bids you be washed in this laver, and be circumcised with the true circumcision. For we too would observe the fleshly circumcision, and the Sabbaths, and in short all the feasts, if we did not know for what reason they were enjoined you - namely, on account of your transgressions and the hardness of your hearts. For if we patiently endure all things contrived against us by wicked men and demons, so that even amid cruelties unutterable, death and torments, we pray for mercy to those who inflict such things upon us, and do not wish to give the least retort to any one, even as the new Lawgiver commanded us: how is it, Trypho, that we would not observe those rites which do not harm us- I speak of fleshly circumcision, and Sabbaths, and feasts?
73. Lucian, Demonax, 11 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

74. Marcus Aurelius Emperor of Rome, Meditations, 4.23 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

75. Minucius Felix, Octavius, 6.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

76. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 1.49, 1.109-1.111, 6.104 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.109. 10. EPIMEDESEpimenides, according to Theopompus and many other writers, was the son of Phaestius; some, however, make him the son of Dosiadas, others of Agesarchus. He was a native of Cnossos in Crete, though from wearing his hair long he did not look like a Cretan. One day he was sent into the country by his father to look for a stray sheep, and at noon he turned aside out of the way, and went to sleep in a cave, where he slept for fifty-seven years. After this he got up and went in search of the sheep, thinking he had been asleep only a short time. And when he could not find it, he came to the farm, and found everything changed and another owner in possession. Then he went back to the town in utter perplexity; and there, on entering his own house, he fell in with people who wanted to know who he was. At length he found his younger brother, now an old man, and learnt the truth from him. 1.110. So he became famous throughout Greece, and was believed to be a special favourite of heaven.Hence, when the Athenians were attacked by pestilence, and the Pythian priestess bade them purify the city, they sent a ship commanded by Nicias, son of Niceratus, to Crete to ask the help of Epimenides. And he came in the 46th Olympiad, purified their city, and stopped the pestilence in the following way. He took sheep, some black and others white, and brought them to the Areopagus; and there he let them go whither they pleased, instructing those who followed them to mark the spot where each sheep lay down and offer a sacrifice to the local divinity. And thus, it is said, the plague was stayed. Hence even to this day altars may be found in different parts of Attica with no name inscribed upon them, which are memorials of this atonement. According to some writers he declared the plague to have been caused by the pollution which Cylon brought on the city and showed them how to remove it. In consequence two young men, Cratinus and Ctesibius, were put to death and the city was delivered from the scourge. 1.111. The Athenians voted him a talent in money and a ship to convey him back to Crete. The money he declined, but he concluded a treaty of friendship and alliance between Cnossos and Athens.So he returned home and soon afterwards died. According to Phlegon in his work On Longevity he lived one hundred and fifty-seven years; according to the Cretans two hundred and ninety-nine years. Xenophanes of Colophon gives his age as 154, according to hearsay.He wrote a poem On the Birth of the Curetes and Corybantes and a Theogony, 5000 lines in all; another on the building of the Argo and Jason's voyage to Colchis in 6500 lines. 6.104. So they get rid of geometry and music and all such studies. Anyhow, when somebody showed Diogenes a clock, he pronounced it a serviceable instrument to save one from being late for dinner. Again, to a man who gave a musical recital before him he said:By men's minds states are ordered well, and households,Not by the lyre's twanged strings or flute's trilled notes.They hold further that Life according to Virtue is the End to be sought, as Antisthenes says in his Heracles: exactly like the Stoics. For indeed there is a certain close relationship between the two schools. Hence it has been said that Cynicism is a short cut to virtue; and after the same pattern did Zeno of Citium live his life.
77. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 4.3.1, 4.23.2, 4.26.10 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

4.3.1. After Trajan had reigned for nineteen and a half years Aelius Hadrian became his successor in the empire. To him Quadratus addressed a discourse containing an apology for our religion, because certain wicked men had attempted to trouble the Christians. The work is still in the hands of a great many of the brethren, as also in our own, and furnishes clear proofs of the man's understanding and of his apostolic orthodoxy. 4.23.2. Among these is the one addressed to the Lacedaemonians, containing instruction in the orthodox faith and an admonition to peace and unity; the one also addressed to the Athenians, exciting them to faith and to the life prescribed by the Gospel, which he accuses them of esteeming lightly, as if they had almost apostatized from the faith since the martyrdom of their ruler Publius, which had taken place during the persecutions of those days. 4.26.10. But your pious fathers corrected their ignorance, having frequently rebuked in writing many who dared to attempt new measures against them. Among them your grandfather Hadrian appears to have written to many others, and also to Fundanus, the proconsul and governor of Asia. And your father, when you also were ruling with him, wrote to the cities, forbidding them to take any new measures against us; among the rest to the Larissaeans, to the Thessalonians, to the Athenians, and to all the Greeks.
78. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 13.12.6-13.12.7, 13.12.13-13.12.14 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

79. Origen, Against Celsus, 2.4, 3.29-3.30, 3.43, 3.50, 5.25-5.26, 5.33, 5.61, 5.65 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.4. The Jew, then, continues his address to converts from his own nation thus: Yesterday and the day before, when we visited with punishment the man who deluded you, you became apostates from the law of your fathers; showing by such statements (as we have just demonstrated) anything but an exact knowledge of the truth. But what he advances afterwards seems to have some force, when he says: How is it that you take the beginning of your system from our worship, and when you have made some progress you treat it with disrespect, although you have no other foundation to show for your doctrines than our law? Now, certainly the introduction to Christianity is through the Mosaic worship and the prophetic writings; and after the introduction, it is in the interpretation and explanation of these that progress takes place, while those who are introduced prosecute their investigations into the mystery according to revelation, which was kept secret since the world began, but now is made manifest in the Scriptures of the prophets, and by the appearance of our Lord Jesus Christ. But they who advance in the knowledge of Christianity do not, as you allege, treat the things written in the law with disrespect. On the contrary, they bestow upon them greater honour, showing what a depth of wise and mysterious reasons is contained in these writings, which are not fully comprehended by the Jews, who treat them superficially, and as if they were in some degree even fabulous. And what absurdity should there be in our system - that is, the Gospel- having the law for its foundation, when even the Lord Jesus Himself said to those who would not believe upon Him: If you had believed Moses, you would have believed Me, for he wrote of Me. But if you do not believe his writings, how shall you believe My words? Nay, even one of the evangelists- Mark - says: The beginning of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, as it is written in the prophet Isaiah, Behold, I send My messenger before Your face, who shall prepare Your way before You, which shows that the beginning of the Gospel is connected with the Jewish writings. What force, then, is there in the objection of the Jew of Celsus, that if any one predicted to us that the Son of God was to visit mankind, he was one of our prophets, and the prophet of our God? Or how is it a charge against Christianity, that John, who baptized Jesus, was a Jew? For although He was a Jew, it does not follow that every believer, whether a convert from heathenism or from Judaism, must yield a literal obedience to the law of Moses. 3.29. According to Celsus, then, Apollo wished the Metapontines to treat Aristeas as a god. But as the Metapontines considered the evidence in favour of Aristeas being a man - and probably not a virtuous one - to be stronger than the declaration of the oracle to the effect that he was a god or worthy of divine honours, they for that reason would not obey Apollo, and consequently no one regarded Aristeas as a god. But with respect to Jesus we would say that, as it was of advantage to the human race to accept him as the Son of God- God come in a human soul and body - and as this did not seem to be advantageous to the gluttonous appetites of the demons which love bodies, and to those who deem them to be gods on that account, the demons that are on earth (which are supposed to be gods by those who are not instructed in the nature of demons), and also their worshippers, were desirous to prevent the spread of the doctrine of Jesus; for they saw that the libations and odours in which they greedily delighted were being swept away by the prevalence of the instructions of Jesus. But the God who sent Jesus dissipated all the conspiracies of the demons, and made the Gospel of Jesus to prevail throughout the whole world for the conversion and reformation of men, and caused Churches to be everywhere established in opposition to those of superstitious and licentious and wicked men; for such is the character of the multitudes who constitute the citizens in the assemblies of the various cities. Whereas the Churches of God which are instructed by Christ, when carefully contrasted with the assemblies of the districts in which they are situated, are as beacons in the world; for who would not admit that even the inferior members of the Church, and those who in comparison with the better are less worthy, are nevertheless more excellent than many of those who belong to the assemblies in the different districts? 3.30. For the Church of God, e.g., which is at Athens, is a meek and stable body, as being one which desires to please God, who is over all things; whereas the assembly of the Athenians is given to sedition, and is not at all to be compared to the Church of God in that city. And you may say the same thing of the Church of God at Corinth, and of the assembly of the Corinthian people; and also of the Church of God at Alexandria, and of the assembly of the people of Alexandria. And if he who hears this be a candid man, and one who investigates things with a desire to ascertain the truth, he will be filled with admiration of Him who not only conceived the design, but also was able to secure in all places the establishment of Churches of God alongside of the assemblies of the people in each city. In like manner, also, in comparing the council of the Church of God with the council in any city, you would find that certain councillors of the Church are worthy to rule in the city of God, if there be any such city in the whole world; whereas the councillors in all other places exhibit in their characters no quality worthy of the conventional superiority which they appear to enjoy over their fellow citizens. And so, too, you must compare the ruler of the Church in each city with the ruler of the people of the city, in order to observe that even among those councillors and rulers of the Church of God who come very far short of their duty, and who lead more indolent lives than others who are more energetic, it is nevertheless possible to discover a general superiority in what relates to the progress of virtue over the characters of the councillors and rulers in the various cities. 3.43. He next says of us, that we ridicule those who worship Jupiter, because his tomb is pointed out in the island of Crete; and yet we worship him who rose from the tomb, although ignorant of the grounds on which the Cretans observe such a custom. Observe now that he thus undertakes the defense of the Cretans, and of Jupiter, and of his tomb, alluding obscurely to the allegorical notions, in conformity with which the myth regarding Jupiter is said to have been invented; while he assails us who acknowledge that our Jesus has been buried, indeed, but who maintain that He has also been raised from the tomb - a statement which the Cretans have not yet made regarding Jupiter. But since he appears to admit that the tomb of Jupiter is in Crete, when he says that we are ignorant of the grounds on which the Cretans observe such a custom, we reply that Callimachus the Cyrenian, who had read innumerable poetic compositions, and nearly the whole of Greek history, was not acquainted with any allegorical meaning which was contained in the stories about Jupiter and his tomb; and accordingly he accuses the Cretans in his hymn addressed to Jupiter, in the words: - The Cretans are always liars: for your tomb, O king, The Cretans have reared; and yet you did not die, For you ever live. Now he who said, You did not die, for you ever live, in denying that Jupiter's tomb was in Crete, records nevertheless that in Jupiter there was the beginning of death. But birth upon earth is the beginning of death. And his words run:- And Rhea bore you among the Parrhasians; - whereas he ought to have seen, after denying that the birth of Jupiter took place in Crete because of his tomb, that it was quite congruous with his birth in Arcadia that he who was born should also die. And the following is the manner in which Callimachus speaks of these things: O Jupiter, some say that you were born on the mountains of Ida, others in Arcadia. Which of them, O father, have lied? The Cretans are always liars, etc. Now it is Celsus who made us discuss these topics, by the unfair manner in which he deals with Jesus, in giving his assent to what is related about His death and burial, but regarding as an invention His resurrection from the dead, although this was not only foretold by innumerable prophets, but many proofs also were given of His having appeared after death. 3.50. But let us see what those statements of his are which follow next in these words: Nay, we see, indeed, that even those individuals, who in the market-places perform the most disgraceful tricks, and who gather crowds around them, would never approach an assembly of wise men, nor dare to exhibit their arts among them; but wherever they see young men, and a mob of slaves, and a gathering of unintelligent persons, there they thrust themselves in, and show themselves off. Observe, now, how he slanders us in these words, comparing us to those who in the market-places perform the most disreputable tricks, and gather crowds around them! What disreputable tricks, pray, do we perform? Or what is there in our conduct that resembles theirs, seeing that by means of readings, and explanations of the things read, we lead men to the worship of the God of the universe, and to the cognate virtues, and turn them away from contemning Deity, and from all things contrary to right reason? Philosophers verily would wish to collect together such hearers of their discourses as exhort men to virtue - a practice which certain of the Cynics especially have followed, who converse publicly with those whom they happen to meet. Will they maintain, then, that these who do not gather together persons who are considered to have been educated, but who invite and assemble hearers from the public street, resemble those who in the market-places perform the most disreputable tricks, and gather crowds around them? Neither Celsus, however, nor any one who holds the same opinions, will blame those who, agreeably to what they regard as a feeling of philanthropy, address their arguments to the ignorant populace. 5.25. Let us next notice the statements of Celsus, which follow the preceding, and which are as follow: As the Jews, then, became a peculiar people, and enacted laws in keeping with the customs of their country, and maintain them up to the present time, and observe a mode of worship which, whatever be its nature, is yet derived from their fathers, they act in these respects like other men, because each nation retains its ancestral customs, whatever they are, if they happen to be established among them. And such an arrangement appears to be advantageous, not only because it has occurred to the mind of other nations to decide some things differently, but also because it is a duty to protect what has been established for the public advantage; and also because, in all probability, the various quarters of the earth were from the beginning allotted to different superintending spirits, and were thus distributed among certain governing powers, and in this manner the administration of the world is carried on. And whatever is done among each nation in this way would be rightly done, wherever it was agreeable to the wishes (of the superintending powers), while it would be an act of impiety to get rid of the institutions established from the beginning in the various places. By these words Celsus shows that the Jews, who were formerly Egyptians, subsequently became a peculiar people, and enacted laws which they carefully preserve. And not to repeat his statements, which have been already before us, he says that it is advantageous to the Jews to observe their ancestral worship, as other nations carefully attend to theirs. And he further states a deeper reason why it is of advantage to the Jews to cultivate their ancestral customs, in hinting dimly that those to whom was allotted the office of superintending the country which was being legislated for, enacted the laws of each land in co-operation with its legislators. He appears, then, to indicate that both the country of the Jews, and the nation which inhabits it, are superintended by one or more beings, who, whether they were one or more, co-operated with Moses, and enacted the laws of the Jews. 5.26. We must, he says, observe the laws, not only because it has occurred to the mind of others to decide some things differently, but because it is a duty to protect what has been enacted for the public advantage, and also because, in all probability, the various quarters of the earth were from the beginning allotted to different superintending spirits, and were distributed among certain governing powers, and in this manner the administration of the world is carried on. Thus Celsus, as if he had forgotten what he had said against the Jews, now includes them in the general eulogy which he passes upon all who observe their ancestral customs, remarking: And whatever is done among each nation in this way, would be rightly done whenever agreeable to the wishes (of the superintendents). And observe here, whether he does not openly, so far as he can, express a wish that the Jew should live in the observance of his own laws, and not depart from them, because he would commit an act of impiety if he apostatized; for his words are: It would be an act of impiety to get rid of the institutions established from the beginning in the various places. Now I should like to ask him, and those who entertain his views, who it was that distributed the various quarters of the earth from the beginning among the different superintending spirits; and especially, who gave the country of the Jews, and the Jewish people themselves, to the one or more superintendents to whom it was allotted? Was it, as Celsus would say, Jupiter who assigned the Jewish people and their country to a certain spirit or spirits? And was it his wish, to whom they were thus assigned, to enact among them the laws which prevail, or was it against his will that it was done? You will observe that, whatever be his answer, he is in a strait. But if the various quarters of the earth were not allotted by some one being to the various superintending spirits, then each one at random, and without the superintendence of a higher power, divided the earth according to chance; and yet such a view is absurd, and destructive in no small degree of the providence of the God who presides over all things. 5.33. The remarks which we have made not only answer the statements of Celsus regarding the superintending spirits, but anticipate in some measure what he afterwards brings forward, when he says: Let the second party come forward; and I shall ask them whence they come, and whom they regard as the originator of their ancestral customs. They will reply, No one, because they spring from the same source as the Jews themselves, and derive their instruction and superintendence from no other quarter, and notwithstanding they have revolted from the Jews. Each one of us, then, has come in the last days, when one Jesus has visited us, to the visible mountain of the Lord, the Word that is above every word, and to the house of God, which is the Church of the living God, the pillar and ground of the truth. And we notice how it is built upon the tops of the mountains, i.e., the predictions of all the prophets, which are its foundations. And this house is exalted above the hills, i.e., those individuals among men who make a profession of superior attainments in wisdom and truth; and all the nations come to it, and the many nations go forth, and say to one another, turning to the religion which in the last days has shone forth through Jesus Christ: Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob; and He will teach us of His ways, and we will walk in them. For the law came forth from the dwellers in Sion, and settled among us as a spiritual law. Moreover, the word of the Lord came forth from that very Jerusalem, that it might be disseminated through all places, and might judge in the midst of the heathen, selecting those whom it sees to be submissive, and rejecting the disobedient, who are many in number. And to those who inquire of us whence we come, or who is our founder, we reply that we have come, agreeably to the counsels of Jesus, to cut down our hostile and insolent 'wordy' swords into ploughshares, and to convert into pruning-hooks the spears formerly employed in war. For we no longer take up sword against nation, nor do we learn war any more, having become children of peace, for the sake of Jesus, who is our leader, instead of those whom our fathers followed, among whom we were strangers to the covet, and having received a law, for which we give thanks to Him that rescued us from the error (of our ways), saying, Our fathers honoured lying idols, and there is not among them one that causes it to rain. Our Superintendent, then, and Teacher, having come forth from the Jews, regulates the whole world by the word of His teaching. And having made these remarks by way of anticipation, we have refuted as well as we could the untrue statements of Celsus, by subjoining the appropriate answer. 5.61. After the above remarks he proceeds as follows: Let no one suppose that I am ignorant that some of them will concede that their God is the same as that of the Jews, while others will maintain that he is a different one, to whom the latter is in opposition, and that it was from the former that the Son came. Now, if he imagine that the existence of numerous heresies among the Christians is a ground of accusation against Christianity, why, in a similar way, should it not be a ground of accusation against philosophy, that the various sects of philosophers differ from each other, not on small and indifferent points, but upon those of the highest importance? Nay, medicine also ought to be a subject of attack, on account of its many conflicting schools. Let it be admitted, then, that there are among us some who deny that our God is the same as that of the Jews: nevertheless, on that account those are not to be blamed who prove from the same Scriptures that one and the same Deity is the God of the Jews and of the Gentiles alike, as Paul, too, distinctly says, who was a convert from Judaism to Christianity, I thank my God, whom I serve from my forefathers with a pure conscience. And let it be admitted also, that there is a third class who call certain persons carnal, and others spiritual,- I think he here means the followers of Valentinus - yet what does this avail against us, who belong to the Church, and who make it an accusation against such as hold that certain natures are saved, and that others perish in consequence of their natural constitution? And let it be admitted further, that there are some who give themselves out as Gnostics, in the same way as those Epicureans who call themselves philosophers: yet neither will they who annihilate the doctrine of providence be deemed true philosophers, nor those true Christians who introduce monstrous inventions, which are disapproved of by those who are the disciples of Jesus. Let it be admitted, moreover, that there are some who accept Jesus, and who boast on that account of being Christians, and yet would regulate their lives, like the Jewish multitude, in accordance with the Jewish law - and these are the twofold sect of Ebionites, who either acknowledge with us that Jesus was born of a virgin, or deny this, and maintain that He was begotten like other human beings - what does that avail by way of charge against such as belong to the Church, and whom Celsus has styled those of the multitude? He adds, also, that certain of the Christians are believers in the Sibyl, having probably misunderstood some who blamed such as believed in the existence of a prophetic Sibyl, and termed those who held this belief Sibyllists. 5.65. But since he asserts that you may hear all those who differ so widely saying, 'The world is crucified to me, and I unto the world,' we shall show the falsity of such a statement. For there are certain heretical sects which do not receive the Epistles of the Apostle Paul, as the two sects of Ebionites, and those who are termed Encratites. Those, then, who do not regard the apostle as a holy and wise man, will not adopt his language, and say, The world is crucified to me, and I unto the world. And consequently in this point, too, Celsus is guilty of falsehood. He continues, moreover, to linger over the accusations which he brings against the diversity of sects which exist, but does not appear to me to be accurate in the language which he employs, nor to have carefully observed or understood how it is that those Christians who have made progress in their studies say that they are possessed of greater knowledge than the Jews; and also, whether they acknowledge the same Scriptures, but interpret them differently, or whether they do not recognise these books as divine. For we find both of these views prevailing among the sects. He then continues: Although they have no foundation for the doctrine, let us examine the system itself; and, in the first place, let us mention the corruptions which they have made through ignorance and misunderstanding, when in the discussion of elementary principles they express their opinions in the most absurd manner on things which they do not understand, such as the following. And then, to certain expressions which are continually in the mouths of the believers in Christianity, he opposes certain others from the writings of the philosophers, with the object of making it appear that the noble sentiments which Celsus supposes to be used by Christians have been expressed in better and clearer language by the philosophers, in order that he might drag away to the study of philosophy those who are caught by opinions which at once evidence their noble and religious character. We shall, however, here terminate the fifth book, and begin the sixth with what follows.
80. Augustine, The City of God, 8.5, 8.10, 14.3, 14.5, 14.8, 14.26-14.27 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

8.5. If, then, Plato defined the wise man as one who imitates, knows, loves this God, and who is rendered blessed through fellowship with Him in His own blessedness, why discuss with the other philosophers? It is evident that none come nearer to us than the Platonists. To them, therefore, let that fabulous theology give place which delights the minds of men with the crimes of the gods; and that civil theology also, in which impure demons, under the name of gods, have seduced the peoples of the earth given up to earthly pleasures, desiring to be honored by the errors of men, and by filling the minds of their worshippers with impure desires, exciting them to make the representation of their crimes one of the rites of their worship, while they themselves found in the spectators of these exhibitions a most pleasing spectacle - a theology in which, whatever was honorable in the temple, was defiled by its mixture with the obscenity of the theatre, and whatever was base in the theatre was vindicated by the abominations of the temples. To these philosophers also the interpretations of Varro must give place, in which he explains the sacred rites as having reference to heaven and earth, and to the seeds and operations of perishable things; for, in the first place, those rites have not the signification which he would have men believe is attached to them, and therefore truth does not follow him in his attempt so to interpret them; and even if they had this signification, still those things ought not to be worshipped by the rational soul as its god which are placed below it in the scale of nature, nor ought the soul to prefer to itself as gods things to which the true God has given it the preference. The same must be said of those writings pertaining to the sacred rites, which Numa Pompilius took care to conceal by causing them to be buried along with himself, and which, when they were afterwards turned up by the plough, were burned by order of the senate. And, to treat Numa with all honor, let us mention as belonging to the same rank as these writings that which Alexander of Macedon wrote to his mother as communicated to him by Leo, an Egyptian high priest. In this letter not only Picus and Faunus, and Æneas and Romulus or even Hercules, and Æsculapius and Liber, born of Semele, and the twin sons of Tyndareus, or any other mortals who have been deified, but even the principal gods themselves, to whom Cicero, in his Tusculan questions, alludes without mentioning their names, Jupiter, Juno, Saturn, Vulcan, Vesta, and many others whom Varro attempts to identify with the parts or the elements of the world, are shown to have been men. There is, as we have said, a similarity between this case and that of Numa; for the priest being afraid because he had revealed a mystery, earnestly begged of Alexander to command his mother to burn the letter which conveyed these communications to her. Let these two theologies, then, the fabulous and the civil, give place to the Platonic philosophers, who have recognized the true God as the author of all things, the source of the light of truth, and the bountiful bestower of all blessedness. And not these only, but to these great acknowledgers of so great a God, those philosophers must yield who, having their mind enslaved to their body, supposed the principles of all things to be material; as Thales, who held that the first principle of all things was water; Anaximenes, that it was air; the Stoics, that it was fire; Epicurus, who affirmed that it consisted of atoms, that is to say, of minute corpuscules; and many others whom it is needless to enumerate, but who believed that bodies, simple or compound, animate or iimate, but nevertheless bodies, were the cause and principle of all things. For some of them - as, for instance, the Epicureans- believed that living things could originate from things without life; others held that all things living or without life spring from a living principle, but that, nevertheless, all things, being material, spring from a material principle. For the Stoics thought that fire, that is, one of the four material elements of which this visible world is composed, was both living and intelligent, the maker of the world and of all things contained in it - that it was in fact God. These and others like them have only been able to suppose that which their hearts enslaved to sense have vainly suggested to them. And yet they have within themselves something which they could not see: they represented to themselves inwardly things which they had seen without, even when they were not seeing them, but only thinking of them. But this representation in thought is no longer a body, but only the similitude of a body; and that faculty of the mind by which this similitude of a body is seen is neither a body nor the similitude of a body; and the faculty which judges whether the representation is beautiful or ugly is without doubt superior to the object judged of. This principle is the understanding of man, the rational soul; and it is certainly not a body, since that similitude of a body which it beholds and judges of is itself not a body. The soul is neither earth, nor water, nor air, nor fire, of which four bodies, called the four elements, we see that this world is composed. And if the soul is not a body, how should God, its Creator, be a body? Let all those philosophers, then, give place, as we have said, to the Platonists, and those also who have been ashamed to say that God is a body, but yet have thought that our souls are of the same nature as God. They have not been staggered by the great changeableness of the soul - an attribute which it would be impious to ascribe to the divine nature, - but they say it is the body which changes the soul, for in itself it is unchangeable. As well might they say, Flesh is wounded by some body, for in itself it is invulnerable. In a word, that which is unchangeable can be changed by nothing, so that that which can be changed by the body cannot properly be said to be immutable. 8.10. For although a Christian man instructed only in ecclesiastical literature may perhaps be ignorant of the very name of Platonists, and may not even know that there have existed two schools of philosophers speaking the Greek tongue, to wit, the Ionic and Italic, he is nevertheless not so deaf with respect to human affairs, as not to know that philosophers profess the study, and even the possession, of wisdom. He is on his guard, however, with respect to those who philosophize according to the elements of this world, not according to God, by whom the world itself was made; for he is warned by the precept of the apostle, and faithfully hears what has been said, Beware that no one deceive you through philosophy and vain deceit, according to the elements of the world. Colossians 2:8 Then, that he may not suppose that all philosophers are such as do this, he hears the same apostle say concerning certain of them, Because that which is known of God is manifest among them, for God has manifested it to them. For His invisible things from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things which are made, also His eternal power and Godhead. Romans 1:19-20 And, when speaking to the Athenians, after having spoken a mighty thing concerning God, which few are able to understand, In Him we live, and move, and have our being, Acts 17:28 he goes on to say, As certain also of your own have said. He knows well, too, to be on his guard against even these philosophers in their errors. For where it has been said by him, that God has manifested to them by those things which are made His invisible things, that they might be seen by the understanding, there it has also been said that they did not rightly worship God Himself, because they paid divine honors, which are due to Him alone, to other things also to which they ought not to have paid them -because, knowing God, they glorified Him not as God: neither were thankful, but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools, and changed the glory of the incorruptible God into the likeness of the image of corruptible man, and of birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things; Romans 1:21-23 - where the apostle would have us understand him as meaning the Romans, and Greeks, and Egyptians, who gloried in the name of wisdom; but concerning this we will dispute with them afterwards. With respect, however, to that wherein they agree with us we prefer them to all others namely, concerning the one God, the author of this universe, who is not only above every body, being incorporeal, but also above all souls, being incorruptible - our principle, our light, our good. And though the Christian man, being ignorant of their writings, does not use in disputation words which he has not learned - not calling that part of philosophy natural (which is the Latin term), or physical (which is the Greek one), which treats of the investigation of nature; or that part rational, or logical, which deals with the question how truth may be discovered; or that part moral, or ethical, which concerns morals, and shows how good is to be sought, and evil to be shunned - he is not, therefore, ignorant that it is from the one true and supremely good God that we have that nature in which we are made in the image of God, and that doctrine by which we know Him and ourselves, and that grace through which, by cleaving to Him, we are blessed. This, therefore, is the cause why we prefer these to all the others, because, while other philosophers have worn out their minds and powers in seeking the causes of things, and endeavoring to discover the right mode of learning and of living, these, by knowing God, have found where resides the cause by which the universe has been constituted, and the light by which truth is to be discovered, and the fountain at which felicity is to be drunk. All philosophers, then, who have had these thoughts concerning God, whether Platonists or others, agree with us. But we have thought it better to plead our cause with the Platonists, because their writings are better known. For the Greeks, whose tongue holds the highest place among the languages of the Gentiles, are loud in their praises of these writings; and the Latins, taken with their excellence, or their renown, have studied them more heartily than other writings, and, by translating them into our tongue, have given them greater celebrity and notoriety. 14.3. But if any one says that the flesh is the cause of all vices and ill conduct, inasmuch as the soul lives wickedly only because it is moved by the flesh, it is certain he has not carefully considered the whole nature of man. For the corruptible body, indeed, weighs down the soul. Wisdom 9:15 Whence, too, the apostle, speaking of this corruptible body, of which he had shortly before said, though our outward man perish, 2 Corinthians 4:16 says, We know that if our earthly house of this tabernacle were dissolved, we have a building of God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. For in this we groan, earnestly desiring to be clothed upon with our house which is from heaven: if so be that being clothed we shall not be found naked. For we that are in this tabernacle do groan, being burdened: not for that we would be unclothed, but clothed upon, that mortality might be swallowed up in life. 2 Corinthians 5:1-4 We are then burdened with this corruptible body; but knowing that the cause of this burdensomeness is not the nature and substance of the body, but its corruption, we do not desire to be deprived of the body, but to be clothed with its immortality. For then, also, there will be a body, but it shall no longer be a burden, being no longer corruptible. At present, then, the corruptible body presses down the soul, and the earthly tabernacle weighs down the mind that muses upon many things, nevertheless they are in error who suppose that all the evils of the soul proceed from the body. Virgil, indeed, seems to express the sentiments of Plato in the beautiful lines, where he says - A fiery strength inspires their lives, An essence that from heaven derives, Though clogged in part by limbs of clay And the dull 'vesture of decay;' but though he goes on to mention the four most common mental emotions - desire, fear, joy, sorrow - with the intention of showing that the body is the origin of all sins and vices, saying - Hence wild desires and grovelling fears, And human laughter, human tears, Immured in dungeon-seeming nights They look abroad, yet see no light, yet we believe quite otherwise. For the corruption of the body, which weighs down the soul, is not the cause but the punishment of the first sin; and it was not the corruptible flesh that made the soul sinful, but the sinful soul that made the flesh corruptible. And though from this corruption of the flesh there arise certain incitements to vice, and indeed vicious desires, yet we must not attribute to the flesh all the vices of a wicked life, in case we thereby clear the devil of all these, for he has no flesh. For though we cannot call the devil a fornicator or drunkard, or ascribe to him any sensual indulgence (though he is the secret instigator and prompter of those who sin in these ways), yet he is exceedingly proud and envious. And this viciousness has so possessed him, that on account of it he is reserved in chains of darkness to everlasting punishment. Now these vices, which have dominion over the devil, the apostle attributes to the flesh, which certainly the devil has not. For he says hatred, variance, emulations, strife, envying are the works of the flesh; and of all these evils pride is the origin and head, and it rules in the devil though he has no flesh. For who shows more hatred to the saints? Who is more at variance with them? Who more envious, bitter, and jealous? And since he exhibits all these works, though he has no flesh, how are they works of the flesh, unless because they are the works of man, who is, as I said, spoken of under the name of flesh? For it is not by having flesh, which the devil has not, but by living according to himself - that is, according to man - that man became like the devil. For the devil too, wished to live according to himself when he did not abide in the truth; so that when he lied, this was not of God, but of himself, who is not only a liar, but the father of lies, he being the first who lied, and the originator of lying as of sin. 14.8. Those emotions which the Greeks call εὐπαθείαι, and which Cicero calls constantiœ, the Stoics would restrict to three; and, instead of three perturbations in the soul of the wise man, they substituted severally, in place of desire, will; in place of joy, contentment; and for fear, caution; and as to sickness or pain, which we, to avoid ambiguity, preferred to call sorrow, they denied that it could exist in the mind of a wise man. Will, they say, seeks the good, for this the wise man does. Contentment has its object in good that is possessed, and this the wise man continually possesses. Caution avoids evil, and this the wise man ought to avoid. But sorrow arises from evil that has already happened; and as they suppose that no evil can happen to the wise man, there can be no representative of sorrow in his mind. According to them, therefore, none but the wise man wills, is contented, uses caution; and that the fool can do no more than desire, rejoice, fear, be sad. The former three affections Cicero calls constantiœ, the last four perturbationes. Many, however, calls these last passions; and, as I have said, the Greeks call the former εὐπαθείαι, and the latter πάθη . And when I made a careful examination of Scripture to find whether this terminology was sanctioned by it, I came upon this saying of the prophet: There is no contentment to the wicked, says the Lord; Isaiah 57:21 as if the wicked might more properly rejoice than be contented regarding evils, for contentment is the property of the good and godly. I found also that verse in the Gospel: Whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye even so unto them? Matthew 7:12 which seems to imply that evil or shameful things may be the object of desire, but not of will. Indeed, some interpreters have added good things, to make the expression more in conformity with customary usage, and have given this meaning, Whatsoever good deeds that you would that men should do unto you. For they thought that this would prevent any one from wishing other men to provide him with unseemly, not to say shameful gratifications - luxurious banquets, for example - on the supposition that if he returned the like to them he would be fulfilling this precept. In the Greek Gospel, however, from which the Latin is translated, good does not occur, but only, All things whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye even so unto them, and, as I believe, because good is already included in the word would; for He does not say desire. Yet though we may sometimes avail ourselves of these precise proprieties of language, we are not to be always bridled by them; and when we read those writers against whose authority it is unlawful to reclaim, we must accept the meanings above mentioned in passages where a right sense can be educed by no other interpretation, as in those instances we adduced partly from the prophet, partly from the Gospel. For who does not know that the wicked exult with joy? Yet there is no contentment for the wicked, says the Lord. And how so, unless because contentment, when the word is used in its proper and distinctive significance, means something different from joy? In like manner, who would deny that it were wrong to enjoin upon men that whatever they desire others to do to them they should themselves do to others, lest they should mutually please one another by shameful and illicit pleasure? And yet the precept, Whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye even so to them, is very wholesome and just. And how is this, unless because the will is in this place used strictly, and signifies that will which cannot have evil for its object? But ordinary phraseology would not have allowed the saying, Be unwilling to make any manner of lie, Sirach 7:13 had there not been also an evil will, whose wickedness separates if from that which the angels celebrated, Peace on earth, of good will to men. Luke 2:14 For good is superfluous if there is no other kind of will but good will. And why should the apostle have mentioned it among the praises of charity as a great thing, that it rejoices not in iniquity, unless because wickedness does so rejoice? For even with secular writers these words are used indifferently. For Cicero, that most fertile of orators, says, I desire, conscript fathers, to be merciful. And who would be so pedantic as to say that he should have said I will rather than I desire, because the word is used in a good connection? Again, in Terence, the profligate youth, burning with wild lust, says, I will nothing else than Philumena. That this will was lust is sufficiently indicated by the answer of his old servant which is there introduced: How much better were it to try and banish that love from your heart, than to speak so as uselessly to inflame your passion still more! And that contentment was used by secular writers in a bad sense that verse of Virgil testifies, in which he most succinctly comprehends these four perturbations - Hence they fear and desire, grieve and are content The same author had also used the expression, the evil contentments of the mind. So that good and bad men alike will, are cautious, and contented; or, to say the same thing in other words, good and bad men alike desire, fear, rejoice, but the former in a good, the latter in a bad fashion, according as the will is right or wrong. Sorrow itself, too, which the Stoics would not allow to be represented in the mind of the wise man, is used in a good sense, and especially in our writings. For the apostle praises the Corinthians because they had a godly sorrow. But possibly some one may say that the apostle congratulated them because they were penitently sorry, and that such sorrow can exist only in those who have sinned. For these are his words: For I perceive that the same epistle has made you sorry, though it were but for a season. Now I rejoice, not that you were made sorry, but that you sorrowed to repentance; for you were made sorry after a godly manner, that you might receive damage by us in nothing. For godly sorrow works repentance to salvation not to be repented of, but the sorrow of the world works death. For, behold, this selfsame thing that you sorrowed after a godly sort, what carefulness it wrought in you! 2 Corinthians 7:8-11 Consequently the Stoics may defend themselves by replying, that sorrow is indeed useful for repentance of sin, but that this can have no place in the mind of the wise man, inasmuch as no sin attaches to him of which he could sorrowfully repent, nor any other evil the endurance or experience of which could make him sorrowful. For they say that Alcibiades (if my memory does not deceive me), who believed himself happy, shed tears when Socrates argued with him, and demonstrated that he was miserable because he was foolish. In his case, therefore, folly was the cause of this useful and desirable sorrow, wherewith a man mourns that he is what he ought not to be. But the Stoics maintain not that the fool, but that the wise man, cannot be sorrowful. 14.26. In Paradise, then, man lived as he desired so long as he desired what God had commanded. He lived in the enjoyment of God, and was good by God's goodness; he lived without any want, and had it in his power so to live eternally. He had food that he might not hunger, drink that he might not thirst, the tree of life that old age might not waste him. There was in his body no corruption, nor seed of corruption, which could produce in him any unpleasant sensation. He feared no inward disease, no outward accident. Soundest health blessed his body, absolute tranquillity his soul. As in Paradise there was no excessive heat or cold, so its inhabitants were exempt from the vicissitudes of fear and desire. No sadness of any kind was there, nor any foolish joy; true gladness ceaselessly flowed from the presence of God, who was loved out of a pure heart, and a good conscience, and faith unfeigned. 1 Timothy 1:5 The honest love of husband and wife made a sure harmony between them. Body and spirit worked harmoniously together, and the commandment was kept without labor. No languor made their leisure wearisome; no sleepiness interrupted their desire to labor. In tanta facilitate rerum et felicitate hominum, absit ut suspicemur, non potuisse prolem seri sine libidinis morbo: sed eo voluntatis nutu moverentur illa membra qua c tera, et sine ardoris illecebroso stimulo cum tranquillitate animi et corporis nulla corruptione integritatis infunderetur gremio maritus uxoris. Neque enim quia experientia probari non potest, ideo credendum non est; quando illas corporis partes non ageret turbidus calor, sed spontanea potestas, sicut opus esset, adhiberet; ita tunc potuisse utero conjugis salva integritate feminei genitalis virile semen immitti, sicut nunc potest eadem integritate salva ex utero virginis fluxus menstrui cruoris emitti. Eadem quippe via posset illud injici, qua hoc potest ejici. Ut enim ad pariendum non doloris gemitus, sed maturitatis impulsus feminea viscera relaxaret: sic ad fœtandum et concipiendum non libidinis appetitus, sed voluntarius usus naturam utramque conjungeret. We speak of things which are now shameful, and although we try, as well as we are able, to conceive them as they were before they became shameful, yet necessity compels us rather to limit our discussion to the bounds set by modesty than to extend it as our moderate faculty of discourse might suggest. For since that which I have been speaking of was not experienced even by those who might have experienced it - I mean our first parents (for sin and its merited banishment from Paradise anticipated this passionless generation on their part) - when sexual intercourse is spoken of now, it suggests to men's thoughts not such a placid obedience to the will as is conceivable in our first parents, but such violent acting of lust as they themselves have experienced. And therefore modesty shuts my mouth, although my mind conceives the matter clearly. But Almighty God, the supreme and supremely good Creator of all natures, who aids and rewards good wills, while He abandons and condemns the bad, and rules both, was not destitute of a plan by which He might people His city with the fixed number of citizens which His wisdom had foreordained even out of the condemned human race, discriminating them not now by merits, since the whole mass was condemned as if in a vitiated root, but by grace, and showing, not only in the case of the redeemed, but also in those who were not delivered, how much grace He has bestowed upon them. For every one acknowledges that he has been rescued from evil, not by deserved, but by gratuitous goodness, when he is singled out from the company of those with whom he might justly have borne a common punishment, and is allowed to go scathless. Why, then, should God not have created those whom He foresaw would sin, since He was able to show in and by them both what their guilt merited, and what His grace bestowed, and since, under His creating and disposing hand, even the perverse disorder of the wicked could not pervert the right order of things?
81. Gregory of Nazianzus, Orations, 43, 42 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

82. Augustine, Letters, 118.14 (7th cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)

83. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 200, 235, 189

189. turn them from evil and lead them to repentance.' The king praised the answer and then asked the next man, How he could do everything for the best in all his actions? And he replied, 'If a man maintains a just bearing towards all, he will always act rightly on every occasion, remembering that every thought is known to God. If you take the fear of God as your starting-point, you will never miss the goal.
84. Cleanthes, Hymn To Zeus, 4-5, 3

85. Orphic Hymns., Fragments, 474, 31



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abuse Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 214
achaea Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 4, 11, 76
acoustics Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170
acropolis Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 79
acropolis (athens) Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11
acts, canonical Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 105
acts Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66
acts and racial discourse Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 42
acts and the roman empire Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 42
acts and universalism Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 42
acts of the apostles Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 617, 628, 633
addressee Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 204
aeneas (hero) Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 202
aeschylus Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 54, 55, 56, 64
agora (athens), athenian agora Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 203
allegory / allegorisation Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 202
altar Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 1
altars Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 79
ambrose Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
angels Pachoumi, Conceptualising Divine Unions in the Greek and Near Eastern Worlds (2022) 110
anima Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
animus Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
apocalyptic Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 81
apologetic, portrait of paul Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 214, 383
apologist Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 214
apologist / apologetics Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 200, 204
apologists, generally Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 548
apostle, paul Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 81
apostle, paul as Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 383
apostolus Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
aratos of kilikia Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 231
aratus, phaenomena Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 202, 633
aratus, zenos pupil Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
aratus Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 307; Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 51; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 93
areopagus Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 314; Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 4, 11, 76, 79; Brodd and Reed, Rome and Religion: A Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue on the Imperial Cult (2011) 94; Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66; Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 187; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 1, 11, 174, 202, 203, 204
areopagus speech, epimenides echoes Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 202, 633
areopagus speech Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 202, 628, 633
aristides of athens Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 4, 13
aristobulus, aratus, phaenomena Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 190
aristobulus, changing name of zeus to god Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 202
aristobulus, greek philosophers borrow from moses Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 202
aristobulus, luke comparison Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 202
aristobulus, pagan texts cited Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 202
aristobulus, siegert, f. Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 202
aristobulus Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 307; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 190, 202
aristotle Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 51
arrogance Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170
ascent Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 255
asia minor deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 113
athena Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11
athenagoras Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 4
athens, christianity and imperial cult in Brodd and Reed, Rome and Religion: A Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue on the Imperial Cult (2011) 94
athens, epimenidess rescue of Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
athens, plague Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
athens Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 52, 60, 61; Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 255, 322; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 766; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94; Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 103
athens\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 105
atoms Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170, 187
attica Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 174
augustine Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 200
autobiography Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 1
babblers, garrulity, loquacity Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 187
babylon Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11
baptismal significance, of peters mission as fisherman Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 31
basil of caesarea Langworthy, Gregory of Nazianzus’ Soteriological Pneumatology (2019) 156
beast, cretans as Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 93
beatus Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
beautiful (kalòw) (as used by titus) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 60
begging Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 214
beginnings, christian narratives Goldhill, Preposterous Poetics: The Politics and Aesthetics of Form in Late Antiquity (2020) 84
bible/scripture Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 79
bible Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 187; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 174
bishops, pistus Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 4
bivalence, rhetorical Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 628
body Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170, 187; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 204; Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
bonum Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 663
bridge-phrase Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 148
brutus, marcus Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 232
canon law Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 284
cappadocia Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11, 200
care, of god or christ for creation Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 88, 89
causation Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170
celsus Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 58; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 214; deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 244
children Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 187
choices, freedom of Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 60
choices Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 60
christian, believers/faithful Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 4, 11
christian church, unity of the Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 231
christian iconography /\u2009symbols Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11
christian union with christ Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 231
christianity, and greek/pagan religion Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 239
christianity Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 317
christianity / christians Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11, 174, 200, 202, 203, 204
christians, resurrection Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 11, 79
christians, teaching Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 76, 79
chrysippus Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 51
church Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 251
church fathers Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 200
church in the south wing of propylaia cat. a Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 4
church near modern metropolis (athens) cat. a Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 11
city, symbolic city Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11, 200, 202, 203, 204
city, ‚learning city Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 174
city Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11, 174, 203
cityscaping Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 203
civilized, -ation Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 103
class Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 103
classical authors, lukes use of Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 202
cleanthes Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 51
clement of alexandria Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 59, 66; Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 231
cleodemus malchus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 190
clergy, clerics Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 187
common concepts, natural concepts Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 284
confession Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 51
connections within, in greek thought McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 114
conscience Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 239
constantius ii Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11
contextualisation Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 322
contrary, contrariety, opposites Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 60
controversy / confrontation Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 204
conversion, conversion to christianity Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 174
conversion, paul Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 262
conversion, vision or dream Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 262
conversion Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94; deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 244
converts as pauls, of god Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 317
corinth Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 239; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11
corpus Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
cosmology Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 1
council of the areopagos Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 218, 223
councils, constantinople Langworthy, Gregory of Nazianzus’ Soteriological Pneumatology (2019) 156
councils/synods Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 4
covenant and creation, hebrew bible Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 89
creation, as personal act McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 114
creation, created or originated things Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 60, 284
creation, hope for Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 89
creation Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170, 187
creation and ownership, hellenistic views McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 114
creation and ownership, through christ McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 114
creation out of nothing Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170
creator, christ as, with god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 88, 89
cretans Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 56, 57, 58, 59
criminal Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 103
criminalization Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 103
cult Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 1, 203
cult statues (idols) Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 187
cupiditas Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 663
cynics/cynicism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 766
daimon Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 1
damascius Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 13
day of the lord or judgement, the Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 122
death Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 1
dedication Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 1
deity sculpture, sophisticated pagan view Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
dell, katherine Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 89
demonic possession Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 187
demons Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 187
descent/katabasis Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 255
devil, satan Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 60
dialectics Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170
diatribe Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 93
differentiation Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 322
dio chrysostom Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 766
diogenes laertius Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 60, 61, 62
dion of prousa Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 231
dionysius, pseudo-dionysius (corpus dionysiacum) Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 13
dionysius, the areopagite Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 4, 11
divine speech, enigmatic Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 262
divine speech Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 262
doctrine Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170, 187
doxology Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 81
earthquake Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 1
eclipse Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 1
egypt Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 148; deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 113
egyptian Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 103
elder), weber, r. Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 190
elder) Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 190
elect (manichaean) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 60
election (of god) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 60
elements Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170
elite Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 1; Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 103
ellipse Osborne, Clement of Alexandria (2010) 141
emotions Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
endurance Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 88
ephesians, addressees/recipients Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 322
ephesians, author/authorship Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 255, 322
ephesus Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
epictetus Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 51
epicureanism, epicureans Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170, 187
epicureans/\u2009epicureanism Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 174, 203
epicureans Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
epicurus Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
epimenides Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 64; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 93; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 202, 633
epistle, pastorals Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 424
epistle to titus Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 59, 60
epistolography Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 424
eschatology, eschatological Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 60
eschatology Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 88; deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 366
ethics Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 232; Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170
ethnicity Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 204
eumenides Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 54, 55, 56
eunapius Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 174
eupolemus Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 307
euripides Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 93; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 202
eusebius of caesarea Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 200
exegesis Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 148
experience Langworthy, Gregory of Nazianzus’ Soteriological Pneumatology (2019) 156
faith Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 202
faithfulness, of god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 89
fate Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 81
father, fatherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 251, 314
father, god as Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 317
father Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 214
filled/filled with, zeus Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 51
flesh Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
foolishness Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170
four- (or five‐) kingdom paradigm Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 122
gaudeo, gaudium Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
gentile Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 766; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 81
gentiles Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
gift Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 81
glory, hope of Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 88
gnostic/ gnosticism deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 113, 366
god, creator Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 79
god, fearer Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 383
god, in greek thought McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 114
god, offspring of, humans as Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
god, proximity, pagan view Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
god, uniqueness of Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 210
god, unity of Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 210
god, unknown god Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 79
god Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 148; Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 11, 13
gods, unknown Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 79
gods and humans Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 231
gospels Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
grace Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 88, 89
gregory of nazianzus Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 4; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 174
gregory of nyssa Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 174
hadrian Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 13
happiness/the happy life Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
harnack, adolf von Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 4
heaven Pachoumi, Conceptualising Divine Unions in the Greek and Near Eastern Worlds (2022) 110
hellenismos / hellenic Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11
hellenistic jewish writings, aristobulus Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 307
hellenistic jewish writings, eupolemus Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 307
hellenistic jewish writings, letter of aristeas Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 307
hellenistic jewish writings Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 307
hellenistic judaism, history of scholarship Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 190
hermeticism deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 113
hesiod Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 202
hierarchization Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 103
history of religions Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 190
holladay, carl Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 79
holy spirit, cornelius Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 579
holy spirit, lukan conception Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 579
holy spirit, samaritans Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 579
holy spirit Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 60
homer, use of number seven Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 202
homer Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 202; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 174
hope Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 89
human, nonhumanity Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 103
human Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 103
humankind, unity of Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 218, 223
humans united with god Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 218, 231
humility Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170
hymn Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 200
idealistic philosophy, idealism Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170
identity, identify formation Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 105
identity Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 174
idolatry, critique Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
ignatios of antioch Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 231
image of god (in man) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 284
immorality Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 766
immutability, immutable (of god) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 60
inscription Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 1
inscriptions, dedications Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 79
intentio uoluntatis Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 663
intertextuality Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 53, 55, 62, 64
irenaeus Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 218, 231
ishodad of merv Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 56, 57, 58, 59
islam Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 232
israel, land of Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 148
israel, people of Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 148
israel Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 81
jerusalem Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11
jesus Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 52, 53, 58, 63, 65
jesus christ Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 60
jew(ish), pharisees Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 81
jew(ish) Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 81
jewish Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 103
jewish scriptures Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 255, 322
jews, jewish, judaism Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 60
jews/jewish Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 11, 79
jews Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94; Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 210
jews / judaism Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11
journey, earthly journey Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 105
joy Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170
judaism, hellenistic Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 871
judaism, hellenistic judaism Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 81
judaism, source of greek wisdom Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 202
judaism Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 232; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 766; deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 113
judgement, final Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 122
julian, the apostate Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 13