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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8243
New Testament, Acts, 17.22-17.31


σταθεὶς δὲ Παῦλος ἐν μέσῳ τοῦ Ἀρείου Πάγου ἔφη Ἄνδρες Ἀθηναῖοι, κατὰ πάντα ὡς δεισιδαιμονεστέρους ὑμᾶς θεωρῶ·Paul stood in the midst of the Areopagus, and said, "You men of Athens, I perceive that you are very religious in all things.


διερχόμενος γὰρ καὶ ἀναθεωρῶν τὰ σεβάσματα ὑμῶν εὗρον καὶ βωμὸν ἐν ᾧ ἐπεγέγραπτο ΑΓΝΩΣΤΩ ΘΕΩ. ὃ οὖν ἀγνοοῦντες εὐσεβεῖτε, τοῦτο ἐγὼ καταγγέλλω ὑμῖν.For as I passed along, and observed the objects of your worship, I found also an altar with this inscription: 'TO AN UNKNOWN GOD.' What therefore you worship in ignorance, this I announce to you.


ὁ θεὸς ὁ ποιήσας τὸν κόσμον καὶ πάντατὰ ἐν αὐτῷ, οὗτος οὐρανοῦ καὶ γῆς ὑπάρχων κύριος οὐκ ἐν χειροποιήτοις ναοῖς κατοικεῖThe God who made the world and all things in it, he, being Lord of heaven and earth, dwells not in temples made with hands


οὐδὲ ὑπὸ χειρῶν ἀνθρωπίνων θεραπεύεται προσδεόμενός τινος, αὐτὸςδιδοὺς πᾶσι ζωὴν καὶ πνοὴν καὶ τὰ πάντα·neither is he served by men's hands, as though he needed anything, seeing he himself gives to all life and breath, and all things.


ἐποίησέν τε ἐξ ἑνὸς πᾶν ἔθνος ανθρώπων κατοικεῖν ἐπὶ παντὸς προσώπου τῆς γῆς, ὁρίσας προστεταγμένους καιροὺς καὶ τὰς ὁροθεσίας τῆς κατοικίας αὐτῶνHe made from one blood every nation of men to dwell on all the surface of the earth, having determined appointed seasons, and the bounds of their habitation


ζητεῖν τὸν θεὸν εἰ ἄρα γε ψηλαφήσειαν αὐτὸν καὶ εὕροιεν, καί γε οὐ μακρὰν ἀπὸ ἑνὸς ἑκάστου ἡμῶν ὑπάρχοντα.that they should seek the Lord, if perhaps they might reach out for him and find him, though he is not far from each one of us.


ἐν αὐτῷ γὰρ ζῶμεν καὶ κινούμεθα καὶ ἐσμέν, ὡς καί τινες τῶν καθʼ ὑμᾶς ποιητῶν εἰρήκασιν
64 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.26-1.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them."
2. Hebrew Bible, Job, 14.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.12. וְאִישׁ שָׁכַב וְלֹא־יָקוּם עַד־בִּלְתִּי שָׁמַיִם לֹא יָקִיצוּ וְלֹא־יֵעֹרוּ מִשְּׁנָתָם׃ 14.12. So man lieth down and riseth not; Till the heavens be no more, they shall not awake, Nor be roused out of their sleep."
3. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 2.7, 16.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.7. אֲסַפְּרָה אֶל חֹק יְהוָה אָמַר אֵלַי בְּנִי אַתָּה אֲנִי הַיּוֹם יְלִדְתִּיךָ׃ 2.7. I will tell of the decree: The LORD said unto me: 'Thou art My son, this day have I begotten thee." 16.10. For Thou wilt not abandon my soul to the nether-world; Neither wilt Thou suffer Thy godly one to see the pit."
4. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 1.5 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

1.5. רְאוּ בַגּוֹיִם וְהַבִּיטוּ וְהִתַּמְּהוּ תְּמָהוּ כִּי־פֹעַל פֹּעֵל בִּימֵיכֶם לֹא תַאֲמִינוּ כִּי יְסֻפָּר׃ 1.5. Look ye among the nations, and behold, And wonder marvellously; For, behold, a work shall be wrought in your days, Which ye will not believe though it be told you."
5. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.9-6.10, 24.5, 55.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.9. וַיֹּאמֶר לֵךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ לָעָם הַזֶּה שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמוֹעַ וְאַל־תָּבִינוּ וּרְאוּ רָאוֹ וְאַל־תֵּדָעוּ׃ 24.5. וְהָאָרֶץ חָנְפָה תַּחַת יֹשְׁבֶיהָ כִּי־עָבְרוּ תוֹרֹת חָלְפוּ חֹק הֵפֵרוּ בְּרִית עוֹלָם׃ 55.3. הַטּוּ אָזְנְכֶם וּלְכוּ אֵלַי שִׁמְעוּ וּתְחִי נַפְשְׁכֶם וְאֶכְרְתָה לָכֶם בְּרִית עוֹלָם חַסְדֵי דָוִד הַנֶּאֱמָנִים׃ 6.9. And He said: ‘Go, and tell this people: Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not." 6.10. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they, seeing with their eyes, and hearing with their ears, and understanding with their heart, return, and be healed.’" 24.5. The earth also is defiled under the inhabitants thereof; Because they have transgressed the laws, violated the statute, Broken the everlasting covet." 55.3. Incline your ear, and come unto Me; Hear, and your soul shall live; And I will make an everlasting covet with you, Even the sure mercies of David."
6. Homer, Iliad, 14.231 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

14.231. /and so came to Lemnos, the city of godlike Thoas. There she met Sleep, the brother of Death; and she clasped him by the hand, and spake and addressed him:Sleep, lord of all gods and of all men, if ever thou didst hearken to word of mine, so do thou even now obey
7. Aeschylus, Eumenides, 648-651, 647 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

647. ἀνδρὸς δʼ ἐπειδὰν αἷμʼ ἀνασπάσῃ κόνις
8. Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound, 822 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

822. δὸς ἥνπερ αἰτούμεσθα, μέμνησαι δέ που. Προμηθεύς
9. Aristophanes, Acharnians, 375 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

375. τῶν τ' αὖ γερόντων οἶδα τὰς ψυχὰς ὅτι
10. Plato, Apology of Socrates, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

17a. How you, men of Athens, have been affected by my accusers, I do not know; but I, for my part, almost forgot my own identity, so persuasively did they talk; and yet there is hardly a word of truth in what they have said. But I was most amazed by one of the many lies that they told—when they said that you must be on your guard not to be deceived by me
11. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

12. Sophocles, Oedipus At Colonus, 1007, 1006 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

13. Aratus Solensis, Phaenomena, 5 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5. τοῦ γάρ καὶ γένος εἰμέν· ὁ δʼ ἤπιος ἀνθρώποισιν
14. Demosthenes, Orations, 1.16 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

15. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 3.36-3.51 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.36. quid iaces aut quid maeres aut cur succumbis cedisque fortunae? quae quae om. G 1 pervellere te forsitan potuerit et pungere, non potuit certe vires frangere. magna vis est in virtutibus; eas excita, si forte dormiunt. iam tibi aderit princeps fortitudo, quae te animo tanto esse coget, ut omnia, quae possint homini evenire, contemnas et pro nihilo putes. aderit temperantia, quae est eadem moderatio, a me quidem paulo ante appellata frugalitas, quae te turpiter et nequiter facere nihil patietur. patiatur X ( cf. coget 21 dicet 28) quid est autem nequius aut turpius ecfeminato eff. G 1 e corr. R 2 V rec viro? ne iustitia quidem sinet te ista facere, cui minimum esse videtur in hac causa loci; loqui X corr. V c? quae tamen ita dicet dupliciter esse te iniustum, cum et alienum adpetas, appetas V 2 qui mortalis natus condicionem conditionem GKV postules inmortalium et graviter feras te, quod utendum acceperis, reddidisse. 3.37. prudentiae vero quid quod R 1 respondebis docenti virtutem sese esse contentam, quo modo ad bene vivendum, sic etiam ad beate? quae si extrinsecus religata pendeat et non et oriatur et ante oriatur om. KR a se et rursus ad se revertatur et omnia sua complexa nihil quaerat aliunde, non intellego, cur aut verbis tam vehementer orda aut re tantopere expetenda videatur —ad haec bona me me V ( eras. si) si revocas, Epicure, pareo, sequor, utor te ipso duce, obliviscor etiam malorum, ut iubes, eoque facilius, quod ea ne in malis quidem ponenda censeo. sed traducis cogitationes meas ad voluptates. quas? corporis, credo, aut quae propter corpus vel recordatione vel spe cogitentur. num quid est aliud? rectene interpretor interprecor K 1 V sententiam tuam? solent enim isti negare nos intellegere, quid dicat Epicurus. 3.38. hoc dicit, et hoc ille acriculus agriculus X corr. V c me audiente Athenis senex Zeno, istorum acutissimus, contendere et magna voce dicere solebat: eum esse Epic. fr. 446 beatum, qui praesentibus voluptatibus frueretur confideretque se fruiturum aut in omni aut in magna parte vitae dolore non interveniente, aut si interveniret, si summus foret, futurum brevem, sin productior, plus habiturum iucundi quam mali; haec cogitantem fore beatum, praesertim cum cum add. V c si s R 2 ( ft. rectius, sed cf. fin. 1, 41 ad ea cum accedit) om. X et ante perceptis bonis contentus esset et nec mortem nec deos extimesceret. add. Hei. habes formam Epicuri vitae beatae verbis Zenonis expressam, nihil ut possit negari. Quid ergo? 3.39. huiusne vitae propositio et cogitatio aut Thyestem levare poterit aut Aeetam, aetam X ( ex aetem K 1 ) oetam K 2 R c? cf. p. 331,3 de quo paulo ante dixi, aut Telamonem pulsum patria exulantem atque egentem? in quo haec admiratio fiebat: Hi/cine hicine BR 2 haecine X est ille Te/lamon, Telamo Turn. sed cf. Str. p. 64 modo quem glo/ria ad caelum e/xtulit, Quem a/spectabant, cui/us ob os Grai Graii s Graj La. Lucr. 3, 374. cf. epist. 9, 26 o/ra obverteba/nt sua? Trag. inc. 93 3.40. quodsi cui, ut ait idem, simul animus cum re concidit animus rem condidit X corr. V c s , a gravibus illis antiquis philosophis petenda medicina est, non est non V est si non X ab his voluptariis. quam enim isti bonorum copiam dicunt? fac sane esse summum bonum non dolere—quamquam id non vocatur voluptas, sed non necesse est nunc omnia—: idne est, quo traducti luctum levemus? sit sane summum malum dolere: dolore in dolere corr. G 2 K 2 V 2 in eo igitur qui non est, si malo careat, continuone fruitur summo bono? 3.41. Quid tergiversamur, Epicure, nec fatemur eam nos dicere voluptatem, quam tu idem, cum os perfricuisti, soles dicere? sunt haec tua verba necne? in eo quidem libro, qui continet Epic. p. te/lous fr. 67 p. 119, 16 omnem disciplinam tuam,—fungar enim iam interpretis munere, ne quis me putet fingere—dicis haec: nec equidem habeo, quod intellegam bonum illud, detrahens eas voluptates quae sapore percipiuntur, detrahens eas quae rebus percipiuntur veneriis, detrahens eas quae rebus percipiuntur venereis detrahens add. in mg. V c om. rell. cf. praef. et locos ab Usenero ad fr. 67 congestos eas quae auditu e e Sor. et ( cf. 23 ex formis) cantibus, detrahens eas etiam quae ex formis percipiuntur oculis detrahens eas supra oculis add. K 2 suavis motiones, sive quae aliae voluptates in toto homine gignuntur quolibet quelibet V 1 quodlibet K 1 sensu. nec vero ita dici potest, mentis laetitiam solam esse in bonis. laetantem enim mentem ita novi: spe eorum omnium, quae supra dixi, fore forte G 1 K 1 ut natura is natura is naturalis X natura iis s potiens dolore careat. 3.42. atque haec quidem his verbis, quivis ut intellegat, quam voluptatem norit Epicurus. deinde paulo infra: saepe quaesivi inquit Epic. ib. fr. 69 ex is qui appellabantur sapientes, quid haberent quod in bonis quid in boni GV (quod V 2 ) R 1 (in exp. 1 ) quidboni K 1 quid in bonis K 2 B quod in bono Gr. relinquerent, si illa detraxissent, nisi si vellent voces iis fundere: nihil ab is potui cognoscere. qui si virtutes ebullire volent et sapientias, sapientiam V 2 nihil aliud dicent nisi eam viam, vi am K viam V ( exp. 2 ) vim quae fiant ureae vol. Non. quae G qua efficiantur eae eae haec K voluptates quas supra dixi. qui si ... 7 dixi Non. 26, 19 quae secuntur, sequuntur GR in eadem sententia sunt, totusque liber, qui est alt. est om. X add. V 2 de summo bono, refertus est et verbis et sententiis talibus. 3.43. ad hancine igitur vitam Telamonem illum revocabis, ut leves aegritudinem, et si quem tuorum adflictum maerore videris, videbis R 1 huic ut huic V tu huic Str. p. 58 ( non male, sed v. 10 ut pro et Non. C A D A ) acipenserem accipenserem X ( cf. fat. fr. 5 ) accipienserem Non. V 2 ( pen) (acup. fin. 2,91 cf. 24. 5 ) potius quam aliquem Socraticum libellum dabis? et si... 12 dabis Non. 550, 18 hydrauli h gD PA l l fere X hydraulis V 2 hortabere ut audiat voces potius quam Platonis? expones, exponens X corr. V 2 quae spectet, spectat K florida et varia? fasciculum ad naris admovebis? incendes odores et sertis redimiri iubebis et rosa? si vero aliquid etiam—, tum plane luctum omnem absterseris. 3.44. haec Epicuro confitenda sunt aut ea, quae modo expressa ad verbum dixi, tollenda de libro vel totus liber potius abiciundus; est enim confertus voluptatibus. Quaerendum igitur, quem ad modum aegritudine privemus privemur X corr. K 2 R 2 V 3 eum qui ita dicat: Pol mi/hi fortuna ma/gis nunc defit qua/m quam quod G 1 genus. Enn. Thyest. sc. 354 Na/mque namque neque K regnum su/ppetebat mi, mihi X corr. Grotius u/t scias, quanto e/ loco, Qua/ntis opibus, qui/bus de rebus la/psa fortuna a/ccidat. occidat Ribb. sed cf. Th. l. l. I p. 290 quid? huic calix mulsi impingendus est, ut plorare desinat, quid? plorare se desinat Non. 545, 20 aut aliquid eius modi? ecce tibi ex altera parte ab eodem poëta; ex opibus summis opis egens, Hector, haector X tuae —huic subvenire debemus; quaerit enim auxilium: Qui/d petam prae/sidi praesidii X aut e/xequar quo/ve nunc Ennius Andr. sc. 85. 6 Au/xilio e/xili exilii X (exillii K 1 ) de hiatu cf. Plaut. Aul. 142 al. ( Jacobsohn, Quaest. Plaut. Gött. 1904 p. 21 ) au/t fugae fugae s Bentl. fuga fre/ta sim? A/rce et urbe o/rba sum. quo a/ccidam? accedam X (accedam' K) corr. s quo a/pplicem? Cui/ nec arae pa/triae domi stant, fra/ctae et disiectae/ iacent, Fa/na flamma de/flagrata, to/sti alti alii X corr. M 2 s stant pa/rietes De/formati atque a/biete crispa— scitis quae sequantur, et illa in primis: ilium primis X corr. Tr. illud in primis V c s cf. p. 260, 26 O pa/ter, o patria, o Pri/ami domus, Saeptum a/ltisono cardi/ne templum! Vidi e/go te adstante dstantem X ( def. Va. ) sed m eras. in V astante p. 260, 22 ope ba/rbarica Tecti/s caelatis la/queatis, Auro e/bore instructam re/gifice. regificem X sed m exp. K 1 B 3.45. o poëtam egregium! quamquam ab his cantoribus Euphorionis Euphorioneis V ei in r. 1autc contemnitur. sentit omnia repentina et necopinata esse graviora; exaggeratis igitur regiis regis X corr. s opibus, quae videbantur sempiternae fore, quid adiungit? Haec o/mnia vidi infla/mmari, Enn. ib. 92.97 cf. p.260, 22 sqq. Priamo/ vi vitam evi/tari, Iovis a/ram sanguine sanguine KR c Non. sanguinem GR 1 V tu/rpari. Iovis... turpari Non. 181, 1 3.46. praeclarum carmen! est enim et rebus et verbis et modis lugubre. Eripiamus huic aegritudinem. quo modo? conlocemus in culcita plumea, psaltriam adducamus, eripiamus ... 341, 1 adducamus Non. 542, 17 aducamus G 1 R 1 V 1 ( corr. G 2 R c V 2 ) demus damus X supra a scr. V c aut 1 hedycrum, hedrycrum G 1 R 1 V 1 aut c hedrycum R 1 V 1 aedricrum G od. add. Po. psaltriam adducamus, hedychri incendamus scut. Mdv., sed he- dychrum unguentum est non suffimentum, Diosc, 1.58 al. nihil add. Se neque G. Dittmann qui litteris ad me datis scutellam idem esse statuit atque scutram Plaut. Persa 89 Cato agr. 157, 11; sed cf. p. 339, 15; 431, 27 odorum incendamus scutellam, dulciculae potionis aliquid videamus dulciculae videamus Prisc. GL. II p. 105, 21 Anon. Class. auct. ed. Mai 8, 165 et cibi? haec tandem bona sunt, quibus aegritudines gravissumae detrahantur? tu enim paulo ante ne intellegere interrogandi signa pos. Po. cf. § 43. 4 quidem te te quidem, W corr. Lb. We. cl. v. 24, ac. 2, 140. fin. 2, 7. 20. 30. nat. deor. 1, 111 alia ulla ulla V 2 W multa X dicebas. revocari igitur oportere a oportere a s oportet ea X (o. eum a V 3 ) maerore ad cogitationem bonorum conveniret mihi cum Epicuro, si, quid esset bonum, conveniret. Dicet aliquis: quid ergo? tu Epicurum existimas Epic. fr. 440 existimas s existimabas ista voluisse, aut libidinosas eius fuisse sententias? ego vero minime; video enim ab eo dici multa severe, multa praeclare. itaque, ut saepe dixi, de acumine agitur eius, non de moribus; quamvis spernat spert X (sperant G 1 ) corr. V c aut 1 voluptates eas quas modo laudavit, ego tamen meminero quod quid G videatur ei summum bonum. non enim verbo solum posuit voluptatem, sed explanavit quid diceret: saporem inquit et corporum complexum et ludos Epic. fr. 67 atque cantus et formas eas quibus oculi iucunde moveantur. num fingo, num mentior? cupio refelli. quid enim laboro nisi ut veritas in omni quaestione explicetur? 3.47. 'at at ad V idem ait non crescere voluptatem dolore fr. 419 detracto, detractos G 1 V 1 esse V c s om. X summamque esse voluptatem nihil dolere. dolore V 1 ' paucis verbis tria magna peccata: unum, quod secum ipse pugnat. modo enim ne suspicari quidem se quicquam bonum, nisi sensus quasi titillarentur titilarentur R 1 VG 2 ( ex titul.) voluptate; nunc autem summam voluptatem esse dolore carere: potestne magis secum ipse pugnare? alterum peccatum, quod, cum in natura tria sint, sunt G 1 unum gaudere, alterum dolere, tertium nec gaudere prius gaudere om. K 1 nec dolere, hic primum et tertium putat idem esse nec distinguit a non dolendo voluptatem. tertium peccatum commune cum quibusdam, quod, cum virtus maxime expetatur maxime expetatur in r. V c eiusque adipiscendae causa philosophia quaesita sit, ille a a om. G 1 virtute summum bonum separavit. 3.48. 'at at ac R 1 laudat Epic. fr. 507 saepe virtutem'. et quidem C. Gracchus, sqq. grachus G 1 (gracchi 23) K cum largitiones maximas fecisset et effudisset effundisset X corr. K 1 V 1 aerarium, verbis tamen defendebat aerarium. quid verba audiam, cum facta videam? L. L. add. V c om. X ( ut p. 223, 13 M. ante Crassum) cf. Verr. 4, 195 Piso ille Frugi semper contra legem frumentariam dixerat. is lege lata consularis ad frumentum accipiundum accipiendum G 1 K venerat. animum animam X corr. R 1? K 2 advertit Gracchus in contione Pisonem stantem; quaerit audiente p. R., qui sibi constet, cum ea lege frumentum petat, quam dissuaserit. dissuas serat G 1 nolim inquit mea bona, Gracche, tibi viritim dividere libeat, sed, si facias, facies K partem petam. parumne parumne satis ss. V 2 declaravit vir gravis et sapiens lege Sempronia patrimonium publicum dissupari? lege orationes Gracchi, patronum aerarii esse dices. 3.49. negat Epicurus sqq. Epic. fr. 506. 584. 459 iucunde posse vivi, nisi cum virtute vivatur, negat ullam in sapientem vim esse fortunae, tenuem victum antefert copioso, negat ullum esse tempus, quo sapiens non beatus sit. omnia philosopho digna, sed cum voluptate pugtia. non istam dicit voluptatem . dicat quamlibet; nempe eam dicit, in qua virtutis nulla pars insit. age, si voluptatem non intellegimus, ne dolorem quidem? nego igitur eius eius om. R 1 esse, qui quid X d del. in RV dolore dolorem X corr. s autem illi summum malum metiatur, mentionem facere virtutis. 3.50. Et queruntur quidam Epicurei, viri optimi—nam nullum genus est minus malitiosum—, me studiose dicere contra Epicurum. ita credo, de honore aut de dignitate contendimus. mihi summum in animo bonum videtur, illi autem in corpore, videtur in corp. K 1 mihi in virtute, illi in voluptate. et illi pugt, et quidem vicinorum fidem implorant—multi autem sunt, qui statim convolent —; ego sum is qui dicam me non laborare, actum habiturum, quod egerint. 3.51. quid enim? de bello Punico agitur? de quo ipso cum aliud M. Catoni, aliud L. Lentulo videretur, nulla inter eos concertatio concertatio er in r. V concertio K umquam fuit. hi nimis iracunde agunt, praesertim cum ab is non sane animosa defendatur sententia, pro qua non in senatu, non in contione, contentione R 1 non apud exercitum neque ad ad apud V 2 censores dicere audeant. sed cum istis alias, et eo quidem animo, nullum ut certamen instituam, verum dicentibus facile cedam; tantum admonebo, si maxime verum sit ad corpus omnia referre sapientem sive, ut honestius dicam, nihil facere nisi quod expediat, sive omnia referre ad utilitatem suam, quoniam haec plausibilia non sunt, ut in sinu in sinu insignum vel in signum RG 1 K 1 in sinum K 1 e corr. G 2 V gaudeant, gloriose loqui desit. Otto, Sprichw. 1656 Cyrenaicorum restat sententia;
16. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 44 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

17. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 14, 13 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

18. Demetrius, Style, 283 (1st cent. BCE

19. Strabo, Geography, 8.5.5, 17.3.25 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

8.5.5. Concerning the government of the Laconians and the changes that took place among them, one might omit most things as well known, but there are certain things which it is perhaps worthwhile to mention. For instance, they say that the Achaeans of Phthiotis came down with Pelops into the Peloponnesus, took up their abode in Laconia, and so far excelled in bravery that the Peloponnesus, which now for many ages had been called Argos, came to be called Achaean Argos, and the name was applied not only in a general way to the Peloponnesus, but also in a specific way to Laconia; at any rate, the words of the poet, Where was Menelaus? or was he not in Achaean Argos? are interpreted by some thus: or was he not in Laconia? And at the time of the return of the Heracleidae, when Philonomus betrayed the country to the Dorians, the Achaeans emigrated from Laconia to the country of the Ionians, the country that still today is called Achaea. But I shall speak of them in my description of Achaea. Now the new possessors of Laconia restrained themselves at first, but after they turned over the government to Lycurgus they so far surpassed the rest that they alone of the Greeks ruled over both land and sea, and they continued ruling the Greeks until they were deprived of their hegemony, first by the Thebans, and immediately after them by the Macedonians. However, they did not wholly yield even to the Macedonians, but, preserving their autonomy, always kept up a struggle for the primacy both with the rest of the Greeks and with the kings of the Macedonians. And when the Macedonians had been overthrown by the Romans, the Lacedemonians committed some slight offences against the praetors who were sent by the Romans, because at that time they were under the rule of tyrants and had a wretched government; but when they had recovered themselves, they were held in particular honor, and remained free, contributing to Rome nothing else but friendly services. But recently Eurycles has stirred up trouble among them, having apparently abused the friendship of Caesar unduly in order to maintain his authority over his subjects; but the trouble quickly came to an end, Eurycles retiring to his fate, and his son being averse to any friendship of this kind. And it also came to pass that the Eleuthero-Lacones got a kind of republican constitution, since the Perioeci and also the Helots, at the time when Sparta was under the rule of tyrants, were the first to attach themselves to the Romans. Now Hellanicus says that Eurysthenes and Procles drew up the constitution; but Ephorus censures Hellanicus, saying that he has nowhere mentioned Lycurgus and that he ascribes the work of Lycurgus to persons who had nothing to do with it. At any rate, Ephorus continues, it is to Lycurgus alone that a sanctuary has been erected and that annual sacrifices are offered, whereas Eurysthenes and Procles, although they were the founders, have not even been accorded the honor of having their respective descendants called Eurysthenidae and Procleidae; instead, the respective descendants are called Agidae, after Agis the son of Eurysthenes, and Eurypontidae, after Eurypon the son of Procles; for Agis and Eurypon reigned in an honorable way, whereas Eurysthenes and Procles welcomed foreigners and through these maintained their overlordship; and hence they were not even honored with the title of archegetae, an honor which is always paid to founders; and further, Pausanias, after he was banished because of the hatred of the Eurypontidae, the other royal house, and when he was in exile, prepared a discourse on the laws of Lycurgus, who belonged to the house that banished him, in which he also tells the oracles that were given out to Lycurgus concerning most of the laws. 17.3.25. The division into provinces has varied at different periods, but at present it is that established by Augustus Caesar; for after the sovereign power had been conferred upon him by his country for life, and he had become the arbiter of peace and war, he divided the whole empire into two parts, one of which he reserved to himself, the other he assigned to the (Roman) people. The former consisted of such parts as required military defence, and were barbarian, or bordered upon nations not as yet subdued, or were barren and uncultivated, which though ill provided with everything else, were yet well furnished with strongholds. and might thus dispose the inhabitants to throw off the yoke and rebel. All the rest, which were peaceable countries, and easily governed without the assistance of arms, were given over to the (Roman) people. Each of these parts was subdivided into several provinces, which received respectively the titles of 'provinces of Caesar' and 'provinces of the People.'To the former provinces Caesar appoints governors and administrators, and divides the (various) countries sometimes in one way, sometimes in another, directing his political conduct according to circumstances.But the people appoint commanders and consuls to their own provinces, which are also subject to divers divisions when expediency requires it.(Augustus Caesar) in his first organization of (the Empire) created two consular governments, namely, the whole of Africa in possession of the Romans, excepting that part which was under the authority, first of Juba, but now of his son Ptolemy; and Asia within the Halys and Taurus, except the Galatians and the nations under Amyntas, Bithynia, and the Propontis. He appointed also ten consular governments in Europe and in the adjacent islands. Iberia Ulterior (Further Spain) about the river Baetis and Celtica Narbonensis (composed the two first). The third was Sardinia, with Corsica; the fourth Sicily; the fifth and sixth Illyria, districts near Epirus, and Macedonia; the seventh Achaia, extending to Thessaly, the Aetolians, Acarians, and the Epirotic nations who border upon Macedonia; the eighth Crete, with Cyrenaea; the ninth Cyprus; the tenth Bithynia, with the Propontis and some parts of Pontus.Caesar possesses other provinces, to the government of which he appoints men of consular rank, commanders of armies, or knights; and in his (peculiar) portion (of the empire) there are and ever have been kings, princes, and (municipal) magistrates.
20. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 12.27-12.28 (1st cent. CE

12.27.  Now concerning the nature of the gods in general, and especially that of the ruler of the universe, first and foremost an idea regarding him and a conception of him common to the whole human race, to the Greeks and to the barbarians alike, a conception that is inevitable and innate in every creature endowed with reason, arising in the course of nature without the aid of human teacher and free from the deceit of any expounding priest, has made its way, and it rendered manifest God's kinship with man and furnished many evidences of the truth, which did not suffer the earliest and most ancient men to doze and grow indifferent to them; 12.28.  for inasmuch as these earlier men were not living dispersed far away from the divine being or beyond his borders apart by themselves, but had grown up in his company and had remained close to him in every way, they could not for any length of time continue to be unintelligent beings, especially since they had received from him intelligence and the capacity for reason, illumined as they were on every side by the divine and magnificent glories of heaven and the stars of sun and moon, by night and day encountering varied and dissimilar experiences, seeing wondrous sights and hearing manifold voices of winds and forest and rivers and sea, of animals tame and wild; while they themselves uttered a most pleasing and clear sound, and taking delight in the proud and intelligent quality of the human voice, attached symbols to the objects that reached their senses, so as to be able to name and designate everything perceived
21. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 11.169 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.169. “You know, O Jews, that God hath kept our fathers, Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in mind continually, and for the sake of their righteousness hath not left off the care of you. Indeed he hath assisted me in gaining this authority of the king to raise up our wall, and finish what is wanting of the temple.
22. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.167, 2.267 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.167. Moreover, he represented God as unbegotten, and immutable, through all eternity, superior to all mortal conceptions in pulchritude; and, though known to us by his power, yet unknown to us as to his essence. 2.267. Nor need we at all wonder that they thus treated such considerable men, when they did not spare even women also; for they very lately slew a certain priestess, because she was accused by somebody that she initiated people into the worship of strange gods, it having been forbidden so to do by one of their laws; and a capital punishment had been decreed to such as introduced a strange god;
23. Lucan, Pharsalia, 2.592-2.593, 8.872 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

24. New Testament, 1 John, 1.1, 2.2, 4.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. That which was from the beginning, that which we have heard, that which we have seen with our eyes, that which we saw, and our hands touched, concerning the Word of life 2.2. And he is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not for ours only, but also for the whole world. 4.11. Beloved, if God loved us in this way, we also ought to love one another.
25. New Testament, 1 Peter, 4.13, 4.19, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.13. But because you are partakers of Christ's sufferings, rejoice; that at the revelation of his glory also you may rejoice with exceeding joy. 4.19. Therefore let them also who suffer according to the will of God in doing good entrust their souls to him, as to a faithful Creator. 5.4. When the chief Shepherd is revealed, you will receive the crown of glory that doesn't fade away.
26. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 15.3, 15.6, 15.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.3. For I delivered to youfirst of all that which I also received: that Christ died for our sinsaccording to the Scriptures 15.6. Then he appeared to overfive hundred brothers at once, most of whom remain until now, but somehave also fallen asleep. 15.20. But now Christ has been raised from the dead. He became thefirst fruits of those who are asleep.
27. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.9-1.10, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. For they themselves report concerning us what kind of a reception we had from you; and how you turned to God from idols, to serve a living and true God 1.10. and to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead -- Jesus, who delivers us from the wrath to come. 5.1. But concerning the times and the seasons, brothers, you have no need that anything be written to you.
28. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.5. holding a form of godliness, but having denied the power thereof. Turn away from these, also.
29. New Testament, Acts, 1.1, 1.7, 1.11, 1.16, 2.5, 2.9, 2.10, 2.14, 2.17, 2.22, 2.25, 2.26, 2.27, 2.28, 3.12, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 3.20, 3.21, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 3.25, 3.26, 4.11, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5.20, 5.35, 5.39, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 7, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.25, 7.26, 7.27, 7.28, 7.29, 7.30, 7.31, 7.32, 7.33, 7.34, 7.35, 7.36, 7.37, 7.38, 7.39, 7.40, 7.41, 7.42, 7.43, 7.44, 7.45, 7.46, 7.47, 7.48, 7.49, 7.50, 7.51, 7.52, 7.53, 7.54, 7.55, 7.56, 7.57, 7.58, 7.59, 7.60, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 8.14, 8.15, 8.16, 8.17, 8.18, 8.19, 8.20, 8.21, 8.22, 8.23, 8.24, 8.25, 8.26, 8.27, 8.28, 8.29, 8.30, 8.31, 8.32, 8.33, 8.34, 8.35, 8.36, 8.37, 8.38, 8.39, 8.40, 9, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24, 9.25, 9.26, 9.27, 9.28, 9.29, 9.30, 9.31, 10, 10.1-11.18, 10.4, 10.19, 10.20, 10.36, 10.44, 10.45, 11, 11.17, 13.14, 13.15, 13.16, 13.17, 13.18, 13.19, 13.20, 13.21, 13.22, 13.23, 13.24, 13.25, 13.26, 13.27, 13.28, 13.29, 13.30, 13.31, 13.32, 13.33, 13.34, 13.35, 13.36, 13.37, 13.38, 13.39, 13.40, 13.41, 13.42, 13.43, 13.44, 13.45, 13.46, 13.47, 13.48, 13.49, 13.50, 13.51, 13.52, 14.1, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 14.11, 14.12, 14.13, 14.14, 14.15, 14.16, 14.17, 14.18, 14.19, 14.20, 15, 15.21, 16.6, 16.7, 16.8, 16.9, 16.10, 16.11, 16.12, 16.13, 16.14, 16.15, 16.16, 16.17, 16.18, 16.19, 16.20, 16.21, 16.22, 16.23, 16.24, 16.25, 16.26, 16.27, 16.28, 16.29, 16.30, 16.31, 16.32, 16.33, 16.34, 16.37, 17, 17.1, 17.2, 17.3, 17.4, 17.5, 17.6, 17.7, 17.8, 17.9, 17.10, 17.11, 17.12, 17.13, 17.14, 17.15, 17.16, 17.17, 17.18, 17.19, 17.20, 17.21, 17.23, 17.24, 17.25, 17.26, 17.27, 17.28, 17.29, 17.30, 17.31, 17.32, 17.33, 17.34, 18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 18.4, 18.5, 18.6, 18.7, 18.8, 18.9, 18.10, 18.11, 18.12, 18.13, 18.14, 18.15, 18.16, 18.17, 18.18, 18.19, 18.26, 19.1, 19.2, 19.3, 19.4, 19.5, 19.6, 19.7, 19.8, 19.9, 19.10, 19.23, 19.24, 19.25, 19.26, 19.27, 19.28, 19.29, 19.30, 19.31, 19.32, 19.33, 19.34, 19.35, 19.36, 19.37, 19.38, 19.39, 19.40, 19.41, 20.2, 20.3, 20.4, 20.5, 20.6, 20.7, 20.8, 20.9, 20.10, 20.11, 20.12, 20.13, 20.14, 20.15, 20.17, 20.18, 20.19, 20.20, 20.21, 20.22, 20.23, 20.24, 20.25, 20.26, 20.27, 20.28, 20.29, 20.30, 20.31, 20.32, 20.33, 20.34, 20.35, 20.36, 20.37, 20.38, 21.28, 22.6, 22.7, 22.8, 22.9, 22.10, 22.11, 22.12, 22.13, 22.14, 22.15, 22.16, 22.17, 22.18, 22.19, 22.20, 22.21, 25.18, 25.19, 26.9, 26.10, 26.11, 26.12, 26.13, 26.14, 26.15, 26.16, 26.17, 26.18, 26.19, 26.20, 26.21, 26.22, 26.23, 27.21, 28.3, 28.4, 28.5, 28.6, 28.7, 28.8, 28.9, 28.10, 28.11, 28.12, 28.13, 28.14, 28.15, 28.16, 28.17, 28.18, 28.19, 28.20, 28.21, 28.22, 28.23, 28.24, 28.25, 28.26, 28.27, 28.28, 28.29, 28.30, 28.31 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.1. The first book I wrote, Theophilus, concerned all that Jesus began both to do and to teach
30. New Testament, Apocalypse, 21.1-21.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

21.1. I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth have passed away, and the sea is no more. 21.2. I saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, made ready like a bride adorned for her husband. 21.3. I heard a loud voice out of heaven saying, "Behold, God's dwelling is with men, and he will dwell with them, and they will be his people, and God himself will be with them as their God. 21.4. He will wipe away from them every tear from their eyes. Death will be no more; neither will there be mourning, nor crying, nor pain, any more. The first things have passed away. 21.5. He who sits on the throne said, "Behold, I am making all things new." He said, "Write, for these words of God are faithful and true.
31. New Testament, Philemon, 24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

32. New Testament, Colossians, 2.8, 3.1, 4.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.8. Be careful that you don't let anyone rob you through his philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the elements of the world, and not after Christ. 3.1. If then you were raised together with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated on the right hand of God. 4.14. Luke, the beloved physician, and Demas greet you.
33. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.1, 1.4-1.15, 5.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus through the will of God, to the saints who are at Ephesus, and the faithful in Christ Jesus: 1.4. even as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we would be holy and without blemish before him in love; 1.5. having predestined us for adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his desire 1.6. to the praise of the glory of his grace, by which he freely bestowed favor on us in the Beloved 1.7. in whom we have our redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of his grace 1.8. which he made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence 1.9. making known to us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he purposed in him 1.10. to an administration of the fullness of the times, to sum up all things in Christ, the things in the heavens, and the things on the earth, in him; 1.11. in whom also we were assigned an inheritance, having been foreordained according to the purpose of him who works all things after the counsel of his will; 1.12. to the end that we should be to the praise of his glory, we who had before hoped in Christ: 1.13. in whom you also, having heard the word of the truth, the gospel of your salvation, -- in whom, having also believed, you were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise 1.14. who is a pledge of our inheritance, to the redemption of God's own possession, to the praise of his glory. 1.15. For this cause I also, having heard of the faith in the Lord Jesus which is among you, and the love which you have toward all the saints 5.14. Therefore he says, "Awake, you who sleep, and arise from the dead, and Christ will shine on you.
34. New Testament, Galatians, 1.17-1.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.17. nor did I go up to Jerusalem to those whowere apostles before me, but I went away into Arabia. Then I returnedto Damascus. 1.18. Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem tovisit Peter, and stayed with him fifteen days. 1.19. But of the otherapostles I saw no one, except James, the Lord's brother. 1.20. Nowabout the things which I write to you, behold, before God, I'm notlying. 1.21. Then I came to the regions of Syria and Cilicia. 1.22. Iwas still unknown by face to the assemblies of Judea which were inChrist 1.23. but they only heard: "He who once persecuted us nowpreaches the faith that he once tried to destroy. 1.24. And theyglorified God in me.
35. New Testament, Hebrews, 12.18-12.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.18. For you have not come to a mountain that might be touched, and that burned with fire, and to blackness, darkness, tempest 12.19. the sound of a trumpet, and the voice of words; which those who heard it begged that not one more word should be spoken to them 12.20. for they could not stand that which was commanded, "If even an animal touches the mountain, it shall be stoned; 12.21. and so fearful was the appearance, that Moses said, "I am terrified and trembling. 12.22. But you have come to Mount Zion, and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to innumerable hosts of angels
36. New Testament, Philippians, 1.27, 2.6-2.11, 2.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.27. Only let your manner of life be worthy of the gospel of Christ, that, whether I come and see you or am absent, I may hear of your state, that you stand firm in one spirit, with one soul striving for the faith of the gospel; 2.6. who, existing in the form of God, didn't consider it robbery to be equal with God 2.7. but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of men. 2.8. And being found in human form, he humbled himself, becoming obedient to death, yes, the death of the cross. 2.9. Therefore God also highly exalted him, and gave to him the name which is above every name; 2.10. that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those in heaven, those on earth, and those under the earth 2.11. and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. 2.17. Yes, and if I am poured out on the sacrifice and service of your faith, I rejoice, and rejoice with you all.
37. New Testament, Romans, 1.2, 1.16, 1.18-1.28, 1.30-1.31, 2.1, 2.14-2.15, 3.9, 3.25-3.26, 8.22, 10.1-10.22, 10.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. which he promised before through his prophets in the holy Scriptures 1.16. For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God for salvation for everyone who believes; for the Jew first, and also for the Greek. 1.18. For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness 1.19. because that which is known of God is revealed in them, for God revealed it to them. 1.20. For the invisible things of him since the creation of the world are clearly seen, being perceived through the things that are made, even his everlasting power and divinity; that they may be without excuse. 1.21. Because, knowing God, they didn't glorify him as God, neither gave thanks, but became vain in their reasoning, and their senseless heart was darkened. 1.22. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools 1.23. and traded the glory of the incorruptible God for the likeness of an image of corruptible man, and of birds, and four-footed animals, and creeping things. 1.24. Therefore God also gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to uncleanness, that their bodies should be dishonored among themselves 1.25. who exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen. 1.26. For this reason, God gave them up to vile passions. For their women changed the natural function into that which is against nature. 1.27. Likewise also the men, leaving the natural function of the woman, burned in their lust toward one another, men doing what is inappropriate with men, and receiving in themselves the due penalty of their error. 1.28. Even as they refused to have God in their knowledge, God gave them up to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not fitting; 1.30. backbiters, hateful to God, insolent, haughty, boastful, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents 1.31. without understanding, covet-breakers, without natural affection, unforgiving, unmerciful; 2.1. Therefore you are without excuse, O man, whoever you are who judge. For in that which you judge another, you condemn yourself. For you who judge practice the same things. 2.14. (for when Gentiles who don't have the law do by nature the things of the law, these, not having the law, are a law to themselves 2.15. in that they show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience testifying with them, and their thoughts among themselves accusing or else excusing them) 3.9. What then? Are we better than they? No, in no way. For we previously charged both Jews and Greeks, that they are all under sin. 3.25. whom God set forth to be an atoning sacrifice, through faith in his blood, for a demonstration of his righteousness through the passing over of prior sins, in God's forbearance; 3.26. to demonstrate his righteousness at this present time; that he might himself be just, and the justifier of him who has faith in Jesus. 8.22. For we know that the whole creation groans and travails in pain together until now. 10.1. Brothers, my heart's desire and my prayer to God is for Israel, that they may be saved. 10.2. For I testify about them that they have a zeal for God, but not according to knowledge. 10.3. For being ignorant of God's righteousness, and seeking to establish their own righteousness, they didn't subject themselves to the righteousness of God. 10.4. For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to everyone who believes. 10.5. For Moses writes about the righteousness of the law, "The one who does them will live by them. 10.6. But the righteousness which is of faith says this, "Don't say in your heart, 'Who will ascend into heaven?' (that is, to bring Christ down); 10.7. or, 'Who will descend into the abyss?' (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead.) 10.8. But what does it say? "The word is near you, in your mouth, and in your heart;" that is, the word of faith, which we preach: 10.9. that if you will confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus, and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. 10.10. For with the heart, one believes unto righteousness; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation. 10.11. For the Scripture says, "Whoever believes in him will not be put to shame. 10.12. For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; for the same Lord is Lord of all, and is rich to all who call on him. 10.13. For, "Whoever will call on the name of the Lord will be saved. 10.14. How then will they call on him in whom they have not believed? How will they believe in him whom they have not heard? How will they hear without a preacher? 10.15. And how will they preach unless they are sent? As it is written: "How beautiful are the feet of those who preach the gospel of peace, Who bring glad tidings of good things! 10.16. But they didn't all listen to the glad news. For Isaiah says, "Lord, who has believed our report? 10.17. So faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God. 10.18. But I say, didn't they hear? Yes, most assuredly, "Their sound went out into all the earth, Their words to the ends of the world. 10.19. But I ask, didn't Israel know? First Moses says, "I will provoke you to jealousy with that which is no nation, With a nation void of understanding I will make you angry. 10.20. Isaiah is very bold, and says, "I was found by those who didn't seek me. I was revealed to those who didn't ask for me. 10.21. But as to Israel he says, "All day long I stretched out my hands to a disobedient and contrary people.
38. New Testament, Titus, 1.1-1.2, 1.4, 1.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, a servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus Christ, according to the faith of God's elect, and the knowledge of the truth which is according to godliness 1.2. in hope of eternal life, which God, who can't lie, promised before eternal times; 1.4. to Titus, my true child according to a common faith: Grace, mercy, and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ our Savior. 1.12. One of them, a prophet of their own, said, "Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, and idle gluttons.
39. New Testament, John, 1.18, 4.24, 11.11-11.14, 11.24, 14.6, 15.19, 18.37, 20.27, 21.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. 4.24. God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth. 11.11. He said these things, and after that, he said to them, "Our friend, Lazarus, has fallen asleep, but I am going so that I may awake him out of sleep. 11.12. The disciples therefore said, "Lord, if he has fallen asleep, he will recover. 11.13. Now Jesus had spoken of his death, but they thought that he spoke of taking rest in sleep. 11.14. So Jesus said to them plainly then, "Lazarus is dead. 11.24. Martha said to him, "I know that he will rise again in the resurrection at the last day. 14.6. Jesus said to him, "I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father, except through me. 15.19. If you were of the world, the world would love its own. But because you are not of the world, since I chose you out of the world, therefore the world hates you. 18.37. Pilate therefore said to him, "Are you a king then?"Jesus answered, "You say that I am a king. For this reason I have been born, and for this reason I have come into the world, that I should testify to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth listens to my voice. 20.27. Then he said to Thomas, "Reach here your finger, and see my hands. Reach here your hand, and put it into my side. Don't be unbelieving, but believing. 21.14. This is now the third time that Jesus was revealed to his disciples, after he had risen from the dead.
40. New Testament, Luke, 1.1-1.4, 3.22-3.38, 9.19, 12.35-12.38, 12.45-12.48, 18.11, 19.8, 24.6, 24.39 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Since many have undertaken to set in order a narrative concerning those matters which have been fulfilled among us 1.2. even as those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word delivered them to us 1.3. it seemed good to me also, having traced the course of all things accurately from the first, to write to you in order, most excellent Theophilus; 1.4. that you might know the certainty concerning the things in which you were instructed. 3.22. and the Holy Spirit descended in a bodily form as a dove on him; and a voice came out of the sky, saying "You are my beloved Son. In you I am well pleased. 3.23. Jesus himself, when he began to teach, was about thirty years old, being the son (as was supposed) of Joseph, the son of Heli 3.24. the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, the son of Melchi, the son of Jannai, the son of Joseph 3.25. the son of Mattathias, the son of Amos, the son of Nahum, the son of Esli, the son of Naggai 3.26. the son of Maath, the son of Mattathias, the son of Semein, the son of Joseph, the son of Judah 3.27. the son of Joa, the son of Rhesa, the son of Zerubbabel, the son of Shealtiel, the son of Neri 3.28. the son of Melchi, the son of Addi, the son of Cosam, the son of Elmodam, the son of Er 3.29. the son of Josa, the son of Eliezer, the son of Jorim, the son of Matthat, the son of Levi 3.30. the son of Simeon, the son of Judah, the son of Joseph, the son of Jo, the son of Eliakim 3.31. the son of Melea, the son of Me, the son of Mattatha, the son of Nathan, the son of David 3.32. the son of Jesse, the son of Obed, the son of Boaz, the son of Salmon, the son of Nahshon 3.33. the son of Amminadab, the son of Aram, the son of Joram, the son of Hezron, the son of Perez, the son of Judah 3.34. the son of Jacob, the son of Isaac, the son of Abraham, the son of Terah, the son of Nahor 3.35. the son of Serug, the son of Reu, the son of Peleg, the son of Eber, the son of Shelah 3.36. the son of Cai, the son of Arphaxad, the son of Shem, the son of Noah, the son of Lamech 3.38. the son of Enos, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God. 9.19. They answered, "'John the Baptizer,' but others say, 'Elijah,' and others, that one of the old prophets is risen again. 12.35. Let your loins be girded and your lamps burning. 12.36. Be like men watching for their lord, when he returns from the marriage feast; that, when he comes and knocks, they may immediately open to him. 12.37. Blessed are those servants, whom the lord will find watching when he comes. Most assuredly I tell you, that he will dress himself, and make them recline, and will come and serve them. 12.38. They will be blessed if he comes in the second or third watch, and finds them so. 12.45. But if that servant says in his heart, 'My lord delays his coming,' and begins to beat the menservants and the maidservants, and to eat and drink, and to be drunken 12.46. then the lord of that servant will come in a day when he isn't expecting him, and in an hour that he doesn't know, and will cut him in two, and place his portion with the unfaithful. 12.47. That servant, who knew his lord's will, and didn't prepare, nor do what he wanted, will be beaten with many stripes 12.48. but he who didn't know, and did things worthy of stripes, will be beaten with few stripes. To whoever much is given, of him will much be required; and to whom much was entrusted, of him more will be asked. 18.11. The Pharisee stood and prayed to himself like this: 'God, I thank you, that I am not like the rest of men, extortioners, unrighteous, adulterers, or even like this tax collector. 19.8. Zacchaeus stood and said to the Lord, "Behold, Lord, half of my goods I give to the poor. If I have wrongfully exacted anything of anyone, I restore four times as much. 24.6. He isn't here, but is risen. Remember what he told you when he was still in Galilee 24.39. See my hands and my feet, that it is truly me. Touch me and see, for a spirit doesn't have flesh and bones, as you see that I have.
41. New Testament, Mark, 6.16, 9.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.16. But Herod, when he heard this, said, "This is John, whom I beheaded. He has risen from the dead. 9.9. As they were coming down from the mountain, he charged them that they should tell no one what things they had seen, until after the Son of Man had risen from the dead.
42. New Testament, Matthew, 11.5, 12.41 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.5. the blind receive their sight, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, and the poor have good news preached to them. 12.41. The men of Nineveh will stand up in the judgment with this generation, and will condemn it, for they repented at the preaching of Jonah; and behold, someone greater than Jonah is here.
43. Plutarch, Whether An Old Man Should Engage In Public Affairs, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

44. Plutarch, On Superstition, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

45. Plutarch, On Tranquility of Mind, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

477c. and he comes to despise those who bewail and abuse life as a land of calamities or a place of exile appointed here for our souls? And Iam delighted with Diogenes, who, when he saw his host in Sparta preparing which much ado for a certain festival, said, "Does not a good man consider every day a festival?" and a very splendid one, to be sure, if we are sound of mind. For the universe is a most holy temple and most worthy of a god; into it man is introduced through birth as a spectator, not of hand-made or immovable images, but of those sensible representations of knowable things that the divine mind, says Plato, has revealed, representations which have innate within themselves the beginnings of life and motion
46. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 41.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

47. Suetonius, Nero, 16.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

48. Tacitus, Histories, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.5.  Whatever their origin, these rites are maintained by their antiquity: the other customs of the Jews are base and abominable, and owe their persistence to their depravity. For the worst rascals among other peoples, renouncing their ancestral religions, always kept sending tribute and contributions to Jerusalem, thereby increasing the wealth of the Jews; again, the Jews are extremely loyal toward one another, and always ready to show compassion, but toward every other people they feel only hate and enmity. They sit apart at meals, and they sleep apart, and although as a race, they are prone to lust, they abstain from intercourse with foreign women; yet among themselves nothing is unlawful. They adopted circumcision to distinguish themselves from other peoples by this difference. Those who are converted to their ways follow the same practice, and the earliest lesson they receive is to despise the gods, to disown their country, and to regard their parents, children, and brothers as of little account. However, they take thought to increase their numbers; for they regard it as a crime to kill any late-born child, and they believe that the souls of those who are killed in battle or by the executioner are immortal: hence comes their passion for begetting children, and their scorn of death. They bury the body rather than burn it, thus following the Egyptians' custom; they likewise bestow the same care on the dead, and hold the same belief about the world below; but their ideas of heavenly things are quite the opposite. The Egyptians worship many animals and monstrous images; the Jews conceive of one god only, and that with the mind alone: they regard as impious those who make from perishable materials representations of gods in man's image; that supreme and eternal being is to them incapable of representation and without end. Therefore they set up no statues in their cities, still less in their temples; this flattery is not paid their kings, nor this honour given to the Caesars. But since their priests used to chant to the accompaniment of pipes and cymbals and to wear garlands of ivy, and because a golden vine was found in their temple, some have thought that they were devotees of Father Liber, the conqueror of the East, in spite of the incongruity of their customs. For Liber established festive rites of a joyous nature, while the ways of the Jews are preposterous and mean.
49. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 5.12.82.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

50. Lucian, Demonax, 11 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

51. Minucius Felix, Octavius, 27 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

52. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.7.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.7.2. Ptolemy fortified the entrance into Egypt and awaited the attack of the Cyrenians. But while on the march Magas was in formed that the Marmaridae,a tribe of Libyan nomads, had revolted, and thereupon fell back upon Cyrene . Ptolemy resolved to pursue, but was checked owing to the following circumstance. When he was preparing to meet the attack of Magas, he engaged mercenaries, including some four thousand Gauls. Discovering that they were plotting to seize Egypt, he led them through the river to a deserted island. There they perished at one another's hands or by famine.
53. Philostratus The Athenian, Life of Apollonius, 4.19, 6.3 (2nd cent. CE

4.19. Many were the discourses which according to Damis the sage delivered at Athens; though he did not write down all of them, but only the more indispensable ones in which he handled great subjects. He took for the topic of his first discourse the matter of rite and ceremonies, and this because he saw that the Athenians were much addicted to sacrifices; and in it he explained how a religious man could best adapt his sacrifice, his libations, or prayers to any particular divinity, and at what hours of day and night he ought to offer them. And it is possible to obtain a book of Apollonius, in which he gives instructions in his own words. But Athens he discussed these topics with a view to improving his own wisdom and that of others in the first place, and in the second of convincing the hierophant of blasphemy and ignorance in the remarks he had made; for who could continue to regard as one impure in his religion a man who taught philosophically how the worship of the gods is to be conducted? 6.3. With such conversations, the occasions providing as usual the topics he talked about, he turned his steps towards Memnon; an Egyptian showed them the way, of whom Damis gives the following account: Timasion was the name of this stripling, who was just emerging from boyhood, and was now in the prime of life and strength. He had a stepmother who had fallen in love with him; and when he rejected her overtures, she set upon him and by way of spiting him had poisoned his father's mind against him, condescending to a lower intrigue than ever Phaedra had done, for she accused him of being effeminate, and of finding his pleasure in pederasts rather than in women. He had accordingly abandoned Naucratis, for it was there that all this happened, and was living in the neighborhood of Memphis; and he had acquired and manned a boat of his own and was plying as a waterman on the Nile. He then, was going down the river when he saw Apollonius sailing up it; and he concluded that the crew consisted of wise men, because he judged them by the cloaks they wore and the books they were hard at work studying. So he asked them whether they would allow one who was so passionately fond of wisdom as himself to share their voyage; and Apollonius said: This youth is wise, my friends, so let him be granted his request. And he further related the story about his stepmother to those of his companions who were nearest to him in a low tone while the stripling was still sailing towards them. But when the ships were alongside of one another, Timasion stepped out of his boat, and after addressing a word or two to his pilot, about the cargo in his own boat, he greeted the company. Apollonius then ordered him to sit down under his eyes, and said: You stripling of Egypt, for you seem to be one of the natives, tell me what you have done of evil or what of good; for in the one case you shall be forgiven by me, in consideration of your youth; but in the other you shall reap my commendation and become a fellow-student of philosophy with me and with these gentlemen. Then noticing that Timasion blushed and checked his impulse to speak, and hesitated whether to say or not what he had been going to say, he pressed his question and repeated it, just as if he had no foreknowledge of the youth at his command. Then Timasion plucked up courage and said: O Heavens, how shall I describe myself? for I am not a bad boy, and yet I do not know whether I ought to be considered a good one, for there is no particular merit in having abstained from wrong. But Apollonius cried: Bravo, my boy, you answer me just as if you were a sage from India; for this was just the sentiment of the divine Iarchas. But tell me how you came to form these opinions, and how long ago; for it strikes me that you have been on your guard against some sin. The youth then began to tell them of his stepmother's infatuation for himself, and of how he had rejected her advances; and when he did so, there was a shout in recognition of the divine inspiration under which Apollonius had foretold these details. Timasion, however, caught them up and said: Most excellent people, what is the matter with you? for my story is one which calls as little for your admiration, I think, as for your ridicule. But Damis said: It was not that we were admiring, but something else which you don't know about yet. As for you, my boy, we praise you because you think that you did nothing very remarkable. And Apollonius said: Do you sacrifice to Aphrodite, my boy? And Timasion answered: Yes, by Zeus, every day; for I consider that this goddess has great influence in human and divine affairs. Thereat Apollonius was delighted beyond measure, and cried: Let us, gentlemen, vote a crown to him for his continence rather than to Hippolytus the son of Theseus, for the latter insulted Aphrodite; and that perhaps is why he never fell a victim to the tender passion, and why love never ran riot in his soul; but he was allotted an austere and unbending nature. But our friend here admits that he is devoted to the goddess, and yet did not respond to his stepmother's guilty overtures, but went away in terror of the goddess herself, in case he were not on his guard against another's evil passions; and the mere aversion to any one of the gods, such as Hippolytus entertained in regard to Aphrodite, I do not class as a form of sobriety; for it is a much greater proof of wisdom and sobriety to speak well of the gods, especially at Athens, where altars are set up in honor even of unknown gods. So great was the interest which he took in Timasion. Nevertheless he called him Hippolytus for the eyes with which he looked at his stepmother. It seemed also that he was a young man who was particular about his person and enhanced its charms by attention to athletic exercises.
54. Tertullian, On The Soul, 9.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

55. Tertullian, On Baptism, 17.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

56. Babylonian Talmud, Zevahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

116b. דאפילו אקשויי נמי לא אקשו ומנא ידעה דאמר מר אין לך כל שר ונגיד שלא בא על רחב הזונה,אמרו בת י' שנים היתה כשיצאו ישראל ממצרים וזנתה [כל] מ' שנה שהיו ישראל במדבר אחר נ' שנה נתגיירה אמרה יהא מחול לי בשכר חבל חלון ופשתים:,אמר מר ועובדי כוכבים בזמן הזה רשאין לעשות כן מנא ה"מ דת"ר (ויקרא יז, א) דבר אל בני ישראל בני ישראל מצווין על שחוטי חוץ ואין העובדי כוכבים מצווין על שחוטי חוץ,לפיכך כל אחד ואחד בונה לו במה לעצמו ומקריב עליה כל מה שירצה א"ר יעקב בר אחא אמר רב אסי אסור לסייען ולעשות שליחותן אמר רבה ולאורינהו [להו] שרי,כי הא דאיפרא הורמיז אימיה דשבור מלכא שדרה קורבנא לרבא שלחה ליה אסקוה ניהליה לשם שמים אמר להו לרב ספרא ולרב אחא בר הונא זילו ודברו תרי עולמי גולאי וחזו היכא דמסקא ימא שירטון ושקלו ציבי חדתי ואפיקו נורא ממרא חדתא ואסקוה ניהליה לשם שמים,א"ל אביי כמאן כר"א בן שמוע דתניא ר' אלעזר בן שמוע אומר מה מזבח שלא ישתמש בו הדיוט אף עצים שלא ישתמש בהן הדיוט והא מודה ר"א בן שמוע בבמה,דתניא כתוב אחד אומר (דברי הימים א כא, כה) ויתן דוד לארנן במקום שקלי זהב משקל שש מאות וגו' וכתיב (שמואל ב כד, כד) ויקן דוד את הגרן ואת הבקר בכסף שקלים חמשים הא כיצד,גובה מכל שבט ושבט חמשים שהן שש מאות רבי אומר משום אבא יוסי בן דוסתאי בקר [ועצים] ומקום מזבח בנ' וכל הבית כולו בשש מאות,ר"א בן שמוע אומר בקר ועצים ומקום מזבח בנ' וכל הבית כולו בשש מאות דכתיב (שמואל ב כד, כב) ויאמר ארונה אל דוד יקח ויעל אדוני המלך [הטוב בעיניו] ראה הבקר לעולה והמוריגים [וכלי הבקר] לעצים ורבא אמר לך התם נמי בחדתי,מאי מוריגים אמר עולא מטה של טורבל מאי מטה של טורבל אמר אביי עיזא דקרקסא דדיישן דישאי אמר אביי מאי קרא (ישעיהו מא, טו) הנה שמתיך למורג חרוץ חדש בעל פיפיות,מקרי ליה רבא לבריה ורמי ליה קראי אהדדי כתיב ויתן דוד לארנן וגו' וכתיב ויקן דוד וגו' הא כיצד גובה מכל שבט ושבט חמשים שהן שש מאות,ואכתי קשיין אהדדי התם כסף הכא זהב אלא ה"ק גובה כסף במשקל שש מאות זהב:,קדשים קלים נאכלים [בכל מחנה ישראל]: אמר רב הונא בכל מקומות ישראל אבל מחנה לא הוי,איתיביה ר"נ לרב הונא ומחנות במדבר לא הואי והא תניא כשם שמחנה במדבר כך מחנה בירושלים מירושלים להר הבית מחנה ישראל מהר הבית לשער נקנור מחנה לויה,מכאן ואילך מחנה שכינה והן הן קלעים שבמדבר,אלא אימא בכל מקום מחנה ישראל פשיטא מהו דתימא איפסלו ביוצא קמ"ל,ואימא ה"נ אמר קרא (במדבר ב, יז) ונסע אהל מועד אע"פ שנסע אהל מועד הוא,תניא רשב"י אומר עוד אחרת היתה וחיל עזרת נשים היא ולא היו עונשין עליה ובשילה לא היו אלא שני מחנות בלבד,הי מינייהו לא הוה אמר רבה מסתברא דמחנה לויה הואי דאי סלקא דעתך מחנה לויה לא הואי 116b. The Gemara replies that Rahab used this phrase euphemistically, to say that their fear was so great bthattheir male organs bwere not evenable to bbecome erect,as “ ikama /i” also means rise. The Gemara asks: bAnd how didRahab bknowthis? The Gemara replies: bAs the Master said: You do not have any prince or rulerat that time bwho did not engage in intercourse with Rahab the prostitute. /b,The Gemara adds that the Sages bsaidwith regard to Rahab: bShe was ten years old when the Jewish people left Egypt, and she engaged in prostitution all forty years that the Jewish people were in the wilderness. Afterthat, when she was bfifty yearsold, she bconvertedwhen the two spies visited her. bShe said: Mayall of my sins of prostitution bbe forgiven me as a rewardfor having endangered myself with the brope, window, and flax,by means of which I saved Joshua’s two spies. Rahab first concealed the spies in stalks of flax, and later assisted them in exiting her home by lowering them from the window with a rope (see Joshua 2:6 and 2:15).,§ bThe Master saidin the ibaraitathat discussed the sacrifice of offerings before the construction of the Tabernacle: bAnd today gentiles are permitted to do so,i.e., to sacrifice offerings outside the Temple courtyard, despite the fact that this is forbidden for the Jews. The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? bAs the Sages taughtwith regard to the verses that prohibit the slaughter of offerings outside the Temple: b“Speakto Aaron, and to his sons, and btoall bthe children of Israel”(Leviticus 17:2). This indicates that only bJews are commanded with regard toofferings bslaughtered outsidethe Temple, bbut gentiles are not commanded with regard toofferings bslaughtered outsidethe Temple., bTherefore, each and everygentile may, if he desires, bconstructa private baltar for himself, and sacrifice upon it whatever he desires. Rabbi Ya’akov bar Aḥa saysthat bRav Asi says:Although it is permitted for gentiles to sacrifice offerings outside the Temple courtyard, it is bprohibitedfor a Jew bto assist them or to fulfill their agencyin this matter, as sacrificing in this manner is forbidden for a Jew. bRabba said: But to instruct themhow to sacrifice outside the Temple is bpermitted. /b,This is bsimilar to thatincident in bwhich Ifera Hurmiz, the mother of King Shapurof Persia, bsent an offering to Rava,with which bshe sentthis message bto him: Sacrifice this for me, for the sake of Heaven.Rava bsaid to Rav Safra and to Rav Aḥa bar Huna: Go, take twogentile byouths of the same age,i.e., similar to one another, so that the sacrifice will be performed with maximal beauty, band see where the seacurrently braises silt [ isirton /i],which is a place that no one has used before. bAnd take new wood and bring out fire from new vessels, andthe two youths will bsacrificethe offering bfor her, for the sake of Heaven. /b, bAbaye said toRava: bIn accordance with whoseopinion was the instruction to sacrifice exclusively with new wood? Was it bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Elazar ben Shammua? As it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Elazar ben Shammua says: Just asthe baltaris a place bthat is not used by an ordinaryperson, bso too,the bwoodthat will be used bmust not be used by an ordinaryperson. The Gemara asks: bBut doesn’t Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua concedethat binthe case of a private baltarthe wood need not be new?, bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to David’s purchase of the site of the Temple, when he wished to build an altar there at God’s instruction, bone verse states: “So David gave to Or for the place six hundred shekels of gold by weight.And David built there an altar to the Lord, and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings” (I Chronicles 21:25–26). bAnd it is writtenelsewhere: b“So David bought the threshing floor and the oxen for fifty shekels of silver.And David built there an altar to the Lord, and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings” (II Samuel 24:24–25). bHowcan bthesetexts be reconciled?,David would bcollect from each tribeof the twelve tribes bfiftyshekels, bwhich area sum of bsix hundredshekels. bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays in the name of Abba Yosei ben Dostaithat there is another explanation: David purchased the bcattle andthe bwood and the site ofthe baltar for fiftyshekels, bandhe purchased the site of bthe entire Temple for six hundredshekels., bRabbi Elazar ben Shammua sayslikewise: David purchased the bcattle andthe bwood and the site ofthe baltar for fiftyshekels, bandthe site of bthe entire Temple for six hundredshekels, bas it is written: “And Araunah said to David: Let my lord the king take and offer that which is good in his eyes; see the cattle for the burnt offering, and the threshing tools, and the implements of the cattle for the wood”(II Samuel 24:22), to which David replied: “No, but I will buy it from you at a price” (II Samuel 24:24). Consequently, according to the opinion of Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua, David purchased the threshing instruments and the furniture of the oxen for use as wood. bAnd Ravacould have bsaid to youin response: bThere too,in the case of David, the verse is dealing bwith newvessels that had not yet been used.,The Gemara asks: bWhatare b“the threshing instruments [ imorigim /i]”mentioned in the verse? bUlla said:It is ba iturbalbed.The Gemara asks: bWhatis ba iturbalbed? Abaye said:It is ba heavy, serrated board [ idekurkesa /i],used bfor threshing. Abaye said: What is the versefrom which the meaning of imorigimis derived? b“Behold, I have made you a new threshing board [ imorag /i] having sharp teeth; you shall thresh the mountains, and beat them small, and shall make the hills as chaff”(Isaiah 41:15). This verse indicates that a imoraghas grooves and teeth, and is used for threshing.,With regard to the contradiction between the verses that relate the sum of shekels paid by David, the Gemara says that bRavawas bteachingthese verses bto his son, and raised a contradiction between verses: It is written: “So David gave to Or… /bsix hundred shekels of gold by weight” (I Chronicles 21:25), band it is written: “So David bought… /bfifty shekels of silver” (II Samuel 24:24). bHowcan bthesetexts be reconciled? David would bcollect from each tribeof the twelve tribes bfiftyshekels, bwhich area sum of bsix hundredshekels.,The Gemara asks: bButthese verses bare still difficult,as they contradict bone another,since btherein the book of Samuel it is stated that David paid bsilvershekels, while bherein Chronicles it is stated that he paid bgoldshekels. The Gemara replies: bRather, thisis what the verses are bsaying:David would bcollectfrom each tribe bsilvershekels that had the value of fifty gold shekels in weight, so that the value of the final sum was equal to bsix hundred goldshekels.,§ The mishna teaches that once the Tabernacle was established in the wilderness, bofferings of lesser sanctitywere beaten throughout the camp of Israel. Rav Huna says:This means that offerings of lesser sanctity were eaten bin anyof the bplacesthat ban Israelitewould be found. bBut there was noactual bcamp,outside of which it was prohibited to eat the offerings., bRav Naḥman raised an objection to Rav Huna: And were there not campswhen the Jews were bin the wilderness? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita(see iTosefta /i, iKelim Bava Kamma1:12): bJust asthere was ba camp in the wildernessthat was divided into different sections, with each section having particular ihalakhotpertaining to the consumption of offerings and to the ritually impure individuals who were prohibited from entering there, bso too,there is a corresponding bcamp in Jerusalem:The area bfromthe walls of bJerusalem to the Temple Mounthas the status of bthe Israelite camp.The area bfrom the Temple Mount to Nicanor’s Gateat the entrance to the Temple courtyard has the status of bthe Levite camp. /b, bFrom thatpoint bonward,i.e., from the entrance to the Temple courtyard, the area has the status of bthe camp of the Divine Presence; andthe Temple courtyard has the same status as the area within bthe curtainssurrounding the courtyard of the Tabernacle bin the wilderness. /b,The Gemara replies: bRather, saythat Rav Huna meant that when the Tabernacle was in the wilderness, offerings of lesser sanctity could be consumed bwherever the Israelite campwas located. The Gemara asks: Isn’t that bobvious?Wherever the Jews were located in the wilderness was where the Israelite camp was. The Gemara responds: bLest you saythat during the periods of travel between encampments the offerings were taken outside the Israelite camp, and bwerethereby bdisqualified due tothe meat’s bleavingthe area within the partitions, Rav Huna bteaches usthat the meat is not disqualified.,The Gemara asks: bButwhy not bsaythat this is bindeed so,i.e., that the meat is disqualified because it left the camp? The Gemara answers that bthe verse states: “Then the Tent of Meeting,with the camp of the Levites, bshall travelin the midst of the camps; as they encamp, so shall they travel” (Numbers 2:17), which indicates that balthough it traveledfrom its place bit isstill bthe Tent of Meeting.Similarly, the Israelite camp retains its status even while traveling.,§ With regard to the division of Jerusalem into three camps, bit is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: There was an additionalcamp in Jerusalem, within the area of the Temple Mount, band itwas bthe rampart of the women’s courtyard.The Sages rendered it prohibited for certain ritually impure individuals to enter that area, bbut they would not punishthem bforentering bit,as by Torah law it does not constitute a distinct section of the Temple Mount but has the status of the Levite camp. The ibaraitaadds: bAndwhen the Tabernacle was bin Shiloh there were only two camps. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhich ofthe three camps that were present in the wilderness bwas notpresent in Shiloh? bRabba said: It stands to reason that the Levite camp waspresent, but the Israelite camp was not. bAs, if it enters your mind to saythat bthe Levite camp was notpresent in Shiloh
57. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 1.49, 6.104 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.104. So they get rid of geometry and music and all such studies. Anyhow, when somebody showed Diogenes a clock, he pronounced it a serviceable instrument to save one from being late for dinner. Again, to a man who gave a musical recital before him he said:By men's minds states are ordered well, and households,Not by the lyre's twanged strings or flute's trilled notes.They hold further that Life according to Virtue is the End to be sought, as Antisthenes says in his Heracles: exactly like the Stoics. For indeed there is a certain close relationship between the two schools. Hence it has been said that Cynicism is a short cut to virtue; and after the same pattern did Zeno of Citium live his life.
58. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 4.3.1, 4.23.2, 4.26.10 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

4.3.1. After Trajan had reigned for nineteen and a half years Aelius Hadrian became his successor in the empire. To him Quadratus addressed a discourse containing an apology for our religion, because certain wicked men had attempted to trouble the Christians. The work is still in the hands of a great many of the brethren, as also in our own, and furnishes clear proofs of the man's understanding and of his apostolic orthodoxy. 4.23.2. Among these is the one addressed to the Lacedaemonians, containing instruction in the orthodox faith and an admonition to peace and unity; the one also addressed to the Athenians, exciting them to faith and to the life prescribed by the Gospel, which he accuses them of esteeming lightly, as if they had almost apostatized from the faith since the martyrdom of their ruler Publius, which had taken place during the persecutions of those days. 4.26.10. But your pious fathers corrected their ignorance, having frequently rebuked in writing many who dared to attempt new measures against them. Among them your grandfather Hadrian appears to have written to many others, and also to Fundanus, the proconsul and governor of Asia. And your father, when you also were ruling with him, wrote to the cities, forbidding them to take any new measures against us; among the rest to the Larissaeans, to the Thessalonians, to the Athenians, and to all the Greeks.
59. Origen, Against Celsus, 3.29-3.30, 3.43 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.29. According to Celsus, then, Apollo wished the Metapontines to treat Aristeas as a god. But as the Metapontines considered the evidence in favour of Aristeas being a man - and probably not a virtuous one - to be stronger than the declaration of the oracle to the effect that he was a god or worthy of divine honours, they for that reason would not obey Apollo, and consequently no one regarded Aristeas as a god. But with respect to Jesus we would say that, as it was of advantage to the human race to accept him as the Son of God- God come in a human soul and body - and as this did not seem to be advantageous to the gluttonous appetites of the demons which love bodies, and to those who deem them to be gods on that account, the demons that are on earth (which are supposed to be gods by those who are not instructed in the nature of demons), and also their worshippers, were desirous to prevent the spread of the doctrine of Jesus; for they saw that the libations and odours in which they greedily delighted were being swept away by the prevalence of the instructions of Jesus. But the God who sent Jesus dissipated all the conspiracies of the demons, and made the Gospel of Jesus to prevail throughout the whole world for the conversion and reformation of men, and caused Churches to be everywhere established in opposition to those of superstitious and licentious and wicked men; for such is the character of the multitudes who constitute the citizens in the assemblies of the various cities. Whereas the Churches of God which are instructed by Christ, when carefully contrasted with the assemblies of the districts in which they are situated, are as beacons in the world; for who would not admit that even the inferior members of the Church, and those who in comparison with the better are less worthy, are nevertheless more excellent than many of those who belong to the assemblies in the different districts? 3.30. For the Church of God, e.g., which is at Athens, is a meek and stable body, as being one which desires to please God, who is over all things; whereas the assembly of the Athenians is given to sedition, and is not at all to be compared to the Church of God in that city. And you may say the same thing of the Church of God at Corinth, and of the assembly of the Corinthian people; and also of the Church of God at Alexandria, and of the assembly of the people of Alexandria. And if he who hears this be a candid man, and one who investigates things with a desire to ascertain the truth, he will be filled with admiration of Him who not only conceived the design, but also was able to secure in all places the establishment of Churches of God alongside of the assemblies of the people in each city. In like manner, also, in comparing the council of the Church of God with the council in any city, you would find that certain councillors of the Church are worthy to rule in the city of God, if there be any such city in the whole world; whereas the councillors in all other places exhibit in their characters no quality worthy of the conventional superiority which they appear to enjoy over their fellow citizens. And so, too, you must compare the ruler of the Church in each city with the ruler of the people of the city, in order to observe that even among those councillors and rulers of the Church of God who come very far short of their duty, and who lead more indolent lives than others who are more energetic, it is nevertheless possible to discover a general superiority in what relates to the progress of virtue over the characters of the councillors and rulers in the various cities. 3.43. He next says of us, that we ridicule those who worship Jupiter, because his tomb is pointed out in the island of Crete; and yet we worship him who rose from the tomb, although ignorant of the grounds on which the Cretans observe such a custom. Observe now that he thus undertakes the defense of the Cretans, and of Jupiter, and of his tomb, alluding obscurely to the allegorical notions, in conformity with which the myth regarding Jupiter is said to have been invented; while he assails us who acknowledge that our Jesus has been buried, indeed, but who maintain that He has also been raised from the tomb - a statement which the Cretans have not yet made regarding Jupiter. But since he appears to admit that the tomb of Jupiter is in Crete, when he says that we are ignorant of the grounds on which the Cretans observe such a custom, we reply that Callimachus the Cyrenian, who had read innumerable poetic compositions, and nearly the whole of Greek history, was not acquainted with any allegorical meaning which was contained in the stories about Jupiter and his tomb; and accordingly he accuses the Cretans in his hymn addressed to Jupiter, in the words: - The Cretans are always liars: for your tomb, O king, The Cretans have reared; and yet you did not die, For you ever live. Now he who said, You did not die, for you ever live, in denying that Jupiter's tomb was in Crete, records nevertheless that in Jupiter there was the beginning of death. But birth upon earth is the beginning of death. And his words run:- And Rhea bore you among the Parrhasians; - whereas he ought to have seen, after denying that the birth of Jupiter took place in Crete because of his tomb, that it was quite congruous with his birth in Arcadia that he who was born should also die. And the following is the manner in which Callimachus speaks of these things: O Jupiter, some say that you were born on the mountains of Ida, others in Arcadia. Which of them, O father, have lied? The Cretans are always liars, etc. Now it is Celsus who made us discuss these topics, by the unfair manner in which he deals with Jesus, in giving his assent to what is related about His death and burial, but regarding as an invention His resurrection from the dead, although this was not only foretold by innumerable prophets, but many proofs also were given of His having appeared after death.
60. Augustine, The City of God, 14.3, 14.5, 14.8, 14.26-14.27 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

14.3. But if any one says that the flesh is the cause of all vices and ill conduct, inasmuch as the soul lives wickedly only because it is moved by the flesh, it is certain he has not carefully considered the whole nature of man. For the corruptible body, indeed, weighs down the soul. Wisdom 9:15 Whence, too, the apostle, speaking of this corruptible body, of which he had shortly before said, though our outward man perish, 2 Corinthians 4:16 says, We know that if our earthly house of this tabernacle were dissolved, we have a building of God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. For in this we groan, earnestly desiring to be clothed upon with our house which is from heaven: if so be that being clothed we shall not be found naked. For we that are in this tabernacle do groan, being burdened: not for that we would be unclothed, but clothed upon, that mortality might be swallowed up in life. 2 Corinthians 5:1-4 We are then burdened with this corruptible body; but knowing that the cause of this burdensomeness is not the nature and substance of the body, but its corruption, we do not desire to be deprived of the body, but to be clothed with its immortality. For then, also, there will be a body, but it shall no longer be a burden, being no longer corruptible. At present, then, the corruptible body presses down the soul, and the earthly tabernacle weighs down the mind that muses upon many things, nevertheless they are in error who suppose that all the evils of the soul proceed from the body. Virgil, indeed, seems to express the sentiments of Plato in the beautiful lines, where he says - A fiery strength inspires their lives, An essence that from heaven derives, Though clogged in part by limbs of clay And the dull 'vesture of decay;' but though he goes on to mention the four most common mental emotions - desire, fear, joy, sorrow - with the intention of showing that the body is the origin of all sins and vices, saying - Hence wild desires and grovelling fears, And human laughter, human tears, Immured in dungeon-seeming nights They look abroad, yet see no light, yet we believe quite otherwise. For the corruption of the body, which weighs down the soul, is not the cause but the punishment of the first sin; and it was not the corruptible flesh that made the soul sinful, but the sinful soul that made the flesh corruptible. And though from this corruption of the flesh there arise certain incitements to vice, and indeed vicious desires, yet we must not attribute to the flesh all the vices of a wicked life, in case we thereby clear the devil of all these, for he has no flesh. For though we cannot call the devil a fornicator or drunkard, or ascribe to him any sensual indulgence (though he is the secret instigator and prompter of those who sin in these ways), yet he is exceedingly proud and envious. And this viciousness has so possessed him, that on account of it he is reserved in chains of darkness to everlasting punishment. Now these vices, which have dominion over the devil, the apostle attributes to the flesh, which certainly the devil has not. For he says hatred, variance, emulations, strife, envying are the works of the flesh; and of all these evils pride is the origin and head, and it rules in the devil though he has no flesh. For who shows more hatred to the saints? Who is more at variance with them? Who more envious, bitter, and jealous? And since he exhibits all these works, though he has no flesh, how are they works of the flesh, unless because they are the works of man, who is, as I said, spoken of under the name of flesh? For it is not by having flesh, which the devil has not, but by living according to himself - that is, according to man - that man became like the devil. For the devil too, wished to live according to himself when he did not abide in the truth; so that when he lied, this was not of God, but of himself, who is not only a liar, but the father of lies, he being the first who lied, and the originator of lying as of sin. 14.8. Those emotions which the Greeks call εὐπαθείαι, and which Cicero calls constantiœ, the Stoics would restrict to three; and, instead of three perturbations in the soul of the wise man, they substituted severally, in place of desire, will; in place of joy, contentment; and for fear, caution; and as to sickness or pain, which we, to avoid ambiguity, preferred to call sorrow, they denied that it could exist in the mind of a wise man. Will, they say, seeks the good, for this the wise man does. Contentment has its object in good that is possessed, and this the wise man continually possesses. Caution avoids evil, and this the wise man ought to avoid. But sorrow arises from evil that has already happened; and as they suppose that no evil can happen to the wise man, there can be no representative of sorrow in his mind. According to them, therefore, none but the wise man wills, is contented, uses caution; and that the fool can do no more than desire, rejoice, fear, be sad. The former three affections Cicero calls constantiœ, the last four perturbationes. Many, however, calls these last passions; and, as I have said, the Greeks call the former εὐπαθείαι, and the latter πάθη . And when I made a careful examination of Scripture to find whether this terminology was sanctioned by it, I came upon this saying of the prophet: There is no contentment to the wicked, says the Lord; Isaiah 57:21 as if the wicked might more properly rejoice than be contented regarding evils, for contentment is the property of the good and godly. I found also that verse in the Gospel: Whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye even so unto them? Matthew 7:12 which seems to imply that evil or shameful things may be the object of desire, but not of will. Indeed, some interpreters have added good things, to make the expression more in conformity with customary usage, and have given this meaning, Whatsoever good deeds that you would that men should do unto you. For they thought that this would prevent any one from wishing other men to provide him with unseemly, not to say shameful gratifications - luxurious banquets, for example - on the supposition that if he returned the like to them he would be fulfilling this precept. In the Greek Gospel, however, from which the Latin is translated, good does not occur, but only, All things whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye even so unto them, and, as I believe, because good is already included in the word would; for He does not say desire. Yet though we may sometimes avail ourselves of these precise proprieties of language, we are not to be always bridled by them; and when we read those writers against whose authority it is unlawful to reclaim, we must accept the meanings above mentioned in passages where a right sense can be educed by no other interpretation, as in those instances we adduced partly from the prophet, partly from the Gospel. For who does not know that the wicked exult with joy? Yet there is no contentment for the wicked, says the Lord. And how so, unless because contentment, when the word is used in its proper and distinctive significance, means something different from joy? In like manner, who would deny that it were wrong to enjoin upon men that whatever they desire others to do to them they should themselves do to others, lest they should mutually please one another by shameful and illicit pleasure? And yet the precept, Whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye even so to them, is very wholesome and just. And how is this, unless because the will is in this place used strictly, and signifies that will which cannot have evil for its object? But ordinary phraseology would not have allowed the saying, Be unwilling to make any manner of lie, Sirach 7:13 had there not been also an evil will, whose wickedness separates if from that which the angels celebrated, Peace on earth, of good will to men. Luke 2:14 For good is superfluous if there is no other kind of will but good will. And why should the apostle have mentioned it among the praises of charity as a great thing, that it rejoices not in iniquity, unless because wickedness does so rejoice? For even with secular writers these words are used indifferently. For Cicero, that most fertile of orators, says, I desire, conscript fathers, to be merciful. And who would be so pedantic as to say that he should have said I will rather than I desire, because the word is used in a good connection? Again, in Terence, the profligate youth, burning with wild lust, says, I will nothing else than Philumena. That this will was lust is sufficiently indicated by the answer of his old servant which is there introduced: How much better were it to try and banish that love from your heart, than to speak so as uselessly to inflame your passion still more! And that contentment was used by secular writers in a bad sense that verse of Virgil testifies, in which he most succinctly comprehends these four perturbations - Hence they fear and desire, grieve and are content The same author had also used the expression, the evil contentments of the mind. So that good and bad men alike will, are cautious, and contented; or, to say the same thing in other words, good and bad men alike desire, fear, rejoice, but the former in a good, the latter in a bad fashion, according as the will is right or wrong. Sorrow itself, too, which the Stoics would not allow to be represented in the mind of the wise man, is used in a good sense, and especially in our writings. For the apostle praises the Corinthians because they had a godly sorrow. But possibly some one may say that the apostle congratulated them because they were penitently sorry, and that such sorrow can exist only in those who have sinned. For these are his words: For I perceive that the same epistle has made you sorry, though it were but for a season. Now I rejoice, not that you were made sorry, but that you sorrowed to repentance; for you were made sorry after a godly manner, that you might receive damage by us in nothing. For godly sorrow works repentance to salvation not to be repented of, but the sorrow of the world works death. For, behold, this selfsame thing that you sorrowed after a godly sort, what carefulness it wrought in you! 2 Corinthians 7:8-11 Consequently the Stoics may defend themselves by replying, that sorrow is indeed useful for repentance of sin, but that this can have no place in the mind of the wise man, inasmuch as no sin attaches to him of which he could sorrowfully repent, nor any other evil the endurance or experience of which could make him sorrowful. For they say that Alcibiades (if my memory does not deceive me), who believed himself happy, shed tears when Socrates argued with him, and demonstrated that he was miserable because he was foolish. In his case, therefore, folly was the cause of this useful and desirable sorrow, wherewith a man mourns that he is what he ought not to be. But the Stoics maintain not that the fool, but that the wise man, cannot be sorrowful. 14.26. In Paradise, then, man lived as he desired so long as he desired what God had commanded. He lived in the enjoyment of God, and was good by God's goodness; he lived without any want, and had it in his power so to live eternally. He had food that he might not hunger, drink that he might not thirst, the tree of life that old age might not waste him. There was in his body no corruption, nor seed of corruption, which could produce in him any unpleasant sensation. He feared no inward disease, no outward accident. Soundest health blessed his body, absolute tranquillity his soul. As in Paradise there was no excessive heat or cold, so its inhabitants were exempt from the vicissitudes of fear and desire. No sadness of any kind was there, nor any foolish joy; true gladness ceaselessly flowed from the presence of God, who was loved out of a pure heart, and a good conscience, and faith unfeigned. 1 Timothy 1:5 The honest love of husband and wife made a sure harmony between them. Body and spirit worked harmoniously together, and the commandment was kept without labor. No languor made their leisure wearisome; no sleepiness interrupted their desire to labor. In tanta facilitate rerum et felicitate hominum, absit ut suspicemur, non potuisse prolem seri sine libidinis morbo: sed eo voluntatis nutu moverentur illa membra qua c tera, et sine ardoris illecebroso stimulo cum tranquillitate animi et corporis nulla corruptione integritatis infunderetur gremio maritus uxoris. Neque enim quia experientia probari non potest, ideo credendum non est; quando illas corporis partes non ageret turbidus calor, sed spontanea potestas, sicut opus esset, adhiberet; ita tunc potuisse utero conjugis salva integritate feminei genitalis virile semen immitti, sicut nunc potest eadem integritate salva ex utero virginis fluxus menstrui cruoris emitti. Eadem quippe via posset illud injici, qua hoc potest ejici. Ut enim ad pariendum non doloris gemitus, sed maturitatis impulsus feminea viscera relaxaret: sic ad fœtandum et concipiendum non libidinis appetitus, sed voluntarius usus naturam utramque conjungeret. We speak of things which are now shameful, and although we try, as well as we are able, to conceive them as they were before they became shameful, yet necessity compels us rather to limit our discussion to the bounds set by modesty than to extend it as our moderate faculty of discourse might suggest. For since that which I have been speaking of was not experienced even by those who might have experienced it - I mean our first parents (for sin and its merited banishment from Paradise anticipated this passionless generation on their part) - when sexual intercourse is spoken of now, it suggests to men's thoughts not such a placid obedience to the will as is conceivable in our first parents, but such violent acting of lust as they themselves have experienced. And therefore modesty shuts my mouth, although my mind conceives the matter clearly. But Almighty God, the supreme and supremely good Creator of all natures, who aids and rewards good wills, while He abandons and condemns the bad, and rules both, was not destitute of a plan by which He might people His city with the fixed number of citizens which His wisdom had foreordained even out of the condemned human race, discriminating them not now by merits, since the whole mass was condemned as if in a vitiated root, but by grace, and showing, not only in the case of the redeemed, but also in those who were not delivered, how much grace He has bestowed upon them. For every one acknowledges that he has been rescued from evil, not by deserved, but by gratuitous goodness, when he is singled out from the company of those with whom he might justly have borne a common punishment, and is allowed to go scathless. Why, then, should God not have created those whom He foresaw would sin, since He was able to show in and by them both what their guilt merited, and what His grace bestowed, and since, under His creating and disposing hand, even the perverse disorder of the wicked could not pervert the right order of things?
61. Lydus Johannes Laurentius, De Mensibus, 4.53 (5th cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

62. Augustine, Letters, 118.14 (7th cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)

63. Cleanthes, Hymn To Zeus, 5, 4

64. Orphic Hymns., Fragments, 474



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
achaea Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 4, 11, 76
acoustics Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170
acropolis Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 79, 80
acropolis (athens) Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11, 26
acropolis of athens Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 80
acts, canonical Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 105
acts Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66
acts and racial discourse Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 42
acts and the roman empire Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 42
acts and universalism Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 42
acts of the apostles Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 617, 628; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 142
addressee Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 204
aelius aristides Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 26
aeneas (hero) Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 202
aeschylus Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 54, 55, 56, 64
agora (athens), athenian agora Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 203
allegory / allegorisation Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 202
altar Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 49; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 1, 26
altars Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 79
ambrose Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
anima Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
animus Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
antiquity Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 279
apollonius of tyana Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 26
apologetic, portrait of paul Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 383
apologist / apologetics Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 200, 204
apophatic, apophaticism Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 159
apostle, paul as Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 383
apostolus Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
areopagus Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 4, 11, 76, 79, 80, 95; Brodd and Reed, Rome and Religion: A Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue on the Imperial Cult (2011) 94; Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66; Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 187; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 1, 11, 26, 174, 202, 203, 204
areopagus speech Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 628
aristides of athens Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 4, 13, 95
aristophanes as source for athenian religion Parker, Polytheism and Society at Athens (2005) 1
aristotle Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 51; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 213
arrogance Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170
atheism and superstition Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 771
atheists Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 279
athena Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11, 26
athenagoras Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 4
athenians Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 279
athens, christianity and imperial cult in Brodd and Reed, Rome and Religion: A Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue on the Imperial Cult (2011) 94
athens Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 52, 60, 61; Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 322; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 766; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94; Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 103
athens\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 105
atoms Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170, 187
attica Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 174
augustine Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 200
autobiography Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 1, 26
babblers, garrulity, loquacity Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 187
babylon Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11
baptismal significance, of peters mission as fisherman Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 31
beatus Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
bible/scripture Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 79
bible Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 187; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 174
bishops, pistus Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 4
bivalence, rhetorical Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 628
body Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170, 187; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 204; Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
canon law Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 284
cappadocia Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11, 200
care, of god or christ for creation Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 88, 89
causal reciprocity/causal relations Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 159
causation Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170
celsus Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 58
child/children/childhood Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 142
children Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 187
christian, believers/faithful Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 4, 11, 80
christian, critique of traditional gods Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 95
christian iconography /\u2009symbols Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11
christianity, and greek/pagan religion Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 239
christianity / christians Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11, 26, 174, 200, 202, 203, 204
christians, persecution Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 80
christians, resurrection Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 11, 79
christians, teaching Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 76, 79
christians Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 279
church fathers Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 200
church in the south wing of propylaia cat. a Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 4
church near modern metropolis (athens) cat. a Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 11
city, symbolic city Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11, 200, 202, 203, 204
city, ‚learning city Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 174
city Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11, 174, 203
cityscaping Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 203
civilized, -ation Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 103
class Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 103
clement of alexandria Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 59, 66
clergy, clerics Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 187
common concepts, natural concepts Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 284
conscience Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 239
constantius ii Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11
contextualisation Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 322
controversy / confrontation Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 204
conversion, conversion to christianity Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 26, 174
conversion, paul Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 262
conversion, vision or dream Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 262
conversion Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
corinth Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 239; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11
corpus Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
cosmology Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 1
councils/synods Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 4
covenant and creation, hebrew bible Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 89
create, creation, creator Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 159
creation, created or originated things Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 284
creation, hope for Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 89
creation Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170, 187
creation out of nothing Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170
creator, christ as, with god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 88, 89
creator, creation Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 49
cretans Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 56, 57, 58, 59
criminal Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 103
criminalization Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 103
cult Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 49; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 1, 203
cult statues (idols) Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 187
cynics/cynicism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 766
daimon Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 1
damascius Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 13
day of the lord or judgement, the Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 122
death Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 1
dedication Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 1
deisidaimonia Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 279
dell, katherine Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 89
demonic possession Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 187
demons Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 187
demonstration Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 159
dialectics Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170
differentiation Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 322
dio chrysostom Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 766
diogenes laertius Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 60, 61, 62
dionysius, pseudo-dionysius (corpus dionysiacum) Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 13
dionysius, the areopagite Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 4, 11, 80
disposition Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 159
divine speech, enigmatic Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 262
divine speech Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 262
doctrine Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170, 187
earthquake Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 1
eclipse Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 1
education Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 26
egyptian Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 103
elements Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170
elite Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 1; Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 103
ellipse Osborne, Clement of Alexandria (2010) 141
emotions Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
endurance Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 88
ephesians, addressees/recipients Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 322
ephesians, author/authorship Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 322
ephesus Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
epicureanism, epicureans Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170, 187
epicureans/\u2009epicureanism Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 174, 203
epicureans Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
epicurus Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
epimenides Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 64
epistle to titus Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 59, 60
eschatology Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 88; deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 366
ethics Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170
ethnicity Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 204
eumenides Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 54, 55, 56
eunapius Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 174
eusebius of caesarea Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 200
exegesis Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 26; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 159
faith Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 202
faithfulness, of god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 89
father Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 49
flesh Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
foolishness Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170
four- (or five‐) kingdom paradigm Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 122
gaudeo, gaudium Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
gender Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 142
gentile Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 766
gentiles Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 49; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
glory, hope of Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 88
gnostic/ gnosticism deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 366
gnostics/gnostic Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 159
god, creator Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 79, 80, 95
god, fearer Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 383
god, knowledge of Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 159
god, unknown god Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 79
god, who raised jesus Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 80
god Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 11, 13, 95
gods, athena Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 80
gods, goddesses Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 80
gods, images/statues of Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 80
gods, unknown Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 79
gospels Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 159
grace Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 88, 89
greece, greek Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 49
greek/hellenistic historiography Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 213
gregory of nazianzus Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 4; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 174
gregory of nyssa Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 174
hadrian Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 13, 95
hagiography Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 26
happiness/the happy life Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
harnack, adolf von Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 4
hellenismos / hellenic Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11
hierarchization Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 103
hierophant, eleusis Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 26
holladay, carl Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 79, 80
holy man Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 26
holy spirit, cornelius Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 579
holy spirit, lukan conception Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 579
holy spirit, samaritans Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 579
homer Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 174
homeric motifs Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 26
hope Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 89
human, nonhumanity Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 103
human Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 103
humility Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170
hymn Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 200
idealistic philosophy, idealism Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170
identity, civic identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 142
identity, identify formation Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 105
identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 142; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 174
image of god (in man) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 284
immorality Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 766
inscription Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 1
inscriptions, dedications Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 79, 80
intellect Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 159
interpretatio\u2003 Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 49
intersectionality Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 142
intertextuality Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 53, 55, 62, 64
ioudaios Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 213
ishodad of merv Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 56, 57, 58, 59
isis Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 129
jerusalem Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 49; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11
jerusalemite Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 213
jesus Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 52, 53, 58, 63, 65
jewish Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 103
jewish scriptures Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 322
jews/jewish Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 11, 79, 80
jews Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
jews / judaism Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11
josephus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 213
journey, earthly journey Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 105
joy Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170
judaea (roman province; see also yehud) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 213
judaism, hellenistic Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 871
judaism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 766; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 142
judgement, final Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 122
julian, the apostate Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 13
julian (emperor) Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11
knowledge, of god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 88, 89
laetitia Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
lattke, michael Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 95
law (mosaic), nature, lex naturae Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 284
libanius Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 174
libido Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
life, eternal life Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
literary stereotypes Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11
logos Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 279; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 159
luke-acts, baptism of jesus Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 196
luke-acts, metalepsis Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 196
luke-acts, mirroring Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 196
luke-acts, pneumatology, incoherence Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 579
luke Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 279; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
lust Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
lysias Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 103
magna mater Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 129
manichaeism Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 202; deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 366
marinus of neapolis Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 26
masculinity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 142
materialism, materialist philosophy Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170
meat-eating / feast / meal, sacrifice and/as Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 239
mechanical movements Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 187
megara (μέγαρα) Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 13
message Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
message from god/gods Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
messianic woes Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 122
metaphysical Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 159
metroon (athens) Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11
metus Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
middle platonism Osborne, Clement of Alexandria (2010) 131
mind Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 26
minoritization Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 103
minos Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 56, 57, 58
missiology Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 322
mission of paul Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
moo, douglas Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 89
names Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 159
natural philosophy, natural philosophers Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 187
natural theology, theologia naturalis Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 284
nehemiah Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 213
new creation Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 88
new testament, as source Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 239
nicaea/nicaean orthodoxy Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 4
norden, eduard Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 871
nurture Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 383
obstinacy Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
of jesus Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 122
optics Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170
origen of alexandria Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 58
origin of the world Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 170
ostia, religion at Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 129
pagan, cults Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 80
pagan, second-century Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 279
pagan Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 279
pagan / paganism Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 1, 11, 26, 174, 204
pagan / pagans / pagan religion Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 279
pagans Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
paideia Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 174
panathenaea, peplos Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 11
pantheon Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 49
past Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 26
paul, areopagus speech Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 628
paul, as pastor Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 383