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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8243
New Testament, Acts, 17.1-17.9


Διοδεύσαντες δὲ τὴν Ἀμφίπολιν καὶ τὴν Ἀπολλωνίαν ἦλθον εἰς Θεσσαλονίκην, ὅπου ἦν συναγωγὴ τῶν Ἰουδαίων.Now when they had passed through Amphipolis and Apollonia, they came to Thessalonica, where there was a synagogue of the Jews.


κατὰ δὲ τὸ εἰωθὸς τῷ Παύλῳ εἰσῆλθεν πρὸς αὐτοὺς καὶ ἐπὶ σάββατα τρία διελέξατο αὐτοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν γραφῶνPaul, as was his custom, went in to them, and for three Sabbath days reasoned with them from the Scriptures


διανοίγων καὶ παρατιθέμενος ὅτι τὸν χριστὸν ἔδει παθεῖν καὶ ἀναστῆναι ἐκ νεκρῶν, καὶ ὅτι οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ χριστός, ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὃν ἐγὼ καταγγέλλω ὑμῖν.explaining and demonstrating that the Christ had to suffer, and to rise again from the dead, and saying, "This Jesus, whom I proclaim to you, is the Christ.


καί τινες ἐξ αὐτῶν ἐπείσθησαν καὶ προσεκληρώθησαν τῷ Παύλῳ καὶ [τῷ] Σίλᾳ, τῶν τε σεβομένων Ἑλλήνων πλῆθος πολὺ γυναικῶν τε τῶν πρώτων οὐκ ὀλίγαι.Some of them were persuaded, and joined Paul and Silas, of the devout Greeks a great multitude, and not a few of the chief women.


Ζηλώσαντες δὲ οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι καὶ προσλαβόμενοι τῶν ἀγοραίων ἄνδρας τινὰς πονηροὺς καὶ ὀχλοποιήσαντες ἐθορύβουν τὴν πόλιν, καὶ ἐπιστάντες τῇ οἰκίᾳ Ἰάσονος ἐζήτουν αὐτοὺς προαγαγεῖν εἰς τὸν δῆμον·But the disobedient Jews gathered some wicked men from the marketplace, and gathering a crowd, set the city in an uproar. Assaulting the house of Jason, they sought to bring them out to the people.


μὴ εὑρόντες δὲ αὐτοὺς ἔσυρον Ἰάσονα καί τινας ἀδελφοὺς ἐπὶ τοὺς πολιτάρχας, βοῶντες ὅτι Οἱ τὴν οἰκουμένην ἀναστατώσαντες οὗτοι καὶ ἐνθάδε πάρεισινWhen they didn't find them, they dragged Jason and certain brothers before the rulers of the city, crying, "These who have turned the world upside down have come here also


οὓς ὑποδέδεκται Ἰάσων· καὶ οὗτοι πάντες ἀπέναντι τῶν δογμάτων Καίσαρος πράσσουσι, βασιλέα ἕτερον λέγοντες εἶναι Ἰησοῦν.whom Jason has received. These all act contrary to the decrees of Caesar, saying that there is another king, Jesus!


ἐτάραξαν δὲ τὸν ὄχλον καὶ τοὺς πολιτάρχας ἀκούοντας ταῦταThe multitude and the rulers of the city were troubled when they heard these things.


καὶ λαβόντες τὸ ἱκανὸν παρὰ τοῦ Ἰάσονος καὶ τῶν λοιπῶν ἀπέλυσαν αὐτούς.When they had taken security from Jason and the rest, they let them go.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

33 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 12.6, 13.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.6. וַיַּעֲבֹר אַבְרָם בָּאָרֶץ עַד מְקוֹם שְׁכֶם עַד אֵלוֹן מוֹרֶה וְהַכְּנַעֲנִי אָז בָּאָרֶץ׃ 13.17. קוּם הִתְהַלֵּךְ בָּאָרֶץ לְאָרְכָּהּ וּלְרָחְבָּהּ כִּי לְךָ אֶתְּנֶנָּה׃ 12.6. And Abram passed through the land unto the place of Shechem, unto the terebinth of Moreh. And the Canaanite was then in the land." 13.17. Arise, walk through the land in the length of it and in the breadth of it; for unto thee will I give it.’"
2. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 2.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.7. אֲסַפְּרָה אֶל חֹק יְהוָה אָמַר אֵלַי בְּנִי אַתָּה אֲנִי הַיּוֹם יְלִדְתִּיךָ׃ 2.7. I will tell of the decree: The LORD said unto me: 'Thou art My son, this day have I begotten thee."
3. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 1.5 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

1.5. רְאוּ בַגּוֹיִם וְהַבִּיטוּ וְהִתַּמְּהוּ תְּמָהוּ כִּי־פֹעַל פֹּעֵל בִּימֵיכֶם לֹא תַאֲמִינוּ כִּי יְסֻפָּר׃ 1.5. Look ye among the nations, and behold, And wonder marvellously; For, behold, a work shall be wrought in your days, Which ye will not believe though it be told you."
4. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.9-6.10, 49.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.9. וַיֹּאמֶר לֵךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ לָעָם הַזֶּה שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמוֹעַ וְאַל־תָּבִינוּ וּרְאוּ רָאוֹ וְאַל־תֵּדָעוּ׃ 49.6. וַיֹּאמֶר נָקֵל מִהְיוֹתְךָ לִי עֶבֶד לְהָקִים אֶת־שִׁבְטֵי יַעֲקֹב ונצירי [וּנְצוּרֵי] יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהָשִׁיב וּנְתַתִּיךָ לְאוֹר גּוֹיִם לִהְיוֹת יְשׁוּעָתִי עַד־קְצֵה הָאָרֶץ׃ 6.9. And He said: ‘Go, and tell this people: Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not." 6.10. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they, seeing with their eyes, and hearing with their ears, and understanding with their heart, return, and be healed.’" 49.6. Yea, He saith: ‘It is too light a thing that thou shouldest be My servant To raise up the tribes of Jacob, And to restore the offspring of Israel; I will also give thee for a light of the nations, That My salvation may be unto the end of the earth.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 9.12, 27.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9.12. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה עַל־עָזְבָם אֶת־תּוֹרָתִי אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לִפְנֵיהֶם וְלֹא־שָׁמְעוּ בְקוֹלִי וְלֹא־הָלְכוּ בָהּ׃ 27.13. לָמָּה תָמוּתוּ אַתָּה וְעַמֶּךָ בַּחֶרֶב בָּרָעָב וּבַדָּבֶר כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֶל־הַגּוֹי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יַעֲבֹד אֶת־מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל׃ 9.12. And the LORD saith: Because they have forsaken My law which I set before them, And have not hearkened to My voice, neither walked therein;" 27.13. Why will ye die, thou and thy people, by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence, as the LORD hath spoken concerning the nation that will not serve the king of Babylon?"
6. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 217-220, 216 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

216. The mind, therefore, going forth out of the places which are in Charran, is said "to have travelled through the land until it came to the place of Sichem, to a lofty Oak." And let us now consider what this travelling through the land means. The disposition which is fond of learning is inquisitive and exceedingly curious by nature, going everywhere without fear or hesitation and prying into every place, and not choosing to leave anything in existence, whether person or thing, not thoroughly investigated; for it is by nature extraordinarily greedy of everything that can be seen or heard, so as not only not to be satisfied with the things of its own country, but even to desire foreign things which are established at a great distance.
7. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 282, 281 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

281. Concerning the holy city I must now say what is necessary. It, as I have already stated, is my native country, and the metropolis, not only of the one country of Judaea, but also of many, by reason of the colonies which it has sent out from time to time into the bordering districts of Egypt, Phoenicia, Syria in general, and especially that part of it which is called Coelo-Syria, and also with those more distant regions of Pamphylia, Cilicia, the greater part of Asia Minor as far as Bithynia, and the furthermost corners of Pontus. And in the same manner into Europe, into Thessaly, and Boeotia, and Macedonia, and Aetolia, and Attica, and Argos, and Corinth and all the most fertile and wealthiest districts of Peloponnesus.
8. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 11.169 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.169. “You know, O Jews, that God hath kept our fathers, Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in mind continually, and for the sake of their righteousness hath not left off the care of you. Indeed he hath assisted me in gaining this authority of the king to raise up our wall, and finish what is wanting of the temple.
9. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.340, 2.560 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Juvenal, Satires, 3.58-3.66, 3.109-3.125 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. Mishnah, Megillah, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.4. If they read the Megillah during the first Adar and the year was intercalated (a month was added), it is read again in the second Adar. There is no difference between the first Adar and the second Adar except the reading of the Megillah and the giving of gifts to the poor."
12. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 7.5, 10.25, 16.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.5. Don't deprive one another, unless it is by consent for aseason, that you may give yourselves to fasting and prayer, and may betogether again, that Satan doesn't tempt you because of your lack ofself-control. 10.25. Whatever is sold in the butcher shop, eat, asking no questionfor the sake of conscience 16.3. When I arrive, I will sendwhoever you approve with letters to carry your gracious gift toJerusalem.
13. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 2.2, 2.14, 2.17, 4.1-4.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.2. but having suffered before and been shamefully treated, as you know, at Philippi, we grew bold in our God to tell you the gospel of God in much conflict. 2.14. For you, brothers, became imitators of the assemblies of God which are in Judea in Christ Jesus; for you also suffered the same things from your own countrymen, even as they did from the Jews; 2.17. But we, brothers, being bereaved of you for a short season, in presence, not in heart, tried even harder to see your face with great desire 4.1. Finally then, brothers, we beg and exhort you in the Lord Jesus, that as you received from us how you ought to walk and to please God, that you abound more and more. 4.2. For you know what charge we gave you through the Lord Jesus. 4.3. For this is the will of God: your sanctification, that you abstain from sexual immorality 4.4. that each one of you know how to possess himself of his own vessel in sanctification and honor 4.5. not in the passion of lust, even as the Gentiles who don't know God; 4.6. that no one should take advantage of and wrong a brother or sister in this matter; because the Lord is an avenger in all these things, as also we forewarned you and testified. 4.7. For God called us not for uncleanness, but in sanctification. 4.8. Therefore he who rejects doesn't reject man, but God, who has also given his Holy Spirit to you. 4.9. But concerning brotherly love, you have no need that one write to you. For you yourselves are taught by God to love one another 4.10. for indeed you do it toward all the brothers who are in all Macedonia. But we exhort you, brothers, that you abound more and more; 4.11. and that you make it your ambition to lead a quiet life, and to do your own business, and to work with your own hands, even as we charged you; 4.12. that you may walk properly toward those who are outside, and may have need of nothing.
14. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 4.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.13. Until I come, pay attention to reading, to exhortation, and to teaching.
15. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 3.14, 11.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

16. New Testament, Acts, 1.8, 1.14, 2, 2.14, 2.46, 3, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 3.20, 3.21, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 3.25, 3.26, 4, 4.11, 4.24, 5.12, 7.59, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 8.14, 8.15, 8.16, 8.17, 8.18, 8.19, 8.20, 8.21, 8.22, 8.23, 8.24, 8.25, 8.26, 8.27, 8.28, 8.29, 8.30, 8.31, 8.32, 8.33, 8.34, 8.35, 8.36, 8.37, 8.38, 8.39, 8.40, 9.1, 9.2, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24, 9.25, 10.1-11.18, 10.44, 10.45, 11.26, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.9, 13.10, 13.11, 13.12, 13.14, 13.15, 13.16, 13.17, 13.18, 13.19, 13.20, 13.21, 13.22, 13.23, 13.24, 13.25, 13.26, 13.27, 13.28, 13.29, 13.30, 13.31, 13.32, 13.33, 13.34, 13.35, 13.36, 13.37, 13.38, 13.39, 13.40, 13.41, 13.42, 13.43, 13.44, 13.45, 13.46, 13.47, 13.48, 13.49, 13.50, 13.51, 13.52, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 14.11, 14.12, 14.13, 14.14, 14.15, 14.16, 14.17, 14.18, 14.19, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.12, 15.13, 15.14, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17, 15.18, 15.19, 15.20, 15.21, 15.22, 15.23, 15.24, 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.28, 15.29, 16, 16.10, 16.11, 16.12, 16.13, 16.14, 16.15, 16.16, 16.17, 16.18, 16.19, 16.20, 16.21, 16.22, 16.23, 16.24, 16.25, 16.26, 16.27, 16.28, 16.29, 16.30, 16.31, 16.32, 16.33, 16.34, 16.35, 16.36, 16.37, 16.38, 16.39, 17, 17.2, 17.3, 17.4, 17.5, 17.6, 17.7, 17.8, 17.9, 17.10, 17.11, 17.12, 17.13, 17.14, 17.15, 17.16, 17.17, 17.18, 17.19, 17.20, 17.21, 17.22, 17.23, 17.24, 17.25, 17.26, 17.27, 17.28, 17.29, 17.30, 17.31, 17.32, 17.33, 17.34, 18, 18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 18.4, 18.5, 18.6, 18.7, 18.8, 18.9, 18.10, 18.11, 18.12, 18.13, 18.14, 18.15, 18.16, 18.17, 18.18, 18.19, 18.20, 18.21, 18.26, 19, 19.1, 19.2, 19.3, 19.4, 19.5, 19.6, 19.7, 19.8, 19.9, 19.10, 19.23, 19.24, 19.25, 19.26, 19.27, 19.28, 19.29, 19.30, 19.31, 19.32, 19.33, 19.34, 19.35, 19.36, 19.37, 19.38, 19.39, 19.40, 20.17, 20.18, 20.19, 20.20, 20.21, 20.22, 20.23, 20.24, 20.25, 20.26, 20.27, 20.28, 20.29, 20.30, 20.31, 20.32, 20.33, 20.34, 20.35, 20.36, 20.37, 20.38, 21.15, 21.16, 21.17, 21.18, 21.19, 21.20, 21.21, 21.22, 21.23, 21.24, 21.25, 21.26, 22.19, 24.12, 26.11, 28.17, 28.18, 28.19, 28.20, 28.21, 28.22, 28.23, 28.24, 28.25, 28.26, 28.27, 28.28, 28.29, 28.30, 28.31 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.14. All these with one accord continued steadfastly in prayer and supplication, with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brothers.
17. New Testament, Apocalypse, 3.12, 3.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.12. He who overcomes, I will make him a pillar in the temple of my God, and he will go out from there no more. I will write on him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, the new Jerusalem, which comes down out of heaven from my God, and my own new name. 3.21. He who overcomes, I will give to him to sit down with me on my throne, as I also overcame, and sat down with my Father on his throne.
18. New Testament, Philemon, 2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

19. New Testament, Colossians, 1.1-1.10, 2.1-2.20, 3.1-3.10, 4.1-4.12, 5.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus through the will of God, and Timothy our brother 1.2. to the saints and faithful brothers in Christ at Colossae: Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ. 1.3. We give thanks to God the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, praying always for you 1.4. having heard of your faith in Christ Jesus, and of the love which you have toward all the saints 1.5. because of the hope which is laid up for you in the heavens, whereof you heard before in the word of the truth of the gospel 1.6. which has come to you; even as it is in all the world and is bearing fruit and increasing, as it does in you also, since the day you heard and knew the grace of God in truth; 1.7. even as you learned of Epaphras our beloved fellow servant, who is a faithful minister of Christ on our behalf 1.8. who also declared to us your love in the Spirit. 1.9. For this cause, we also, since the day we heard this, don't cease praying and making requests for you, that you may be filled with the knowledge of his will in all spiritual wisdom and understanding 1.10. that you may walk worthily of the Lord, to please him in all respects, bearing fruit in every good work, and increasing in the knowledge of God; 2.1. For I desire to have you know how greatly I struggle for you, and for those at Laodicea, and for as many as have not seen my face in the flesh; 2.2. that their hearts may be comforted, they being knit together in love, and gaining all riches of the full assurance of understanding, that they may know the mystery of God, both of the Father and of Christ 2.3. in whom are all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge hidden. 2.4. Now this I say that no one may delude you with persuasiveness of speech. 2.5. For though I am absent in the flesh, yet am I with you in the spirit, rejoicing and seeing your order, and the steadfastness of your faith in Christ. 2.6. As therefore you received Christ Jesus, the Lord, walk in him 2.7. rooted and built up in him, and established in the faith, even as you were taught, abounding in it in thanksgiving. 2.8. Be careful that you don't let anyone rob you through his philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the elements of the world, and not after Christ. 2.9. For in him all the fullness of the Godhead dwells bodily 2.10. and in him you are made full, who is the head of all principality and power; 2.11. in whom you were also circumcised with a circumcision not made with hands, in the putting off of the body of the sins of the flesh, in the circumcision of Christ; 2.12. having been buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the working of God, who raised him from the dead. 2.13. You were dead through your trespasses and the uncircumcision of your flesh. He made you alive together with him, having forgiven us all our trespasses; 2.14. having wiped out the handwriting in ordices that was against us, which was contrary to us: and he has taken it out of the way, nailing it to the cross; 2.15. having stripped the principalities and the powers, he made a show of them openly, triumphing over them in it. 2.16. Let no man therefore judge you in eating, or in drinking, or with respect to a feast day or a new moon or a Sabbath day 2.17. which are a shadow of the things to come; but the body is Christ's. 2.18. Let no one rob you of your prize by a voluntary humility and worshipping of the angels, dwelling in the things which he has not seen, vainly puffed up by his fleshly mind 2.19. and not holding firmly to the Head, from whom all the body, being supplied and knit together through the joints and ligaments, grows with God's growth. 2.20. If you died with Christ from the elements of the world, why, as though living in the world, do you subject yourselves to ordices 3.1. If then you were raised together with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated on the right hand of God. 3.2. Set your mind on the things that are above, not on the things that are on the earth. 3.3. For you died, and your life is hidden with Christ in God. 3.4. When Christ, our life, is revealed, then you will also be revealed with him in glory. 3.5. Put to death therefore your members which are on the earth: sexual immorality, uncleanness, depraved passion, evil desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry; 3.6. for which things' sake the wrath of God comes on the sons of disobedience. 3.7. You also once walked in those, when you lived in them; 3.8. but now you also put them all away: anger, wrath, malice, slander, and shameful speaking out of your mouth. 3.9. Don't lie to one another, seeing that you have put off the old man with his doings 3.10. and have put on the new man, that is being renewed in knowledge after the image of his Creator 4.1. Masters, give to your servants that which is just and equal, knowing that you also have a Master in heaven. 4.2. Continue steadfastly in prayer, watching therein with thanksgiving; 4.3. praying together for us also, that God may open to us a door for the word, to speak the mystery of Christ, for which I am also in bonds; 4.4. that I may reveal it as I ought to speak. 4.5. Walk in wisdom toward those who are outside, redeeming the time. 4.6. Let your speech always be with grace, seasoned with salt, that you may know how you ought to answer each one. 4.7. All my affairs will be made known to you by Tychicus, the beloved brother, faithful servant, and fellow bondservant in the Lord. 4.8. I am sending him to you for this very purpose, that he may know your circumstances and comfort your hearts 4.9. together with Onesimus, the faithful and beloved brother, who is one of you. They will make known to you everything that is going on here. 4.10. Aristarchus, my fellow prisoner greets you, and Mark, the cousin of Barnabas (concerning whom you received commandments, "if he comes to you, receive him") 4.11. and Jesus who is called Justus, who are of the circumcision. These are my only fellow workers for the Kingdom of God, men who have been a comfort to me. 4.12. Epaphras, who is one of you, a servant of Christ, salutes you, always striving for you in his prayers, that you may stand perfect and complete in all the will of God.
20. New Testament, Galatians, 1.18, 2.8, 4.25-4.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem tovisit Peter, and stayed with him fifteen days. 2.8. (for he who appointedPeter to the apostleship of the circumcision appointed me also to theGentiles); 4.25. For this Hagar is Mount Sinai inArabia, and answers to the Jerusalem that exists now, for she is inbondage with her children. 4.26. But the Jerusalem that is above isfree, which is the mother of us all.
21. New Testament, Hebrews, 12.22, 13.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.22. But you have come to Mount Zion, and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to innumerable hosts of angels 13.22. But I exhort you, brothers, endure the word of exhortation, for I have written to you in few words.
22. New Testament, Romans, 1.16, 2.9-2.10, 11.13-11.14, 15.19, 15.25-15.26, 15.31, 16.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.16. For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God for salvation for everyone who believes; for the Jew first, and also for the Greek. 2.9. oppression and anguish, on every soul of man who works evil, on the Jew first, and also on the Greek. 2.10. But glory and honor and peace to every man who works good, to the Jew first, and also to the Greek. 11.13. For I speak to you who are Gentiles. Since then as I am an apostle to Gentiles, I glorify my ministry; 11.14. if by any means I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh, and may save some of them. 15.19. in the power of signs and wonders, in the power of God's Spirit; so that from Jerusalem, and around as far as to Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Christ; 15.25. But now, I say, I am going to Jerusalem, serving the saints. 15.26. For it has been the good pleasure of Macedonia and Achaia to make a certain contribution for the poor among the saints who are at Jerusalem. 15.31. that I may be delivered from those who are disobedient in Judea, and that my service which I have for Jerusalem may be acceptable to the saints; 16.23. Gaius, my host and host of the whole assembly, greets you. Erastus, the treasurer of the city, greets you, as does Quartus, the brother.
23. New Testament, John, 1.18, 6.59, 14.6, 18.19, 18.37 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. 6.59. These things he said in the synagogue, as he taught in Capernaum. 14.6. Jesus said to him, "I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father, except through me. 18.19. The high priest therefore asked Jesus about his disciples, and about his teaching. 18.37. Pilate therefore said to him, "Are you a king then?"Jesus answered, "You say that I am a king. For this reason I have been born, and for this reason I have come into the world, that I should testify to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth listens to my voice.
24. New Testament, Luke, 2.34, 3.22, 4.14-4.38, 6.6-6.11, 8.1, 12.51, 13.10-13.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.34. and Simeon blessed them, and said to Mary, his mother, "Behold, this child is set for the falling and the rising of many in Israel, and for a sign which is spoken against. 3.22. and the Holy Spirit descended in a bodily form as a dove on him; and a voice came out of the sky, saying "You are my beloved Son. In you I am well pleased. 4.14. Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit to Galilee, and news about him spread through all the surrounding area. 4.15. He taught in their synagogues, being glorified by all. 4.16. He came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. He entered, as was his custom, into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read. 4.17. The book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. He opened the book, and found the place where it was written 4.18. The Spirit of the Lord is on me, Because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim release to the captives, Recovering of sight to the blind, To deliver those who are crushed 4.19. And to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord. 4.20. He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on him. 4.21. He began to tell them, "Today, this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing. 4.22. All testified about him, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth, and they said, "Isn't this Joseph's son? 4.23. He said to them, "Doubtless you will tell me this parable, 'Physician, heal yourself! Whatever we have heard done at Capernaum, do also here in your hometown.' 4.24. He said, "Most assuredly I tell you, no prophet is acceptable in his hometown. 4.25. But truly I tell you, there were many widows in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the the sky was shut up three years and six months, when a great famine came over all the land. 4.26. Elijah was sent to none of them, except to Zarephath, in the land of Sidon, to a woman who was a widow. 4.27. There were many lepers in Israel in the time of Elisha the prophet, yet not one of them was cleansed, except Naaman, the Syrian. 4.28. They were all filled with wrath in the synagogue, as they heard these things. 4.29. They rose up, threw him out of the city, and led him to the brow of the hill that their city was built on, that they might throw him off the cliff. 4.30. But he, passing through the midst of them, went his way. 4.31. He came down to Capernaum, a city of Galilee. He was teaching them on the Sabbath day 4.32. and they were astonished at his teaching, for his word was with authority. 4.33. In the synagogue there was a man who had a spirit of an unclean demon, and he cried out with a loud voice 4.34. saying, "Ah! what have we to do with you, Jesus of Nazareth? Have you come to destroy us? I know you who you are: the Holy One of God! 4.35. Jesus rebuked him, saying, "Be silent, and come out of him!" When the demon had thrown him down in their midst, he came out of him, having done him no harm. 4.36. Amazement came on all, and they spoke together, one with another, saying, "What is this word? For with authority and power he commands the unclean spirits, and they come out! 4.37. News about him went out into every place of the surrounding region. 4.38. He rose up from the synagogue, and entered into Simon's house. Simon's mother-in-law was afflicted with a great fever, and they begged him for her. 6.6. It also happened on another Sabbath that he entered into the synagogue and taught. There was a man there, and his right hand was withered. 6.7. The scribes and the Pharisees watched him, to see whether he would heal on the Sabbath, that they might find an accusation against him. 6.8. But he knew their thoughts; and he said to the man who had the withered hand, "Rise up, and stand in the middle." He arose and stood. 6.9. Then Jesus said to them, "I will ask you something: Is it lawful on the Sabbath to do good, or to do harm? To save a life, or to kill? 6.10. He looked around at them all, and said to him, "Stretch out your hand." He did, and his hand was restored as sound as the other. 6.11. But they were filled with rage, and talked with one another about what they might do to Jesus. 8.1. It happened soon afterwards, that he went about through cities and villages, preaching and bringing the good news of the Kingdom of God. With him were the twelve 12.51. Do you think that I have come to give peace in the earth? I tell you, no, but rather division. 13.10. He was teaching in one of the synagogues on the Sabbath day. 13.11. Behold, there was a woman who had a spirit of infirmity eighteen years, and she was bent over, and could in no way straighten herself up. 13.12. When Jesus saw her, he called her, and said to her, "Woman, you are freed from your infirmity. 13.13. He laid his hands on her, and immediately she stood up straight, and glorified God. 13.14. The ruler of the synagogue, being indigt because Jesus had healed on the Sabbath, said to the multitude, "There are six days in which men ought to work. Therefore come on those days and be healed, and not on the Sabbath day! 13.15. Therefore the Lord answered him, "You hypocrites! Doesn't each one of you free his ox or his donkey from the stall on the Sabbath, and lead him away to water? 13.16. Ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan had bound eighteen long years, be freed from this bondage on the Sabbath day? 13.17. As he said these things, all his adversaries were put to shame, and all the multitude rejoiced for all the glorious things that were done by him. 13.18. He said, "What is the Kingdom of God like? To what shall I compare it? 13.19. It is like a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and put in his own garden. It grew, and became a large tree, and the birds of the sky lodged in its branches. 13.20. Again he said, "To what shall I compare the Kingdom of God?
25. New Testament, Mark, 2-6, 1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

26. New Testament, Matthew, 10.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.34. Don't think that I came to send peace on the earth. I didn't come to send peace, but a sword.
27. Suetonius, Claudius, 25.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

28. Tosefta, Megillah, 3.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

29. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 9.9 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

9.9. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי גָּדוֹל הַשָּׁלוֹם, שֶׁכָּל הַבְּרָכוֹת כְּלוּלוֹת בּוֹ, (תהלים כט, יא): ה' עֹז לְעַמּוֹ יִתֵּן ה' יְבָרֵךְ אֶת עַמּוֹ בַשָּׁלוֹם. חִזְקִיָּה אָמַר תַּרְתֵּי, חִזְקִיָּה אָמַר גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁכָּל הַמִּצְווֹת כְּתִיב בְּהוּ (שמות כג, ד ה): כִּי תִרְאֶה, כִּי תִפְגַע, (דברים כב, ו): כִּי יִקָּרֵא, אִם בָּאת מִצְוָה לְיָדְךָ אַתָּה זָקוּק לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ וְאִם לָאו אִי אַתָּה זָקוּק לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ, בְּרַם הָכָא (תהלים לד, טו): בַּקֵּשׁ שָׁלוֹם וְרָדְפֵהוּ, בַּקְשֵׁהוּ לִמְקוֹמְךָ וְרָדְפֵהוּ לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר. חִזְקִיָּה אָמַר חוֹרֵי, גָּדוֹל הַשָּׁלוֹם שֶׁבְּכָל הַמַּסָּעוֹת כְּתִיב (במדבר לג, ה): וַיִּסְעוּ וַיַּחֲנוּ, נוֹסְעִים בְּמַחְלֹקֶת וְחוֹנִים בְּמַחְלֹקֶת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבָּאוּ כֻלָּם לִפְנֵי הַר סִינַי נַעֲשׂוּ כֻּלָּם חֲנָיָה אַחַת, הֲדָא דִּכְתִיב (שמות יט, ב): וַיִּחַן שָׁם יִשְׂרָאֵל, וַיַּחֲנוּ שָׁם בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא וַיִּחַן שָׁם יִשְׂרָאֵל, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי שָׁעָה שֶׁאֲנִי נוֹתֵן תּוֹרָה לְבָנָי. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר תְּלַת, בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁדִּבְּרוּ הַכְּתוּבִים דִּבְרֵי בַּדָּאוּת בַּתּוֹרָה בִּשְׁבִיל לְהַטִּיל שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אַבְרָהָם לְשָׂרָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית יח, יב): אַחֲרֵי בְלֹתִי הָיְתָה לִי עֶדְנָה וַאדֹנִי זָקֵן, אֲבָל לְאַבְרָהָם לֹא אָמַר כֵּן אֶלָּא (בראשית יח, יג): וַאֲנִי זָקַנְתִּי. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר חוֹרֵי, גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁדִּבְּרוּ הַכְּתוּבִים לָשׁוֹן בָּדוּי בַּנְּבִיאִים בִּשְׁבִיל לְהַטִּיל שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אִישׁ לְאִשְׁתּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שופטים יג, ג): הִנֵּה נָא אַתְּ עֲקָרָה וְלֹא יָלַדְתְּ וְהָרִית וְיָלַדְתְּ בֵּן, אֲבָל לְמָנוֹחַ לֹא אָמַר כֵּן אֶלָּא (שופטים יג, יג): מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר אָמַרְתִּי אֶל הָאִשָּׁה תִּשָּׁמֵר, מִכָּל מָקוֹם סַמָּנִים הִיא צְרִיכָה. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר חוֹרֵי גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם, מַה אִם הָעֶלְיוֹנִים שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם לֹא קִנְאָה וְלֹא שִׂנְאָה וְלֹא תַּחְרוּת וְלֹא מַצּוֹת וְרִיבוֹת וְלֹא מַחְלֹקֶת וְלֹא עַיִן רָעָה צְרִיכִין שָׁלוֹם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (איוב כה, ב): עֹשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם בִּמְרוֹמָיו, הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם כָּל הַמִּדּוֹת הַלָּלוּ עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. אָמַר רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁדִּבְּרוּ הַכְּתוּבִים לְשׁוֹן בַּדָּיוּת בַּתּוֹרָה לְהַטִּיל שָׁלוֹם בֵּין יוֹסֵף לְאֶחָיו, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית נ, יז): כֹּה תֹאמְרוּן לְיוֹסֵף אָנָא שָׂא נָא, וְלֹא אַשְׁכְּחָן בְּיַעֲקֹב דְּפַקַד כְּלוּם, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁעַת מִלְחָמָה אֵין פּוֹתְחִין אֶלָּא בְּשָׁלוֹם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דברים כ, י): כִּי תִקְרַב אֶל עִיר וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן בֶּן רַבִּי יוֹסֵי גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁשְּׁמוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא נִקְרָא שָׁלוֹם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שופטים ו, כד): וַיִּקְרָא לוֹ ה' שָׁלוֹם. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּם בַּר יוּדָן, מִכָּאן שֶׁאָסוּר לוֹ לְאָדָם לִשְׁאֹל בִּשְׁלוֹם חֲבֵרוֹ בְּמָקוֹם מְטֻנָּף. תָּנֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁשֵּׁם הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁנִּכְתַּב בִּקְדֻשָּׁה אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יִמָּחֶה בַּמַּיִם כְּדֵי לְהַטִּיל שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אִישׁ לְאִשְׁתּוֹ. רַבִּי מֵאִיר הֲוָה יָתִיב וְדָרִישׁ בְּלֵילֵי שַׁבַּתָּא הֲוָה תַּמָּן חָדָא אִתְּתָא יַצִּיבָא וְשָׁמְעָה לֵיהּ תָּנְתָא מִדְרָשָׁא, אַמְתִּינַת עַד דִּיחֲסַל מִמִּדְרָשׁ, אָזְלָה לְבֵיתָהּ אַשְׁכְּחָא בּוּצִינָא טָפֵי, אֲמַר לָהּ בַּעְלָהּ אָן הֲוֵית, אָמְרָה לֵיהּ אֲנָא יָתִיבָא וְשָׁמְעָה קָלֵיהּ דָּרוֹשָׁה, אֲמַר לָהּ כֵּן וְכֵן לָא אִעַיַּלְתְּ לְהָכָא עַד דַּאֲזַלְתְּ וְרוֹקַת בְּאַנְפֵּי דָרוֹשָׁה, יְתִיבָא שַׁבַּתָּא קַמַּיְיתָא תִּנְיָנָא וּתְלִיתָא, אֲמָרִין לָהּ מְגֵירָתָא כַּדּוּ אַתּוּן צְהִיבִין, אֲתֵינָן עִמָּךְ לְגַבֵּי דָּרוֹשָׁה, כֵּיוָן דְּחָמֵי יַתְהוֹן רַבִּי מֵאִיר צָפָה בְּרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ, אֲמַר לְהוֹ אִית מִנְּכוֹן אִתְּתָא דְּחַכִּימָא לְמִלְחַשׁ בְּעֵינָא, אֲמָרִין לָהּ מְגֵירָתָא כַּדּוּ אַתְּ אָזְלַת וְרוֹקַת בְּאַנְפֵּיהּ וְתִשְׁרֵי לְבַעֲלִךְ, כֵּיוָן דְּיָתְבָא קַמֵּי אִידְחִילַת מִינֵיהּ, אֲמָרָה לֵיהּ רַבִּי לֵית אֲנָא חַכִּימָא לְמִילְחַשׁ עֵינָא, אֲמַר לָהּ אֲפִלּוּ הָכֵי רוֹקִי בְּאַנְפִּי שְׁבַע זִמְנִין וַאֲנָא מִינְשִׁים, עָבְדָה הָכִין. אֲמַר לָהּ אִיזִילִי אִמְרִי לְבַעֲלִיךָ אַתְּ אֲמַרְתְּ חָדָא זִימְנָא וַאֲנָא רָקֵית שְׁבַע זִימְנִין. אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו רַבִּי כָּךְ מְבַזִּין אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, לָא הֲוָה לָךְ לְמֵימַר לְחַד מִינָן לְמִלְחַשׁ לָךְ, אֲמַר לְהוֹ לָא דַּיּוֹ לְמֵאִיר לִהְיוֹת שָׁוֶה לְקוֹנוֹ, דְּתָנֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁשֵּׁם הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁנִּכְתַּב בִּקְדֻשָּׁה אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יִמָּחֶה עַל הַמַּיִם בִּשְׁבִיל לְהַטִּיל שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אִישׁ לְאִשְׁתּוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן חֲלַפְתָּא גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁכְּשֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת עוֹלָמוֹ עָשָׂה שָׁלוֹם בֵּין הָעֶלְיוֹנִים לַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן בָּרָא מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים וּמִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית א, א): בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ, בַּשֵּׁנִי בָּרָא מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית א, ו): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי רָקִיעַ, בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי בָּרָא מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, (בראשית א, ט): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִקָּווּ הַמַּיִם, בָּרְבִיעִי מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים, (בראשית א, יד): יְהִי מְאֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם, בַּחֲמִישִׁי בָּרָא מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, (בראשית א, כ): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם, בַּשִּׁשִּׁי בָּא לִבְראוֹת אָדָם, אָמַר אִם אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים הֲרֵי הָעֶלְיוֹנִים רַבִּים מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים בְּרִיאָה אַחַת, אִם אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים הֲרֵי הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים רַבִּים עַל הָעֶלְיוֹנִים בְּרִיאָה אַחַת, מֶה עָשָׂה בְּרָאוֹ מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים וּמִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ב, ז): וַיִּיצֶר ה' אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן הָאֲדָמָה מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, (בראשית ב, ז): וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים, רַבִּי מָנֵי דִּשְׁאַב וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי, גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁכָּל הַבְּרָכוֹת וְטוֹבוֹת וְנֶחָמוֹת שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְבִיאָן עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל, חוֹתְמִין בְּשָׁלוֹם, בִּקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע פּוֹרֵס סֻכַּת שָׁלוֹם, בַּתְּפִלָּה עוֹשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם, בְּבִרְכַּת כֹּהֲנִים (במדבר ו, כו): וְיָשֵׂם לְךָ שָׁלוֹם. וְאֵין לִי אֶלָּא בַּבְּרָכוֹת בַּקָּרְבָּנוֹת מִנַיִן, (ויקרא ז, לז): זֹאת הַתּוֹרָה לָעֹלָה לַמִּנְחָה וְלַחַטָּאת וְלָאָשָׁם וְלַמִּלּוּאִים וּלְזֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים. אֵין לִי אֶלָּא בַּכְּלָל, בַּפְּרָט מִנַּיִן, (ויקרא ו, ב): זֹאת תּוֹרַת הָעֹלָה, (ויקרא ו, ז): זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַמִּנְחָה, (ויקרא ו, יח): זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַחַטָּאת, (ויקרא ז, א): זֹאת תּוֹרַת הָאָשָׁם, (ויקרא ז, יא): זֹאת תּוֹרַת זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים, וְאֵין לִי אֶלָּא בְּקָרְבְּנוֹת יָחִיד, בְּקָרְבְּנוֹת צִבּוּר מִנַּיִן, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (במדבר כט, לט): אֵלֶּה תַּעֲשׂוּ לַה' בְּמוֹעֲדֵיכֶם, וּמְסַיֵּם בִּשְׁלָמִים. וְאֵין לִי אֶלָּא בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה בָּעוֹלָם הַבָּא מִנַּיִן, (ישעיה סו, יב): הִנְנִי נֹטֶה אֵלֶיהָ כְּנָהָר שָׁלוֹם. רַבָּנָן אָמְרוּ גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁכְּשֶׁמֶּלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ בָּא אֵינוֹ פּוֹתֵחַ אֶלָּא בְּשָׁלוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה נב, ז): מַה נָּאווּ עַל הֶהָרִים רַגְלֵי מְבַשֵּׂר מַשְׁמִיעַ שָׁלוֹם. 9.9. Said Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai: Peace is so great that all blessings are included in it (Ps. 29:11) “Hashem will give strength to His people, Hashem will bless His people with peace”. Hizkiah said two things. Hizkiah said: Peace is so great that all mitzvot are written [in the conditional form] (Exodus 23:4-5) “If you see” “If you encounter” (Deut. 22:6) “If you happen by” – if a mitzvah came to your hand, you are bound to do it. However, here (Ps. 34:15) “Seek peace and pursue it.” Seek – [this word applies] in your own place; pursue – [this word applies] in any other place. Hizkiah said gave another explanation: Peace is so great that about every travelling of the children of Israel it is written ‘and they travelled’ ‘and they encamped’ they travelled disputing [with each other] and encamped disputing. But when they arrived at Mount Sinai they did one single encampment, as it is written ‘and Israel encamped [verb in singular] there’ – it is not written ‘they encamped there’, rather, it is written ‘he encamped there.’ At the moment the Holy One of Blessing said ‘this is the moment I will give Torah to the children of Israel’"
30. Apuleius, The Golden Ass, 11 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

31. Anon., The Acts of Paul And Thecla, 4, 7, 9, 3 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

32. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

38a. אלא מדרבנן וקרא אסמכתא בעלמא,אמר רב שמואל בר רב יצחק אמר רב כל הנאכל כמות שהוא חי אין בו משום בישולי עובדי כוכבים בסורא מתנו הכי בפומבדיתא מתנו הכי אמר רב שמואל בר רב יצחק אמר רב כל שאינו נאכל על שולחן מלכים ללפת בו את הפת אין בו משום בישולי עובדי כוכבים,מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו דגים קטנים וארדי ודייסא,אמר רב אסי אמר רב דגים קטנים מלוחים אין בהן משום בישולי עובדי כוכבים אמר רב יוסף אם צלאן עובד כוכבים סומך ישראל עליהם משום עירובי תבשילין ואי עבדינהו עובד כוכבים כסא דהרסנא אסור,פשיטא מהו דתימא הרסנא עיקר קמ"ל קימחא עיקר,אמר רב ברונא אמר רב עובד כוכבים שהצית את האור באגם כל החגבים שבאגם אסורין ה"ד אילימא דלא ידע הי טהור והי טמא מאי איריא עובד כוכבים אפילו ישראל נמי אלא משום בישולי עובדי כוכבים,כי האי גוונא מי אסיר והאמר רב חנן בר אמי א"ר פדת א"ר יוחנן האי עובד כוכבים דחריך רישא שרי למיכל מיניה אפילו מריש אוניה אלמא לעבורי שער קמיכוין ה"נ לגלויי אגמא קא מיכוין,לעולם דלא ידע הי טהור והי טמא ומעשה שהיה בעובד כוכבים היה,גופא אמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן האי עובד כוכבים דחריך רישא שרי למיכל מיניה אפילו מריש אוניה אמר רבינא הלכך האי עובד כוכבים דשדא סיכתא לאתונא וקבר בה ישראל קרא מעיקרא שפיר דמי פשיטא מהו דתימא לבשולי מנא קא מיכוין קמ"ל לשרורי מנא קא מיכוין,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל הניח ישראל בשר על גבי גחלים ובא עובד כוכבים והפך בו מותר היכי דמי אילימא דאי לא הפך ביה הוה בשיל פשיטא אלא לאו דאי לא הפך לא הוה בשיל אמאי מותר בישולי של עובדי כוכבים נינהו,לא צריכא דאי לא הפך הוה בשיל בתרתי שעי והשתא קא בשיל בחדא שעתא מהו דתימא קרובי בישולא מילתא היא קמ"ל,והאמר ר' אסי א"ר יוחנן כל שהוא כמאכל בן דרוסאי אין בו משום בישולי עובדי כוכבים הא אינו כמאכל בן דרוסאי יש בו משום בשולי עובדי כוכבים,התם כגון דאותביה בסילתא ושקליה עובד כוכבים ואותביה בתנורא,תניא נמי הכי מניח ישראל בשר על גבי גחלים ובא עובד כוכבים ומהפך בו עד שיבא ישראל מבית הכנסת או מבית המדרש ואינו חושש שופתת אשה קדירה על גבי כירה ובאת עובדת כוכבים 38a. bRather,the cooking of gentiles is prohibited bby rabbinic law, and the verseis cited as ba mere support. /b,The Gemara discusses the particulars of the prohibition against eating the cooking of gentiles. bRav Shmuel bar Rav Yitzḥak saysthat bRav says: Anyitem bthat is eaten as it is,i.e., braw, is not subject tothe prohibition against eating bthe cooking of gentiles.The Gemara remarks: bInthe study hall in bSura, they taught it thisway. bIn Pumbedita, they taught it like this: Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yitzḥak saysthat bRav says: Anyitem bthat is not eaten together with bread on the table of kings is not subject tothe prohibition against eating bthe cooking of gentiles.In other words, foods that are not eaten by distinguished individuals are not subject to this prohibition.,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the practical difference bbetweenthese two opinions? The practical difference bbetween themis with regard to bsmall fish, mushrooms, and porridge.These foods are not eaten raw, but they are not eaten by distinguished individuals. Consequently, these foods are prohibited according to the version taught in Sura, but permitted according to the version taught in Pumbedita., bRav Asi saysthat bRav says: Small, salted fish are not subject tothe prohibition of bthe cooking of gentiles,because they can be eaten raw. bRav Yosef says: If a gentile roastedthese fish, ba Jew may rely upon them foruse in the mitzva of ba joining of cooked foods,which must be prepared in order to permit cooking for Shabbat on a Festival that occurs on a Friday. bAnd if a gentile made theminto ikasa deharsena /i,a dish of fish fried in oil and flour, the dish is bprohibited.In this case, since the flour had not been edible, it is considered the cooked food of a gentile.,The Gemara asks: Isn’t that bobvious?What reason would there be to think that ikasa deharsenaprepared by a gentile is permitted? The Gemara answers: This is taught blest you saythat the bsalted fish,which one is permitted to eat even if cooked by gentiles, is the bessentialcomponent. Therefore, Rav Yosef bteaches usthat bthe flouris the bessentialcomponent, and the dish is therefore considered the cooked food of a gentile., bRav Beruna saysthat bRav says:In the case of ba gentile who ignited a fire in the meadow, all the locusts thatwere burned bin the meadow are prohibited.The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstancesof this case? bIf we saythat the reason they are prohibited is bthat one nolonger bknows which are kosher and which are non-kosheras a result of their burning, bwhydoes Rav Beruna bspecificallydiscuss a case involving ba gentile? Evenif ba Jewburned the meadow, they would balsobe prohibited for the same reason. bRather,this is referring to a case where all the locusts were kosher, and the prohibition is bdue to the cooking of gentiles,as the locusts were effectively cooked by a gentile.,The Gemara raises an objection: bDoes anyoneactually bprohibitthe cooking of gentiles in ba case like this? But doesn’t Rav Ḥa bar Ami saythat bRabbi Pedat saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:With regard to bthis gentile who singed the headof an animal, bit is permitted to eatpart bof it, even from the tip of the ear,which is fully cooked? The Gemara remarks: bEvidently,this is permitted because the gentile merely bintends to remove the hairand not to cook the ears. bHere, too,it ought to be permitted because he merely bintends to clear the meadow,not to cook the locusts.,The Gemara answers: bActually,this is referring to a case where there is a mixture of different types of locusts, and they are prohibited because one does bnot know which are kosher and which are non-kosher. Andthe reason Rav Beruna specified that the case involved a gentile is because bthe incident that occurredhappened to have boccurred withthe involvement of ba gentile. /b,§ The Gemara addresses bthematter bitself: Rabba bar bar Ḥana saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:With regard to bthis gentile who singed the headof an animal, it is bpermitted to eatpart bof it, even from the tip of the ear,which is fully cooked. bRavina said: Therefore,with regard to bthis gentile who threwa moist bpeg into the ovenin order to dry it out and harden it, band a Jew hadalready binserted a gourdin the oven bfrom the outset,the gourd is bpermitted,even though it was in effect cooked by a gentile. The reason is that the gentile had no intention to cook the vegetable. The Gemara asks: Isn’t that bobvious?The Gemara answers: It was necessary to teach this, blest you saythat the gentile bintends to cook the vessel,i.e., the peg, by softening it. Therefore Ravina bteaches usthat bhe intendsonly bto harden the vessel. /b,§ The Gemara continues the discussion with regard to the cooking of gentiles by examining the ihalakhaof meat cooked by both a gentile and a Jew. bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says:If ba Jew placed meat uponflaming bcoals and a gentile came and turnedthe meat bover,the meat is bpermitted.The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstancesof this case? bIf we say thatit is a case where bifthe gentile bhad not turned overthe meat bit would have cookedanyway, it is bobviousthat the meat is permitted, as the gentile’s actions did not actually alter the food. The Gemara suggests: bRather, is it nota case bwhere, ifthe gentile bhad not turned it over, it would not have cooked?But if so, bwhy is it permitted?In such a case, the meat biscertainly considered to be bthe cooking of gentilesand ought to be prohibited.,The Gemara explains: bNo,it is bnecessaryto teach this ihalakhawith regard to a case bwhere ifthe gentile bhad not turned overthe meat, bit would have cooked in two hours, and nowthat he did turn it over, bit will cook inonly bone hour. Lest you saythat bhastening the cookingprocess bisa significant bmatter,and therefore food whose preparation is expedited by a gentile is prohibited, Ravina bteaches usotherwise.,The Gemara asks: bBut doesn’t Rabbi Asi saythat bRabbi Yoḥa says: Anyitem bthathas been cooked blike the food of ben Derosai,i.e., partially cooked so that it is just about edible, bis not subject tothe prohibition of bthe cooking of gentiles? Consequently,if bit is notcooked blike the food of ben Derosai, it is subject tothe prohibition of bthe cooking of gentiles.Accordingly, meat whose cooking was expedited by a gentile ought to be prohibited, as this ruling includes cases where it had not been cooked like the food of ben Derosai at the time of the gentile’s intervention.,The Gemara answers: bThere,Rabbi Asi was referring to a case bwherethe Jew bhad placedthe meat that was not yet cooked like the food of ben Derosai bin a basketwhere it would not have cooked at all, band a gentile took it and placed it in the oven.Rabbi Asi was teaching that in such a case, when the current cooking process has yet to begin, the meat is prohibited if it had not already been cooked like the food of ben Derosai. By contrast, in the case addressed by Rabbi Yehuda, the meat was already cooking and the gentile’s actions hastened the process, but did not initiate it. In other words, the issue of cooked food like the food of ben Derosai is relevant only if the gentile takes a dish that is not being cooked at present.,The Gemara adds: bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA Jew may place meat onhot bcoals andlet ba gentile come and turn it overas necessary buntil the Jew comesback bfrom the synagogue or from the study hall, andthe Jew need bnot be concernedfor the prohibition of eating cooking of gentiles. Similarly, a Jewish bwoman may set a pot upon the stove andlet ba gentile woman come /b
33. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

22a. שקרא ושנה ולא שימש תלמידי חכמים,אתמר קרא ושנה ולא שימש ת"ח ר' אלעזר אומר הרי זה עם הארץ ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר הרי זה בור ר' ינאי אומר ה"ז כותי,רב אחא בר יעקב אומר הרי זה מגוש אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מסתברא כרב אחא בר יעקב דאמרי אינשי רטין מגושא ולא ידע מאי אמר תני תנא ולא ידע מאי אמר,ת"ר איזהו ע"ה כל שאינו קורא ק"ש שחרית וערבית בברכותיה דברי ר' מאיר וחכ"א כל שאינו מניח תפילין בן עזאי אומר כל שאין לו ציצית בבגדו ר' יונתן בן יוסף אמר כל שיש לו בנים ואינו מגדלן ללמוד תורה אחרים אומרים אפילו קורא ושונה ולא שימש ת"ח זהו ע"ה,קרא ולא שנה הרי זה בור לא קרא ולא שנה עליו הכתוב אומר (ירמיהו לא, כז) וזרעתי את בית ישראל ואת בית יהודה זרע אדם וזרע בהמה,(משלי כד, כא) ירא את ה' בני ומלך ועם שונים אל תתערב אמר רבי יצחק אלו ששונים הלכות פשיטא מהו דתימא שונין בחטא וכדרב הונא דאמר רב הונא כיון שעבר אדם עבירה ושנה בה הותרה לו קמ"ל,תנא התנאים מבלי עולם מבלי עולם ס"ד אמר רבינא שמורין הלכה מתוך משנתן תניא נמי הכי א"ר יהושע וכי מבלי עולם הן והלא מיישבי עולם הן שנאמר (חבקוק ג, ו) הליכות עולם לו אלא שמורין הלכה מתוך משנתן,אשה פרושה וכו' ת"ר בתולה צליינית ואלמנה שובבית וקטן שלא כלו לו חדשיו הרי אלו מבלי עולם,איני והאמר רבי יוחנן למדנו יראת חטא מבתולה וקיבול שכר מאלמנה יראת חטא מבתולה דר' יוחנן שמעה לההיא בתולה דנפלה אאפה וקאמרה רבש"ע בראת גן עדן ובראת גיהנם בראת צדיקים ובראת רשעים יהי רצון מלפניך שלא יכשלו בי בני אדם,קיבול שכר מאלמנה דההיא אלמנה דהואי בי כנישתא בשיבבותה כל יומא הות אתיא ומצלה בי מדרשיה דר' יוחנן אמר לה בתי לא בית הכנסת בשיבבותך אמרה ליה רבי ולא שכר פסיעות יש לי,כי קאמר כגון יוחני בת רטיבי,מאי קטן שלא כלו לו חדשיו הכא תרגימו זה ת"ח המבעט ברבותיו,רבי אבא אמר זה תלמיד שלא הגיע להוראה ומורה דא"ר אבהו אמר רב הונא אמר רב מאי דכתיב (משלי ז, כו) כי רבים חללים הפילה ועצומים כל הרוגיה כי רבים חללים הפילה זה ת"ח שלא הגיע להוראה ומורה ועצומים כל הרוגיה זה ת"ח שהגיע להוראה ואינו מורה 22a. is one bwho readthe Written Torah band learnedthe Mishna bbut did not serve Torah scholarsin order to learn the reasoning behind the ihalakhot /i. Since he believes himself knowledgeable, he issues halakhic rulings, but due to his lack of understanding he rules erroneously and is therefore considered wicked. His cunning is in his public display of knowledge, which misleads others into considering him a true Torah scholar., bIt was stated:With regard to one who breadthe Written Torah band learnedthe Mishna bbut did not serve Torah scholars, Rabbi Elazar says: Thisperson bis an ignoramus. Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: Thisperson bis a boor. Rabbi Yannai says: Thisperson biscomparable to ba Samaritan,who follows the Written Torah but not the traditions of the Sages., bRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov says: Thisperson biscomparable to ba sorcerer [ imagosh /i],who uses his knowledge to mislead people. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: It is reasonable toaccept the opinion of bRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov, as people sayproverbially: bThe sorcerer chants and does not know what he is saying;so too, bthe itannateachesthe Mishna band does not know what he is saying. /b,§ bThe Sages taught: Who is an ignoramus [ iam ha’aretz /i]?It is banyone who does not recite iShema /iin the bmorning and evening with its blessings;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say:It is banyone who does not don phylacteries. Ben Azzai says:It is banyone who does not have ritual fringes on his garment. Rabbi Yonatan ben Yosef said:It is banyone who has sons and does not raise them to study Torah. iAḥerimsay: Even if one readsthe Written Torah band learnsthe Mishna bbut does not serve Torah scholars, he is an ignoramus. /b,If one breadthe Written Torah bbut did not learnthe Mishna, bhe is a boor. With regard toone who bdid not read and did not learnat all, bthe verse states:“Behold, the days come, says the Lord, band I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah with the seed of man, and with the seed of beast”(Jeremiah 31:26). One who has not studied at all is comparable to a beast.,The verse states: b“My son, fear the Lord and the king; and meddle not with those who are repeating”(Proverbs 24:21). bRabbi Yitzḥak says: These areindividuals bwho repeatedly learnthe ihalakhot /ibut do not know the reasons behind them. The Gemara asks: bIsn’tthat bobvious?How else could the verse be understood? The Gemara answers: He states this blest you saythat the verse is referring to individuals who brepeatedlycommit bsins, andthis is bin accordance withthe words of bRav Huna, as Rav Huna says: Once a person committed a transgression and repeated it,in his eyes bit became permitted for him.Since the verse could be interpreted in this manner, Rabbi Yitzḥak bteaches usthat the verse is referring to those who learn without understanding., bIt was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe itanna’im /i,who recite the tannaitic sources by rote, bareindividuals bwho erode the world.The Gemara is puzzled by this statement: bCouldit benter your mindthat they are individuals bwho erode the world? Ravina says:This statement is referring to those bwho issue halakhic rulings basedon btheirknowledge of imishnayot /i. This is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yehoshua said: Are theyindividuals bwho erode the world? Aren’t they settling the world, as it is stated: “His ways [ ihalikhot /i] are eternal”(Habakkuk 3:6)? The Sages read the term ihalikhotas ihalakhot /i, inferring that one who learns ihalakhotattains eternal life. bRather,this is referring to those bwho issue halakhic rulings basedon btheirknowledge of imishnayot /i. /b,§ The mishna states that ban abstinent womanis among those who erode the world. bThe Sages taught: A maiden who praysconstantly, band a neighborly [ ishovavit /i] widowwho constantly visits her neighbors, band a child whose monthsof gestation bwere not completed,all bthese arepeople bwho erode the world. /b,The Gemara asks: bIs that so? But didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say: We learnedthe meaning of bfear of sin from a maiden, andthe significance of breceivingdivine breward from a widow.The meaning of bfear of sincan be learned bfrom a maiden, as Rabbi Yoḥa heard a certain maiden who fell on her facein prayer, band she was saying: Master of the Universe, You created the Garden of Eden and You created Gehenna, You createdthe brighteous and You createdthe bwicked. May it be Your will that men shall not stumble because of meand consequently go to Gehenna.,The significance of breceivingdivine brewardcan be learned bfrom a widow, asthere was ba certain widow in whose neighborhood there was a synagogue,and despite this bevery day she went and prayed in the study hall of Rabbi Yoḥa.Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to her: My daughter,is there bnot a synagogue in your neighborhood? She said to him: My teacher, don’t I attain a rewardfor all bthe stepsI take while walking to pray in the distant study hall?,The Gemara answers: bWhen it is statedin the ibaraitathat a maiden who prays constantly is one who erodes the world, it is referring, bfor example,to bYoḥani bat Retivi,who constantly prayed and pretended to be saintly but actually engaged in sorcery.,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of ba child whose monthsof gestation bwere not completed? Here,in Babylonia, bthey interpreted thisas alluding to an imperfect, incomplete bTorah scholar who scorns his teachers. /b, bRabbi Abba says: This is a student who has notyet battainedthe ability bto issuehalakhic brulings, andyet bhe issues rulingsand is therefore compared to a prematurely born child. This is bas Rabbi Abbahu saysthat bRav Huna saysthat bRav says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “For she has cast down many wounded; and a mighty host are all her slain”(Proverbs 7:26)? b“For she has cast down [ ihippila /i] many wounded”; thisis referring to ba Torah scholar who has notyet battainedthe ability bto issue rulings, andyet bhe issues rulings. “And a mighty host [ ive’atzumim /i] are all her slain”; thisis referring to ba Torah scholar who has attainedthe ability bto issue rulings, but does not issue rulingsand prevents the masses from learning Torah properly.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 557
abraham Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 557
acts, synagogues, synagogues, asia minor Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116
acts, synagogues, synagogues, greece Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116
acts of the apostles Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 611
alexandria Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217
alexandrian jewry Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116
allotment, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 557
amphipolis, city Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 73
antioch, pisidian Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 611
antioch of pisidia Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
apocalyptic(ism) (see also dualism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217
apollonia Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 73
apologetic, portrait of paul Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 754
apostle Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217
apuleius Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 754
archisynagōgos Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 611
archives Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217
asia minor, acts Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116
asia minor, inscriptions Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116
asia minor, synagogues Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116
athens, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116
athens Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 754; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94, 113
baptism Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
beroea, city Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 62, 81
beroea Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
blessings, study Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116
cain Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 557
calendar, jewish lunar Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 10
christ assembly (see also synagogue) Keith, The Gospel as Manuscript: An Early History of the Jesus Tradition as Material Artifact (2020) 213
christian message Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
christianity, number of christians Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 381
church Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
claudius Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217
constantine Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 10
conversion Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
corinth Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 754; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
creator, creation Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 77
culture, cultural affiliations in galilee Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 182
damascus, and paul Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 182
diaspora Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 611
divine identity Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 77
divine name Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 77
egnatia (via) Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 73
ephesus Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94, 113
epigraphy, jewish Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 62
faith Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
family and kinship, fictive kin andthe jesus group Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 381
father Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 77
gentiles, numbers in jesus group Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 381
gentiles Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94, 105, 113
glory Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 77
gnostic, gnosticism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 77
god-fearers Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 213
gospels Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94, 105
greece Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
haftarah Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 611
holy spirit, cornelius Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 579
holy spirit, lukan conception Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 579
holy spirit, samaritans Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 579
iconium Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
ioudaios Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 557
italy Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
jerusalem Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
jesus Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 557
jesus messianists Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 381
jews Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94, 105, 113
john mark, defection Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 611
judaea (roman province; see also yehud) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217
judaism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 754
judean (geographical-political) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217
juvenal, street philosophers Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 754
kerygma Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
law/law Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
luke, synagogue, synagogue liturgy vs. christianity, paganism Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116
luke-acts, baptism of jesus Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 196
luke-acts, metalepsis Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 196
luke-acts, mirroring Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 196
luke-acts, pneumatology, incoherence Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 579
luke Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94, 105; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217
macedonia, imperial cult Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 62
macedonia, jewish communities Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 62
macedonia, koinon Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 62
macedonia, religious context Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 62
macedonia Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217
message Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
message from god/gods Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94, 113
message of salvation Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
mission of paul Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
missionary activity Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116
moses, origin of torah reading Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116
moses Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
obstinacy Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
pagans Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
paul, as persecutor Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 182
paul, conversion Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 182
paul (apostle) Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 73, 81, 82; Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 213
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217
paul (the apostle) Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94, 105, 113
persecution Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 213
philippi, city Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 62
philippi, synagogue/proseuche Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116
philippi (macedonia) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217
philosopher, philosophical Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
philosopher Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 754
pisidia, berea Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116
pisidia, christians, diaspora synagogues Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 501
pneumatology, lukan Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 579
preacher, preaching Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116
preaching Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 754
prophet Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94, 105, 113
prophetic Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
proseuche (prayer house), diaspora, philippi Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 501
regions Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 557
resurrection Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
revelation Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
roman, empire Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217
rome, therapeutae Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 501
rome, women Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 501
rome Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105, 113
sabbath, worship Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116
sabbath Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
salamis Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116
salvation Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 754; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94, 105, 113
septuagint Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
sign Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
silas/silvanus Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 73, 81, 82
simeon Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
social ranking, in roman empire (before constantine) Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 381
social ranking, of jesus group members Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 381
stephen Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
stern s. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 10
stobi, city Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 62
synagogue Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 754; Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 213
synagogue leadership Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 611
synagogue prayer Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217
teaching Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 754
testament of eve Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 557
thecla Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 213
therapeutae, study Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116
thessalonica, christian community Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 73, 81, 82
thessalonica, city Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 62
thessalonica, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 116, 501
thessalonica Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
thessalonika Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 217
timothy Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 81, 82
tree Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 557
truth Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
valentinus, valentinianism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 77
walls of paradise (or garden) Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 557
wilderness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 557
women, academy Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 501
women, attraction to judaism Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 501
women, pauls missionary activity Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 501
women, seating, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 501
women, synagogue attendance' Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 501
women, torah reading Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 501
word of exhortation Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 611
yahweh, yhwh Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 77