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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8243
New Testament, Acts, 15.1-15.29


ΚΑΙ ΤΙΝΕΣ ΚΑΤΕΛΘΟΝΤΕΣ ἀπὸ τῆς Ἰουδαίας ἐδίδασκον τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς ὅτι Ἐὰν μὴ lt*gtιτμηθῆτε τῷ ἔθει τῷ Μωυσέως, οὐ δύνασθε σωθῆναι.Some men came down from Judea and taught the brothers, "Unless you are circumcised after the custom of Moses, you can't be saved.


νῦν οὖν τί πειράζετε τὸν θεόν, ἐπιθεῖναι ζυγὸν ἐπὶ τὸν τράχηλον τῶν μαθητῶν ὃν οὔτε οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν οὔτε ἡμεῖς ἰσχύσαμεν βαστάσαι;Now therefore why do you tempt God, that you should put a yoke on the neck of the disciples which neither our fathers nor we were able to bear?


ἀλλὰ διὰ τῆς χάριτος τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ πιστεύομεν σωθῆναι καθʼ ὃν τρόπον κἀκεῖνοι.But we believe that we are saved through the grace of the Lord Jesus, just as they are.


Ἐσίγησεν δὲ πᾶν τὸ πλῆθος, καὶ ἤκουον Βαρνάβα καὶ Παύλου ἐξηγουμένων ὅσα ἐποίησεν ὁ θεὸς σημεῖα καὶ τέρατα ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν διʼ αὐτῶν.All the multitude kept silence, and they listened to Barnabas and Paul reporting what signs and wonders God had done among the Gentiles through them.


Μετὰ δὲ τὸ σιγῆσαι αὐτοὺς ἀπεκρίθη Ἰάκωβος λέγων Ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί, ἀκούσατέ μου.After they were silent, James answered, "Brothers, listen to me.


Συμεὼν ἐξηγήσατο καθὼς πρῶτον ὁ θεὸς ἐπεσκέψατο λαβεῖν ἐξ ἐθνῶν λαὸν τῷ ὀνόματι αὐτοῦ.Simeon has reported how God first visited the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name.


καὶ τούτῳ συμφωνοῦσιν οἱ λόγοι τῶν προφητῶν, καθὼς γέγραπταιThis agrees with the words of the prophets. As it is written


nan'After these things I will return. I will again build the tent of David, which has fallen. I will again build its ruins. I will set it up


nanThat the rest of men may seek after the Lord; All the Gentiles who are called by my name, Says the Lord, who does all these things.


nanAll his works are known to God from eternity.'


διὸ ἐγὼ κρίνω μὴ παρενοχλεῖν τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ἐθνῶν ἐπιστρέφουσιν ἐπὶ τὸν θεόνTherefore my judgment is that we don't trouble those from among the Gentiles who turn to God


γενομένης δὲ στάσεως καὶ ζητήσεως οὐκ ὀλίγης τῷ Παύλῳ καὶ τῷ Βαρνάβᾳ πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἔταξαν ἀναβαίνειν Παῦλον καὶ Βαρνάβαν καί τινας ἄλλους ἐξ αὐτῶν πρὸς τοὺς ἀποστόλους καὶ πρεσβυτέρους εἰς Ἰερουσαλὴμ περὶ τοῦ ζητήματος τούτου.Therefore when Paul and Barnabas had no small discord and discussion with them, they appointed Paul and Barnabas, and some others of them, to go up to Jerusalem to the apostles and elders about this question.


ἀλλὰ ἐπιστεῖλαι αὐτοῖς τοῦ ἀπέχεσθαι τῶν ἀλισγημάτων τῶν εἰδώλων καὶ τῆς πορνείας καὶ πνικτοῦ καὶ τοῦ αἵματος·but that we write to them that they abstain from the pollution of idols, from sexual immorality, from what is strangled, and from blood.


Μωυσῆς γὰρ ἐκ γενεῶν ἀρχαίων κατὰ πόλιν τοὺς κηρύσσοντας αὐτὸν ἔχει ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς κατὰ πᾶν σάββατον ἀναγινωσκόμενος.For Moses from generations of old has in every city those who preach him, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath.


Τότε ἔδοξε τοῖς ἀποστόλοις καὶ τοῖς πρεσβυτέροις σὺν ὅλῃ τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ ἐκλεζαμένους ἄνδρας ἐξ αὐτῶν πέμψαι εἰς Ἀντιόχειαν σὺν τῷ Παύλῳ καὶ Βαρνάβᾳ, Ἰούδαν τὸν καλούμενον Βαρσαββᾶν καὶ Σίλαν, ἄνδρας ἡγουμένους ἐν τοῖς ἀδελφοῖςThen it seemed good to the apostles and the elders, with the whole assembly, to choose men out of their company, and send them to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas: Judas called Barsabbas, and Silas, chief men among the brothers.


γράψαντες διὰ χειρὸς αὐτῶν Οἱ ἀπόστολοι καὶ οἱ πρεσβύτεροι ἀδελφοὶ τοῖς κατὰ τὴν Ἀντιόχειαν καὶ Συρίαν καὶ Κιλικίαν ἀδελφοῖς τοῖς ἐξ ἐθνῶν χαίρειν.They wrote these things by their hand: "The apostles, the elders, and the brothers, to the brothers who are of the Gentiles in Antioch, Syria, and Cilicia: greetings.


Ἐπειδὴ ἠκούσαμεν ὅτι τινὲς ἐξ ἡμῶν ἐτάραξαν ὑμᾶς λόγοις ἀνασκευάζοντες τὰς ψυχὰς ὑμῶν, οἷς οὐ διεστειλάμεθαBecause we have heard that some who went out from us have troubled you with words, unsettling your souls, saying, 'You must be circumcised and keep the law,' to whom we gave no commandment;


ἔδοξεν ἡμῖν γενομένοις ὁμοθυμαδὸν ἐκλεξαμένοις ἄνδρας πέμψαι πρὸς ὑμᾶς σὺν τοῖς ἀγαπητοῖς ἡμῶν Βαρνάβᾳ καὶ Παύλῳit seemed good to us, having come to one accord, to choose out men and send them to you with our beloved Barnabas and Paul


ἀνθρώποις παραδεδωκόσι τὰς ψυχὰς αὐτῶν ὑπὲρ τοῦ ὀνόματος τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ.men who have risked their lives for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.


ἀπεστάλκαμεν οὖν Ἰούδαν καὶ Σίλαν, καὶ αὐτοὺς διὰ λόγου ἀπαγγέλλοντας τὰ αὐτά.We have sent therefore Judas and Silas, who themselves will also tell you the same things by word of mouth.


ἔδοξεν γὰρ τῷ πνεύματι τῷ ἁγίῳ καὶ ἡμῖν μηδὲν πλέον ἐπιτίθεσθαι ὑμῖν βάρος πλὴν τούτων τῶν ἐπάναγκες, ἀπέχεσθαι εἰδωλοθύτων καὶ αἵματος καὶ πνικτῶν καὶ πορνείας·For it seemed good to the Holy Spirit, and to us, to lay no greater burden on you than these necessary things:


ἐξ ὧν διατηροῦντες ἑαυτοὺς εὖ πράξετε. Ἔρρωσθε.that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality, from which if you keep yourselves, it will be well with you. Farewell.


Οἱ μὲν οὖν προπεμφθέντες ὑπὸ τῆς ἐκκλησίας διήρχοντο τήν τε Φοινίκην καὶ Σαμαρίαν ἐκδιηγούμενοι τὴν ἐπιστροφὴν τῶν ἐθνῶν, καὶ ἐποίουν χαρὰν μεγάλην πᾶσι τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς.They, being sent on their way by the assembly, passed through both Phoenicia and Samaria, declaring the conversion of the Gentiles. They caused great joy to all the brothers.


παραγενόμενοι δὲ εἰς Ἰεροσόλυμα παρεδέχθησαν ἀπὸ τῆς ἐκκλησίας καὶ τῶν ἀποστόλων καὶ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων, ἀνήγγειλάν τε ὅσα ὁ θεὸς ἐποίησεν μετʼ αὐτῶν.When they had come to Jerusalem, they were received by the assembly and the apostles and the elders, and they reported all things that God had done with them.


Ἐξανέστησαν δέ τινες τῶν ἀπὸ τῆς αἱρέσεως τῶν Φαρισαίων πεπιστευκότες, λέγοντες ὅτι δεῖ περιτέμνειν αὐτοὺς παραγγέλλειν τε τηρεῖν τὸν νόμον Μωυσέως.But some of the sect of the Pharisees who believed rose up, saying, "It is necessary to circumcise them, and to charge them to keep the law of Moses.


Συνήχθησάν τε οἱ ἀπόστολοι καὶ οἱ πρεσβύτεροι ἰδεῖν περὶ τοῦ λόγου τούτου.The apostles and the elders were gathered together to see about this matter.


Πολλῆς δὲ ζητήσεως γενομένης ἀναστὰς Πέτρος εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς Ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί, ὑμεῖς ἐπίστασθε ὅτι ἀφʼ ἡμερῶν ἀρχαίων ἐν ὑμῖν ἐξελέξατο ὁ θεὸς διὰ τοῦ στόματός μου ἀκοῦσαι τὰ ἔθνη τὸν λόγον τοῦ εὐαγγελίου καὶ πιστεῦσαιWhen there had been much discussion, Peter rose up and said to them, "Brothers, you know that a good while ago God made choice among you, that by my mouth the Gentiles should hear the word of the gospel, and believe.


καὶ ὁ καρδιογνώστης θεὸς ἐμαρτύρησεν αὐτοῖς δοὺς τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον καθὼς καὶ ἡμῖνGod, who knows the heart, testified about them, giving them the Holy Spirit, just like he did to us.


καὶ οὐθὲν διέκρινεν μεταξὺ ἡμῶν τε καὶ αὐτῶν, τῇ πίστει καθαρίσας τὰς καρδίας αὐτῶν.He made no distinction between us and them, cleansing their hearts by faith.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

43 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.48-12.49 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.48. וְכִי־יָגוּר אִתְּךָ גֵּר וְעָשָׂה פֶסַח לַיהוָה הִמּוֹל לוֹ כָל־זָכָר וְאָז יִקְרַב לַעֲשֹׂתוֹ וְהָיָה כְּאֶזְרַח הָאָרֶץ וְכָל־עָרֵל לֹא־יֹאכַל בּוֹ׃ 12.49. תּוֹרָה אַחַת יִהְיֶה לָאֶזְרָח וְלַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם׃ 12.48. And when a stranger shall sojourn with thee, and will keep the passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one that is born in the land; but no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof." 12.49. One law shall be to him that is homeborn, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among you.’"
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 17.10-17.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.11. וּנְמַלְתֶּם אֵת בְּשַׂר עָרְלַתְכֶם וְהָיָה לְאוֹת בְּרִית בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם׃ 17.12. וּבֶן־שְׁמֹנַת יָמִים יִמּוֹל לָכֶם כָּל־זָכָר לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם יְלִיד בָּיִת וּמִקְנַת־כֶּסֶף מִכֹּל בֶּן־נֵכָר אֲשֶׁר לֹא מִזַּרְעֲךָ הוּא׃ 17.13. הִמּוֹל יִמּוֹל יְלִיד בֵּיתְךָ וּמִקְנַת כַּסְפֶּךָ וְהָיְתָה בְרִיתִי בִּבְשַׂרְכֶם לִבְרִית עוֹלָם׃ 17.14. וְעָרֵל זָכָר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִמּוֹל אֶת־בְּשַׂר עָרְלָתוֹ וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי הֵפַר׃ 17.10. This is My covet, which ye shall keep, between Me and you and thy seed after thee: every male among you shall be circumcised." 17.11. And ye shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token of a covet betwixt Me and you." 17.12. And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every male throughout your generations, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any foreigner, that is not of thy seed." 17.13. He that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised; and My covet shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covet." 17.14. And the uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his people; he hath broken My covet.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 12.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.3. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי יִמּוֹל בְּשַׂר עָרְלָתוֹ׃ 12.3. And in the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised."
4. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 2.1-2.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.1. וְעַתָּה מְלָכִים הַשְׂכִּילוּ הִוָּסְרוּ שֹׁפְטֵי אָרֶץ׃ 2.1. לָמָּה רָגְשׁוּ גוֹיִם וּלְאֻמִּים יֶהְגּוּ־רִיק׃ 2.2. יִתְיַצְּבוּ מַלְכֵי־אֶרֶץ וְרוֹזְנִים נוֹסְדוּ־יָחַד עַל־יְהוָה וְעַל־מְשִׁיחוֹ׃ 2.1. Why are the nations in an uproar? And why do the peoples mutter in vain?" 2.2. The kings of the earth stand up, And the rulers take counsel together, Against the LORD, and against His anointed:"
5. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 53 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 5.2-5.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.2. בָּעֵת הַהִיא אָמַר יְהוָה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ עֲשֵׂה לְךָ חַרְבוֹת צֻרִים וְשׁוּב מֹל אֶת־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל שֵׁנִית׃ 5.3. וַיַּעַשׂ־לוֹ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ חַרְבוֹת צֻרִים וַיָּמָל אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־גִּבְעַת הָעֲרָלוֹת׃ 5.4. וְזֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־מָל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כָּל־הָעָם הַיֹּצֵא מִמִּצְרַיִם הַזְּכָרִים כֹּל אַנְשֵׁי הַמִּלְחָמָה מֵתוּ בַמִּדְבָּר בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּצֵאתָם מִמִּצְרָיִם׃ 5.5. כִּי־מֻלִים הָיוּ כָּל־הָעָם הַיֹּצְאִים וְכָל־הָעָם הַיִּלֹּדִים בַּמִּדְבָּר בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּצֵאתָם מִמִּצְרַיִם לֹא־מָלוּ׃ 5.6. כִּי אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה הָלְכוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּמִּדְבָּר עַד־תֹּם כָּל־הַגּוֹי אַנְשֵׁי הַמִּלְחָמָה הַיֹּצְאִים מִמִּצְרַיִם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־שָׁמְעוּ בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לָהֶם לְבִלְתִּי הַרְאוֹתָם אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבוֹתָם לָתֶת לָנוּ אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ׃ 5.7. וְאֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם הֵקִים תַּחְתָּם אֹתָם מָל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כִּי־עֲרֵלִים הָיוּ כִּי לֹא־מָלוּ אוֹתָם בַּדָּרֶךְ׃ 5.8. וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר־תַּמּוּ כָל־הַגּוֹי לְהִמּוֹל וַיֵּשְׁבוּ תַחְתָּם בַּמַּחֲנֶה עַד חֲיוֹתָם׃ 5.2. At that time the LORD said unto Joshua: ‘Make thee knives of flint, and circumcise again the children of Israel the second time.’" 5.3. And Joshua made him knives of flint, and circumcised the children of Israel at Gibeath-ha-araloth." 5.4. And this is the cause why Joshua did circumcise: all the people that came forth out of Egypt, that were males, even all the men of war, died in the wilderness by the way, after they came forth out of Egypt." 5.5. For all the people that came out were circumcised; but all the people that were born in the wilderness by the way as they came forth out of Egypt, had not been circumcised." 5.6. For the children of Israel walked forty years in the wilderness, till all the nation, even the men of war that came forth out of Egypt, were consumed, because they hearkened not unto the voice of the LORD; unto whom the LORD swore that He would not let them see the land which the LORD swore unto their fathers that He would give us, a land flowing with milk and honey." 5.7. And He raised up their children in their stead; them did Joshua circumcise; for they were uncircumcised, because they had not been circumcised by the way." 5.8. And it came to pass, when all the nation were circumcised, every one of them, that they abode in their places in the camp, till they were whole."
7. Anon., Jubilees, 15.25-15.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

15.25. And on the selfsame day was Abraham circumcised, and all the men of his house, (and those born in the house), and all those, whom he had bought with money from the children of the stranger, were circumcised with him. 15.26. This law is for all the generations for ever
8. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.60-1.61, 2.46 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.60. According to the decree, they put to death the women who had their children circumcised 1.61. and their families and those who circumcised them; and they hung the infants from their mothers necks. 2.46. they forcibly circumcised all the uncircumcised boys that they found within the borders of Israel.
9. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 6.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.10. For example, two women were brought in for having circumcised their children. These women they publicly paraded about the city, with their babies hung at their breasts, then hurled them down headlong from the wall.'
10. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 49.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

49.8. It was Ezekiel who saw the vision of glory which God showed him above the chariot of the cherubim.
11. Anon., Didache, 8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. But let not your fasts be with the hypocrites; Matthew 6:16 for they fast on the second and fifth day of the week; but fast on the fourth day and the Preparation (Friday). Neither pray as the hypocrites; but as the Lord commanded in His Gospel, thus pray: Our Father who art in heaven, hallowed be Your name. Your kingdom come. Your will be done, as in heaven, so on earth. Give us today our daily (needful) bread, and forgive us our debt as we also forgive our debtors. And bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one (or, evil); for Yours is the power and the glory forever. Thrice in the day thus pray.
12. Ignatius, To Polycarp, 4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13. Ignatius, To The Magnesians, 8.1, 9.1, 10.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.1. Be not seduced by strange doctrines nor by antiquated fables, which are profitless. For if even unto this day we live after the manner of Judaism, we avow that we have not received grace: 9.1. If then those who had walked in ancient practices attained unto newness of hope, no longer observing sabbaths but fashioning their lives after the Lord's day, on which our life also arose through Him and through His death which some men deny -- a mystery whereby we attained unto belief, and for this cause we endure patiently, that we may be found disciples of Jesus Christ our only teacher -- 10.3. It is monstrous to talk of Jesus Christ and to practise Judaism. For Christianity did not believe in Judaism, but Judaism in Christianity, wherein every tongue believed and was gathered together unto God.
14. Ignatius, To The Smyrnaeans, 1.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 20.51-20.53, 20.97, 20.200 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20.51. Now her coming was of very great advantage to the people of Jerusalem; for whereas a famine did oppress them at that time, and many people died for want of what was necessary to procure food withal, queen Helena sent some of her servants to Alexandria with money to buy a great quantity of corn, and others of them to Cyprus, to bring a cargo of dried figs. 20.52. And as soon as they were come back, and had brought those provisions, which was done very quickly, she distributed food to those that were in want of it, and left a most excellent memorial behind her of this benefaction, which she bestowed on our whole nation. 20.53. And when her son Izates was informed of this famine, he sent great sums of money to the principal men in Jerusalem. However, what favors this queen and king conferred upon our city Jerusalem shall be further related hereafter. 20.97. 1. Now it came to pass, while Fadus was procurator of Judea, that a certain magician, whose name was Theudas, persuaded a great part of the people to take their effects with them, and follow him to the river Jordan; for he told them he was a prophet, and that he would, by his own command, divide the river, and afford them an easy passage over it;
16. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.137 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.137. 14. As to the other things which he sets down as blameworthy, it may perhaps be the best way to let them pass without apology, that he may be allowed to be his own accuser, and the accuser of the rest of the Egyptians. However, he accuses us for sacrificing animals, and for abstaining from swine’s flesh, and laughs at us for the circumcision of our privy members.
17. Juvenal, Satires, 14.98-14.106 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.9, 7.18, 8.1, 9.5-9.7, 10.18, 12.1, 15.8, 16.1-16.4, 16.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. God is faithful, through whom you were calledinto the fellowship of his Son, Jesus Christ, our Lord. 7.18. Was anyone called having been circumcised? Let him not becomeuncircumcised. Has anyone been called in uncircumcision? Let him not becircumcised. 8.1. Now concerning things sacrificed to idols: We know that we allhave knowledge. Knowledge puffs up, but love builds up. 9.5. Have we noright to take along a wife who is a believer, even as the rest of theapostles, and the brothers of the Lord, and Cephas? 9.6. Or have onlyBarnabas and I no right to not work? 9.7. What soldier ever serves athis own expense? Who plants a vineyard, and doesn't eat of its fruit?Or who feeds a flock, and doesn't drink from the flock's milk? 10.18. Consider Israel after theflesh. Don't those who eat the sacrifices have communion with the altar? 12.1. Now concerning spiritual gifts, brothers, I don't want you tobe ignorant. 15.8. and last of all, as to the child born at the wrongtime, he appeared to me also. 16.1. Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I commandedthe assemblies of Galatia, you do likewise. 16.2. On the first day ofthe week, let each one of you save, as he may prosper, that nocollections be made when I come. 16.3. When I arrive, I will sendwhoever you approve with letters to carry your gracious gift toJerusalem. 16.4. If it is appropriate for me to go also, they will gowith me. 16.19. The assemblies of Asia greet you. Aquila and Priscilla greetyou much in the Lord, together with the assembly that is in theirhouse.
19. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.1, 2.14-2.16, 3.12, 5.12, 5.14-5.15, 5.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, Silvanus, and Timothy, to the assembly of the Thessalonians in God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 2.14. For you, brothers, became imitators of the assemblies of God which are in Judea in Christ Jesus; for you also suffered the same things from your own countrymen, even as they did from the Jews; 2.15. who killed both the Lord Jesus and their own prophets, and drove us out, and didn't please God, and are contrary to all men; 2.16. forbidding us to speak to the Gentiles that they may be saved; to fill up their sins always. But wrath has come on them to the uttermost. 3.12. and the Lord make you to increase and abound in love one toward another, and toward all men, even as we also do toward you 5.12. But we beg you, brothers, to know those who labor among you, and are over you in the Lord, and admonish you 5.14. We exhort you, brothers, admonish the disorderly, encourage the fainthearted, support the weak, be patient toward all. 5.15. See that no one returns evil for evil to anyone, but always follow after that which is good, for one another, and for all. 5.23. May the God of peace himself sanctify you completely. May your whole spirit, soul, and body be preserved blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.
20. New Testament, 3 John, 10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

21. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 3.6, 6.2, 6.5, 11.13, 11.22-11.23, 11.26, 13.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

22. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 1.3, 3.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. We are bound to always give thanks to God for you, brothers, even as it is appropriate, because your faith grows exceedingly, and the love of each and every one of you towards one another abounds;
23. New Testament, Acts, 2.46, 4, 4.35, 4.36, 4.37, 5.36, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 8.14, 8.15, 8.16, 8.17, 8.18, 8.19, 8.20, 8.21, 8.22, 8.23, 8.24, 8.26, 8.27, 8.28, 8.29, 8.30, 8.31, 8.32, 8.33, 8.34, 8.35, 8.36, 8.37, 8.38, 8.39, 8.40, 9.20, 9.26, 9.27, 9.28, 9.32, 9.33, 9.34, 9.35, 10.1, 10.1-11.18, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9, 10.10, 10.11, 10.12, 10.13, 10.14, 10.15, 10.16, 10.19, 10.20, 10.24, 10.25, 10.26, 10.27, 10.28, 10.29, 10.30, 10.31, 10.32, 10.33, 10.34, 10.35, 10.36, 10.37, 10.38, 10.39, 10.40, 10.41, 10.42, 10.43, 10.44, 10.45, 10.46, 10.47, 10.48, 11, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 11.10, 11.11, 11.12, 11.13, 11.14, 11.15, 11.16, 11.17, 11.18, 11.19, 11.20, 11.21, 11.22, 11.23, 11.24, 11.25, 11.26, 11.27, 11.28, 11.29, 11.30, 12.7, 12.12, 12.24, 12.25, 13, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.16, 13.17, 13.18, 13.19, 13.20, 13.21, 13.22, 13.23, 13.24, 13.25, 13.26, 13.27, 13.28, 13.29, 13.30, 13.31, 13.32, 13.33, 13.34, 13.35, 13.36, 13.37, 13.38, 13.39, 13.40, 13.41, 13.42, 13.43, 13.44, 13.45, 13.46, 13.47, 13.48, 13.49, 13.50, 14, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 14.11, 14.12, 14.13, 14.14, 14.15, 14.16, 14.17, 14.18, 14.19, 14.20, 14.22, 14.23, 14.24, 14.26, 14.27, 14.28, 15, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.12, 15.13, 15.14, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17, 15.18, 15.19, 15.20, 15.21, 15.22, 15.23, 15.24, 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.28, 15.29, 15.30, 15.31, 15.32, 15.33, 15.34, 15.35, 15.36, 15.37, 15.38, 15.39, 15.40, 15.41, 16, 16.6, 16.11, 16.12, 16.13, 16.14, 16.15, 16.16, 16.17, 16.18, 16.19, 16.20, 16.21, 16.22, 16.23, 16.24, 16.25, 16.26, 16.27, 16.28, 16.29, 16.30, 16.31, 16.32, 16.33, 16.34, 17, 18, 18.2, 18.3, 18.4, 18.5, 18.6, 18.7, 18.8, 18.9, 18.10, 18.11, 18.12, 18.13, 18.14, 18.15, 18.16, 18.17, 18.24, 18.25, 18.26, 18.27, 18.28, 19, 19.1, 19.2, 19.3, 19.4, 19.5, 19.6, 19.7, 19.17, 19.19, 19.22, 20, 20.7, 20.8, 20.9, 20.10, 20.11, 20.12, 20.17, 20.18, 20.19, 20.20, 20.21, 20.22, 20.23, 20.24, 20.25, 20.26, 20.27, 20.28, 20.29, 20.30, 20.31, 21, 21.7, 21.17, 21.18, 21.19, 21.20, 21.21, 21.22, 21.23, 21.24, 21.25, 21.26, 21.27, 21.28, 21.29, 21.30, 22, 22.22, 22.24, 23, 23.12, 23.13, 23.14, 23.15, 24, 24.27, 25, 26, 27, 27.27, 27.28, 27.31, 27.34, 27.35, 27.37, 27.41, 27.43, 28, 28.3, 28.4, 28.5, 28.6, 28.25, 28.26, 28.27, 28.28 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10.1. Now there was a certain man in Caesarea, Cornelius by name, a centurion of what was called the Italian Regiment
24. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.15-2.16, 2.20-2.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.15. So you also have some who hold to the teaching of the Nicolaitans in the same way. 2.16. Repent therefore, or else I am coming to you quickly, and I will make war against them with the sword of my mouth. 2.20. But I have this against you, that you tolerate your woman, Jezebel, who calls herself a prophetess. She teaches and seduces my servants to commit sexual immorality, and to eat things sacrificed to idols. 2.21. I gave her time to repent, but she refuses to repent of her sexual immorality. 2.22. Behold, I will throw her into a bed, and those who commit adultery with her into great oppression, unless they repent of her works. 2.23. I will kill her children with Death, and all the assemblies will know that I am he who searches the minds and hearts. I will give to each one of you according to your deeds.
25. New Testament, James, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.2. For if a man with a gold ring, in fine clothing, comes into your assembly, and a poor man in filthy clothing also comes in;
26. New Testament, Philemon, 2, 9, 1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

27. New Testament, Colossians, 2.11, 4.11, 4.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. in whom you were also circumcised with a circumcision not made with hands, in the putting off of the body of the sins of the flesh, in the circumcision of Christ; 4.11. and Jesus who is called Justus, who are of the circumcision. These are my only fellow workers for the Kingdom of God, men who have been a comfort to me. 4.15. Greet the brothers who are in Laodicea, and Nymphas, and the assembly that is in his house.
28. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.10, 2.11-2.22, 3.1-3.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. to an administration of the fullness of the times, to sum up all things in Christ, the things in the heavens, and the things on the earth, in him; 2.11. Therefore remember that once you, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called "uncircumcision" by that which is called "circumcision," (in the flesh, made by hands); 2.12. that you were at that time separate from Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covets of the promise, having no hope and without God in the world. 2.13. But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off are made near in the blood of Christ. 2.14. For he is our peace, who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of partition 2.15. having abolished in the flesh the hostility, the law of commandments contained in ordices, that he might create in himself one new man of the two, making peace; 2.16. and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, having killed the hostility thereby. 2.17. He came and preached peace to you who were far off and to those who were near. 2.18. For through him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father. 2.19. So then you are no longer strangers and sojourners, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God 2.20. being built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the chief cornerstone; 2.21. in whom the whole building, fitted together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord; 2.22. in whom you also are built together for a habitation of God in the Spirit. 3.1. For this cause I, Paul, am the prisoner of Christ Jesus on behalf of you Gentiles 3.2. if it is so that you have heard of the administration of that grace of God which was given me toward you; 3.3. how that by revelation the mystery was made known to me, as I wrote before in few words 3.4. by which, when you read, you can perceive my understanding in the mystery of Christ; 3.5. which in other generations was not made known to the sons of men, as it has now been revealed to his holy apostles and prophets in the Spirit; 3.6. that the Gentiles are fellow heirs, and fellow members of the body, and fellow partakers of his promise in Christ Jesus through the gospel 3.7. whereof I was made a servant, according to the gift of that grace of God which was given me according to the working of his power. 3.8. To me, the very least of all saints, was this grace given, to preach to the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ 3.9. and to make all men see what is the administration of the mystery which for ages has been hidden in God, who created all things through Jesus Christ; 3.10. to the intent that now through the assembly the manifold wisdom of God might be made known to the principalities and the powers in the heavenly places 3.11. according to the eternal purpose which he purposed in Christ Jesus our Lord; 3.12. in whom we have boldness and access in confidence through our faith in him. 3.13. Therefore I ask that you may not lose heart at my troubles for you, which are your glory. 3.14. For this cause, I bow my knees to the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ 3.15. from whom every family in heaven and on earth is named 3.16. that he would grant you, according to the riches of his glory, that you may be strengthened with power through his Spirit in the inward man; 3.17. that Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith; to the end that you, being rooted and grounded in love 3.18. may be strengthened to comprehend with all the saints what is the breadth and length and height and depth 3.19. and to know Christ's love which surpasses knowledge, that you may be filled with all the fullness of God.
29. New Testament, Galatians, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.11, 1.12, 1.18, 1.19, 1.20, 1.21, 1.22, 1.23, 1.24, 2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 2.19, 2.20, 2.21, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 3.20, 3.21, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 3.25, 3.26, 3.27, 3.28, 3.29, 4.21-5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.11, 5.12, 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, an apostle (not from men, neither through man, but through Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead)
30. New Testament, Philippians, 3.2-3.7, 4.2-4.3, 4.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.2. Beware of the dogs, beware of the evil workers, beware of the false circumcision. 3.3. For we are the circumcision, who worship God in the Spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh; 3.4. though I myself might have confidence even in the flesh. If any other man thinks that he has confidence in the flesh, I yet more: 3.5. circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; concerning the law, a Pharisee; 3.6. concerning zeal, persecuting the assembly; concerning the righteousness which is in the law, found blameless. 3.7. However, what things were gain to me, these have I counted loss for Christ. 4.2. I exhort Euodia, and I exhort Syntyche, to think the same way in the Lord. 4.3. Yes, I beg you also, true yoke-fellow, help these women, for they labored with me in the gospel, with Clement also, and the rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the book of life. 4.9. The things which you learned, received, heard, and saw in me: do these things, and the God of peace will be with you.
31. New Testament, Romans, 1.16-2.29, 2.25, 2.26, 2.27, 2.28, 2.29, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.21, 4.22, 4.23, 4.24, 4.25, 9.16, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24, 9.25, 9.26, 11.26, 14, 15.26, 15.31, 15.33, 16, 16.3, 16.4, 16.5, 16.6, 16.7, 16.8, 16.9, 16.10, 16.11, 16.12, 16.13, 16.14, 16.15, 16.16, 16.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

32. New Testament, Titus, 1.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. For there are also many unruly men, vain talkers and deceivers, especially those of the circumcision
33. New Testament, John, 9.22, 12.42, 16.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.22. His parents said these things because they feared the Jews; for the Jews had already agreed that if any man would confess him as Christ, he would be put out of the synagogue. 12.42. Nevertheless even of the rulers many believed in him, but because of the Pharisees they didn't confess it, so that they wouldn't be put out of the synagogue 16.2. They will put you out of the synagogues. Yes, the time comes that whoever kills you will think that he offers service to God.
34. New Testament, Mark, 2.13-2.14, 4.10-4.12, 7.19, 9.5, 9.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.13. He went out again by the seaside. All the multitude came to him, and he taught them. 2.14. As he passed by, he saw Levi, the son of Alphaeus, sitting at the tax office, and he said to him, "Follow me." And he arose and followed him. 4.10. When he was alone, those who were around him with the twelve asked him about the parables. 4.11. He said to them, "To you is given the mystery of the Kingdom of God, but to those who are outside, all things are done in parables 4.12. that 'seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest perhaps they should turn again, and their sins should be forgiven them.' 7.19. because it doesn't go into his heart, but into his stomach, then into the latrine, thus making all foods clean? 9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah. 9.12. He said to them, "Elijah indeed comes first, and restores all things. How is it written about the Son of Man, that he should suffer many things and be despised?
35. New Testament, Matthew, 23.15, 27.19, 27.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

23.15. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you travel around by sea and land to make one proselyte; and when he becomes one, you make him twice as much of a son of Gehenna as yourselves. 27.19. While he was sitting on the judgment seat, his wife sent to him, saying, "Have nothing to do with that righteous man, for I have suffered many things this day in a dream because of him. 27.24. So when Pilate saw that nothing was being gained, but rather that a disturbance was starting, he took water, and washed his hands before the multitude, saying, "I am innocent of the blood of this righteous person. You see to it.
36. Tacitus, Histories, 5.5.1-5.5.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

37. Hermas, Mandates, 11 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

38. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.6.3, 1.28.1-1.28.2, 2.14.5, 2.32.2, 3.12.14, 3.14.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

39. Justin, First Apology, 67 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

67. And we afterwards continually remind each other of these things. And the wealthy among us help the needy; and we always keep together; and for all things wherewith we are supplied, we bless the Maker of all through His Son Jesus Christ, and through the Holy Ghost. And on the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the country gather together to one place, and the memoirs of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read, as long as time permits; then, when the reader has ceased, the president verbally instructs, and exhorts to the imitation of these good things. Then we all rise together and pray, and, as we before said, when our prayer is ended, bread and wine and water are brought, and the president in like manner offers prayers and thanksgivings, according to his ability, and the people assent, saying Amen; and there is a distribution to each, and a participation of that over which thanks have been given, and to those who are absent a portion is sent by the deacons. And they who are well to do, and willing, give what each thinks fit; and what is collected is deposited with the president, who succours the orphans and widows and those who, through sickness or any other cause, are in want, and those who are in bonds and the strangers sojourning among us, and in a word takes care of all who are in need. But Sunday is the day on which we all hold our common assembly, because it is the first day on which God, having wrought a change in the darkness and matter, made the world; and Jesus Christ our Saviour on the same day rose from the dead. For He was crucified on the day before that of Saturn (Saturday); and on the day after that of Saturn, which is the day of the Sun, having appeared to His apostles and disciples, He taught them these things, which we have submitted to you also for your consideration.
40. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 16 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16. Justin: And God himself proclaimed by Moses, speaking thus: 'And circumcise the hardness of your hearts, and no longer stiffen the neck. For the Lord your God is both Lord of lords, and a great, mighty, and terrible God, who regards not persons, and takes not rewards.' And in Leviticus: 'Because they have transgressed against Me, and despised Me, and because they have walked contrary to Me, I also walked contrary to them, and I shall cut them off in the land of their enemies. Then shall their uncircumcised heart be turned. Leviticus 26:40-41 For the circumcision according to the flesh, which is from Abraham, was given for a sign; that you may be separated from other nations, and from us; and that you alone may suffer that which you now justly suffer; and that your land may be desolate, and your cities burned with fire; and that strangers may eat your fruit in your presence, and not one of you may go up to Jerusalem.' For you are not recognised among the rest of men by any other mark than your fleshly circumcision. For none of you, I suppose, will venture to say that God neither did nor does foresee the events, which are future, nor foreordained his deserts for each one. Accordingly, these things have happened to you in fairness and justice, for you have slain the Just One, and His prophets before Him; and now you reject those who hope in Him, and in Him who sent Him- God the Almighty and Maker of all things- cursing in your synagogues those that believe in Christ. For you have not the power to lay hands upon us, on account of those who now have the mastery. But as often as you could, you did so. Wherefore God, by Isaiah, calls to you, saying, 'Behold how the righteous man perished, and no one regards it. For the righteous man is taken away from before iniquity. His grave shall be in peace, he is taken away from the midst. Draw near hither, you lawless children, seed of the adulterers, and children of the whore. Against whom have you sported yourselves, and against whom have you opened the mouth, and against whom have you loosened the tongue?' Isaiah 57:1-4
41. Tertullian, On Modesty, 12.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

42. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 3.5.3 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

3.5.3. But the people of the church in Jerusalem had been commanded by a revelation, vouchsafed to approved men there before the war, to leave the city and to dwell in a certain town of Perea called Pella. And when those that believed in Christ had come there from Jerusalem, then, as if the royal city of the Jews and the whole land of Judea were entirely destitute of holy men, the judgment of God at length overtook those who had committed such outrages against Christ and his apostles, and totally destroyed that generation of impious men.
43. Origen, Homilies On Genesis, 10.5 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
accusation, against paul Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 14
achaia Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 14
acts, apocryphal Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 234
acts, canonical Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 101, 234
acts (new testament) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253, 261
acts and anti-judaism Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 8
acts of the apostles, aeneas, healing of Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 16
acts of the apostles, baptismal content of Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 22
acts of the apostles, presbyters in Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 58
acts of the apostles, prophets in Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 58
acts of the apostles, teachers in Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 58
acts of the apostles Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 237
agrippa i Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376
akhaia (roman province) Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 200
ambrose, on abrahams thigh Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 146
ambrose, on circumcision Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 147, 148
ambrose, on rebecca Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 145
amos Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 261
anti-pauline Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 295
antioch, aquila, significance of Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 22
antioch, christian community in Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 58
antioch, incident at Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 136
antioch, peters speech in synagogue Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 22
antioch Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253, 261; Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 60
antioch\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 234
antioch (syrian) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 295, 376, 466, 570
antiochene Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 295
apollos Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 319
apologetic, portrait of paul Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 381
apostle, jerusalem Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 14
apostle Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376, 570
apostolic council Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 143
apostolic decree Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 143
aramaic, targum, targumic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
aramaic Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 261
asia minor Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376, 570
augustine, on abrahams thigh Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 146
augustine, on circumcision Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 148
augustine, on rebecca Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 145
authority Papaioannou et al., Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 172; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou, Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 172
baptism, of corinthians Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 22
baptism, of cornelius Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 22
baptism, of ephesians Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 22
baptism, of ethiopian eunuch Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 16
baptism, of johns disciples Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 22
baptism, of lydia Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 22
baptism, of pauls jailer Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 16, 22
baptism, of simon magus Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 16
baptism, offered to jews Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 22
baptism, superiority over circumcision of Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 22, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150
baptism Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 261
baptism of john Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 319
baptism spirit and Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 319
baptismal significance, of healing of aeneas Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 16
baptismal significance, of name of aquila Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 22
baptismal significance, of numbers in acts Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 22
baptismal significance, of pauls shipwreck Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 22
baptismal significance, of pauls survival of vipers poison Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 22
baptismal significance, of peters mission as fisherman Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 22
baptismal significance, of peters side Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 22
baptismal significance, of raising of eutychus Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 16, 22
baptismal significance, of rebecca at well Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 145
baptismal significance, of red sea and crossing Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 22
barnabas Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253; Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 58; Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 237; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376, 466, 570; Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 143
boundaries\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 101
charges against, at corinth Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 319
christian, early christian, anti-christian, christianity Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
christianity, and greek/pagan religion Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 237
christianity, early history Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 139, 141
christianity Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 261
christians, gentile Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 237
church Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 319
churches/tradition of paul pauline Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 295
circumcision, as casting-out of lust Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 147, 148, 149, 150
circumcision, as identification Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 143, 144
circumcision, as mutilation Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 142
circumcision, as symbol of old covenant Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 145, 146, 147
circumcision, inferior to baptism Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 22, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150
circumcision Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 261; Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 141; Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 128; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376; deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 133
claudius Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 570
common meals Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
compassion, conversion, significance of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 133
conflict, of jews and christians (parting of the ways) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 295, 619
contribution, corinthian Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 14
conversion, bridging, to judaism Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 6
corinth Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 60; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376
culture, cultural affiliations in galilee Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 139, 141, 173
cyprus\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 234
cyprus and cyrene Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 58
dialogical self theory\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 101
diaspora Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376
domitian passim, esp. Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 60
egyptian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 570
epicureanism, heresy assimilated to Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 133
exegesis, exegetical, interpretation of scripture, messianic/eschatological interpretation Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
felix Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 570
festus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 570
flesh (as negative force) deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 133
forgiveness Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253, 261
galatians Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
galilee, galilean Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
gamaliel (gamliel) the elder, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 619
gamaliel (gamliel) the younger, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 295, 619
gentile, mission Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 14
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 295, 376, 466, 570
gentiles, salvation of Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 136
gentiles Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253, 261
geography\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 234
globalization\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 101
gnosticism, as heretical or other Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 133
gnosticism, orthodox criticism of morality of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 133
god, identification of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 158
god-fearers Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 60
gospel of the circumcision Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 466, 570
gospels Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253; McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 52
greek language Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
haburah McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 52
head, christ as deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 158
hebrews and hellenists Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 139
hellenism, hellenistic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 570
hellenists Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 173
heresy, exclusion of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 133
heresy, interior to church Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 133
herod Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
hillel, school of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 619
hillel the elder Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 619
household Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 381
human condition Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 381
hypocrisy Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
hypocrites (pharisees) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 295
identity, construction of identity Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 101, 234
identity, identify formation Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 101
identity construction Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 8
idolatry Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 60
idols, food offered to Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 570
ignatius Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 295
interconnectivity\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 101
irenaeus, on heresy and paganism Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 133
isaiah (biblical book) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 261
israel, and gentiles deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 158
israel, land of Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
israel, used of christians Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 128
israel deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 158
itinerary\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 234
jacobean source Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 261
james Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 261; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61; Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 143
james (brother of jesus), death of Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 141
james (brother of jesus) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376, 466, 570
jerusalem, agreement at Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 143
jerusalem, contribution for Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 14
jerusalem Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 261; Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 60; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
jerusalem\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 234
jerusalem church Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 466
jerusalem council, decree of Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 237
jesus, disciples, early followers, messianic movement Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
jesus Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 261
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 466
jewish-christian group, commmunity Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 295
jewish christianity, early forms Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 139
jewish other, ritual Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
jews and gentiles, hostility between deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 133
jews and gentiles, in the church deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 133
john (disciple) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 466
journey, earthly journey Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 234
judaea\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 234
judaea (roman province; see also yehud) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 466, 570
judaism, meals McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 52
judaize, judaizing (ioudaïzein) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 466
judea (region) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376
knowledge\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 101
language, law, works of Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 128
last supper McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 52
law in paul Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376, 570
levi (new testament) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
levites Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
liber pontificalis, lydia, baptism of Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 22
libertinism/license Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 133
luke Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 295, 376, 570, 619
lystra Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 237
makedonia (roman province) Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 200
map\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 234
marcion Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 619
mark (gospel writer and gospel) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253, 261
marketplace Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 381
martyrdom and identity construction Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 8
matthaean church, community Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 295
matthew (gospel writer and gospel) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 261
meeks, wayne Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 8
messiah, gods anointed, messiahship, messianic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
messiah Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 466
messianic community Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
messianic redemption/salvation, triumph Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
metaphor(ical) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 466
mission, to the gentiles Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 143
missionary, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 14, 381
moses Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 261; Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 60; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376, 570
muhammad Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253, 261
mystery, mysteries deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 158
narratives Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
nero Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 381
new testament, as source Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 237
new testament Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 261; Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 200
paganism, heresy assimilated to Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 133
parallels/parallelism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 381
participation, in sacrificial cult Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 237
passions deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 133
passover McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 52
paul, as pastor Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 381
paul, jailers baptism Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 16, 22
paul, of shipwreck Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 22
paul, of survival of vipers poison Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 22
paul, pauline Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
paul, relations with jerusalem church Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 139
paul, situation of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 158
paul Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253; Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 60; Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 143
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 295, 376, 466, 570, 619
paul of tarsos Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 200
paul of tarsus\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 234
paul pharisee Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 619
pella, flight to Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 141
peter, defends gentile baptism Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 22
peter, mission as fisherman Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 22
peter, primacy of Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 142
peter, significance of side Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 22
peter, simon Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
peter Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
peter (cephas, simon –) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 466, 570
philosophy, assimilation of heresy to Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 133
pionius Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 8
pleasure Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 381
pluralism (hillelite) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 619
polytheism Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 60
pontius pilate Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 295
poor, the Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 466
porneia (zenut, unchastity) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 570
prophet, christian prophets Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 58
prophetic, paul as Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 381
proselyte, proselytism Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 466
psalms Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
pseudo-clementine recognitions Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 8
purification ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376
purity/impurity Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253, 261
qiddush McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 52
qumran, qumranic, anti-qumranic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
qumran McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 52
quodvultdeus, on abrahams thigh Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 146
quodvultdeus, on circumcision Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 148, 149
rabbi (, emergence Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 58
rabbinic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
reconciliation, ethnic deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 133
reed, annette yoshiko Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 8
revolt/war, under nero (great ~) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 295
rhetoric, rhetorical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 570
roman, empire Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376
sacrifice, objection to Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 237
sacrifice, animal, in christianity, objection to Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 237
sacrifice, animal, in christianity, to the christian god or to saints Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 237
sacrifice, animal, in greek religion v, vi Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 237
salvation Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 261
scripture Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 261
simon magus, baptism of Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 16
sons of god, sons of heaven Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
sunday, christian Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 194
synagogue Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 381; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 619
synagogues Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 194
tannaitic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
targums Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 261
teacher, in antioch Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 58
temple ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376, 570
theodoret of cyrrhus, on circumcision Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 144, 146
titus (emperor) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 466
todah' McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 52
torah, and gentiles Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 136
torah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 261; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
twelve, the Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 261
uncertainty\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 101
valentinians Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 133
way\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 101
wilken, robert Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 8
word, ministry of Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 194
worship, daily and weekly Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 194
yohanan, r. Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
zeal (for the law) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376, 570
zealot, zealots Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 295, 619
zeno of verona, on circumcision Hillier, Arator on the Acts of the Apostles: A Baptismal Commentary (1993) 149
εἰδωλόθυτον Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 133