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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8243
New Testament, Acts, 13.50-13.51


οἱ δὲ Ἰουδαῖοι παρώτρυναν τὰς σεβομένας γυναῖκας τὰς εὐσχήμονας καὶ τοὺς πρώτους τῆς πόλεως καὶ ἐπήγειραν διωγμὸν ἐπὶ τὸν Παῦλον καὶ Βαρνάβαν, καὶ ἐξέβαλον αὐτοὺς ἀπὸ τῶν ὁρίων αὐτῶν.But the Jews urged on the devout women of honorable estate, and the chief men of the city, and stirred up a persecution against Paul and Barnabas, and threw them out of their borders.


οἱ δὲ ἐκτιναξάμενοι τὸν κονιορτὸν τῶν ποδῶν ἐπʼ αὐτοὺς ἦλθον εἰς ἸκόνιονBut they shook off the dust of their feet against them, and came to Iconium.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

37 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Jonah, 1.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.16. וַיִּירְאוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים יִרְאָה גְדוֹלָה אֶת־יְהוָה וַיִּזְבְּחוּ־זֶבַח לַיהוָה וַיִּדְּרוּ נְדָרִים׃ 1.16. Then the men feared the LORD exceedingly; and they offered a sacrifice unto the LORD, and made vows."
2. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 1.5 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

1.5. רְאוּ בַגּוֹיִם וְהַבִּיטוּ וְהִתַּמְּהוּ תְּמָהוּ כִּי־פֹעַל פֹּעֵל בִּימֵיכֶם לֹא תַאֲמִינוּ כִּי יְסֻפָּר׃ 1.5. Look ye among the nations, and behold, And wonder marvellously; For, behold, a work shall be wrought in your days, Which ye will not believe though it be told you."
3. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.9-6.10, 49.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.9. וַיֹּאמֶר לֵךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ לָעָם הַזֶּה שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמוֹעַ וְאַל־תָּבִינוּ וּרְאוּ רָאוֹ וְאַל־תֵּדָעוּ׃ 49.6. וַיֹּאמֶר נָקֵל מִהְיוֹתְךָ לִי עֶבֶד לְהָקִים אֶת־שִׁבְטֵי יַעֲקֹב ונצירי [וּנְצוּרֵי] יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהָשִׁיב וּנְתַתִּיךָ לְאוֹר גּוֹיִם לִהְיוֹת יְשׁוּעָתִי עַד־קְצֵה הָאָרֶץ׃ 6.9. And He said: ‘Go, and tell this people: Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not." 6.10. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they, seeing with their eyes, and hearing with their ears, and understanding with their heart, return, and be healed.’" 49.6. Yea, He saith: ‘It is too light a thing that thou shouldest be My servant To raise up the tribes of Jacob, And to restore the offspring of Israel; I will also give thee for a light of the nations, That My salvation may be unto the end of the earth.’"
4. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 1.231-1.261, 8.614-8.622, 8.644-8.648, 8.660, 8.696, 8.698-8.702 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

5. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 80 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

80. And the chorus of men will have Moses for their leader; and that of the women will be under the guidance of Miriam, "the purified outward Sense." For it is just that hymns and praises should be uttered in honour of God without any delay, both in accordance with the suggestions of the intellect and the perceptions of the outward senses, and that each instrument should be struck in harmony, I mean those both of the mind and of the outward sense, in gratitude and honour to the holy Saviour.
6. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 13 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Then, because of their anxious desire for an immortal and blessed existence, thinking that their mortal life has already come to an end, they leave their possessions to their sons or daughters, or perhaps to other relations, giving them up their inheritance with willing cheerfulness; and those who know no relations give their property to their companions or friends, for it followed of necessity that those who have acquired the wealth which sees, as if ready prepared for them, should be willing to surrender that wealth which is blind to those who themselves also are still blind in their minds.
7. Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 3.8.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.8.1. ἐπανάγωμεν δὲ νῦν πάλιν ἐπὶ τὸν Πελασγόν, ὃν Ἀκουσίλαος μὲν Διὸς λέγει καὶ Νιόβης, καθάπερ ὑπέθεμεν, Ἡσίοδος δὲ αὐτόχθονα. τούτου καὶ τῆς Ὠκεανοῦ θυγατρὸς Μελιβοίας, ἢ καθάπερ ἄλλοι λέγουσι νύμφης Κυλλήνης, παῖς Λυκάων ἐγένετο, ὃς βασιλεύων Ἀρκάδων ἐκ πολλῶν γυναικῶν πεντήκοντα παῖδας ἐγέννησε· Μελαινέα 2 -- Θεσπρωτὸν Ἕλικα Νύκτιμον Πευκέτιον, Καύκωνα Μηκιστέα Ὁπλέα Μακαρέα Μάκεδνον, Ὅρον 3 -- Πόλιχον Ἀκόντην Εὐαίμονα Ἀγκύορα, Ἀρχεβάτην Καρτέρωνα Αἰγαίωνα Πάλλαντα Εὔμονα, Κάνηθον Πρόθοον Λίνον Κορέθοντα 4 -- Μαίναλον, Τηλεβόαν Φύσιον Φάσσον Φθῖον Λύκιον, Ἁλίφηρον Γενέτορα Βουκολίωνα Σωκλέα Φινέα, Εὐμήτην Ἁρπαλέα Πορθέα Πλάτωνα Αἵμονα, Κύναιθον Λέοντα Ἁρπάλυκον Ἡραιέα Τιτάναν, Μαντινέα 5 -- Κλείτορα Στύμφαλον Ὀρχομενόν οὗτοι πάντας ἀνθρώπους ὑπερέβαλλον 6 -- ὑπερηφανίᾳ καὶ ἀσεβείᾳ. Ζεὺς δὲ αὐτῶν βουλόμενος τὴν ἀσέβειαν πειρᾶσαι εἰκασθεὶς ἀνδρὶ χερνήτῃ παραγίνεται. οἱ δὲ αὐτὸν ἐπὶ ξένια 1 -- καλέσαντες, σφάξαντες ἕνα τῶν ἐπιχωρίων παῖδα, τοῖς ἱεροῖς τὰ τούτου σπλάγχνα συναναμίξαντες παρέθεσαν, συμβουλεύσαντος τοῦ πρεσβυτέρου ἀδελφοῦ Μαινάλου. Ζεὺς δὲ μυσαχθεὶς 2 -- τὴν μὲν τράπεζαν ἀνέτρεψεν, ἔνθα νῦν Τραπεζοῦς καλεῖται ὁ τόπος, Λυκάονα δὲ καὶ τοὺς τούτου παῖδας ἐκεραύνωσε, χωρὶς τοῦ νεωτάτου Νυκτίμου· φθάσασα 1 -- γὰρ ἡ Γῆ καὶ τῆς δεξιᾶς τοῦ Διὸς ἐφαψαμένη τὴν ὀργὴν κατέπαυσε.
8. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 9.209, 18.82, 20.17-20.53, 20.92-20.96, 20.189-20.198 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.209. and upon the rise of a most terrible storm, which was so great that the ship was in danger of sinking, the mariners, the master, and the pilot himself, made prayers and vows, in case they escaped the sea: but Jonah lay still and covered [in the ship,] without imitating any thing that the others did; 18.82. He procured also three other men, entirely of the same character with himself, to be his partners. These men persuaded Fulvia, a woman of great dignity, and one that had embraced the Jewish religion, to send purple and gold to the temple at Jerusalem; and when they had gotten them, they employed them for their own uses, and spent the money themselves, on which account it was that they at first required it of her. 20.17. He said further, that he would show them from hence how, at his command, the walls of Jerusalem would fall down; and he promised them that he would procure them an entrance into the city through those walls, when they were fallen down. 20.17. 1. About this time it was that Helena, queen of Adiabene, and her son Izates, changed their course of life, and embraced the Jewish customs, and this on the occasion following: 20.18. And now arose a sedition between the high priests and the principal men of the multitude of Jerusalem; each of which got them a company of the boldest sort of men, and of those that loved innovations about them, and became leaders to them; and when they struggled together, they did it by casting reproachful words against one another, and by throwing stones also. And there was nobody to reprove them; but these disorders were done after a licentious manner in the city, as if it had no government over it. 20.18. Monobazus, the king of Adiabene, who had also the name of Bazeus, fell in love with his sister Helena, and took her to be his wife, and begat her with child. But as he was in bed with her one night, he laid his hand upon his wife’s belly, and fell asleep, and seemed to hear a voice, which bid him take his hand off his wife’s belly, and not hurt the infant that was therein, which, by God’s providence, would be safely born, and have a happy end. 20.19. Now this palace had been erected of old by the children of Asamoneus and was situate upon an elevation, and afforded a most delightful prospect to those that had a mind to take a view of the city, which prospect was desired by the king; and there he could lie down, and eat, and thence observe what was done in the temple; 20.19. This voice put him into disorder; so he awaked immediately, and told the story to his wife; and when his son was born, he called him Izates. 20.21. which was the origin of that envy which his other brethren, by the same father, bore to him; while on this account they hated him more and more, and were all under great affliction that their father should prefer Izates before them. 20.21. This was the beginning of greater calamities; for the robbers perpetually contrived to catch some of Aias’s servants; and when they had taken them alive, they would not let them go, till they thereby recovered some of their own Sicarii. And as they were again become no small number, they grew bold, and were a great affliction to the whole country. 20.22. Now although their father was very sensible of these their passions, yet did he forgive them, as not indulging those passions out of an ill disposition, but out of a desire each of them had to be beloved by their father. However, he sent Izates, with many presents, to Abennerig, the king of Charax-Spasini, and that out of the great dread he was in about him, lest he should come to some misfortune by the hatred his brethren bore him; and he committed his son’s preservation to him. 20.22. and while they were unwilling to keep by them the treasures that were there deposited, out of fear of [their being carried away by] the Romans; and while they had a regard to the making provision for the workmen; they had a mind to expend these treasures upon them; for if any one of them did but labor for a single hour, he received his pay immediately; so they persuaded him to rebuild the eastern cloisters. 20.23. Upon which Abennerig gladly received the young man, and had a great affection for him, and married him to his own daughter, whose name was Samacha: he also bestowed a country upon him, from which he received large revenues. 20.23. Now the number of years during the rule of these thirteen, from the day when our fathers departed out of Egypt, under Moses their leader, until the building of that temple which king Solomon erected at Jerusalem, were six hundred and twelve. 20.24. 2. But when Monobazus was grown old, and saw that he had but a little time to live, he had a mind to come to the sight of his son before he died. So he sent for him, and embraced him after the most affectionate manner, and bestowed on him the country called Carra; 20.24. and when he was destroyed at a feast by the treachery of his son-in-law, his own son, whose name was Hyrcanus, succeeded him, after he had held the high priesthood one year longer than his brother. This Hyrcanus enjoyed that dignity thirty years, and died an old man, leaving the succession to Judas, who was also called Aristobulus 20.25. it was a soil that bare amomum in great plenty: there are also in it the remains of that ark, wherein it is related that Noah escaped the deluge, and where they are still shown to such as are desirous to see them. 20.25. Accordingly, the number of the high priests, from the days of Herod until the day when Titus took the temple and the City, and burnt them, were in all twenty-eight; the time also that belonged to them was a hundred and seven years. 20.26. Accordingly, Izates abode in that country until his father’s death. But the very day that Monobazus died, queen Helena sent for all the grandees, and governors of the kingdom, and for those that had the armies committed to their command; 20.26. and what we have suffered from the Assyrians and Babylonians, and what afflictions the Persians and Macedonians, and after them the Romans, have brought upon us; for I think I may say that I have composed this history with sufficient accuracy in all things. 20.27. and when they were come, she made the following speech to them: “I believe you are not unacquainted that my husband was desirous Izates should succeed him in the government, and thought him worthy so to do. However, I wait your determination; for happy is he who receives a kingdom, not from a single person only, but from the willing suffrages of a great many.” 20.28. This she said, in order to try those that were invited, and to discover their sentiments. Upon the hearing of which, they first of all paid their homage to the queen, as their custom was, and then they said that they confirmed the king’s determination, and would submit to it; and they rejoiced that Izates’s father had preferred him before the rest of his brethren, as being agreeable to all their wishes: 20.29. but that they were desirous first of all to slay his brethren and kinsmen, that so the government might come securely to Izates; because if they were once destroyed, all that fear would be over which might arise from their hatred and envy to him. 20.31. So since these men had not prevailed with her, when they advised her to slay them, they exhorted her at least to keep them in bonds till he should come, and that for their own security; they also gave her counsel to set up some one whom she could put the greatest trust in, as a governor of the kingdom in the mean time. 20.32. So queen Helena complied with this counsel of theirs, and set up Monobazus, the eldest son, to be king, and put the diadem upon his head, and gave him his father’s ring, with its signet; as also the ornament which they call Sampser, and exhorted him to administer the affairs of the kingdom till his brother should come; 20.33. who came suddenly upon hearing that his father was dead, and succeeded his brother Monobazus, who resigned up the government to him. 20.34. 3. Now, during the time Izates abode at Charax-Spasini, a certain Jewish merchant, whose name was Aias, got among the women that belonged to the king, and taught them to worship God according to the Jewish religion. 20.35. He, moreover, by their means, became known to Izates, and persuaded him, in like manner, to embrace that religion; he also, at the earnest entreaty of Izates, accompanied him when he was sent for by his father to come to Adiabene; it also happened that Helena, about the same time, was instructed by a certain other Jew and went over to them. 20.36. But when Izates had taken the kingdom, and was come to Adiabene, and there saw his brethren and other kinsmen in bonds, he was displeased at it; 20.37. and as he thought it an instance of impiety either to slay or imprison them, but still thought it a hazardous thing for to let them have their liberty, with the remembrance of the injuries that had been offered them, he sent some of them and their children for hostages to Rome, to Claudius Caesar, and sent the others to Artabanus, the king of Parthia, with the like intentions. 20.38. 4. And when he perceived that his mother was highly pleased with the Jewish customs, he made haste to change, and to embrace them entirely; and as he supposed that he could not be thoroughly a Jew unless he were circumcised, he was ready to have it done. 20.39. But when his mother understood what he was about, she endeavored to hinder him from doing it, and said to him that this thing would bring him into danger; and that, as he was a king, he would thereby bring himself into great odium among his subjects, when they should understand that he was so fond of rites that were to them strange and foreign; and that they would never bear to be ruled over by a Jew. 20.41. and said that he was afraid lest such an action being once become public to all, he should himself be in danger of punishment for having been the occasion of it, and having been the king’s instructor in actions that were of ill reputation; and he said that he might worship God without being circumcised, even though he did resolve to follow the Jewish law entirely, which worship of God was of a superior nature to circumcision. 20.42. He added, that God would forgive him, though he did not perform the operation, while it was omitted out of necessity, and for fear of his subjects. So the king at that time complied with these persuasions of Aias. 20.43. But afterwards, as he had not quite left off his desire of doing this thing, a certain other Jew that came out of Galilee, whose name was Eleazar, and who was esteemed very skillful in the learning of his country, persuaded him to do the thing; 20.44. for as he entered into his palace to salute him, and found him reading the law of Moses, he said to him, “Thou dost not consider, O king! that thou unjustly breakest the principal of those laws, and art injurious to God himself, [by omitting to be circumcised]; for thou oughtest not only to read them, but chiefly to practice what they enjoin thee. 20.45. How long wilt thou continue uncircumcised? But if thou hast not yet read the law about circumcision, and dost not know how great impiety thou art guilty of by neglecting it, read it now.” 20.46. When the king had heard what he said, he delayed the thing no longer, but retired to another room, and sent for a surgeon, and did what he was commanded to do. He then sent for his mother, and Aias his tutor, and informed them that he had done the thing; 20.47. upon which they were presently struck with astonishment and fear, and that to a great degree, lest the thing should be openly discovered and censured, and the king should hazard the loss of his kingdom, while his subjects would not bear to be governed by a man who was so zealous in another religion; and lest they should themselves run some hazard, because they would be supposed the occasion of his so doing. 20.48. But it was God himself who hindered what they feared from taking effect; for he preserved both Izates himself and his sons when they fell into many dangers, and procured their deliverance when it seemed to be impossible, and demonstrated thereby that the fruit of piety does not perish as to those that have regard to him, and fix their faith upon him only. But these events we shall relate hereafter. 20.49. 5. But as to Helena, the king’s mother, when she saw that the affairs of Izates’s kingdom were in peace, and that her son was a happy man, and admired among all men, and even among foreigners, by the means of God’s providence over him, she had a mind to go to the city of Jerusalem, in order to worship at that temple of God which was so very famous among all men, and to offer her thank-offerings there. So she desired her son to give her leave to go thither; 20.51. Now her coming was of very great advantage to the people of Jerusalem; for whereas a famine did oppress them at that time, and many people died for want of what was necessary to procure food withal, queen Helena sent some of her servants to Alexandria with money to buy a great quantity of corn, and others of them to Cyprus, to bring a cargo of dried figs. 20.52. And as soon as they were come back, and had brought those provisions, which was done very quickly, she distributed food to those that were in want of it, and left a most excellent memorial behind her of this benefaction, which she bestowed on our whole nation. 20.53. And when her son Izates was informed of this famine, he sent great sums of money to the principal men in Jerusalem. However, what favors this queen and king conferred upon our city Jerusalem shall be further related hereafter. 20.92. 3. It was not long ere Izates died, when he had completed fifty-five years of his life, and had ruled his kingdom twenty-four years. He left behind him twenty-four sons and twenty-four daughters. 20.93. However, he gave order that his brother Monobazus should succeed in the government, thereby requiting him, because, while he was himself absent after their father’s death, he had faithfully preserved the government for him. 20.94. But when Helena, his mother, heard of her son’s death, she was in great heaviness, as was but natural, upon her loss of such a most dutiful son; yet was it a comfort to her that she heard the succession came to her eldest son. Accordingly, she went to him in haste; and when she was come into Adiabene, she did not long outlive her son Izates. 20.95. But Monobazus sent her bones, as well as those of Izates, his brother, to Jerusalem, and gave order that they should be buried at the pyramids which their mother had erected; they were three in number, and distant no more than three furlongs from the city Jerusalem. 20.96. But for the actions of Monobazus the king, which he did during the rest of his life, we will relate them hereafter. 20.189. 11. About the same time king Agrippa built himself a very large dining-room in the royal palace at Jerusalem, near to the portico. 20.191. which thing, when the chief men of Jerusalem saw they were very much displeased at it; for it was not agreeable to the institutions of our country or law that what was done in the temple should be viewed by others, especially what belonged to the sacrifices. They therefore erected a wall upon the uppermost building which belonged to the inner court of the temple towards the west 20.192. which wall when it was built, did not only intercept the prospect of the dining-room in the palace, but also of the western cloisters that belonged to the outer court of the temple also, where it was that the Romans kept guards for the temple at the festivals. 20.193. At these doings both king Agrippa, and principally Festus the procurator, were much displeased; and Festus ordered them to pull the wall down again: but the Jews petitioned him to give them leave to send an embassage about this matter to Nero; for they said they could not endure to live if any part of the temple should be demolished; 20.194. and when Festus had given them leave so to do, they sent ten of their principal men to Nero, as also Ismael the high priest, and Helcias, the keeper of the sacred treasure. 20.195. And when Nero had heard what they had to say, he not only forgave them what they had already done, but also gave them leave to let the wall they had built stand. This was granted them in order to gratify Poppea, Nero’s wife, who was a religious woman, and had requested these favors of Nero, and who gave order to the ten ambassadors to go their way home; but retained Helcias and Ismael as hostages with herself. 20.196. As soon as the king heard this news, he gave the high priesthood to Joseph, who was called Cabi, the son of Simon, formerly high priest. 20.197. 1. And now Caesar, upon hearing the death of Festus, sent Albinus into Judea, as procurator. But the king deprived Joseph of the high priesthood, and bestowed the succession to that dignity on the son of Aus, who was also himself called Aus. 20.198. Now the report goes that this eldest Aus proved a most fortunate man; for he had five sons who had all performed the office of a high priest to God, and who had himself enjoyed that dignity a long time formerly, which had never happened to any other of our high priests.
9. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.20.2, 2.560-2.561 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.561. on which account it was that their greatest concern was, how they might conceal these things from them; so they came upon the Jews, and cut their throats, as being in a narrow place, in number ten thousand, and all of them unarmed, and this in one hour’s time, without any body to disturb them.
10. Josephus Flavius, Life, 429, 16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Juvenal, Satires, 14.96-14.106 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. Martial, Epigrams, 4.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13. Martial, Epigrams, 4.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.15-1.17, 4.3, 5.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.15. but just as he who called you is holy, you yourselves also be holy in all of your behavior; 1.16. because it is written, "You shall be holy; for I am holy. 1.17. If you call on him as Father, who without respect of persons judges according to each man's work, pass the time of your living as strangers here in reverent fear: 4.3. For we have spent enough of our past time living in doing the desire of the Gentiles, and to have walked in lewdness, lusts, drunken binges, orgies, carousings, and abominable idolatries. 5.9. Withstand him steadfast in your faith, knowing that your brothers who are in the world are undergoing the same sufferings.
15. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.16, 4.16-4.17, 5.9-5.10, 9.5-9.7, 15.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.16. (I alsobaptized the household of Stephanas; besides them, I don't know whetherI baptized any other.) 4.16. I beg you therefore, be imitators of me. 4.17. Becauseof this I have sent Timothy to you, who is my beloved and faithfulchild in the Lord, who will remind you of my ways which are in Christ,even as I teach everywhere in every assembly. 5.9. I wrote to you in my letter to have no company with sexual sinners; 5.10. yet not at all meaning with the sexual sinners of this world, orwith the covetous and extortioners, or with idolaters; for then youwould have to leave the world. 9.5. Have we noright to take along a wife who is a believer, even as the rest of theapostles, and the brothers of the Lord, and Cephas? 9.6. Or have onlyBarnabas and I no right to not work? 9.7. What soldier ever serves athis own expense? Who plants a vineyard, and doesn't eat of its fruit?Or who feeds a flock, and doesn't drink from the flock's milk? 15.8. and last of all, as to the child born at the wrongtime, he appeared to me also.
16. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.4, 2.14-2.16, 4.6, 4.9-4.12, 5.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. We know, brothers loved by God, that you are chosen 2.14. For you, brothers, became imitators of the assemblies of God which are in Judea in Christ Jesus; for you also suffered the same things from your own countrymen, even as they did from the Jews; 2.15. who killed both the Lord Jesus and their own prophets, and drove us out, and didn't please God, and are contrary to all men; 2.16. forbidding us to speak to the Gentiles that they may be saved; to fill up their sins always. But wrath has come on them to the uttermost. 4.6. that no one should take advantage of and wrong a brother or sister in this matter; because the Lord is an avenger in all these things, as also we forewarned you and testified. 4.9. But concerning brotherly love, you have no need that one write to you. For you yourselves are taught by God to love one another 4.10. for indeed you do it toward all the brothers who are in all Macedonia. But we exhort you, brothers, that you abound more and more; 4.11. and that you make it your ambition to lead a quiet life, and to do your own business, and to work with your own hands, even as we charged you; 4.12. that you may walk properly toward those who are outside, and may have need of nothing. 5.9. For God didn't appoint us to wrath, but to the obtaining of salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ
17. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.3-1.11, 6.5, 11.23-11.24, 11.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18. New Testament, Acts, 1.8, 2.5, 2.10, 2.14, 4.35, 4.36, 4.37, 6.5, 8.1, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 8.14, 8.15, 8.16, 8.17, 8.18, 8.19, 8.20, 8.21, 8.22, 8.23, 8.24, 8.25, 8.26, 8.27, 8.28, 8.29, 8.30, 8.31, 8.32, 8.33, 8.34, 8.35, 8.36, 8.37, 8.38, 8.39, 8.40, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24, 9.25, 9.26, 9.27, 9.28, 9.29, 9.30, 9.31, 9.32, 10, 10.1, 10.2, 10.22, 10.26, 10.28, 10.35, 10.46, 10.47, 10.48, 11, 11.14, 11.19, 11.21, 11.22, 11.23, 11.24, 11.25, 11.26, 11.27, 11.28, 11.29, 11.30, 12.3, 12.11, 12.24, 12.25, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.9, 13.10, 13.11, 13.12, 13.13, 13.14, 13.15, 13.16, 13.17, 13.18, 13.19, 13.20, 13.21, 13.22, 13.23, 13.24, 13.25, 13.26, 13.27, 13.28, 13.29, 13.30, 13.31, 13.32, 13.33, 13.34, 13.35, 13.36, 13.37, 13.38, 13.39, 13.40, 13.41, 13.42, 13.43, 13.44, 13.45, 13.46, 13.47, 13.48, 13.49, 13.51, 13.52, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 14.11, 14.12, 14.13, 14.14, 14.15, 14.16, 14.17, 14.18, 14.19, 14.20, 14.22, 14.23, 14.24, 15, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.11, 15.12, 15.13, 15.21, 15.22, 15.23, 15.24, 15.25, 15.26, 15.34, 15.35, 15.36, 15.37, 15.38, 15.39, 15.40, 16.6, 16.7, 16.13, 16.14, 16.15, 16.16, 16.17, 16.18, 16.19, 16.20, 16.21, 16.22, 16.23, 16.24, 16.25, 16.26, 16.27, 16.28, 16.29, 16.30, 16.31, 16.32, 16.33, 16.34, 17, 17.1, 17.2, 17.3, 17.4, 17.5, 17.6, 17.7, 17.8, 17.9, 17.10, 17.11, 17.12, 17.13, 17.14, 17.15, 17.16, 17.17, 17.18, 17.19, 17.20, 17.21, 17.22, 17.23, 17.24, 17.25, 17.26, 17.27, 17.28, 17.29, 17.30, 17.31, 17.32, 17.33, 17.34, 18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 18.4, 18.5, 18.6, 18.7, 18.8, 18.9, 18.10, 18.11, 18.12, 19.1, 19.2, 19.3, 19.4, 19.5, 19.6, 19.7, 19.8, 19.9, 19.10, 19.23, 19.24, 19.25, 19.26, 19.27, 19.28, 19.29, 19.30, 19.31, 19.32, 19.33, 19.34, 19.35, 19.36, 19.37, 19.38, 19.39, 19.40, 19.41, 20.3, 20.19, 20.22, 20.23, 21, 21.4, 21.11, 21.27, 21.28, 21.29, 21.30, 21.31, 21.32, 21.33, 21.34, 21.35, 21.36, 22.12, 22.13, 22.14, 22.15, 22.16, 22.19, 22.20, 23.12, 24.26, 24.27, 25.13-26.32, 25.22, 26.11, 26.21, 28.17, 28.18, 28.19, 28.20, 28.21, 28.22, 28.23, 28.24, 28.25, 28.26, 28.27, 28.28, 28.29, 28.30, 28.31 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.8. But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come on you. You will be witnesses to me in Jerusalem, in all Judea and Samaria, and to the uttermost parts of the earth.
19. New Testament, Philemon, 16, 9, 1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20. New Testament, Colossians, 2.1, 4.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. For I desire to have you know how greatly I struggle for you, and for those at Laodicea, and for as many as have not seen my face in the flesh; 4.13. For I testify about him, that he has great zeal for you, and for those in Laodicea, and for those in Hierapolis.
21. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.10, 2.11-2.22, 3.1-3.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. to an administration of the fullness of the times, to sum up all things in Christ, the things in the heavens, and the things on the earth, in him; 2.11. Therefore remember that once you, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called "uncircumcision" by that which is called "circumcision," (in the flesh, made by hands); 2.12. that you were at that time separate from Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covets of the promise, having no hope and without God in the world. 2.13. But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off are made near in the blood of Christ. 2.14. For he is our peace, who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of partition 2.15. having abolished in the flesh the hostility, the law of commandments contained in ordices, that he might create in himself one new man of the two, making peace; 2.16. and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, having killed the hostility thereby. 2.17. He came and preached peace to you who were far off and to those who were near. 2.18. For through him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father. 2.19. So then you are no longer strangers and sojourners, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God 2.20. being built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the chief cornerstone; 2.21. in whom the whole building, fitted together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord; 2.22. in whom you also are built together for a habitation of God in the Spirit. 3.1. For this cause I, Paul, am the prisoner of Christ Jesus on behalf of you Gentiles 3.2. if it is so that you have heard of the administration of that grace of God which was given me toward you; 3.3. how that by revelation the mystery was made known to me, as I wrote before in few words 3.4. by which, when you read, you can perceive my understanding in the mystery of Christ; 3.5. which in other generations was not made known to the sons of men, as it has now been revealed to his holy apostles and prophets in the Spirit; 3.6. that the Gentiles are fellow heirs, and fellow members of the body, and fellow partakers of his promise in Christ Jesus through the gospel 3.7. whereof I was made a servant, according to the gift of that grace of God which was given me according to the working of his power. 3.8. To me, the very least of all saints, was this grace given, to preach to the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ 3.9. and to make all men see what is the administration of the mystery which for ages has been hidden in God, who created all things through Jesus Christ; 3.10. to the intent that now through the assembly the manifold wisdom of God might be made known to the principalities and the powers in the heavenly places 3.11. according to the eternal purpose which he purposed in Christ Jesus our Lord; 3.12. in whom we have boldness and access in confidence through our faith in him. 3.13. Therefore I ask that you may not lose heart at my troubles for you, which are your glory. 3.14. For this cause, I bow my knees to the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ 3.15. from whom every family in heaven and on earth is named 3.16. that he would grant you, according to the riches of his glory, that you may be strengthened with power through his Spirit in the inward man; 3.17. that Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith; to the end that you, being rooted and grounded in love 3.18. may be strengthened to comprehend with all the saints what is the breadth and length and height and depth 3.19. and to know Christ's love which surpasses knowledge, that you may be filled with all the fullness of God.
22. New Testament, Galatians, 2.1-2.3, 2.8-2.10, 2.12-2.14, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. Then after a period of fourteen years I went up again toJerusalem with Barnabas, taking Titus also with me. 2.2. I went up byrevelation, and I laid before them the gospel which I preach among theGentiles, but privately before those who were respected, for fear thatI might be running, or had run, in vain. 2.3. But not even Titus, whowas with me, being a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised. 2.8. (for he who appointedPeter to the apostleship of the circumcision appointed me also to theGentiles); 2.9. and when they perceived the grace that was given tome, James and Cephas and John, they who were reputed to be pillars,gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, that we should goto the Gentiles, and they to the circumcision. 2.10. They only askedus to remember the poor -- which very thing I was also zealous to do. 2.12. For before some people came fromJames, he ate with the Gentiles. But when they came, he drew back andseparated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision. 2.13. And the rest of the Jews joined him in his hypocrisy; so that evenBarnabas was carried away with their hypocrisy. 2.14. But when I sawthat they didn't walk uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, Isaid to Peter before them all, "If you, being a Jew, live as theGentiles do, and not as the Jews do, why do you compel the Gentiles tolive as the Jews do? 4.2. but isunder guardians and stewards until the day appointed by the father.
23. New Testament, Philippians, 1.27, 2.12, 2.19-2.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.27. Only let your manner of life be worthy of the gospel of Christ, that, whether I come and see you or am absent, I may hear of your state, that you stand firm in one spirit, with one soul striving for the faith of the gospel; 2.12. So then, my beloved, even as you have always obeyed, not only in my presence, but now much more in my absence, work out your own salvation with fear and trembling. 2.19. But I hope in the Lord Jesus to send Timothy to you soon, that I also may be cheered up when I know how you are doing. 2.20. For I have no one else like-minded, who will truly care about you. 2.21. For they all seek their own, not the things of Jesus Christ. 2.22. But you know the proof of him, that, as a child serves a father, so he served with me in furtherance of the gospel. 2.23. Therefore I hope to send him at once, as soon as I see how it will go with me. 2.24. But I trust in the Lord that I myself also will come shortly.
24. New Testament, Romans, 5.1-5.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.1. Being therefore justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ; 5.2. through whom we also have our access by faith into this grace in which we stand. We rejoice in hope of the glory of God. 5.3. Not only this, but we also rejoice in our sufferings, knowing that suffering works perseverance; 5.4. and perseverance, proven character; and proven character, hope: 5.5. and hope doesn't disappoint us, because God's love has been poured out into our hearts through the Holy Spirit who was given to us.
25. New Testament, John, 1.18, 14.6, 18.37 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. 14.6. Jesus said to him, "I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father, except through me. 18.37. Pilate therefore said to him, "Are you a king then?"Jesus answered, "You say that I am a king. For this reason I have been born, and for this reason I have come into the world, that I should testify to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth listens to my voice.
26. New Testament, Luke, 3.1, 3.7-3.17, 10.10-10.11, 12.11, 20.20-20.26, 21.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of the region of Ituraea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene 3.7. He said therefore to the multitudes who went out to be baptized by him, "You offspring of vipers, who warned you to flee from the wrath to come? 3.8. Bring forth therefore fruits worthy of repentance, and don't begin to say among yourselves, 'We have Abraham for our father;' for I tell you that God is able to raise up children to Abraham from these stones! 3.9. Even now the ax also lies at the root of the trees. Every tree therefore that doesn't bring forth good fruit is cut down, and thrown into the fire. 3.10. The multitudes asked him, "What then must we do? 3.11. He answered them, "He who has two coats, let him give to him who has none. He who has food, let him do likewise. 3.12. Tax collectors also came to be baptized, and they said to him, "Teacher, what must we do? 3.13. He said to them, "Collect no more than that which is appointed to you. 3.14. Soldiers also asked him, saying, "What about us? What must we do?"He said to them, "Extort from no one by violence, neither accuse anyone wrongfully. Be content with your wages. 3.15. As the people were in expectation, and all men reasoned in their hearts concerning John, whether perhaps he was the Christ 3.16. John answered them all, "I indeed baptize you with water, but he comes who is mightier than I, the latchet of whose sandals I am not worthy to loosen. He will baptize you in the Holy Spirit and fire 3.17. whose fan is in his hand, and he will thoroughly cleanse his threshing floor, and will gather the wheat into his barn; but he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire. 10.10. But into whatever city you enter, and they don't receive you, go out into the streets of it and say 10.11. 'Even the dust from your city that clings to us, we wipe off against you. Nevertheless know this, that the Kingdom of God has come near to you.' 12.11. When they bring you before the synagogues, the rulers, and the authorities, don't be anxious how or what you will answer, or what you will say; 20.20. They watched him, and sent out spies, who pretended to be righteous, that they might trap him in something he said, so as to deliver him up to the power and authority of the governor. 20.21. They asked him, "Teacher, we know that you say and teach what is right, and aren't partial to anyone, but truly teach the way of God. 20.22. Is it lawful for us to pay taxes to Caesar, or not? 20.23. But he perceived their craftiness, and said to them, "Why do you test me? 20.24. Show me a denarius. Whose image and inscription are on it?"They answered, "Caesar's. 20.25. He said to them, "Then give to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's. 20.26. They weren't able to trap him in his words before the people. They marveled at his answer, and were silent. 21.12. But before all these things, they will lay their hands on you and will persecute you, delivering you up to synagogues and prisons, bringing you before kings and governors for my name's sake.
27. New Testament, Mark, 2.13-2.14, 6.11, 9.5, 13.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.13. He went out again by the seaside. All the multitude came to him, and he taught them. 2.14. As he passed by, he saw Levi, the son of Alphaeus, sitting at the tax office, and he said to him, "Follow me." And he arose and followed him. 6.11. Whoever will not receive you nor hear you, as you depart from there, shake off the dust that is under your feet for a testimony against them. Assuredly, I tell you, it will be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment than for that city! 9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah. 13.9. But watch yourselves, for they will deliver you up to councils. You will be beaten in synagogues. You will stand before rulers and kings for my sake, for a testimony to them.
28. New Testament, Matthew, 3.7-3.12, 10.14, 10.17, 23.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.7. But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming for his baptism, he said to them, "You offspring of vipers, who warned you to flee from the wrath to come? 3.8. Therefore bring forth fruit worthy of repentance! 3.9. Don't think to yourselves, 'We have Abraham for our father,' for I tell you that God is able to raise up children to Abraham from these stones. 3.10. Even now the ax lies at the root of the trees. Therefore, every tree that doesn't bring forth good fruit is cut down, and cast into the fire. 3.11. I indeed baptize you in water for repentance, but he who comes after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to carry. He will baptize you in the Holy Spirit. 3.12. His winnowing fork is in his hand, and he will thoroughly cleanse his threshing floor. He will gather his wheat into the barn, but the chaff he will burn up with unquenchable fire. 10.14. Whoever doesn't receive you, nor hear your words, as you go out out of that house or that city, shake off the dust from your feet. 10.17. But beware of men: for they will deliver you up to councils, and in their synagogues they will scourge you. 23.24. You blind guides, who strain out a gnat, and swallow a camel!
29. Tacitus, Annals, 16.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16.6.  After the close of the festival, Poppaea met her end through a chance outburst of anger on the part of her husband, who felled her with a kick during pregcy. That poison played its part I am unable to believe, though the assertion is made by some writers less from conviction than from hatred; for Nero was desirous of children, and love for his wife was a ruling passion. The body was not cremated in the Roman style, but, in conformity with the practice of foreign courts, was embalmed by stuffing with spices, then laid to rest in the mausoleum of the Julian race. Still, a public funeral was held; and the emperor at the Rostra eulogized her beauty, the fact that she had been the mother of an infant daughter now divine, and other favours of fortune which did duty for virtues.
30. Tacitus, Histories, 5.5.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

31. Anon., Acts of Peter, 30 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

32. Hippolytus, Apostolic Tradition, 21 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

33. Tertullian, To Scapula, 4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4. We who are without fear ourselves are not seeking to frighten you, but we would save all men if possible by warning them not to fight with God. You may perform the duties of your charge, and yet remember the claims of humanity; if on no other ground than that you are liable to punishment yourself, (you ought to do so). For is not your commission simply to condemn those who confess their guilt, and to give over to the torture those who deny? You see, then, how you trespass yourselves against your instructions to wring from the confessing a denial. It is, in fact, an acknowledgment of our innocence that you refuse to condemn us at once when we confess. In doing your utmost to extirpate us, if that is your object, it is innocence you assail. But how many rulers, men more resolute and more cruel than you are, have contrived to get quit of such causes altogether - as Cincius Severus, who himself suggested the remedy at Thysdris, pointing out how the Christians should answer that they might secure an acquittal; as Vespronius Candidus, who dismissed from his bar a Christian, on the ground that to satisfy his fellow citizens would break the peace of the community; as Asper, who, in the case of a man who gave up his faith under slight infliction of the torture, did not compel the offering of sacrifice, having owned before, among the advocates and assessors of court, that he was annoyed at having had to meddle with such a case. Pudens, too, at once dismissed a Christian who was brought before him, perceiving from the indictment that it was a case of vexatious accusation; tearing the document in pieces, he refused so much as to hear him without the presence of his accuser, as not being consistent with the imperial commands. All this might be officially brought under your notice, and by the very advocates, who are themselves also under obligations to us, although in court they give their voice as it suits them. The clerk of one of them who was liable to be thrown upon the ground by an evil spirit, was set free from his affliction; as was also the relative of another, and the little boy of a third. How many men of rank (to say nothing of common people) have been delivered from devils, and healed of diseases! Even Severus himself, the father of Antonine, was graciously mindful of the Christians; for he sought out the Christian Proculus, surnamed Torpacion, the steward of Euhodias, and in gratitude for his having once cured him by anointing, he kept him in his palace till the day of his death. Antonine, too, brought up as he was on Christian milk, was intimately acquainted with this man. Both women and men of highest rank, whom Severus knew well to be Christians, were not merely permitted by him to remain uninjured; but he even bore distinguished testimony in their favour, and gave them publicly back to us from the hands of a raging populace. Marcus Aurelius also, in his expedition to Germany, by the prayers his Christian soldiers offered to God, got rain in that well-known thirst. When, indeed, have not droughts been put away by our kneelings and our fastings? At times like these, moreover, the people crying to the God of gods, the alone Omnipotent, under the name of Jupiter, have borne witness to our God. Then we never deny the deposit placed in our hands; we never pollute the marriage bed; we deal faithfully with our wards; we give aid to the needy; we render to none evil for evil. As for those who falsely pretend to belong to us, and whom we, too, repudiate, let them answer for themselves. In a word, who has complaint to make against us on other grounds? To what else does the Christian devote himself, save the affairs of his own community, which during all the long period of its existence no one has ever proved guilty of the incest or the cruelty charged against it? It is for freedom from crime so singular, for a probity so great, for righteousness, for purity, for faithfulness, for truth, for the living God, that we are consigned to the flames; for this is a punishment you are not wont to inflict either on the sacrilegious, or on undoubted public enemies, or on the treason-tainted, of whom you have so many. Nay, even now our people are enduring persecution from the governors of Legio and Mauritania; but it is only with the sword, as from the first it was ordained that we should suffer. But the greater our conflicts, the greater our rewards.
34. Tertullian, Apology, 40.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

35. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31a. מאי קרא (תהלים עא, ו) ממעי אמי אתה גוזי מאי משמע דהאי גוזי לישנא דאשתבועי הוא דכתיב (ירמיהו ז, כט) גזי נזרך והשליכי,ואמר רבי אלעזר למה ולד דומה במעי אמו לאגוז מונח בספל של מים אדם נותן אצבעו עליו שוקע לכאן ולכאן,תנו רבנן שלשה חדשים הראשונים ולד דר במדור התחתון אמצעיים ולד דר במדור האמצעי אחרונים ולד דר במדור העליון וכיון שהגיע זמנו לצאת מתהפך ויוצא וזהו חבלי אשה,והיינו דתנן חבלי של נקבה מרובין משל זכר,ואמר רבי אלעזר מאי קרא (תהלים קלט, טו) אשר עשיתי בסתר רקמתי בתחתיות ארץ דרתי לא נאמר אלא רקמתי,מאי שנא חבלי נקבה מרובין משל זכר זה בא כדרך תשמישו וזה בא כדרך תשמישו זו הופכת פניה וזה אין הופך פניו,תנו רבנן שלשה חדשים הראשונים תשמיש קשה לאשה וגם קשה לולד אמצעיים קשה לאשה ויפה לולד אחרונים יפה לאשה ויפה לולד שמתוך כך נמצא הולד מלובן ומזורז,תנא המשמש מטתו ליום תשעים כאילו שופך דמים מנא ידע אלא אמר אביי משמש והולך (תהלים קטז, ו) ושומר פתאים ה',תנו רבנן שלשה שותפין יש באדם הקב"ה ואביו ואמו אביו מזריע הלובן שממנו עצמות וגידים וצפרנים ומוח שבראשו ולובן שבעין אמו מזרעת אודם שממנו עור ובשר ושערות ושחור שבעין והקב"ה נותן בו רוח ונשמה וקלסתר פנים וראיית העין ושמיעת האוזן ודבור פה והלוך רגלים ובינה והשכל,וכיון שהגיע זמנו להפטר מן העולם הקב"ה נוטל חלקו וחלק אביו ואמו מניח לפניהם אמר רב פפא היינו דאמרי אינשי פוץ מלחא ושדי בשרא לכלבא,דרש רב חיננא בר פפא מאי דכתיב (איוב ט, י) עושה גדולות עד אין חקר ונפלאות עד אין מספר בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם נותן חפץ בחמת צרורה ופיה למעלה ספק משתמר ספק אין משתמר ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה פתוחה ופיה למטה ומשתמר,דבר אחר אדם נותן חפציו לכף מאזנים כל זמן שמכביד יורד למטה ואילו הקב"ה כל זמן שמכביד הולד עולה למעלה,דרש רבי יוסי הגלילי מאי דכתיב {תהילים קל״ט:י״ד } אודך (ה') על כי נוראות נפליתי נפלאים מעשיך ונפשי יודעת מאד בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם אדם נותן זרעונים בערוגה כל אחת ואחת עולה במינו ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה וכולם עולין למין אחד,דבר אחר צבע נותן סמנין ליורה כולן עולין לצבע אחד ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה כל אחת ואחת עולה למינו,דרש רב יוסף מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו יב, א) אודך ה' כי אנפת בי ישוב אפך ותנחמני במה הכתוב מדבר,בשני בני אדם שיצאו לסחורה ישב לו קוץ לאחד מהן התחיל מחרף ומגדף לימים שמע שטבעה ספינתו של חבירו בים התחיל מודה ומשבח לכך נאמר ישוב אפך ותנחמני,והיינו דאמר רבי אלעזר מאי דכתיב (תהלים עב, יח) עושה נפלאות (גדולות) לבדו וברוך שם כבודו לעולם אפילו בעל הנס אינו מכיר בנסו,דריש רבי חנינא בר פפא מאי דכתיב (תהלים קלט, ג) ארחי ורבעי זרית וכל דרכי הסכנת מלמד שלא נוצר אדם מן כל הטפה אלא מן הברור שבה תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל משל לאדם שזורה בבית הגרנות נוטל את האוכל ומניח את הפסולת,כדרבי אבהו דרבי אבהו רמי כתיב (שמואל ב כב, מ) ותזרני חיל וכתיב (תהלים יח, לג) האל המאזרני חיל אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע זיריתני וזרזתני,דרש רבי אבהו מאי דכתיב (במדבר כג, י) מי מנה עפר יעקב ומספר את רובע ישראל מלמד שהקב"ה יושב וסופר את רביעיותיהם של ישראל מתי תבא טיפה שהצדיק נוצר הימנה,ועל דבר זה נסמית עינו של בלעם הרשע אמר מי שהוא טהור וקדוש ומשרתיו טהורים וקדושים יציץ בדבר זה מיד נסמית עינו דכתיב (במדבר כד, ג) נאם הגבר שתום העין,והיינו דאמר רבי יוחנן מאי דכתיב (בראשית ל, טז) וישכב עמה בלילה הוא מלמד שהקב"ה סייע באותו מעשה שנאמר (בראשית מט, יד) יששכר חמור גרם חמור גרם לו ליששכר,אמר רבי יצחק אמר רבי אמי אשה מזרעת תחילה יולדת זכר איש מזריע תחילה יולדת נקבה שנאמר (ויקרא יג, כט) אשה כי תזריע וילדה זכר,תנו רבנן בראשונה היו אומרים אשה מזרעת תחילה יולדת זכר איש מזריע תחלה יולדת נקבה ולא פירשו חכמים את הדבר עד שבא רבי צדוק ופירשו (בראשית מו, טו) אלה בני לאה אשר ילדה ליעקב בפדן ארם ואת דינה בתו תלה הזכרים בנקבות ונקבות בזכרים,(דברי הימים א ח, מ) ויהיו בני אולם אנשים גבורי חיל דורכי קשת ומרבים בנים ובני בנים וכי בידו של אדם להרבות בנים ובני בנים אלא מתוך 31a. bWhat is the versefrom which it is derived that a fetus is administered an oath on the day of its birth? “Upon You I have relied from birth; bYou are He Who took me out [ igozi /i] of my mother’s womb”(Psalms 71:6). bFrom where mayit bbe inferred that thisword: b“ iGozi /i,” is a term of administering an oath? As it is written: “Cut off [ igozi /i] your hair and cast it away”(Jeremiah 7:29), which is interpreted as a reference to the vow of a nazirite, who must cut off his hair at the end of his term of naziriteship., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: To what is a fetus in its mother’s womb comparable?It is comparable bto a nut placed in a basinfull bof water,floating on top of the water. If ba person puts his finger on top ofthe nut, bit sinkseither bin this direction or in that direction. /b,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe first three monthsof pregcy, the bfetus resides in the lower compartmentof the womb; in the bmiddlethree months, the bfetus resides in the middle compartment;and during the blastthree months of pregcy the bfetus resides in the upper compartment. And once its time to emerge arrives, it turns upside down and emerges; and this iswhat causes blabor pains. /b,With regard to the assertion that labor pains are caused by the fetus turning upside down, the Gemara notes: bAnd this isthe explanation for bthat which we learnedin a ibaraita /i: bThe labor pains experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba female are greater thanthose bexperienced bya woman who gives birth to ba male.The Gemara will explain this below., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: What is the versefrom which it is derived that a fetus initially resides in the lower part of the womb? b“When I was made in secret, and I was woven together in the lowest parts of the earth”(Psalms 139:15). Since it bis not stated: I residedin the lowest parts of the earth, bbut rather: “I was woven togetherin the lowest parts of the earth,” this teaches that during the initial stage of a fetus’s development, when it is woven together, its location is in the lower compartment of the womb.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentabout bthe labor pains experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba female,that they bare greater than those experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba male?The Gemara answers: bThisone, a male fetus, bemerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse.Just as a male engages in intercourse facing downward, so too, it is born while facing down. bAnd thatone, a female fetus, bemerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse,i.e., facing upward. Consequently, bthatone, a female fetus, bturns its face aroundbefore it is born, bbut thisone, a male fetus, bdoes not turn its face aroundbefore it is born.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe first three monthsof pregcy, bsexual intercourse is difficultand harmful bfor the woman and is also difficult for the offspring.During the bmiddlethree months, intercourse is bdifficult for the woman but is beneficial for the offspring.During the blastthree months, sexual intercourse is bbeneficial for the woman and beneficial for the offspring; as a result of it the offspring is found to be strong and fair skinned. /b,The Sages btaughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bone who engages in intercoursewith his wife bon the ninetieth dayof her pregcy, bit is as though he spillsher bblood.The Gemara asks: bHow does one knowthat it is the ninetieth day of her pregcy? bRather, Abaye says: One should go ahead and engage in intercoursewith his wife even if it might be the ninetieth day, bandrely on God to prevent any ensuing harm, as the verse states: b“The Lord preserves the simple”(Psalms 116:6).,§ bThe Sages taught: There are three partners inthe creation of ba person: The Holy One, Blessed be He, and his father, and his mother. His father emits the white seed, from whichthe following body parts are formed: The bbones,the bsinews,the bnails,the bbrain that is in its head, andthe bwhite of the eye. His mother emits red seed, from whichare formed the bskin,the bflesh,the bhair, andthe bblack of the eye. And the Holy One, Blessed be He, inserts into him a spirit, a soul,his bcountece [ iukelaster /i], eyesight, hearing of the ear,the capability of bspeechof bthe mouth,the capability of bwalkingwith bthe legs, understanding, and wisdom. /b, bAnd whena person’s btime to depart from the world arrives, the Holy One, Blessed be He, retrieves His part, and He leaves the part ofthe person’s bfather and mother before them. Rav Pappa said: Thisis in accordance with the adage bthat people say: Remove the saltfrom a piece of meat, bandyou may then btoss the meat to a dog,as it has become worthless.,§ bRav Ḥina bar Pappa taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Who does great deeds beyond comprehension, wondrous deeds without number”(Job 9:10)? bCome and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and bloodis that if one bputs an article in a flask,even if the flask is btied and its openingfaces bupward, it is uncertain whetherthe item bis preservedfrom getting lost, band it is uncertain whether it is not preservedfrom being lost. bBut the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s open womb, and its openingfaces bdownward, andyet the fetus bis preserved. /b, bAnother matterthat demonstrates the difference between the attributes of God and the attributes of people is that when ba person places his articles on a scaleto be measured, bthe heavierthe item bis,the more bit descends. Butwhen bthe Holy One, Blessed be He,forms a fetus, bthe heavier the offspring gets,the more bit ascends upwardin the womb., bRabbi Yosei HaGelili taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “I will give thanks to You, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; wonderful are Your works, and that my soul knows very well”(Psalms 139:14)? bCome and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and bloodis that when ba person plants seedsof different species binone bgarden bed, each and every oneof the seeds bemergesas a grown plant baccording to its species. But the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s womb, and all ofthe seeds, i.e., those of both the father and the mother, bemergewhen the offspring is formed bas onesex., bAlternatively,when ba dyer puts herbs in a cauldron [ ileyora /i], they all emerge as one colorof dye, bwhereas the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s womb,and beach and every oneof the seeds bemerges as its own type.In other words, the seed of the father form distinct elements, such as the white of the eye, and the seed of the mother forms other elements, such as the black of the eye, as explained above., bRav Yosef taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“And on that day you shall say: bI will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me; Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me”(Isaiah 12:1)? bWith regard to whatmatter bis the verse speaking? /b,It is referring, for example, bto two people who lefttheir homes to go bon a businesstrip. bA thorn penetratedthe body bof one of them,and he was consequently unable to go with his colleague. bHe started blaspheming and cursingin frustration. bAfter a period of time, he heard that the ship of the otherperson bhad sunk in the sea,and realized that the thorn had saved him from death. He then bstarted thankingGod band praisingHim for his delivery due to the slight pain caused to him by the thorn. This is the meaning of the statement: I will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me. bTherefore, it is statedat the end of the verse: b“Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me.” /b, bAnd thisstatement bisidentical to bthat which Rabbi Elazar said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“Blessed be the Lord God, the God of Israel, bWho does wondrous things alone; and blessed be His glorious name forever”(Psalms 72:18–19)? What does it mean that God “does wondrous things alone”? It means that beven the one for whom the miracle was performed does not recognize the miraclethat was performed for bhim. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “You measure [ izerita /i] my going about [ iorḥi /i] and my lying down [ iriv’i /i], and are acquainted with all my ways”(Psalms 139:3)? This verse bteaches that a person is not created from the entire dropof semen, bbut from its clearpart. iZeritacan mean to winnow, while iorḥiand iriv’ican both be explained as references to sexual intercourse. Therefore the verse is interpreted homiletically as saying that God separates the procreative part of the semen from the rest. bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught a parable:This matter is comparable bto a person who winnowsgrain bin the granary; he takes the food and leaves the waste. /b,This is bin accordance witha statement bof Rabbi Abbahu, as Rabbi Abbahu raises a contradiction: It is writtenin one of King David’s psalms: b“For You have girded me [ ivatazreni /i] with strength for battle”(II Samuel 22:40), without the letter ialefin ivatazreni /i; band it is writtenin another psalm: b“Who girds me [ ihame’azreni /i] with strength”(Psalms 18:33), with an ialefin ihame’azreini /i. What is the difference between these two expressions? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, You selected me [ izeiritani /i],i.e., You separated between the procreative part and the rest of the semen in order to create me, band You have girded me [ izeraztani /i] with strength. /b, bRabbi Abbahu taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is writtenin Balaam’s blessing: b“Who has counted the dust of Jacob, or numbered the stock [ irova /i] of Israel”(Numbers 23:10)? The verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and counts the times that the Jewish people engage in intercourse [ irevi’iyyoteihem /i],anticipating the time bwhen the drop from which the righteous person will be created will arrive. /b, bAndit was bdue to this matterthat bthe eye of wicked Balaam went blind. He said: ShouldGod, bwho is pure and holy, and whose ministers are pure and holy, peek at this matter? Immediately his eye was blindedas a divine punishment, bas it is written: “The saying of the man whose eye is shut”(Numbers 24:3)., bAnd thisstatement bisthe same as that bwhich Rabbi Yoḥa said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written,with regard to Leah’s conceiving Issachar: b“And he lay with her that night”(Genesis 30:16)? The verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, contributed to that act.The manner in which God contributed to this act is derived from another verse, bas it is stated: “Issachar is a large-boned [ igarem /i] donkey”(Genesis 49:14). This teaches that God directed Jacob’s bdonkeytoward Leah’s tent so that he would engage in intercourse with her, thereby bcausing [ igaram /i]Leah’s conceiving bIssachar. /b,§ bRabbi Yitzḥak saysthat bRabbi Ami says:The sex of a fetus is determined at the moment of conception. If the bwoman emits seed first, she gives birth to a male,and if the bman emits seed first, she gives birth to a female, as it is stated: “If a woman bears seed and gives birth to a male”(Leviticus 12:2)., bThe Sages taught: At first,people bwould saythat if the bwoman emits seed first she gives birth to a male,and if the bman emits seed first, she gives birth to a female. But the Sages did not explainfrom which verse this bmatteris derived, buntil Rabbi Tzadok came and explainedthat bitis derived from the following verse: b“These are the sons of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob in Paddan Aram, with his daughter Dinah”(Genesis 46:15). From the fact that the verse battributes the males to the females,as the males are called: The sons of Leah, bandit attributes bthe females to the males, /bin that Dinah is called: His daughter, it is derived that if the woman emits seed first she gives birth to a male, whereas if the man emits seed first, she bears a female.,This statement is also derived from the following verse: b“And the sons of Ulam were mighty men of valor, archers, and had many sons and sons’ sons”(I Chronicles 8:40). bIs it in a person’s power to have many sons and sons’ sons? Rather, because /b
36. Augustine, The City of God, 6.11 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

6.11. Seneca, among the other superstitions of civil theology, also found fault with the sacred things of the Jews, and especially the sabbaths, affirming that they act uselessly in keeping those seventh days, whereby they lose through idleness about the seventh part of their life, and also many things which demand immediate attention are damaged. The Christians, however, who were already most hostile to the Jews, he did not dare to mention, either for praise or blame, lest, if he praised them, he should do so against the ancient custom of his country, or, perhaps, if he should blame them, he should do so against his own will. When he was speaking concerning those Jews, he said, When, meanwhile, the customs of that most accursed nation have gained such strength that they have been now received in all lands, the conquered have given laws to the conquerors. By these words he expresses his astonishment; and, not knowing what the providence of God was leading him to say, subjoins in plain words an opinion by which he showed what he thought about the meaning of those sacred institutions: For, he says, those, however, know the cause of their rites, while the greater part of the people know not why they perform theirs. But concerning the solemnities of the Jews, either why or how far they were instituted by divine authority, and afterwards, in due time, by the same authority taken away from the people of God, to whom the mystery of eternal life was revealed, we have both spoken elsewhere, especially when we were treating against the Manich ans, and also intend to speak in this work in a more suitable place.
37. Jerome, On Illustrious Men, 5 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acts (new testament) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
acts and anti-judaism Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 67
acts of the apostles Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 616
acts of the apostles (acta apostolorum) Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 529
agrippa ii Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 550
alexandria in egypt Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 529
alms(giving) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 550
antioch-of-pisidia, synagogue, synagogue, and paul Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 132
antioch Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253; Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 67
antioch (syrian) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 550
antioch of pisidia Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
antiocheia in pisidia, pauls sojourn Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 529
apostle Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 550
archisynagogue, delta quarter Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 132
assos Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 529
athens Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 322; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94, 113
baptism, household Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 223
baptism, infant and delayed Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 223
baptism, johns Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 223
baptism, proselyte Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 223
barnabas Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
baucis and philemon Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 616
bernice (berenice) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 550
beroea Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
bible, gestures of abhorrence in new testament Boeghold, When a Gesture Was Expected: A Selection of Examples from Archaic and Classical Greek Literature (2022) 74
blandina Bremmer, Magic and Martyrs in Early Christianity: Collected Essays (2017) 27
caesaraea philippi Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 550
caligula Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 758
christian/ity, and (upper class) women Bremmer, Magic and Martyrs in Early Christianity: Collected Essays (2017) 35
christian/ity, bonding and bridging Bremmer, Magic and Martyrs in Early Christianity: Collected Essays (2017) 27
christian/ity, social capital Bremmer, Magic and Martyrs in Early Christianity: Collected Essays (2017) 27
christianity, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 271
christianity/christians, beginnings Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 529
circumcision Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 550
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 299, 516
claudius Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 758
clothes, ripping Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 616
collegia Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 758
comfort Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 271
contextualisation Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 322
continuities, of gesture in modern greece Boeghold, When a Gesture Was Expected: A Selection of Examples from Archaic and Classical Greek Literature (2022) 74
conversion Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
corinth Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
coworkers, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 271
curses! gestures for Boeghold, When a Gesture Was Expected: A Selection of Examples from Archaic and Classical Greek Literature (2022) 74
cyprus/cyprians, as the first country to be ruled by a christian Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 529
cyprus/cyprians Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 529
derbe Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 529
diaspora Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
differentiation Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 322
domitian Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 758
donor, donation, non-jews Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 132
elisha Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 253
ephesians, addressees/recipients Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 322
ephesians, author/authorship Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 322
ephesos, christianity Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 529
ephesos, pauls sojourn Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 529
ephesos, silversmiths Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 529
ephesus Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94, 113
epiphany Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 529
feldman, l. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 222
felix Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 550
festus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 550
forgiveness Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
galatians Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 550
gentiles Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94, 113
gestures, of abhorrence Boeghold, When a Gesture Was Expected: A Selection of Examples from Archaic and Classical Greek Literature (2022) 74
god, identification of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 158
god-fearers Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 223
god; gods Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 200
godfearers, and proselytes Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 93
good Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 200
gospels Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
greece Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
greek language Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
head, christ as deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 158
hero Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 758
hierapolis in phrygia Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 529
holy spirit, lukan conception Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 581
holy spirit, saul of tarsus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 581
hypocrisy Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
iconium Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
identity construction, along violent jew/merciful christian binary Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 67
imperial sociology Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 169
israel, and gentiles deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 158
israel, land of Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
israel Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 116; deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 158
italy Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
izates Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 223
jerusalem Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
jesus christ Boeghold, When a Gesture Was Expected: A Selection of Examples from Archaic and Classical Greek Literature (2022) 74
jewish scriptures Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 322
jews Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94, 113
john the baptist Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 253
josephus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 550
judaea (roman province; see also yehud) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 550
judaism Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 200
juvenal Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 116
kalykadnos river Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 529
kolossai Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 529
laodikeia on lykos Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 529
law/law Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
leadership, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 132
letter, pastoral care Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 271
letter, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 271
levi (new testament) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
levinskaya, i. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 222
levites Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
location of synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 132
luke-acts, pneumatology, incoherence Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 581
luke Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 550
lycaon-zeus legend Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 616
lystra, anatolian village Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 616
lystra Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 529
macedonia Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 132
marcus tittius Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 132
mark (gospel writer and gospel) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
matthews, s. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 222
message Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
message from god/gods Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94, 113
message of salvation Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
missiology Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 322
mission of paul Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
monotheism, exclusive Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 116
morality, sexual Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 271
moses Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
muhammad Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
mystery, mysteries deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 158
naaman Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 253
names, greek Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 132
narratives Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
neolithic/chalcolithic age (ca. Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 529
nero Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 758; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 550
new moon, communal gatherings Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 132
non-judean women, adopting judean practices, josephus, writings of Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 222
obstinacy Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
one Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 200
pagan, pagans, and synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 132
pagan Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 200
pagans Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
paul, situation of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 158
paul, st., gesture of abhorrence Boeghold, When a Gesture Was Expected: A Selection of Examples from Archaic and Classical Greek Literature (2022) 74
paul Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253; Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 116
paul (apostle) Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 529
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 550
paul (the apostle) Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94, 113
paul of tarsus Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 200
pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 271
penner, todd Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 67
peter Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
philemon and baucis Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 616
pleasure Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 271
pneumatology, lukan Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 581
prayer, jewry, rome Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 132
prophet Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94, 113
prophetic Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
proselytes, and godfearers Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 93
purity/impurity Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 253
quintilian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 550
red-figure vases, shaking dust off feet Boeghold, When a Gesture Was Expected: A Selection of Examples from Archaic and Classical Greek Literature (2022) 74
red-figure vases, shaking out cloak Boeghold, When a Gesture Was Expected: A Selection of Examples from Archaic and Classical Greek Literature (2022) 74
reference, allusion Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 322
religion Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 200
revelation Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
roman, empire Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 758
roman Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 758
rome Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
sabbath Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
salvation Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94, 113
seneca Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 116; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 271
septuagint Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
sergius paulus, proconsul Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 529
shaking cloak, shaking dust off shoes, shaking skirts of cloak Boeghold, When a Gesture Was Expected: A Selection of Examples from Archaic and Classical Greek Literature (2022) 74
smallwood, m. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 222
stele Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 132
stephen Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
stoicism, impassivity Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 271
suffering Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 271
synagogues Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 529
tertullian Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 758
theosebeis (god-fearers), religious community Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 529
thessalonica Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
thought, hermes Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 616
thought, holy spirit in acts Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 581
tiber rising Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 758
tiberius Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 758
titus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 758
truth Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 94
vespasian Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 758
virtue Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 758
weapon Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 271
williams, m. h. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 222
women, attraction to judaism' Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 132
women Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 223
wordelman, a., lystra literary constructions Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 616
worship, occasional Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 223
zeal (for the law) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 550
zeus, jupiter Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 616
zeus, lystra Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 616
zeus, st. paul adressed as epiphany of zeus Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 529