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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8243
New Testament, Acts, 13.15-13.44


μετὰ δὲ τὴν ἀνάγνωσιν τοῦ νόμου καὶ τῶν προφητῶν ἀπέστειλαν οἱ ἀρχισυνάγωγοι πρὸς αὐτοὺς λέγοντες Ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί, εἴ τις ἔστιν ἐν ὑμῖν λόγος παρακλήσεως πρὸς τὸν λαόν, λέγετε.After the reading of the law and the prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, saying, "Brothers, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, speak.


ἀναστὰς δὲ Παῦλος καὶ κατασείσας τῇ χειρὶ εἶπεν Ἄνδρες Ἰσραηλεῖται καὶ οἱ φοβούμενοι τὸν θεόν, ἀκούσατε.Paul stood up, and beckoning with his hand said, "Men of Israel, and you who fear God, listen.


Ὁ θεὸς τοῦ λαοῦ τούτου Ἰσραὴλ ἐξελέξατο τοὺς πατέρας ἡμῶν, καὶ τὸν λαὸν ὕψωσεν ἐν τῇ παροικίᾳ ἐν γῇ Αἰγύπτου, καὶ μετὰ βραχίονος ὑψηλοῦ ἐξήγαγεν αὐτοὺς ἐξ αὐτῆςThe God of this people Israel chose our fathers, and exalted the people when they stayed as aliens in the land of Egypt , and with an uplifted arm, he led them out of it.


καί, ὡς τεσσερακονταετῆ χρόνονἐτροποφόρησεν αὐτοὺς ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳFor about the time of forty years he put up with them in the wilderness.


καθελὼν ἔθνη ἑπτὰ ἐν γῇ Χαναὰν κατεκληρονόμησεν τὴν γῆν αὐτῶνWhen he had destroyed seven nations in the land of Canaan, he gave them their land for an inheritance, for about four hundred fifty years.


ὡς ἔτεσι τετρακοσίοις καὶ πεντήκοντα. καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα ἔδωκεν κριτὰς ἕως Σαμουὴλ προφήτου. κἀκεῖθεν ᾐτήσαντο βασιλέαAfter these things he gave them judges until Samuel the prophet.


καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς ὁ θεὸς τὸν Σαοὺλ υἱὸν Κείς, ἄνδρα ἐκ φυλῆς Βενιαμείν, ἔτη τεσσεράκοντα·Afterward they asked for a king, and God gave to them Saul the son of Kish, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, for forty years.


καὶ μεταστήσας αὐτὸν ἤγειρεν τὸν Δαυεὶδ αὐτοῖς εἰς βασιλέα, ᾧ καὶ εἶπεν μαρτυρήσας Εὗρον Δαυεὶδ τὸν τοῦ Ἰεσσαί, [ἄνδρα] κατὰ τὴν καρδίαν μου, ὃς ποιήσει πάντα τὰ θελήματά μου.When he had removed him, he raised up David to be their king, to whom he also testified, 'I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after my heart, who will do all my will.'


τούτου ὁ θεὸς ἀπὸ τοῦ σπέρματος κατʼ ἐπαγγελίαν ἤγαγεν τῷ Ἰσραὴλ σωτῆρα ἸησοῦνFrom this man's seed, God has brought salvation to Israel according to his promise


προκηρύξαντος Ἰωάνου πρὸ προσώπου τῆς εἰσόδου αὐτοῦ βάπτισμα μετανοίας παντὶ τῷ λαῷ Ἰσραήλ.before his coming, when John had first preached the baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel.


ὡς δὲ ἐπλήρου Ἰωάνης τὸν δρόμον, ἔλεγεν Τί ἐμὲ ὑπονοεῖτε εἶναι; οὐκ εἰμὶ ἐγώ· ἀλλʼ ἰδοὺ ἔρχεται μετʼ ἐμὲ οὗ οὐκ εἰμὶ ἄξιος τὸ ὑπόδημα τῶν ποδῶν λῦσαι.As John was fulfilling his course, he said, 'What do you suppose that I am? I am not he. But behold, one comes after me the sandals of whose feet I am not worthy to untie.'


Ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί, υἱοὶ γένους Ἀβραὰμ καὶ οἱ ἐν ὑμῖν φοβούμενοι τὸν θεόν, ἡμῖν ὁ λόγος τῆς σωτηρίας ταύτης ἐξαπεστάλη.Brothers, children of the stock of Abraham, and those among you who fear God, the word of this salvation is sent out to you.


οἱ γὰρ κατοικουlt*gtντες ἐν Ἰερουσαλὴμ καὶ οἱ ἄρχοντες αὐτῶν τοῦτον ἀγνοήσαντες καὶ τὰς φωνὰς τῶν προφητῶν τὰς κατὰ πᾶν σάββατον ἀναγινωσκομένας κρίναντες ἐπλήρωσανFor those who dwell in Jerusalem, and their rulers, because they didn't know him, nor the voices of the prophets which are read every Sabbath, fulfilled them by condemning him.


καὶ μηδεμίαν αἰτίαν θανάτου εὑρόντες ᾐτήσαντο Πειλᾶτον ἀναιρεθῆναι αὐτόν·Though they found no cause for death, they still asked Pilate to have him killed.


ὡς δὲ ἐτέλεσαν πάντα τὰ περὶ αὐτοῦ γεγραμμένα, καθελόντες ἀπὸ τοῦ ξύλου ἔθηκαν εἰς μνημεῖον.When they had fulfilled all things that were written about him, they took him down from the tree, and laid him in a tomb.


ὁ δὲ θεὸς ἤγειρεν αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν·But God raised him from the dead


ὃς ὤφθη ἐπὶ ἡμέρας πλείους τοῖς συναναβᾶσιν αὐτῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Γαλιλαίας εἰς Ἰερουσαλήμ, οἵτινες [νῦν] εἰσὶ μάρτυρες αὐτοῦ πρὸς τὸν λαόν.and he was seen for many days by those who came up with him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who are his witnesses to the people.


καὶ ἡμεῖς ὑμᾶς εὐαγγελιζόμεθα τὴν πρὸς τοὺς πατέρας ἐπαγγελίαν γενομένηνWe bring you good news of the promise made to the fathers


ὅτι ταύτην ὁ θεὸς ἐκπεπλήρωκεν τοῖς τέκνοις ἡμῶν ἀναστήσας Ἰησοῦν, ὡς καὶ ἐν τῷ ψαλμῶ γέγραπται τῷ δευτέρῳ Υἱός μου εἶ σύ, ἐγὼ σήμ ν γεγέννηκά σε.that God has fulfilled the same to us, their children, in that he raised up Jesus. As it is also written in the second psalm, 'You are my Son. Today I have become your father.'


ὅτι δὲ ἀνέστησεν αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν μηκέτι μέλλοντα ὑποστρέφειν εἰς διαφθοράν, οὕτως εἴρηκεν ὅτιΔώσω ὑμῖν τὰ ὅσια Δαυεὶδ τὰ πιστά.Concerning that he raised him up from the dead, now no more to return to corruption, he has spoken thus: 'I will give you the holy and sure blessings of David.'


διότι καὶ ἐν ἑτέρῳ λέγει Οὐ δώσεις τὸν ὅσιόν σου ἰδεῖν διαφθοράν·Therefore he says also in another psalm, 'You will not allow your Holy One to see decay.'


Δαυεὶδ μὲν γ̓ὰρ ἰδίᾳ γενεᾷ ὑπηρετήσας τῇ τοῦ θεοῦ βουλῇ ἐκοιμήθη καὶ προσετέθη πρὸς τοὺς πατέρας αὐτοῦ καὶ εἶδεν διαφθοράνFor David, after he had in his own generation served the counsel of God, fell asleep, and was laid with his fathers, and saw decay.


ὃν δὲ ὁ θεὸς ἤγειρεν οὐκ εἶδεν διαφθοράν.But he whom God raised up saw no decay.


Γνωστὸν οὖν ἔστω ὑμῖν, ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί, ὅτι διὰ τούτου ὑμῖν ἄφεσις ἁμαρτιῶν καταγγέλλεται, καὶ ἀπὸ πάντων ὧν οὐκ ἠδυνήθητεBe it known to you therefore, brothers, that through this man is proclaimed to you remission of sins


ἐν νόμῳ Μωυσέως δικαιωθῆναι ἐν τούτῳ πᾶς ὁ πιστεύων δικαιοῦται.and by him everyone who believes is justified from all things, from which you could not be justified by the law of Moses.


βλέπετε οὖν· μὴ ἐπέλθῃ τὸ εἰρημένον ἐν τοῖς προφήταιςBeware therefore, lest that come on you which is spoken in the prophets:


nan'Behold, you scoffers, and wonder, and perish; For I work a work in your days, A work which you will in no way believe, if one declares it to you.'


Ἐξιόντων δὲ αὐτῶν παρεκάλουν εἰς τὸ μεταξὺ σάββατον λαληθῆναι αὐτοῖς τὰ ῥήματα ταῦτα.So when the Jews went out of the synagogue, the Gentiles begged that these words might be preached to them the next Sabbath.


λυθείσης δὲ τῆς συναγωγῆς ἠκολούθησαν πολλοὶ τῶν Ἰουδαίων καὶ τῶν σεβομένων προσηλύτων τῷ Παύλῳ καὶ τῷ Βαρνάβᾳ, οἵτινες προσλαλοῦντες αὐτοῖς ἔπειθον αὐτοὺς προσμένειν τῇ χάριτι τοῦ θεοῦ.Now when the synagogue broke up, many of the Jews and of the devout proselytes followed Paul and Barnabas; who, speaking to them, urged them to continue in the grace of God.


Τῷ δὲ ἐρχομένῳ σαββάτῳ σχε δὸν πᾶσα ἡ πόλις συνήχθη ἀκοῦσαι τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ.The next Sabbath almost the whole city was gathered together to hear the word of God.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

102 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 14.4-14.5 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

14.4. Go to Media, my son, for I fully believe what Jonah the prophet said about Nineveh, that it will be overthrown. But in Media there will be peace for a time. Our brethren will be scattered over the earth from the good land, and Jerusalem will be desolate. The house of God in it will be burned down and will be in ruins for a time. 14.5. But God will again have mercy on them, and bring them back into their land; and they will rebuild the house of God, though it will not be like the former one until the times of the age are completed. After this they will return from the places of their captivity, and will rebuild Jerusalem in splendor. And the house of God will be rebuilt there with a glorious building for all generations for ever, just as the prophets said of it.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.7, 7.6-7.8, 7.12-7.14, 11.19, 18.15, 18.18, 24.1-24.4, 32.46 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.7. וְשִׁנַּנְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ וְדִבַּרְתָּ בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃ 7.6. כִּי עַם קָדוֹשׁ אַתָּה לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּךָ בָּחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִהְיוֹת לוֹ לְעַם סְגֻלָּה מִכֹּל הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃ 7.7. לֹא מֵרֻבְּכֶם מִכָּל־הָעַמִּים חָשַׁק יְהוָה בָּכֶם וַיִּבְחַר בָּכֶם כִּי־אַתֶּם הַמְעַט מִכָּל־הָעַמִּים׃ 7.8. כִּי מֵאַהֲבַת יְהוָה אֶתְכֶם וּמִשָּׁמְרוּ אֶת־הַשְּׁבֻעָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לַאֲבֹתֵיכֶם הוֹצִיא יְהוָה אֶתְכֶם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וַיִּפְדְּךָ מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים מִיַּד פַּרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרָיִם׃ 7.12. וְהָיָה עֵקֶב תִּשְׁמְעוּן אֵת הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים הָאֵלֶּה וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם וְשָׁמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְךָ אֶת־הַבְּרִית וְאֶת־הַחֶסֶד אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ׃ 7.13. וַאֲהֵבְךָ וּבֵרַכְךָ וְהִרְבֶּךָ וּבֵרַךְ פְּרִי־בִטְנְךָ וּפְרִי־אַדְמָתֶךָ דְּגָנְךָ וְתִירֹשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ שְׁגַר־אֲלָפֶיךָ וְעַשְׁתְּרֹת צֹאנֶךָ עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּע לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ לָתֶת לָךְ׃ 7.14. בָּרוּךְ תִּהְיֶה מִכָּל־הָעַמִּים לֹא־יִהְיֶה בְךָ עָקָר וַעֲקָרָה וּבִבְהֶמְתֶּךָ׃ 11.19. וְלִמַּדְתֶּם אֹתָם אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶם לְדַבֵּר בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃ 18.15. נָבִיא מִקִּרְבְּךָ מֵאַחֶיךָ כָּמֹנִי יָקִים לְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵלָיו תִּשְׁמָעוּן׃ 18.18. נָבִיא אָקִים לָהֶם מִקֶּרֶב אֲחֵיהֶם כָּמוֹךָ וְנָתַתִּי דְבָרַי בְּפִיו וְדִבֶּר אֲלֵיהֶם אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר אֲצַוֶּנּוּ׃ 24.1. כִּי־תַשֶּׁה בְרֵעֲךָ מַשַּׁאת מְאוּמָה לֹא־תָבֹא אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ לַעֲבֹט עֲבֹטוֹ׃ 24.1. כִּי־יִקַּח אִישׁ אִשָּׁה וּבְעָלָהּ וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא תִמְצָא־חֵן בְּעֵינָיו כִּי־מָצָא בָהּ עֶרְוַת דָּבָר וְכָתַב לָהּ סֵפֶר כְּרִיתֻת וְנָתַן בְּיָדָהּ וְשִׁלְּחָהּ מִבֵּיתוֹ׃ 24.2. וְיָצְאָה מִבֵּיתוֹ וְהָלְכָה וְהָיְתָה לְאִישׁ־אַחֵר׃ 24.2. כִּי תַחְבֹּט זֵיתְךָ לֹא תְפָאֵר אַחֲרֶיךָ לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה יִהְיֶה׃ 24.3. וּשְׂנֵאָהּ הָאִישׁ הָאַחֲרוֹן וְכָתַב לָהּ סֵפֶר כְּרִיתֻת וְנָתַן בְּיָדָהּ וְשִׁלְּחָהּ מִבֵּיתוֹ אוֹ כִי יָמוּת הָאִישׁ הָאַחֲרוֹן אֲשֶׁר־לְקָחָהּ לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 24.4. לֹא־יוּכַל בַּעְלָהּ הָרִאשׁוֹן אֲשֶׁר־שִׁלְּחָהּ לָשׁוּב לְקַחְתָּהּ לִהְיוֹת לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה אַחֲרֵי אֲשֶׁר הֻטַּמָּאָה כִּי־תוֹעֵבָה הִוא לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְלֹא תַחֲטִיא אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה׃ 32.46. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם שִׂימוּ לְבַבְכֶם לְכָל־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מֵעִיד בָּכֶם הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר תְּצַוֻּם אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶם לִשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת׃ 6.7. and thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up." 7.6. For thou art a holy people unto the LORD thy God: the LORD thy God hath chosen thee to be His own treasure, out of all peoples that are upon the face of the earth." 7.7. The LORD did not set His love upon you, nor choose you, because ye were more in number than any people—for ye were the fewest of all peoples—" 7.8. but because the LORD loved you, and because He would keep the oath which He swore unto your fathers, hath the LORD brought you out with a mighty hand, and redeemed you out of the house of bondage, from the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt." 7.12. And it shall come to pass, because ye hearken to these ordices, and keep, and do them, that the LORD thy God shall keep with thee the covet and the mercy which He swore unto thy fathers," 7.13. and He will love thee, and bless thee, and multiply thee; He will also bless the fruit of thy body and the fruit of thy land, thy corn and thy wine and thine oil, the increase of thy kine and the young of thy flock, in the land which He swore unto thy fathers to give thee." 7.14. Thou shalt be blessed above all peoples; there shall not be male or female barren among you, or among your cattle." 11.19. And ye shall teach them your children, talking of them, when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up." 18.15. A prophet will the LORD thy God raise up unto thee, from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken;" 18.18. I will raise them up a prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee; and I will put My words in his mouth, and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him." 24.1. When a man taketh a wife, and marrieth her, then it cometh to pass, if she find no favour in his eyes, because he hath found some unseemly thing in her, that he writeth her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it in her hand, and sendeth her out of his house," 24.2. and she departeth out of his house, and goeth and becometh another man’s wife," 24.3. and the latter husband hateth her, and writeth her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it in her hand, and sendeth her out of his house; or if the latter husband die, who took her to be his wife;" 24.4. her former husband, who sent her away, may not take her again to be his wife, after that she is defiled; for that is abomination before the LORD; and thou shalt not cause the land to sin, which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance." 32.46. he said unto them: ‘Set your heart unto all the words wherewith I testify against you this day; that ye may charge your children therewith to observe to do all the words of this law."
3. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 9.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.22. כַּיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר־נָחוּ בָהֶם הַיְּהוּדִים מֵאוֹיְבֵיהֶם וְהַחֹדֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר נֶהְפַּךְ לָהֶם מִיָּגוֹן לְשִׂמְחָה וּמֵאֵבֶל לְיוֹם טוֹב לַעֲשׂוֹת אוֹתָם יְמֵי מִשְׁתֶּה וְשִׂמְחָה וּמִשְׁלוֹחַ מָנוֹת אִישׁ לְרֵעֵהוּ וּמַתָּנוֹת לָאֶבְיוֹנִים׃ 9.22. the days wherein the Jews had rest from their enemies, and the month which was turned unto them from sorrow to gladness, and from mourning into a good day; that they should make them days of feasting and gladness, and of sending portions one to another, and gifts to the poor."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 6.4, 14.17-14.24, 18.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.4. הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃ 14.17. וַיֵּצֵא מֶלֶךְ־סְדֹם לִקְרָאתוֹ אַחֲרֵי שׁוּבוֹ מֵהַכּוֹת אֶת־כְּדָרלָעֹמֶר וְאֶת־הַמְּלָכִים אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ אֶל־עֵמֶק שָׁוֵה הוּא עֵמֶק הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 14.18. וּמַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק מֶלֶךְ שָׁלֵם הוֹצִיא לֶחֶם וָיָיִן וְהוּא כֹהֵן לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן׃ 14.19. וַיְבָרְכֵהוּ וַיֹּאמַר בָּרוּךְ אַבְרָם לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן קֹנֵה שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ׃ 14.21. וַיֹּאמֶר מֶלֶךְ־סְדֹם אֶל־אַבְרָם תֶּן־לִי הַנֶּפֶשׁ וְהָרְכֻשׁ קַח־לָךְ׃ 14.22. וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָם אֶל־מֶלֶךְ סְדֹם הֲרִימֹתִי יָדִי אֶל־יְהוָה אֵל עֶלְיוֹן קֹנֵה שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ׃ 14.23. אִם־מִחוּט וְעַד שְׂרוֹךְ־נַעַל וְאִם־אֶקַּח מִכָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לָךְ וְלֹא תֹאמַר אֲנִי הֶעֱשַׁרְתִּי אֶת־אַבְרָם׃ 14.24. בִּלְעָדַי רַק אֲשֶׁר אָכְלוּ הַנְּעָרִים וְחֵלֶק הָאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר הָלְכוּ אִתִּי עָנֵר אֶשְׁכֹּל וּמַמְרֵא הֵם יִקְחוּ חֶלְקָם׃ 18.19. כִּי יְדַעְתִּיו לְמַעַן אֲשֶׁר יְצַוֶּה אֶת־בָּנָיו וְאֶת־בֵּיתוֹ אַחֲרָיו וְשָׁמְרוּ דֶּרֶךְ יְהוָה לַעֲשׂוֹת צְדָקָה וּמִשְׁפָּט לְמַעַן הָבִיא יְהוָה עַל־אַבְרָהָם אֵת אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר עָלָיו׃ 6.4. The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown." 14.17. And the king of Sodom went out to meet him, after his return from the slaughter of Chedorlaomer and the kings that were with him, at the vale of Shaveh—the same is the King’s Vale." 14.18. And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine; and he was priest of God the Most High." 14.19. And he blessed him, and said: ‘Blessed be Abram of God Most High, Maker of heaven and earth;" 14.20. and blessed be God the Most High, who hath delivered thine enemies into thy hand.’ And he gave him a tenth of all." 14.21. And the king of Sodom said unto Abram: ‘Give me the persons, and take the goods to thyself.’" 14.22. And Abram said to the king of Sodom: ‘I have lifted up my hand unto the LORD, God Most High, Maker of heaven and earth," 14.23. that I will not take a thread nor a shoe-latchet nor aught that is thine, lest thou shouldest say: I have made Abram rich;" 14.24. save only that which the young men have eaten, and the portion of the men which went with me, Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre, let them take their portion.’" 18.19. For I have known him, to the end that he may command his children and his household after him, that they may keep the way of the LORD, to do righteousness and justice; to the end that the LORD may bring upon Abraham that which He hath spoken of him.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 21.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֱמֹר אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם לְנֶפֶשׁ לֹא־יִטַּמָּא בְּעַמָּיו׃ 21.1. וְהַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל מֵאֶחָיו אֲ‍שֶׁר־יוּצַק עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ שֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה וּמִלֵּא אֶת־יָדוֹ לִלְבֹּשׁ אֶת־הַבְּגָדִים אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ לֹא יִפְרָע וּבְגָדָיו לֹא יִפְרֹם׃ 21.1. And the LORD said unto Moses: Speak unto the priests the sons of Aaron, and say unto them: There shall none defile himself for the dead among his people;"
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 1.18, 6.23-6.27, 27.4, 27.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.18. וְאֵת כָּל־הָעֵדָה הִקְהִילוּ בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי וַיִּתְיַלְדוּ עַל־מִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לְבֵית אֲבֹתָם בְּמִסְפַּר שֵׁמוֹת מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה לְגֻלְגְּלֹתָם׃ 6.23. דַּבֵּר אֶל־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶל־בָּנָיו לֵאמֹר כֹּה תְבָרֲכוּ אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אָמוֹר לָהֶם׃ 6.24. יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה וְיִשְׁמְרֶךָ׃ 6.25. יָאֵר יְהוָה פָּנָיו אֵלֶיךָ וִיחֻנֶּךָּ׃ 6.26. יִשָּׂא יְהוָה פָּנָיו אֵלֶיךָ וְיָשֵׂם לְךָ שָׁלוֹם׃ 6.27. וְשָׂמוּ אֶת־שְׁמִי עַל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַאֲנִי אֲבָרֲכֵם׃ 27.4. לָמָּה יִגָּרַע שֵׁם־אָבִינוּ מִתּוֹךְ מִשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ כִּי אֵין לוֹ בֵּן תְּנָה־לָּנוּ אֲחֻזָּה בְּתוֹךְ אֲחֵי אָבִינוּ׃ 27.7. כֵּן בְּנוֹת צְלָפְחָד דֹּבְרֹת נָתֹן תִּתֵּן לָהֶם אֲחֻזַּת נַחֲלָה בְּתוֹךְ אֲחֵי אֲבִיהֶם וְהַעֲבַרְתָּ אֶת־נַחֲלַת אֲבִיהֶן לָהֶן׃ 1.18. And they assembled all the congregation together on the first day of the second month, and they declared their pedigrees after their families, by their fathers’houses, according to the number of names, from twenty years old and upward, by their polls." 6.23. ’Speak unto Aaron and unto his sons, saying: On this wise ye shall bless the children of Israel; ye shall say unto them:" 6.24. The LORD bless thee, and keep thee;" 6.25. The LORD make His face to shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee;" 6.26. The LORD lift up His countece upon thee, and give thee peace." 6.27. So shall they put My name upon the children of Israel, and I will bless them.’" 27.4. Why should the name of our father be done away from among his family, because he had no son? Give unto us a possession among the brethren of our father.’" 27.7. ’The daughters of Zelophehad speak right: thou shalt surely give them a possession of an inheritance among their father’s brethren; and thou shalt cause the inheritance of their father to pass unto them."
7. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 28.4, 28.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

28.4. עֹזְבֵי תוֹרָה יְהַלְלוּ רָשָׁע וְשֹׁמְרֵי תוֹרָה יִתְגָּרוּ בָם׃ 28.7. נוֹצֵר תּוֹרָה בֵּן מֵבִין וְרֹעֶה זוֹלְלִים יַכְלִים אָבִיו׃ 28.4. They that forsake the law praise the wicked; But such as keep the law contend with them." 28.7. A wise son observeth the teaching; ut he that is a companion of gluttonous men shameth his father."
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 1.2, 2.1-2.2, 2.7-2.8, 16.10, 106.20, 109.1, 109.4, 110.1, 117.22, 119.55, 132.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. כִּי אִם בְּתוֹרַת יְהוָה חֶפְצוֹ וּבְתוֹרָתוֹ יֶהְגֶּה יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה׃ 2.1. וְעַתָּה מְלָכִים הַשְׂכִּילוּ הִוָּסְרוּ שֹׁפְטֵי אָרֶץ׃ 2.1. לָמָּה רָגְשׁוּ גוֹיִם וּלְאֻמִּים יֶהְגּוּ־רִיק׃ 2.2. יִתְיַצְּבוּ מַלְכֵי־אֶרֶץ וְרוֹזְנִים נוֹסְדוּ־יָחַד עַל־יְהוָה וְעַל־מְשִׁיחוֹ׃ 2.7. אֲסַפְּרָה אֶל חֹק יְהוָה אָמַר אֵלַי בְּנִי אַתָּה אֲנִי הַיּוֹם יְלִדְתִּיךָ׃ 2.8. שְׁאַל מִמֶּנִּי וְאֶתְּנָה גוֹיִם נַחֲלָתֶךָ וַאֲחֻזָּתְךָ אַפְסֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 109.1. לַמְנַצֵּחַ לְדָוִד מִזְמוֹר אֱלֹהֵי תְהִלָּתִי אַל־תֶּחֱרַשׁ׃ 109.1. וְנוֹעַ יָנוּעוּ בָנָיו וְשִׁאֵלוּ וְדָרְשׁוּ מֵחָרְבוֹתֵיהֶם׃ 109.4. תַּחַת־אַהֲבָתִי יִשְׂטְנוּנִי וַאֲנִי תְפִלָּה׃ 110.1. לְדָוִד מִזְמוֹר נְאֻם יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי שֵׁב לִימִינִי עַד־אָשִׁית אֹיְבֶיךָ הֲדֹם לְרַגְלֶיךָ׃ 119.55. זָכַרְתִּי בַלַּיְלָה שִׁמְךָ יְהוָה וָאֶשְׁמְרָה תּוֹרָתֶךָ׃ 132.11. נִשְׁבַּע־יְהוָה לְדָוִד אֱמֶת לֹא־יָשׁוּב מִמֶּנָּה מִפְּרִי בִטְנְךָ אָשִׁית לְכִסֵּא־לָךְ׃ 1.2. But his delight is in the law of the LORD; and in His law doth he meditate day and night." 2.1. Why are the nations in an uproar? And why do the peoples mutter in vain?" 2.2. The kings of the earth stand up, And the rulers take counsel together, Against the LORD, and against His anointed:" 2.7. I will tell of the decree: The LORD said unto me: 'Thou art My son, this day have I begotten thee." 2.8. Ask of Me, and I will give the nations for thine inheritance, and the ends of the earth for thy possession." 16.10. For Thou wilt not abandon my soul to the nether-world; Neither wilt Thou suffer Thy godly one to see the pit." 106.20. Thus they exchanged their glory For the likeness of an ox that eateth grass." 109.1. For the Leader. A Psalm of David. O God of my praise, keep not silence;" 109.4. In return for my love they are my adversaries; But I am all prayer." 110.1. A Psalm of David. The LORD saith unto my lord: ‘Sit thou at My right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.'" 119.55. I have remembered Thy name, O LORD, in the night, and have observed Thy law." 132.11. The LORD swore unto David in truth; He will not turn back from it: 'of the fruit of thy body will I set upon thy throne."
9. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 17.12, 23.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

17.12. וַיַּעַבְדוּ הַגִּלֻּלִים אֲשֶׁר אָמַר יְהוָה לָהֶם לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה׃ 23.9. אַךְ לֹא יַעֲלוּ כֹּהֲנֵי הַבָּמוֹת אֶל־מִזְבַּח יְהוָה בִּירוּשָׁלִָם כִּי אִם־אָכְלוּ מַצּוֹת בְּתוֹךְ אֲחֵיהֶם׃ 17.12. and they served idols, whereof the LORD had said unto them: ‘Ye shall not do this thing’;" 23.9. Nevertheless the priests of the high places came not up to the altar of the LORD in Jerusalem, but they did eat unleavened bread among their brethren."
10. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 7.6-7.16, 21.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.6. כִּי לֹא יָשַׁבְתִּי בְּבַיִת לְמִיּוֹם הַעֲלֹתִי אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּצְרַיִם וְעַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה וָאֶהְיֶה מִתְהַלֵּךְ בְּאֹהֶל וּבְמִשְׁכָּן׃ 7.7. בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־הִתְהַלַּכְתִּי בְּכָל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הֲדָבָר דִּבַּרְתִּי אֶת־אַחַד שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי לִרְעוֹת אֶת־עַמִּי אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר לָמָּה לֹא־בְנִיתֶם לִי בֵּית אֲרָזִים׃ 7.8. וְעַתָּה כֹּה־תֹאמַר לְעַבְדִּי לְדָוִד כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֲנִי לְקַחְתִּיךָ מִן־הַנָּוֶה מֵאַחַר הַצֹּאן לִהְיוֹת נָגִיד עַל־עַמִּי עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 7.9. וָאֶהְיֶה עִמְּךָ בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר הָלַכְתָּ וָאַכְרִתָה אֶת־כָּל־אֹיְבֶיךָ מִפָּנֶיךָ וְעָשִׂתִי לְךָ שֵׁם גָּדוֹל כְּשֵׁם הַגְּדֹלִים אֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ׃ 7.11. וּלְמִן־הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי שֹׁפְטִים עַל־עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַהֲנִיחֹתִי לְךָ מִכָּל־אֹיְבֶיךָ וְהִגִּיד לְךָ יְהוָה כִּי־בַיִת יַעֲשֶׂה־לְּךָ יְהוָה׃ 7.12. כִּי יִמְלְאוּ יָמֶיךָ וְשָׁכַבְתָּ אֶת־אֲבֹתֶיךָ וַהֲקִימֹתִי אֶת־זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר יֵצֵא מִמֵּעֶיךָ וַהֲכִינֹתִי אֶת־מַמְלַכְתּוֹ׃ 7.13. הוּא יִבְנֶה־בַּיִת לִשְׁמִי וְכֹנַנְתִּי אֶת־כִּסֵּא מַמְלַכְתּוֹ עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 7.14. אֲנִי אֶהְיֶה־לּוֹ לְאָב וְהוּא יִהְיֶה־לִּי לְבֵן אֲשֶׁר בְּהַעֲוֺתוֹ וְהֹכַחְתִּיו בְּשֵׁבֶט אֲנָשִׁים וּבְנִגְעֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם׃ 7.15. וְחַסְדִּי לֹא־יָסוּר מִמֶּנּוּ כַּאֲשֶׁר הֲסִרֹתִי מֵעִם שָׁאוּל אֲשֶׁר הֲסִרֹתִי מִלְּפָנֶיךָ׃ 7.16. וְנֶאְמַן בֵּיתְךָ וּמַמְלַכְתְּךָ עַד־עוֹלָם לְפָנֶיךָ כִּסְאֲךָ יִהְיֶה נָכוֹן עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 21.9. וַיִּתְּנֵם בְּיַד הַגִּבְעֹנִים וַיֹּקִיעֻם בָּהָר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וַיִּפְּלוּ שבעתים [שְׁבַעְתָּם] יָחַד והם [וְהֵמָּה] הֻמְתוּ בִּימֵי קָצִיר בָּרִאשֹׁנִים תחלת [בִּתְחִלַּת] קְצִיר שְׂעֹרִים׃ 7.6. For I have not dwelt in any house since that time that I brought up the children of Yisra᾽el out of Miżrayim, even to this day, but I have walked in a tent and in a tabernacle." 7.7. In all the places where I have walked with all the children of Yisra᾽el, did I speak a word with any of the rulers of Yisra᾽el, whom I commanded as shepherds of my people Yisra᾽el, saying, Why do you not build me a house of cedar?" 7.8. Now therefore so shalt thou say to my servant David, Thus says the Lord of hosts, I took thee from the sheepfold, from following the sheep, to be ruler over my people, over Yisra᾽el:" 7.9. and I was with thee wherever thou didst go, and have cut off all thy enemies out of thy sight, and have made thee a great name, like the name of the great men that are on the earth." 7.10. Moreover I have appointed a place for my people Yisra᾽el, and planted them, that they may dwell in a place of their own, and be troubled no more; neither shall the children of wickedness torment them any more, as at the beginning," 7.11. and as since the time that I commanded judges to be over my people Yisra᾽el; but I will give thee rest from all thy enemies, and the Lord tells thee that he will make thee a house." 7.12. And when the days are fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will set up thy seed after thee, who shall issue from thy bowels, and I will establish his kingdom." 7.13. He shall build a house for my name, and I will make firm the throne of his kingdom for ever." 7.14. I will be his father, and he will be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with such plagues as befall the sons of Adam:" 7.15. but my covet love shall not depart away from him, as I took it from Sha᾽ul, whom I put away before thee." 7.16. And thy house and thy kingdom shall be established for ever before thee: thy throne shall be firm for ever." 21.9. and he delivered them into the hands of the Giv῾onim, and they hanged them on the hill before the Lord: and they fell all seven together, and were put to death in the days of harvest, in the first days, in the beginning of the barley harvest."
11. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 9.11 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

9.11. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא אָקִים אֶת־סֻכַּת דָּוִיד הַנֹּפֶלֶת וְגָדַרְתִּי אֶת־פִּרְצֵיהֶן וַהֲרִסֹתָיו אָקִים וּבְנִיתִיהָ כִּימֵי עוֹלָם׃ 9.11. In that day will I raise up The tabernacle of David that is fallen, And close up the breaches thereof, And I will raise up his ruins, And I will build it as in the days of old;"
12. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 1.5 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

1.5. רְאוּ בַגּוֹיִם וְהַבִּיטוּ וְהִתַּמְּהוּ תְּמָהוּ כִּי־פֹעַל פֹּעֵל בִּימֵיכֶם לֹא תַאֲמִינוּ כִּי יְסֻפָּר׃ 1.5. Look ye among the nations, and behold, And wonder marvellously; For, behold, a work shall be wrought in your days, Which ye will not believe though it be told you."
13. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.9-6.10, 9.1-9.6, 11.1-11.9, 37.35, 40.1, 40.3-40.6, 42.1, 49.6, 54.1-54.2, 55.1, 55.3, 55.6-55.9, 55.12, 58.6, 61.1-61.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.9. וַיֹּאמֶר לֵךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ לָעָם הַזֶּה שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמוֹעַ וְאַל־תָּבִינוּ וּרְאוּ רָאוֹ וְאַל־תֵּדָעוּ׃ 9.1. הָעָם הַהֹלְכִים בַּחֹשֶׁךְ רָאוּ אוֹר גָּדוֹל יֹשְׁבֵי בְּאֶרֶץ צַלְמָוֶת אוֹר נָגַהּ עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 9.1. וַיְשַׂגֵּב יְהוָה אֶת־צָרֵי רְצִין עָלָיו וְאֶת־אֹיְבָיו יְסַכְסֵךְ׃ 9.2. הִרְבִּיתָ הַגּוֹי לא [לוֹ] הִגְדַּלְתָּ הַשִּׂמְחָה שָׂמְחוּ לְפָנֶיךָ כְּשִׂמְחַת בַּקָּצִיר כַּאֲשֶׁר יָגִילוּ בְּחַלְּקָם שָׁלָל׃ 9.2. מְנַשֶּׁה אֶת־אֶפְרַיִם וְאֶפְרַיִם אֶת־מְנַשֶּׁה יַחְדָּו הֵמָּה עַל־יְהוּדָה בְּכָל־זֹאת לֹא־שָׁב אַפּוֹ וְעוֹד יָדוֹ נְטוּיָה׃ 9.3. כִּי אֶת־עֹל סֻבֳּלוֹ וְאֵת מַטֵּה שִׁכְמוֹ שֵׁבֶט הַנֹּגֵשׂ בּוֹ הַחִתֹּתָ כְּיוֹם מִדְיָן׃ 9.4. כִּי כָל־סְאוֹן סֹאֵן בְּרַעַשׁ וְשִׂמְלָה מְגוֹלָלָה בְדָמִים וְהָיְתָה לִשְׂרֵפָה מַאֲכֹלֶת אֵשׁ׃ 9.5. כִּי־יֶלֶד יֻלַּד־לָנוּ בֵּן נִתַּן־לָנוּ וַתְּהִי הַמִּשְׂרָה עַל־שִׁכְמוֹ וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ פֶּלֶא יוֹעֵץ אֵל גִּבּוֹר אֲבִיעַד שַׂר־שָׁלוֹם׃ 9.6. לםרבה [לְמַרְבֵּה] הַמִּשְׂרָה וּלְשָׁלוֹם אֵין־קֵץ עַל־כִּסֵּא דָוִד וְעַל־מַמְלַכְתּוֹ לְהָכִין אֹתָהּ וּלְסַעֲדָהּ בְּמִשְׁפָּט וּבִצְדָקָה מֵעַתָּה וְעַד־עוֹלָם קִנְאַת יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת תַּעֲשֶׂה־זֹּאת׃ 11.1. וְיָצָא חֹטֶר מִגֵּזַע יִשָׁי וְנֵצֶר מִשָּׁרָשָׁיו יִפְרֶה׃ 11.1. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא שֹׁרֶשׁ יִשַׁי אֲשֶׁר עֹמֵד לְנֵס עַמִּים אֵלָיו גּוֹיִם יִדְרֹשׁוּ וְהָיְתָה מְנֻחָתוֹ כָּבוֹד׃ 11.2. וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ יְהוָה רוּחַ חָכְמָה וּבִינָה רוּחַ עֵצָה וּגְבוּרָה רוּחַ דַּעַת וְיִרְאַת יְהוָה׃ 11.3. וַהֲרִיחוֹ בְּיִרְאַת יְהוָה וְלֹא־לְמַרְאֵה עֵינָיו יִשְׁפּוֹט וְלֹא־לְמִשְׁמַע אָזְנָיו יוֹכִיחַ׃ 11.4. וְשָׁפַט בְּצֶדֶק דַּלִּים וְהוֹכִיחַ בְּמִישׁוֹר לְעַנְוֵי־אָרֶץ וְהִכָּה־אֶרֶץ בְּשֵׁבֶט פִּיו וּבְרוּחַ שְׂפָתָיו יָמִית רָשָׁע׃ 11.5. וְהָיָה צֶדֶק אֵזוֹר מָתְנָיו וְהָאֱמוּנָה אֵזוֹר חֲלָצָיו׃ 11.6. וְגָר זְאֵב עִם־כֶּבֶשׂ וְנָמֵר עִם־גְּדִי יִרְבָּץ וְעֵגֶל וּכְפִיר וּמְרִיא יַחְדָּו וְנַעַר קָטֹן נֹהֵג בָּם׃ 11.7. וּפָרָה וָדֹב תִּרְעֶינָה יַחְדָּו יִרְבְּצוּ יַלְדֵיהֶן וְאַרְיֵה כַּבָּקָר יֹאכַל־תֶּבֶן׃ 11.8. וְשִׁעֲשַׁע יוֹנֵק עַל־חֻר פָּתֶן וְעַל מְאוּרַת צִפְעוֹנִי גָּמוּל יָדוֹ הָדָה׃ 11.9. לֹא־יָרֵעוּ וְלֹא־יַשְׁחִיתוּ בְּכָל־הַר קָדְשִׁי כִּי־מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ דֵּעָה אֶת־יְהוָה כַּמַּיִם לַיָּם מְכַסִּים׃ 37.35. וְגַנּוֹתִי עַל־הָעִיר הַזֹּאת לְהוֹשִׁיעָהּ לְמַעֲנִי וּלְמַעַן דָּוִד עַבְדִּי׃ 40.1. נַחֲמוּ נַחֲמוּ עַמִּי יֹאמַר אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 40.1. הִנֵּה אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה בְּחָזָק יָבוֹא וּזְרֹעוֹ מֹשְׁלָה לוֹ הִנֵּה שְׂכָרוֹ אִתּוֹ וּפְעֻלָּתוֹ לְפָנָיו׃ 40.3. קוֹל קוֹרֵא בַּמִּדְבָּר פַּנּוּ דֶּרֶךְ יְהוָה יַשְּׁרוּ בָּעֲרָבָה מְסִלָּה לֵאלֹהֵינוּ׃ 40.3. וְיִעֲפוּ נְעָרִים וְיִגָעוּ וּבַחוּרִים כָּשׁוֹל יִכָּשֵׁלוּ׃ 40.4. כָּל־גֶּיא יִנָּשֵׂא וְכָל־הַר וְגִבְעָה יִשְׁפָּלוּ וְהָיָה הֶעָקֹב לְמִישׁוֹר וְהָרְכָסִים לְבִקְעָה׃ 40.5. וְנִגְלָה כְּבוֹד יְהוָה וְרָאוּ כָל־בָּשָׂר יַחְדָּו כִּי פִּי יְהוָה דִּבֵּר׃ 40.6. קוֹל אֹמֵר קְרָא וְאָמַר מָה אֶקְרָא כָּל־הַבָּשָׂר חָצִיר וְכָל־חַסְדּוֹ כְּצִיץ הַשָּׂדֶה׃ 42.1. הֵן עַבְדִּי אֶתְמָךְ־בּוֹ בְּחִירִי רָצְתָה נַפְשִׁי נָתַתִּי רוּחִי עָלָיו מִשְׁפָּט לַגּוֹיִם יוֹצִיא׃ 42.1. שִׁירוּ לַיהוָה שִׁיר חָדָשׁ תְּהִלָּתוֹ מִקְצֵה הָאָרֶץ יוֹרְדֵי הַיָּם וּמְלֹאוֹ אִיִּים וְיֹשְׁבֵיהֶם׃ 49.6. וַיֹּאמֶר נָקֵל מִהְיוֹתְךָ לִי עֶבֶד לְהָקִים אֶת־שִׁבְטֵי יַעֲקֹב ונצירי [וּנְצוּרֵי] יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהָשִׁיב וּנְתַתִּיךָ לְאוֹר גּוֹיִם לִהְיוֹת יְשׁוּעָתִי עַד־קְצֵה הָאָרֶץ׃ 54.1. רָנִּי עֲקָרָה לֹא יָלָדָה פִּצְחִי רִנָּה וְצַהֲלִי לֹא־חָלָה כִּי־רַבִּים בְּנֵי־שׁוֹמֵמָה מִבְּנֵי בְעוּלָה אָמַר יְהוָה׃ 54.1. כִּי הֶהָרִים יָמוּשׁוּ וְהַגְּבָעוֹת תְּמוּטֶנָה וְחַסְדִּי מֵאִתֵּךְ לֹא־יָמוּשׁ וּבְרִית שְׁלוֹמִי לֹא תָמוּט אָמַר מְרַחֲמֵךְ יְהוָה׃ 54.2. הַרְחִיבִי מְקוֹם אָהֳלֵךְ וִירִיעוֹת מִשְׁכְּנוֹתַיִךְ יַטּוּ אַל־תַּחְשֹׂכִי הַאֲרִיכִי מֵיתָרַיִךְ וִיתֵדֹתַיִךְ חַזֵּקִי׃ 55.1. כִּי כַּאֲשֶׁר יֵרֵד הַגֶּשֶׁם וְהַשֶּׁלֶג מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְשָׁמָּה לֹא יָשׁוּב כִּי אִם־הִרְוָה אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְהוֹלִידָהּ וְהִצְמִיחָהּ וְנָתַן זֶרַע לַזֹּרֵעַ וְלֶחֶם לָאֹכֵל׃ 55.1. הוֹי כָּל־צָמֵא לְכוּ לַמַּיִם וַאֲשֶׁר אֵין־לוֹ כָּסֶף לְכוּ שִׁבְרוּ וֶאֱכֹלוּ וּלְכוּ שִׁבְרוּ בְּלוֹא־כֶסֶף וּבְלוֹא מְחִיר יַיִן וְחָלָב׃ 55.3. הַטּוּ אָזְנְכֶם וּלְכוּ אֵלַי שִׁמְעוּ וּתְחִי נַפְשְׁכֶם וְאֶכְרְתָה לָכֶם בְּרִית עוֹלָם חַסְדֵי דָוִד הַנֶּאֱמָנִים׃ 55.6. דִּרְשׁוּ יְהוָה בְּהִמָּצְאוֹ קְרָאֻהוּ בִּהְיוֹתוֹ קָרוֹב׃ 55.7. יַעֲזֹב רָשָׁע דַּרְכּוֹ וְאִישׁ אָוֶן מַחְשְׁבֹתָיו וְיָשֹׁב אֶל־יְהוָה וִירַחֲמֵהוּ וְאֶל־אֱלֹהֵינוּ כִּי־יַרְבֶּה לִסְלוֹחַ׃ 55.8. כִּי לֹא מַחְשְׁבוֹתַי מַחְשְׁבוֹתֵיכֶם וְלֹא דַרְכֵיכֶם דְּרָכָי נְאֻם יְהוָה׃ 55.9. כִּי־גָבְהוּ שָׁמַיִם מֵאָרֶץ כֵּן גָּבְהוּ דְרָכַי מִדַּרְכֵיכֶם וּמַחְשְׁבֹתַי מִמַּחְשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם׃ 55.12. כִּי־בְשִׂמְחָה תֵצֵאוּ וּבְשָׁלוֹם תּוּבָלוּן הֶהָרִים וְהַגְּבָעוֹת יִפְצְחוּ לִפְנֵיכֶם רִנָּה וְכָל־עֲצֵי הַשָּׂדֶה יִמְחֲאוּ־כָף׃ 58.6. הֲלוֹא זֶה צוֹם אֶבְחָרֵהוּ פַּתֵּחַ חַרְצֻבּוֹת רֶשַׁע הַתֵּר אֲגֻדּוֹת מוֹטָה וְשַׁלַּח רְצוּצִים חָפְשִׁים וְכָל־מוֹטָה תְּנַתֵּקוּ׃ 61.1. שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ בַּיהוָה תָּגֵל נַפְשִׁי בֵּאלֹהַי כִּי הִלְבִּישַׁנִי בִּגְדֵי־יֶשַׁע מְעִיל צְדָקָה יְעָטָנִי כֶּחָתָן יְכַהֵן פְּאֵר וְכַכַּלָּה תַּעְדֶּה כֵלֶיהָ׃ 61.1. רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח יְהוָה אֹתִי לְבַשֵּׂר עֲנָוִים שְׁלָחַנִי לַחֲבֹשׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב לִקְרֹא לִשְׁבוּיִם דְּרוֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִים פְּקַח־קוֹחַ׃ 61.2. לִקְרֹא שְׁנַת־רָצוֹן לַיהוָה וְיוֹם נָקָם לֵאלֹהֵינוּ לְנַחֵם כָּל־אֲבֵלִים׃ 6.9. And He said: ‘Go, and tell this people: Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not." 6.10. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they, seeing with their eyes, and hearing with their ears, and understanding with their heart, return, and be healed.’" 9.1. The people that walked in darkness have seen a great light; they that dwelt in the land of the shadow of death, upon them hath the light shined." 9.2. Thou hast multiplied the nation, Thou hast increased their joy; they joy before Thee according to the joy in harvest, as men rejoice when they divide the spoil." 9.3. For the yoke of his burden, and the staff of his shoulder, the rod of his oppressor, Thou hast broken as in the day of Midian." 9.4. For every boot stamped with fierceness, and every cloak rolled in blood, shall even be for burning, for fuel of fire." 9.5. For a child is born unto us, a son is given unto us; and the government is upon his shoulder; and his name is called Pele-joez-el-gibbor Abi-ad-sar-shalom;" 9.6. That the government may be increased, and of peace there be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to establish it, and to uphold it through justice and through righteousness From henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts doth perform this." 11.1. And there shall come forth a shoot out of the stock of Jesse, And a twig shall grow forth out of his roots." 11.2. And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, The spirit of wisdom and understanding, The spirit of counsel and might, The spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD." 11.3. And his delight shall be in the fear of the LORD; And he shall not judge after the sight of his eyes, Neither decide after the hearing of his ears;" 11.4. But with righteousness shall he judge the poor, And decide with equity for the meek of the land; And he shall smite the land with the rod of his mouth, And with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked." 11.5. And righteousness shall be the girdle of his loins, And faithfulness the girdle of his reins." 11.6. And the wolf shall dwell with the lamb, And the leopard shall lie down with the kid; And the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; And a little child shall lead them." 11.7. And the cow and the bear feed; Their young ones shall lie down together; And the lion shall eat straw like the ox." 11.8. And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, And the weaned child shall put his hand on the basilisk’s den." 11.9. They shall not hurt nor destroy In all My holy mountain; For the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the LORD, As the waters cover the sea." 37.35. For I will defend this city to save it, for Mine own sake, and for My servant David’s sake.’" 40.1. Comfort ye, comfort ye My people, saith your God." 40.3. Hark! one calleth: ‘Clear ye in the wilderness the way of the LORD, make plain in the desert a highway for our God." 40.4. Every valley shall be lifted up, and every mountain and hill shall be made low; and the rugged shall be made level, and the rough places a plain;" 40.5. And the glory of the LORD shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together; for the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it.’" 40.6. Hark! one saith: ‘Proclaim!’ And he saith: ‘What shall I proclaim?’ ’All flesh is grass, And all the goodliness thereof is as the flower of the field;" 42.1. Behold My servant, whom I uphold; Mine elect, in whom My soul delighteth; I have put My spirit upon him, He shall make the right to go forth to the nations." 49.6. Yea, He saith: ‘It is too light a thing that thou shouldest be My servant To raise up the tribes of Jacob, And to restore the offspring of Israel; I will also give thee for a light of the nations, That My salvation may be unto the end of the earth.’" 54.1. Sing, O barren, thou that didst not bear, Break forth into singing, and cry aloud, thou that didst not travail; For more are the children of the desolate Than the children of the married wife, saith the LORD." 54.2. Enlarge the place of thy tent, And let them stretch forth the curtains of thy habitations, spare not; Lengthen thy cords, and strengthen thy stakes." 55.1. Ho, every one that thirsteth, come ye for water, And he that hath no money; Come ye, buy, and eat; Yea, come, buy wine and milk Without money and without price." 55.3. Incline your ear, and come unto Me; Hear, and your soul shall live; And I will make an everlasting covet with you, Even the sure mercies of David." 55.6. Seek ye the LORD while He may be found, Call ye upon Him while He is near;" 55.7. Let the wicked forsake his way, And the man of iniquity his thoughts; And let him return unto the LORD, and He will have compassion upon him, And to our God, for He will abundantly pardon" 55.8. For My thoughts are not your thoughts, Neither are your ways My ways, saith the LORD." 55.9. For as the heavens are higher than the earth, So are My ways higher than your ways, And My thoughts than your thoughts." 55.12. For ye shall go out with joy, And be led forth with peace; The mountains and the hills shall break forth before you into singing, And all the trees of the field shall clap their hands." 58.6. Is not this the fast that I have chosen? To loose the fetters of wickedness, To undo the bands of the yoke, And to let the oppressed go free, And that ye break every yoke?" 61.1. The spirit of the Lord God is upon me; Because the LORD hath anointed me To bring good tidings unto the humble; He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the eyes to them that are bound;" 61.2. To proclaim the year of the LORD’S good pleasure, And the day of vengeance of our God; To comfort all that mourn;"
14. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 23.4-23.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

23.4. וְנָתַתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם חֶרְפַּת עוֹלָם וּכְלִמּוּת עוֹלָם אֲשֶׁר לֹא תִשָּׁכֵחַ׃ 23.4. וַהֲקִמֹתִי עֲלֵיהֶם רֹעִים וְרָעוּם וְלֹא־יִירְאוּ עוֹד וְלֹא־יֵחַתּוּ וְלֹא יִפָּקֵדוּ נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 23.5. הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה וַהֲקִמֹתִי לְדָוִד צֶמַח צַדִּיק וּמָלַךְ מֶלֶךְ וְהִשְׂכִּיל וְעָשָׂה מִשְׁפָּט וּצְדָקָה בָּאָרֶץ׃ 23.4. And I will set up shepherds over them, who shall feed them; and they shall fear no more, nor be dismayed, neither shall any be lacking, saith the LORD." 23.5. Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will raise unto David a righteous shoot, and he shall reign as king and prosper, and shall execute justice and righteousness in the land."
15. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 17.6, 18.1, 19.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

17.6. בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם אֵין מֶלֶךְ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל אִישׁ הַיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינָיו יַעֲשֶׂה׃ 18.1. בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם אֵין מֶלֶךְ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וּבַיָּמִים הָהֵם שֵׁבֶט הַדָּנִי מְבַקֶּשׁ־לוֹ נַחֲלָה לָשֶׁבֶת כִּי לֹא־נָפְלָה לּוֹ עַד־הַיּוֹם הַהוּא בְּתוֹךְ־שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּנַחֲלָה׃ 18.1. כְּבֹאֲכֶם תָּבֹאוּ אֶל־עַם בֹּטֵחַ וְהָאָרֶץ רַחֲבַת יָדַיִם כִּי־נְתָנָהּ אֱלֹהִים בְּיֶדְכֶם מָקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אֵין־שָׁם מַחְסוֹר כָּל־דָּבָר אֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ׃ 19.1. וְלֹא־אָבָה הָאִישׁ לָלוּן וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיָּבֹא עַד־נֹכַח יְבוּס הִיא יְרוּשָׁלִָם וְעִמּוֹ צֶמֶד חֲמוֹרִים חֲבוּשִׁים וּפִילַגְשׁוֹ עִמּוֹ׃ 19.1. וַיְהִי בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וּמֶלֶךְ אֵין בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וַיְהִי אִישׁ לֵוִי גָּר בְּיַרְכְּתֵי הַר־אֶפְרַיִם וַיִּקַּח־לוֹ אִשָּׁה פִילֶגֶשׁ מִבֵּית לֶחֶם יְהוּדָה׃ 17.6. In those days there was no king in Yisra᾽el, but every man did that which was right in his own eyes." 18.1. In those days there was no king in Yisra᾽el: and in those days the tribe of the Dani sought for itself an inheritance to dwell in; for to that day a due inheritance had not fallen to their share among the tribes of Yisra᾽el." 19.1. And it came to pass in those days, when there was no king in Yisra᾽el that there was a certain Levite sojourning on the far side of mount Efrayim, who took to him a concubine out of Bet-leĥem-yehuda."
16. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 34.20-34.31 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

34.21. יַעַן בְּצַד וּבְכָתֵף תֶּהְדֹּפוּ וּבְקַרְנֵיכֶם תְּנַגְּחוּ כָּל־הַנַּחְלוֹת עַד אֲשֶׁר הֲפִיצוֹתֶם אוֹתָנָה אֶל־הַחוּצָה׃ 34.22. וְהוֹשַׁעְתִּי לְצֹאנִי וְלֹא־תִהְיֶינָה עוֹד לָבַז וְשָׁפַטְתִּי בֵּין שֶׂה לָשֶׂה׃ 34.23. וַהֲקִמֹתִי עֲלֵיהֶם רֹעֶה אֶחָד וְרָעָה אֶתְהֶן אֵת עַבְדִּי דָוִיד הוּא יִרְעֶה אֹתָם וְהוּא־יִהְיֶה לָהֶן לְרֹעֶה׃ 34.24. וַאֲנִי יְהוָה אֶהְיֶה לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְעַבְדִּי דָוִד נָשִׂיא בְתוֹכָם אֲנִי יְהוָה דִּבַּרְתִּי׃ 34.25. וְכָרַתִּי לָהֶם בְּרִית שָׁלוֹם וְהִשְׁבַּתִּי חַיָּה־רָעָה מִן־הָאָרֶץ וְיָשְׁבוּ בַמִּדְבָּר לָבֶטַח וְיָשְׁנוּ בַּיְּעָרִים׃ 34.26. וְנָתַתִּי אוֹתָם וּסְבִיבוֹת גִּבְעָתִי בְּרָכָה וְהוֹרַדְתִּי הַגֶּשֶׁם בְּעִתּוֹ גִּשְׁמֵי בְרָכָה יִהְיוּ׃ 34.27. וְנָתַן עֵץ הַשָּׂדֶה אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ וְהָאָרֶץ תִּתֵּן יְבוּלָהּ וְהָיוּ עַל־אַדְמָתָם לָבֶטַח וְיָדְעוּ כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה בְּשִׁבְרִי אֶת־מֹטוֹת עֻלָּם וְהִצַּלְתִּים מִיַּד הָעֹבְדִים בָּהֶם׃ 34.28. וְלֹא־יִהְיוּ עוֹד בַּז לַגּוֹיִם וְחַיַּת הָאָרֶץ לֹא תֹאכְלֵם וְיָשְׁבוּ לָבֶטַח וְאֵין מַחֲרִיד׃ 34.29. וַהֲקִמֹתִי לָהֶם מַטָּע לְשֵׁם וְלֹא־יִהְיוּ עוֹד אֲסֻפֵי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ וְלֹא־יִשְׂאוּ עוֹד כְּלִמַּת הַגּוֹיִם׃ 34.31. וְאַתֵּן צֹאנִי צֹאן מַרְעִיתִי אָדָם אַתֶּם אֲנִי אֱלֹהֵיכֶם נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 34.20. Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD unto them: Behold, I, even I, will judge between the fat cattle and the lean cattle." 34.21. Because ye thrust with side and with shoulder, and push all the weak with your horns, till ye have scattered them abroad;" 34.22. therefore will I save My flock, and they shall no more be a prey; and I will judge between cattle and cattle." 34.23. And I will set up one shepherd over them, and he shall feed them, even My servant David; he shall feed them, and he shall be their shepherd." 34.24. And I the LORD will be their God, and My servant David prince among them; I the LORD have spoken." 34.25. And I will make with them a covet of peace, and will cause evil beasts to cease out of the land; and they shall dwell safely in the wilderness, and sleep in the woods." 34.26. And I will make them and the places round about My hill a blessing; and I will cause the shower to come down in its season; there shall be showers of blessing." 34.27. And the tree of the field shall yield its fruit, and the earth shall yield her produce, and they shall be safe in their land; and they shall know that I am the LORD, when I have broken the bars of their yoke, and have delivered them out of the hand of those that made bondmen of them." 34.28. And they shall no more be a prey to the nations, neither shall the beast of the earth devour them; but they shall dwell safely, and none shall make them afraid." 34.29. And I will raise up unto them a plantation for renown, and they shall be no more consumed with hunger in the land, neither bear the shame of the nations any more." 34.30. And they shall know that I the LORD their God am with them, and that they, the house of Israel, are My people, saith the Lord GOD." 34.31. And ye My sheep, the sheep of My pasture, are men, and I am your God, saith the Lord GOD.’"
17. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 22.16 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

22.16. לַזָּהָב לַכֶּסֶף וְלַנְּחֹשֶׁת וְלַבַּרְזֶל אֵין מִסְפָּר קוּם וַעֲשֵׂה וִיהִי יְהוָה עִמָּךְ׃ 22.16. of the gold, the silver, and the brass, and the iron, there is no number. Arise and be doing, and the LORD be with thee.’"
18. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.1-8.8, 9.1-9.5 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.1. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם לְכוּ אִכְלוּ מַשְׁמַנִּים וּשְׁתוּ מַמְתַקִּים וְשִׁלְחוּ מָנוֹת לְאֵין נָכוֹן לוֹ כִּי־קָדוֹשׁ הַיּוֹם לַאֲדֹנֵינוּ וְאַל־תֵּעָצֵבוּ כִּי־חֶדְוַת יְהוָה הִיא מָעֻזְּכֶם׃ 8.1. וַיֵּאָסְפוּ כָל־הָעָם כְּאִישׁ אֶחָד אֶל־הָרְחוֹב אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי שַׁעַר־הַמָּיִם וַיֹּאמְרוּ לְעֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר לְהָבִיא אֶת־סֵפֶר תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 8.2. וַיָּבִיא עֶזְרָא הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה לִפְנֵי הַקָּהָל מֵאִישׁ וְעַד־אִשָּׁה וְכֹל מֵבִין לִשְׁמֹעַ בְּיוֹם אֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי׃ 8.3. וַיִּקְרָא־בוֹ לִפְנֵי הָרְחוֹב אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי שַׁעַר־הַמַּיִם מִן־הָאוֹר עַד־מַחֲצִית הַיּוֹם נֶגֶד הָאֲנָשִׁים וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַמְּבִינִים וְאָזְנֵי כָל־הָעָם אֶל־סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה׃ 8.4. וַיַּעֲמֹד עֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר עַל־מִגְדַּל־עֵץ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ לַדָּבָר וַיַּעֲמֹד אֶצְלוֹ מַתִּתְיָה וְשֶׁמַע וַעֲנָיָה וְאוּרִיָּה וְחִלְקִיָּה וּמַעֲשֵׂיָה עַל־יְמִינוֹ וּמִשְּׂמֹאלוֹ פְּדָיָה וּמִישָׁאֵל וּמַלְכִּיָּה וְחָשֻׁם וְחַשְׁבַּדָּנָה זְכַרְיָה מְשֻׁלָּם׃ 8.5. וַיִּפְתַּח עֶזְרָא הַסֵּפֶר לְעֵינֵי כָל־הָעָם כִּי־מֵעַל כָּל־הָעָם הָיָה וּכְפִתְחוֹ עָמְדוּ כָל־הָעָם׃ 8.6. וַיְבָרֶךְ עֶזְרָא אֶת־יְהוָה הָאֱלֹהִים הַגָּדוֹל וַיַּעֲנוּ כָל־הָעָם אָמֵן אָמֵן בְּמֹעַל יְדֵיהֶם וַיִּקְּדוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוֻּ לַיהוָה אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה׃ 8.7. וְיֵשׁוּעַ וּבָנִי וְשֵׁרֵבְיָה יָמִין עַקּוּב שַׁבְּתַי הוֹדִיָּה מַעֲשֵׂיָה קְלִיטָא עֲזַרְיָה יוֹזָבָד חָנָן פְּלָאיָה וְהַלְוִיִּם מְבִינִים אֶת־הָעָם לַתּוֹרָה וְהָעָם עַל־עָמְדָם׃ 8.8. וַיִּקְרְאוּ בַסֵּפֶר בְּתוֹרַת הָאֱלֹהִים מְפֹרָשׁ וְשׂוֹם שֶׂכֶל וַיָּבִינוּ בַּמִּקְרָא׃ 9.1. וּבְיוֹם עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה לַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה נֶאֶסְפוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּצוֹם וּבְשַׂקִּים וַאֲדָמָה עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 9.1. וַתִּתֵּן אֹתֹת וּמֹפְתִים בְּפַרְעֹה וּבְכָל־עֲבָדָיו וּבְכָל־עַם אַרְצוֹ כִּי יָדַעְתָּ כִּי הֵזִידוּ עֲלֵיהֶם וַתַּעַשׂ־לְךָ שֵׁם כְּהַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 9.2. וַיִּבָּדְלוּ זֶרַע יִשְׂרָאֵל מִכֹּל בְּנֵי נֵכָר וַיַּעַמְדוּ וַיִּתְוַדּוּ עַל־חַטֹּאתֵיהֶם וַעֲוֺנוֹת אֲבֹתֵיהֶם׃ 9.2. וְרוּחֲךָ הַטּוֹבָה נָתַתָּ לְהַשְׂכִּילָם וּמַנְךָ לֹא־מָנַעְתָּ מִפִּיהֶם וּמַיִם נָתַתָּה לָהֶם לִצְמָאָם׃ 9.3. וַתִּמְשֹׁךְ עֲלֵיהֶם שָׁנִים רַבּוֹת וַתָּעַד בָּם בְּרוּחֲךָ בְּיַד־נְבִיאֶיךָ וְלֹא הֶאֱזִינוּ וַתִּתְּנֵם בְּיַד עַמֵּי הָאֲרָצֹת׃ 9.3. וַיָּקוּמוּ עַל־עָמְדָם וַיִּקְרְאוּ בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרַת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם רְבִעִית הַיּוֹם וּרְבִעִית מִתְוַדִּים וּמִשְׁתַּחֲוִים לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם׃ 9.4. וַיָּקָם עַל־מַעֲלֵה הַלְוִיִּם יֵשׁוּעַ וּבָנִי קַדְמִיאֵל שְׁבַנְיָה בֻּנִּי שֵׁרֵבְיָה בָּנִי כְנָנִי וַיִּזְעֲקוּ בְּקוֹל גָּדוֹל אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם׃ 9.5. וַיֹּאמְרוּ הַלְוִיִּם יֵשׁוּעַ וְקַדְמִיאֵל בָּנִי חֲשַׁבְנְיָה שֵׁרֵבְיָה הוֹדִיָּה שְׁבַנְיָה פְתַחְיָה קוּמוּ בָּרֲכוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם מִן־הָעוֹלָם עַד־הָעוֹלָם וִיבָרְכוּ שֵׁם כְּבוֹדֶךָ וּמְרוֹמַם עַל־כָּל־בְּרָכָה וּתְהִלָּה׃ 8.1. all the people gathered themselves together as one man into the broad place that was before the water gate; and they spoke unto Ezra the scribe to bring the book of the Law of Moses, which the LORD had commanded to Israel." 8.2. And Ezra the priest brought the Law before the congregation, both men and women, and all that could hear with understanding, upon the first day of the seventh month." 8.3. And he read therein before the broad place that was before the water gate from early morning until midday, in the presence of the men and the women, and of those that could understand; and the ears of all the people were attentive unto the book of the Law." 8.4. And Ezra the scribe stood upon a pulpit of wood, which they had made for the purpose; and beside him stood Mattithiah, and Shema, and Anaiah, and Uriah, and Hilkiah, and Maaseiah, on his right hand; and on his left hand, Pedaiah, and Mishael, and Malchijah, and Hashum, and Hashbaddanah, Zechariah, and Meshullam." 8.5. And Ezra opened the book in the sight of all the people—for he was above all the people—and when he opened it, all the people stood up." 8.6. And Ezra blessed the LORD, the great God. And all the people answered: ‘Amen, Amen’, with the lifting up of their hands; and they bowed their heads, and fell down before the LORD with their faces to the ground." 8.7. Also Jeshua, and Bani, and Sherebiah, Jamin, Akkub, Shabbethai, Hodiah, Maaseiah, Kelita, Azariah, Jozabad, Ha, Pelaiah, even the Levites, caused the people to understand the Law; and the people stood in their place." 8.8. And they read in the book, in the Law of God, distinctly; and they gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading." 9.1. Now in the twenty and fourth day of this month the children of Israel were assembled with fasting, and with sackcloth, and earth upon them." 9.2. And the seed of Israel separated themselves from all foreigners, and stood and confessed their sins, and the iniquities of their fathers." 9.3. And they stood up in their place, and read in the book of the Law of the LORD their God a fourth part of the day; and another fourth part they confessed, and prostrated themselves before the LORD their God." 9.4. Then stood up upon the platform of the Levites, Jeshua, and Bani, Kadmiel, Shebaniah, Bunni, Sherebiah, Bani, and Chei, and cried with a loud voice unto the LORD their God." 9.5. Then the Levites, Jeshua, and Kadmiel, Bani, Hashabneiah, Sherebiah, Hodiah, Shebaniah, and Pethahiah, said: ‘Stand up and bless the LORD your God from everlasting to everlasting; and let them say: Blessed be Thy glorious Name, that is exalted above all blessing and praise."
19. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 8.9 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.9. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת תֶּחֱזַקְנָה יְדֵיכֶם הַשֹּׁמְעִים בַּיָּמִים הָאֵלֶּה אֵת הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה מִפִּי הַנְּבִיאִים אֲשֶׁר בְּיוֹם יֻסַּד בֵּית־יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת הַהֵיכָל לְהִבָּנוֹת׃ 8.9. Thus saith the LORD of hosts: Let your hands be strong, ye that hear in these days these words from the mouth of the prophets that were in the day that the foundation of the house of the LORD of hosts was laid, even the temple, that it might be built."
20. Septuagint, Tobit, 14.4-14.5 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

14.4. Go to Media, my son, for I fully believe what Jonah the prophet said about Nineveh, that it will be overthrown. But in Media there will be peace for a time. Our brethren will be scattered over the earth from the good land, and Jerusalem will be desolate. The house of God in it will be burned down and will be in ruins for a time. 14.5. But God will again have mercy on them, and bring them back into their land; and they will rebuild the house of God, though it will not be like the former one until the times of the age are completed. After this they will return from the places of their captivity, and will rebuild Jerusalem in splendor. And the house of God will be rebuilt there with a glorious building for all generations for ever, just as the prophets said of it.
21. Anon., 1 Enoch, 93.6, 99.2, 99.10, 103.1-103.4, 106.14, 108.1, 108.7-108.9 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

93.6. And after that in the fourth week, at its close, Visions of the holy and righteous shall be seen, And a law for all generations and an enclosure shall be made for them. 99.2. Woe to them who pervert the words of uprightness, And transgress the eternal law, And transform themselves into what they were not [into sinners]: They shall be trodden under foot upon the earth. 103.1. Now, therefore, I swear to you, the righteous, by the glory of the Great and Honoured and 103.1. And we have been destroyed and have not found any to help us even with a word: We have been tortured [and destroyed], and not hoped to see life from day to day. 103.2. Mighty One in dominion, and by His greatness I swear to you. I know a mystery And have read the heavenly tablets, And have seen the holy books, And have found written therein and inscribed regarding them: 103.3. That all goodness and joy and glory are prepared for them, And written down for the spirits of those who have died in righteousness, And that manifold good shall be given to you in recompense for your labours, And that your lot is abundantly beyond the lot of the living. 103.4. And the spirits of you who have died in righteousness shall live and rejoice, And their spirits shall not perish, nor their memorial from before the face of the Great One Unto all the generations of the world: wherefore no longer fear their contumely. 108.1. Another book which Enoch wrote for his son Methuselah and for those who will come after him 108.1. found pure so that they should bless His name. And all the blessings destined for them I have recounted in the books. And he hath assigned them their recompense, because they have been found to be such as loved heaven more than their life in the world, and though they were trodden under foot of wicked men, and experienced abuse and reviling from them and were put to shame 108.7. of the prophets-(even) the things that shall be. For some of them are written and inscribed above in the heaven, in order that the angels may read them and know that which shall befall the sinners, and the spirits of the humble, and of those who have afflicted their bodies, and been recompensed 108.8. by God; and of those who have been put to shame by wicked men: Who love God and loved neither gold nor silver nor any of the good things which are in the world, but gave over their bodies to torture. Who, since they came into being, longed not after earthly food, but regarded everything as a passing breath, and lived accordingly, and the Lord tried them much, and their spirits were 1. The words of the blessing of Enoch, wherewith he blessed the elect and righteous, who will be,living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which is,for to come. Concerning the elect I said, and took up my parable concerning them:The Holy Great One will come forth from His dwelling,,And the eternal God will tread upon the earth, (even) on Mount Sinai, [And appear from His camp] And appear in the strength of His might from the heaven of heavens.,And all shall be smitten with fear And the Watchers shall quake, And great fear and trembling shall seize them unto the ends of the earth.,And the high mountains shall be shaken, And the high hills shall be made low, And shall melt like wax before the flame,And the earth shall be wholly rent in sunder, And all that is upon the earth shall perish, And there shall be a judgement upon all (men).,But with the righteous He will make peace.And will protect the elect, And mercy shall be upon them.And they shall all belong to God, And they shall be prospered, And they shall all be blessed.And He will help them all, And light shall appear unto them, And He will make peace with them'.,And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly:And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him.
22. Anon., Jubilees, 1.1, 6.15-6.21, 15.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. THIS is the history of the division of the days of the law and of the testimony, of the events of the years, of their (year) weeks, of their jubilees throughout all the years of the world, as the Lord spake to Moses on Mount Sinai when he went up to receive the tables of the law and of the commandment, according to the voice of God as He said unto him, "Go up to the top of the Mount." br) And it came to pass in the first year of the A.M. (A.M. = Anno Mundi) exodus of the children of Israel out of Egypt, in the third month, on the sixteenth day of the month, that God spake to Moses, saying: 6.15. and he made a covet before the Lord God for ever throughout all the generations of the earth in this month. 6.16. On this account He spake to thee that thou shouldst make a covet with the children of Israel in this month upon the mountain with an oath, and that thou shouldst sprinkle blood upon them because of all the words of the covet, which the Lord made with them for ever. 6.17. And this testimony is written concerning you that you should observe it continually, so that you should not eat on any day any blood of beasts or birds or cattle during all the days of the earth 6.18. and the man who eateth the blood of beast or of cattle or of birds during all the days of the earth, he and his seed shall be rooted out of the land. 6.19. And do thou command the children of Israel to eat no blood, so that their names and their seed may be before the Lord our God continually. 6.20. And for this law there is no limit of days, for it is for ever. They shall observe it throughout their generations, so that they may continue supplicating on your behalf with blood before the altar; 6.21. every day and at the time of morning and evening they shall seek forgiveness on your behalf perpetually before the Lord that they may keep it and not be rooted out. 15.1. And in the fifth year of the fourth week of this jubilee, in the third month, in the middle of the month, Abram celebrated the feast of the first-fruits of the grain harvest.
23. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 6.2-6.8, 6.10-6.13, 15.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

24. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 4.2, 12.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.2. to fall upon the camp of the Jews and attack them suddenly. Men from the citadel were his guides. 12.9. Therefore, though we have no need of these things, since we have as encouragement the holy books which are in our hands
25. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 5.15, 15.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.15. Not content with this, Antiochus dared to enter the most holy temple in all the world, guided by Menelaus, who had become a traitor both to the laws and to his country.' 15.9. Encouraging them from the law and the prophets, and reminding them also of the struggles they had won, he made them the more eager.'
26. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), None (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

35.1. He who keeps the law makes many offerings;he who heeds the commandments sacrifices a peace offering. 35.1. Give to the Most High as he has given,and as generously as your hand has found.
27. Septuagint, Judith, 14.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

14.8. Now tell me what you have done during these days." Then Judith described to him in the presence of the people all that she had done, from the day she left until the moment of her speaking to them.
28. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 4.19, 6.4, 7.15, 10.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4.19. because he will dash them speechless to the ground,and shake them from the foundations;they will be left utterly dry and barren,and they will suffer anguish,and the memory of them will perish. 6.4. Because as servants of his kingdom you did not rule rightly,nor keep the law,nor walk according to the purpose of God 7.15. May God grant that I speak with judgment and have thought worthy of what I have received,for he is the guide even of wisdom and the corrector of the wise. 10.20. Therefore the righteous plundered the ungodly;they sang hymns, O Lord, to thy holy name,and praised with one accord thy defending hand
29. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 18.10-18.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

18.10. While he was still with you, he taught you the law and the prophets. 18.11. He read to you about Abel slain by Cain, and Isaac who was offered as a burnt offering, and of Joseph in prison. 18.12. He told you of the zeal of Phineas, and he taught you about Haiah, Azariah, and Mishael in the fire. 18.13. He praised Daniel in the den of the lions and blessed him. 18.14. He reminded you of the scripture of Isaiah, which says, `Even though you go through the fire, the flame shall not consume you.' 18.15. He sang to you songs of the psalmist David, who said, `Many are the afflictions of the righteous.' 18.16. He recounted to you Solomon's proverb, `There is a tree of life for those who do his will.' 18.17. He confirmed the saying of Ezekiel, `Shall these dry bones live?' 18.18. For he did not forget to teach you the song that Moses taught, which says 18.19. `I kill and I make alive: this is your life and the length of your days.'
30. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 6.23, 7.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.23. For when he heard the shouting and saw them all fallen headlong to destruction, he wept and angrily threatened his friends, saying 7.13. When they had applauded him in fitting manner, their priests and the whole multitude shouted the Hallelujah and joyfully departed.
31. Livy, History, 45.27 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

32. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 1.231-1.261, 8.614-8.622, 8.644-8.648, 8.660, 8.696, 8.698-8.702 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

33. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 197 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

197. We must now speak also concerning that highest and most excellent of fountains which the Father of the universe spake of by the mouths of the prophets; for he has said somewhere, "They have left me, the fountain of life, and they have digged for themselves cisterns already worn out, which will not be able to hold Water;
34. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 2.127 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.127. And would you still sit down in your synagogues, collecting your ordinary assemblies, and reading your sacred volumes in security, and explaining whatever is not quite clear, and devoting all your time and leisure with long discussions to the philosophy of your ancestors?
35. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 2.62-2.63 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.62. Accordingly, on the seventh day there are spread before the people in every city innumerable lessons of prudence, and temperance, and courage, and justice, and all other virtues; during the giving of which the common people sit down, keeping silence and pricking up their ears, with all possible attention, from their thirst for wholesome instruction; but some of those who are very learned explain to them what is of great importance and use, lessons by which the whole of their lives may be improved. 2.63. And there are, as we may say, two most especially important heads of all the innumerable particular lessons and doctrines; the regulating of one's conduct towards God by the rules of piety and holiness, and of one's conduct towards men by the rules of humanity and justice; each of which is subdivided into a great number of subordinate ideas, all praiseworthy.
36. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 31-33, 30 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

30. Therefore, during six days, each of these individuals, retiring into solitude by himself, philosophises by himself in one of the places called monasteries, never going outside the threshold of the outer court, and indeed never even looking out. But on the seventh day they all come together as if to meet in a sacred assembly, and they sit down in order according to their ages with all becoming gravity, keeping their hands inside their garments, having their right hand between their chest and their dress, and the left hand down by their side, close to their flank;
37. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.215-2.216 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.215. for it was invariably the custom, as it was desirable on other days also, but especially on the seventh day, as I have already explained, to discuss matters of philosophy; the ruler of the people beginning the explanation, and teaching the multitude what they ought to do and to say, and the populace listening so as to improve in virtue, and being made better both in their moral character and in their conduct through life; 2.216. in accordance with which custom, even to this day, the Jews hold philosophical discussions on the seventh day, disputing about their national philosophy, and devoting that day to the knowledge and consideration of the subjects of natural philosophy; for as for their houses of prayer in the different cities, what are they, but schools of wisdom, and courage, and temperance, and justice, and piety, and holiness, and every virtue, by which human and divine things are appreciated, and placed upon a proper footing?
38. Philo of Alexandria, Hypothetica, 7.12-7.13 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7.12. What then did he do on this sabbath day? he commanded all the people to assemble together in the same place, and sitting down with one another, to listen to the laws with order and reverence, in order that no one should be ignorant of anything that is contained in them; 7.13. and, in fact, they do constantly assemble together, and they do sit down one with another, the multitude in general in silence, except when it is customary to say any words of good omen, by way of assent to what is being read. And then some priest who is present, or some one of the elders, reads the sacred laws to them, and interprets each of them separately till eventide; and then when separate they depart, having gained some skill in the sacred laws, and having made great advancers towards piety.
39. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 156-157, 281, 155 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

155. How then did he look upon the great division of Rome which is on the other side of the river Tiber, which he was well aware was occupied and inhabited by the Jews? And they were mostly Roman citizens, having been emancipated; for, having been brought as captives into Italy, they were manumitted by those who had bought them for slaves, without ever having been compelled to alter any of their hereditary or national observances.
40. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 81-84, 80 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

80. and leaving the logical part of philosophy, as in no respect necessary for the acquisition of virtue, to the word-catchers, and the natural part, as being too sublime for human nature to master, to those who love to converse about high objects (except indeed so far as such a study takes in the contemplation of the existence of God and of the creation of the universe), they devote all their attention to the moral part of philosophy, using as instructors the laws of their country which it would have been impossible for the human mind to devise without divine inspiration.
41. Strabo, Geography, 9.1.16 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

9.1.16. The city itself is a rock situated in a plain and surrounded by dwellings. On the rock is the sacred precinct of Athena, comprising both the old temple of Athena Polias, in which is the lamp that is never quenched, and the Parthenon built by Ictinus, in which is the work in ivory by Pheidias, the Athena. However, if I once began to describe the multitude of things in this city that are lauded and proclaimed far and wide, I fear that I should go too far, and that my work would depart from the purpose I have in view. For the words of Hegesias occur to me: I see the Acropolis, and the mark of the huge trident there. I see Eleusis, and I have become an initiate into its sacred mysteries; yonder is the Leocorium, here is the Theseium; I am unable to point them all out one by one; for Attica is the possession of the gods, who seized it as a sanctuary for themselves, and of the ancestral heroes. So this writer mentioned only one of the significant things on the Acropolis; but Polemon the Periegete wrote four books on the dedicatory offerings on the Acropolis alone. Hegesias is proportionately brief in referring to the other parts of the city and to the country; and though he mentions Eleusis, one of the one hundred and seventy demes (or one hundred and seventy-four, as the number is given), he names none of the others.
42. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 1.7, 2.4, 5.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.7. For the Lord made known to us by His prophets things past and present, giving us likewise the firstfruits of the taste of things future. And seeing each of these things severally coming to pass, according as He spake, we ought to offer a richer and higher offering to the fear of Him. But I, not as though I were a teacher, but as one of yourselves, will show forth a few things, whereby ye shall be gladdened in the present circumstances. 2.4. For He hath made manifest to us by all the prophets that He wanteth neither sacrifices nor whole burnt offerings nor oblations, saying at one time; 5.6. Understand ye. The prophets, receiving grace from Him, prophesied concerning Him. But He Himself endured that He might destroy death and show forth the resurrection of the dead, for that He must needs be manifested in the flesh;
43. Anon., Didache, 12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. But let every one that comes in the name of the Lord be received, and afterward you shall prove and know him; for you shall have understanding right and left. If he who comes is a wayfarer, assist him as far as you are able; but he shall not remain with you, except for two or three days, if need be. But if he wills to abide with you, being an artisan, let him work and eat; 2 Thessalonians 3:10 but if he has no trade, according to your understanding see to it that, as a Christian, he shall not live with you idle. But if he wills not to do, he is a Christ-monger. Watch that you keep aloof from such.
44. Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 3.8.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.8.1. ἐπανάγωμεν δὲ νῦν πάλιν ἐπὶ τὸν Πελασγόν, ὃν Ἀκουσίλαος μὲν Διὸς λέγει καὶ Νιόβης, καθάπερ ὑπέθεμεν, Ἡσίοδος δὲ αὐτόχθονα. τούτου καὶ τῆς Ὠκεανοῦ θυγατρὸς Μελιβοίας, ἢ καθάπερ ἄλλοι λέγουσι νύμφης Κυλλήνης, παῖς Λυκάων ἐγένετο, ὃς βασιλεύων Ἀρκάδων ἐκ πολλῶν γυναικῶν πεντήκοντα παῖδας ἐγέννησε· Μελαινέα 2 -- Θεσπρωτὸν Ἕλικα Νύκτιμον Πευκέτιον, Καύκωνα Μηκιστέα Ὁπλέα Μακαρέα Μάκεδνον, Ὅρον 3 -- Πόλιχον Ἀκόντην Εὐαίμονα Ἀγκύορα, Ἀρχεβάτην Καρτέρωνα Αἰγαίωνα Πάλλαντα Εὔμονα, Κάνηθον Πρόθοον Λίνον Κορέθοντα 4 -- Μαίναλον, Τηλεβόαν Φύσιον Φάσσον Φθῖον Λύκιον, Ἁλίφηρον Γενέτορα Βουκολίωνα Σωκλέα Φινέα, Εὐμήτην Ἁρπαλέα Πορθέα Πλάτωνα Αἵμονα, Κύναιθον Λέοντα Ἁρπάλυκον Ἡραιέα Τιτάναν, Μαντινέα 5 -- Κλείτορα Στύμφαλον Ὀρχομενόν οὗτοι πάντας ἀνθρώπους ὑπερέβαλλον 6 -- ὑπερηφανίᾳ καὶ ἀσεβείᾳ. Ζεὺς δὲ αὐτῶν βουλόμενος τὴν ἀσέβειαν πειρᾶσαι εἰκασθεὶς ἀνδρὶ χερνήτῃ παραγίνεται. οἱ δὲ αὐτὸν ἐπὶ ξένια 1 -- καλέσαντες, σφάξαντες ἕνα τῶν ἐπιχωρίων παῖδα, τοῖς ἱεροῖς τὰ τούτου σπλάγχνα συναναμίξαντες παρέθεσαν, συμβουλεύσαντος τοῦ πρεσβυτέρου ἀδελφοῦ Μαινάλου. Ζεὺς δὲ μυσαχθεὶς 2 -- τὴν μὲν τράπεζαν ἀνέτρεψεν, ἔνθα νῦν Τραπεζοῦς καλεῖται ὁ τόπος, Λυκάονα δὲ καὶ τοὺς τούτου παῖδας ἐκεραύνωσε, χωρὶς τοῦ νεωτάτου Νυκτίμου· φθάσασα 1 -- γὰρ ἡ Γῆ καὶ τῆς δεξιᾶς τοῦ Διὸς ἐφαψαμένη τὴν ὀργὴν κατέπαυσε.
45. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 5.2, 6.1, 9.1-9.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.2. Yea, and we love the prophets also, because they too pointed to the Gospel in their preaching and set their hope on Him and awaited Him; in whom also having faith they were saved in the unity of Jesus Christ, being worthy of all love and admiration as holy men, approved of Jesus Christ and numbered together in the Gospel of our common hope. 6.1. But if any one propound Judaism unto you, here him not: for it is better to hear Christianity from a man who is circumcised than Judaism from one uncircumcised. But if either the one or the other speak not concerning Jesus Christ, I look on them as tombstones and graves of the dead, whereon are inscribed only the names of men. 9.1. The priests likewise were good, but better is the High-priest to whom is committed the holy of holies; for to Him alone are committed the hidden things of God; He Himself being the door of the Father, through which Abraham and Isaac and Jacob enter in, and the Prophets and the Apostles and the whole Church; all these things combine in the unity of God. 9.2. But the Gospel hath a singular preeminence in the advent of the Saviour, even our Lord Jesus Christ, and His passion and resurrection. For the beloved Prophets in their preaching pointed to Him; but the Gospel is the completion of immortality. All things together are good, if ye believe through love.
46. Ignatius, To The Magnesians, 3.1, 9.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.1. Yea, and it becometh you also not to presume upon the youth of your bishop, but according to the power of God the Father to render unto him all reverence, even as I have learned that the holy presbyters also have not taken advantage of his outwardly youthful estate, but give place to him as to one prudent in God; yet not to him, but to the Father of Jesus Christ, even to the Bishop of all. 9.2. if this be so, how shall we be able to live apart from Him? seeing that even the prophets, being His disciples, were expecting Him as their teacher through the Spirit. And for this cause He whom they rightly awaited, when He came, raised them from the dead.
47. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 5.2, 6.1, 9.1-9.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.2. Yea, and we love the prophets also, because they too pointed to the Gospel in their preaching and set their hope on Him and awaited Him; in whom also having faith they were saved in the unity of Jesus Christ, being worthy of all love and admiration as holy men, approved of Jesus Christ and numbered together in the Gospel of our common hope. 6.1. But if any one propound Judaism unto you, here him not: for it is better to hear Christianity from a man who is circumcised than Judaism from one uncircumcised. But if either the one or the other speak not concerning Jesus Christ, I look on them as tombstones and graves of the dead, whereon are inscribed only the names of men. 9.1. The priests likewise were good, but better is the High-priest to whom is committed the holy of holies; for to Him alone are committed the hidden things of God; He Himself being the door of the Father, through which Abraham and Isaac and Jacob enter in, and the Prophets and the Apostles and the whole Church; all these things combine in the unity of God. 9.2. But the Gospel hath a singular preeminence in the advent of the Saviour, even our Lord Jesus Christ, and His passion and resurrection. For the beloved Prophets in their preaching pointed to Him; but the Gospel is the completion of immortality. All things together are good, if ye believe through love.
48. Ignatius, To The Smyrnaeans, 5.1, 6.1, 7.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

49. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 11.61, 12.107-12.108, 12.147-12.153, 14.110, 14.235, 14.260-14.261, 16.44, 16.164 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.61. and he prohibited his deputies and governors to lay any king’s taxes upon the Jews; he also permitted that they should have all that land which they could possess themselves of without tributes. He also enjoined the Idumeans and Samaritans, and the inhabitants of Celesyria, to restore those villages which they had taken from the Jews; and that, besides all this, fifty talents should be given them for the building of the temple. 12.107. Now when the law was transcribed, and the labor of interpretation was over, which came to its conclusion in seventy-two days, Demetrius gathered all the Jews together to the place where the laws were translated, and where the interpreters were, and read them over. 12.108. The multitude did also approve of those elders that were the interpreters of the law. They withal commended Demetrius for his proposal, as the inventor of what was greatly for their happiness; and they desired that he would give leave to their rulers also to read the law. Moreover, they all, both the priest and the ancientest of the elders, and the principal men of their commonwealth, made it their request, that since the interpretation was happily finished, it might continue in the state it now was, and might not be altered. 12.147. Moreover, this Antiochus bare testimony to our piety and fidelity, in an epistle of his, written when he was informed of a sedition in Phrygia and Lydia, at which time he was in the superior provinces, wherein he commanded Zenxis, the general of his forces, and his most intimate friend, to send some of our nation out of Babylon into Phrygia. The epistle was this: 12.148. “King Antiochus To Zeuxis His Father, Sendeth Greeting. /p“If you are in health, it is well. I also am in health. 12.149. Having been informed that a sedition is arisen in Lydia and Phrygia, I thought that matter required great care; and upon advising with my friends what was fit to be done, it hath been thought proper to remove two thousand families of Jews, with their effects, out of Mesopotamia and Babylon, unto the castles and places that lie most convenient; 12.151. And when thou shalt have brought them to the places forementioned, thou shalt give everyone of their families a place for building their houses, and a portion of the land for their husbandry, and for the plantation of their vines; and thou shalt discharge them from paying taxes of the fruits of the earth for ten years; 12.152. and let them have a proper quantity of wheat for the maintece of their servants, until they receive breadcorn out of the earth; also let a sufficient share be given to such as minister to them in the necessaries of life, that by enjoying the effects of our humanity, they may show themselves the more willing and ready about our affairs. 12.153. Take care likewise of that nation, as far as thou art able, that they may not have any disturbance given them by any one.” Now these testimonials which I have produced are sufficient to declare the friendship that Antiochus the Great bare to the Jews. 14.235. 17. “Lucius Antonius, the son of Marcus, vice-quaestor, and vice-praetor, to the magistrates, senate, and people of the Sardians, sendeth greeting. Those Jews that are our fellowcitizens of Rome came to me, and demonstrated that they had an assembly of their own, according to the laws of their forefathers, and this from the beginning, as also a place of their own, wherein they determined their suits and controversies with one another. Upon their petition therefore to me, that these might be lawful for them, I gave order that these their privileges be preserved, and they be permitted to do accordingly.” 14.261. Now the senate and people have decreed to permit them to assemble together on the days formerly appointed, and to act according to their own laws; and that such a place be set apart for them by the praetors, for the building and inhabiting the same, as they shall esteem fit for that purpose; and that those that take care of the provision for the city, shall take care that such sorts of food as they esteem fit for their eating may be imported into the city.” 16.44. If any one therefore examine into our observances, he will find they are good in themselves, and that they are ancient also, though some think otherwise, insomuch that those who have received them cannot easily be brought to depart from them, out of that honor they pay to the length of time they have religiously enjoyed them and observed them. 16.164. But if any one be caught stealing their holy books, or their sacred money, whether it be out of the synagogue or public school, he shall be deemed a sacrilegious person, and his goods shall be brought into the public treasury of the Romans.
50. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.159, 2.166, 2.463, 2.560, 7.45 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.159. 12. There are also those among them who undertake to foretell things to come, by reading the holy books, and using several sorts of purifications, and being perpetually conversant in the discourses of the prophets; and it is but seldom that they miss in their predictions. 2.166. Moreover, the Pharisees are friendly to one another, and are for the exercise of concord, and regard for the public; but the behavior of the Sadducees one towards another is in some degree wild, and their conversation with those that are of their own party is as barbarous as if they were strangers to them. And this is what I had to say concerning the philosophic sects among the Jews. 2.463. o the daytime was spent in shedding of blood, and the night in fear,—which was of the two the more terrible; for when the Syrians thought they had ruined the Jews, they had the Judaizers in suspicion also; and as each side did not care to slay those whom they only suspected on the other, so did they greatly fear them when they were mingled with the other, as if they were certainly foreigners. 7.45. and as the succeeding kings treated them after the same manner, they both multiplied to a great number, and adorned their temple gloriously by fine ornaments, and with great magnificence, in the use of what had been given them. They also made proselytes of a great many of the Greeks perpetually, and thereby, after a sort, brought them to be a portion of their own body. 7.45. yet did Vespasian suspect the matter, and made an inquiry how far it was true. And when he understood that the accusation laid against the Jews was an unjust one, he cleared them of the crimes charged upon them, and this on account of Titus’s concern about the matter, and brought a deserved punishment upon Jonathan; for he was first tormented, and then burnt alive.
51. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.37, 1.40, 1.209, 2.17, 2.123, 2.175 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.37. and this is justly, or rather necessarily done, because every one is not permitted of his own accord to be a writer, nor is there any disagreement in what is written; they being only prophets that have written the original and earliest accounts of things as they learned them of God himself by inspiration; and others have written what hath happened in their own times, and that in a very distinct manner also. 8. 1.209. “There are a people called Jews, who dwell in a city the strongest of all other cities, which the inhabitants call Jerusalem, and are accustomed to rest on every seventh day; on which times they make no use of their arms, nor meddle with husbandry, nor take care of any affairs of life, but spread out their hands in their holy places, and pray till the evening. 2.17. Molo and some others determined it as every one pleased; but this Apion of ours, as deserving to be believed before them, hath determined it exactly to have been in the seventh olympiad, and the first year of that olympiad; the very same year in which he says that Carthage was built by the Phoenicians. The reason why he added this building of Carthage was, to be sure, in order, as he thought, to strengthen his assertion by so evident a character of chronology. But he was not aware that this character confutes his assertion; 2.17. The reason why the constitution of this legislation was ever better directed to the utility of all than other legislations were, is this, that Moses did not make religion a part of virtue, but he saw and he ordained other virtues to be parts of religion; I mean justice, and fortitude, and temperance, and a universal agreement of the members of the community with one another; 2.123. for as to the Grecians, we are rather remote from them in place than different from them in our institutions, insomuch that we have no enmity with them, nor any jealousy of them. On the contrary, it hath so happened, that many of them have come over to our laws, and some of them have continued in their observation, although others of them had not courage enough to persevere, and so departed from them again; 2.175. for he did not suffer the guilt of ignorance to go on without punishment, but demonstrated the law to be the best and the most necessary instruction of all others, permitting the people to leave off their other employments, and to assemble together for the hearing of the law, and learning it exactly, and this not once or twice, or oftener, but every week; which thing all the other legislators seem to have neglected. /p
52. Josephus Flavius, Life, 12, 277, 293, 295, 11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

53. Mishnah, Berachot, 8.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.6. They do not bless over the candles or the spices of non-Jews; Or over the candles or the spices of the dead; Or over the candles or the spices of idolatry; And a blessing is not said over the light until they benefit from its light."
54. Mishnah, Eruvin, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.5. A man may make a stipulation concerning his eruv and say, “If foreigners came from the east, let my eruv be that of the west; [if they came] from the west let my eruv be that of the east; if they came from both directions, I will go in whatever direction I desire; and if they came from neither direction I will be like the people of my town.” [Likewise say,] “If a sage came from the east let my eruv be that of the east; if from the west let my eruv be that of the west; If he came from either direction I will go in whatever direction I desire; and if no one came from either direction I will be like the people of my town.” Rabbi Judah says: if one of them was his teacher he may go only to his teacher, but if both were his teachers he may go in whatever direction he prefers."
55. Mishnah, Megillah, 3.4-3.6, 4.3, 4.5-4.6, 4.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.4. If Rosh Hodesh Adar falls on Shabbat the portion of shekalim is read [on that day]. If it falls in the middle of the week, it is read on the Shabbat before, and on the next Shabbat there is a break. On the second [of the special Shabbatot] they read “Zakhor;” On the third the portion of the red heifer; On the fourth “This month shall be for you;” On the fifth the regular order is resumed. They interrupt [the regular order] for anything: for Rosh Hodesh, for Hanukkah, for Purim, for fasts, for Ma’amadot, and for Yom HaKippurim." 3.5. On Pesah we read from the portion of the festivals in Leviticus (Torat Kohanim) (Leviticus 23:4). On Shavuot, “Seven weeks” (Deuteronomy 16:9). On Rosh Hashanah “On the seventh day on the first of the month” (Leviticus 23:2. On Yom Hakippurim, “After the death” (Leviticus. On the first day of the Festival [of Sukkot] they read from the portion of the festivals in Leviticus, and on the other days of the Festival [of Sukkot] the [sections] on the offerings of the Festival." 3.6. On Hanukkah they read the section of the princes (Numbers. On Purim, “And Amalek came” (Exodus 17:8). On Rosh Hodesh, “And on the first of your months” (Numbers 28:11). On Maamadot, the account of the creation (Genesis 1:1-2:3). On fast days, the blessings and curses (Leviticus 26:3 ff and Deuteronomy. They do not interrupt while reading the curses, but rather one reads them all. On Monday and Thursday and on Shabbat at minhah they read according to the regular order and this does not count as part of the reading [for the succeeding Shabbat]. As it says, “And Moshe declared to the children of Israel the appointed seasons of the Lord” (Leviticus 23:44) it is their mitzvah that each should be read in its appropriate time." 4.3. They do not recite the Shema responsively, And they do not pass before the ark; And the [the priests] do not lift up their hands; And they do not read the Torah [publicly]; And they do not conclude with a haftarah from the prophets; And they do not make stops [at funeral] processions; And they do not say the blessing for mourners, or the comfort of mourners, or the blessing of bridegrooms; And they do not mention God’s name in the invitation [to say Birkat Hamazon]; Except in the presence of ten. [For redeeming sanctified] land nine and a priest [are sufficient], and similarly with human beings." 4.5. The one who concludes with the haftarah also leads the responsive reading of the Shema and he passes before the ark and he lifts up his hands. If he is a child, his father or his teacher passes before the ark in his place." 4.6. A child may read in the Torah and translate, but he may not pass before the ark or lift up his hands. A person in rags may lead the responsive reading of the Shema and translate, but he may not read in the Torah, pass before the ark, or lift up his hands. A blind man may lead the responsive reading of the Shema and translate. Rabbi Judah says: one who has never seen the light from his birth may not lead the responsive reading of the Shema." 4.8. If one says, “I will not pass before the ark in colored clothes,” even in white clothes he may not pass before it. [If one says], “I will not pass before it in shoes,” even barefoot he may not pass before it. One who makes his tefillin [for the head] round, it is dangerous and has no religious value. If he put them on his forehead or on the palm of his hand, behold this is the way of heresy. If he overlaid them with gold or put [the one for the hand] on his sleeve, behold this is the manner of the outsiders."
56. Mishnah, Sotah, 7.6-7.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.6. How was the priestly blessing [pronounced]?In the province (outside of the Temple) it was said as three blessings, but in the Temple as one blessing. In the Temple the name was uttered as it is written, but in the province in its substituted name. In the province the priests raise their hands at the height of their shoulders, but in the Temple above their heads, except the high priest who does not raise his hands higher than the frontlet (on his forehead). Rabbi Judah says: even the high priest raises his hands higher than the frontlet, as it says, “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them” (Leviticus 9:22)." 7.7. How were the benedictions of the high priest [performed]?The hazzan of the synagogue takes the Torah scroll and gives it to the president of the synagogue; the vice-president of the synagogue gives it to the high priest, and the high priest stands, receives [the scroll] and reads [the following portions]: “After the death” (Leviticus 16:1-34), and “But on the tenth day” (Leviticus 23:26-32). Then he rolls the Torah (scroll), places it in his bosom and exclaims, “More than I have read before you is written here!” [The portion], “On the tenth day” (Numbers 29:7-11), which is in the book of Numbers, he reads by heart. And he blesses upon it eight benedictions: “For the Torah”, “For the Temple service”, “For thanksgiving”, “For the pardon of sin”, “For the Temple”, “For Israel”, “For the priests”, viii) and the rest of the prayer." 7.8. How was the procedure in connection with the portion read by the king?At the conclusion of the first day of the festival (Sukkot) in the eighth [year], at the end of the seventh year, they erect a wooden platform in the Temple court, and he sits upon it, as it is said, “At the end of seven years, in the set time” etc (Deuteronomy 31:10). The synagogue attendant takes a Torah scroll and hands it to the head of the synagogue, the head of the synagogue hands it to the deputy and he hands it to the high priest, and the high priest hands it to the king and the king stands and receives it, but reads it while sitting. King Agrippa stood and received it and read standing, and the sages praised him. When he reached, “You shall not place a foreigner over you” (ibid 17:15) his eyes ran with tears. They said to him, “Fear not, Agrippas, you are our brother, you are our brother!” [The king] reads from the beginning of “These are the words” (ibid 1:1) until the Shema ((ibid 6:4-9), and the Shema, and “It will come to pass if you hear” (ibid 11:13-21 the second part of the Shema), and “You shall surely tithe” (ibid 14:22-29), and “When you have finished tithing” (ibid 26:12-15) and the portion of the king (ibid 17:14-20) and the blessings and curses (ibid, until he finishes all the section. The blessings that the high priest recites, the king recites, except that he substitutes one for the festivals instead of one for the pardon of sin."
57. Mishnah, Yoma, 7.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.1. The high priest [then] came to read. If he wished to read in linen garments, he reads, and if not he reads in his own white cloak. The synagogue attendant would take a Torah scroll and give it to the head of the synagogue, and the head of the synagogue gives it to deputy high priest, and the deputy high priest gives it to the high priest, and the high priest stands and receives it, and reads, [section] beginning] “After the death …” (Leviticus 16:1-34) and “But on the tenth…” (Leviticus 23:26-32). Then he would roll up the Torah scroll and put it in his bosom and say, “More than what I have read out before you is written here.” And “On the tenth …” (Numbers 29:7-11) which is in the Book of Numbers he recites by heart. And he recites on it eight benedictions: “For the law”, “For the Temple service,” “For thanksgiving,” “For the forgiveness of sins” and “For the Temple” on its own, and “For Israel” on its own and “For Jerusalem” on its own, “For the priests” on their own and “For the rest of the prayer.”"
58. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. Concerning this salvation, the prophets sought and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that would come to you
59. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.1, 7.29-7.31, 9.19-9.23, 12.2, 12.13, 14.26-14.33, 16.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, called to be an apostle of Jesus Christ through the willof God, and our brother Sosthenes 7.29. But I saythis, brothers: the time is short, that from now on, both those whohave wives may be as though they had none; 7.30. and those who weep,as though they didn't weep; and those who rejoice, as though theydidn't rejoice; and those who buy, as though they didn't possess; 7.31. and those who use the world, as not using it to the fullest. Forthe mode of this world passes away. 9.19. For though I was free fromall, I brought myself under bondage to all, that I might gain the more. 9.20. To the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain Jews; to thosewho are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain those whoare under the law; 9.21. to those who are without law, as without law(not being without law toward God, but under law toward Christ), that Imight win those who are without law. 9.22. To the weak I became asweak, that I might gain the weak. I have become all things to all men,that I may by all means save some. 9.23. Now I do this for thegospel's sake, that I may be a joint partaker of it. 12.2. You know that when you were heathen, you were ledaway to those mute idols, however you might be led. 12.13. For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whetherJews or Greeks, whether bond or free; and were all given to drink intoone Spirit. 14.26. What is it then, brothers? When you come together, each oneof you has a psalm, has a teaching, has a revelation, has anotherlanguage, has an interpretation. Let all things be done to build eachother up. 14.27. If any man speaks in another language, let it be two,or at the most three, and in turn; and let one interpret. 14.28. Butif there is no interpreter, let him keep silent in the assembly, andlet him speak to himself, and to God. 14.29. Let the prophets speak,two or three, and let the others discern. 14.30. But if a revelationis made to another sitting by, let the first keep silent. 14.31. Foryou all can prophesy one by one, that all may learn, and all may beexhorted. 14.32. The spirits of the prophets are subject to theprophets 14.33. for God is not a God of confusion, but of peace.As in all the assemblies of the saints 16.3. When I arrive, I will sendwhoever you approve with letters to carry your gracious gift toJerusalem.
60. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 3.13, 4.13-5.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.13. to the end he may establish your hearts blameless in holiness before our God and Father, at the coming of our Lord Jesus with all his saints.
61. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 1.4, 1.8-1.10, 1.18, 4.1-4.5, 4.11-4.13, 4.16, 5.7, 5.21-5.22, 6.2, 6.13, 6.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. neither to pay attention to myths and endless genealogies, which cause disputes, rather than God's stewardship, which is in faith -- 1.8. But we know that the law is good, if a man uses it lawfully 1.9. as knowing this, that law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and insubordinate, for the ungodly and sinners, for the unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers 1.10. for the sexually immoral, for homosexuals, for slave-traders, for liars, for perjurers, and for any other thing contrary to the sound doctrine; 1.18. This charge I commit to you, my child Timothy, according to the prophecies which led the way to you, that by them you may wage the good warfare; 4.1. But the Spirit says expressly that in later times some will fall away from the faith, paying attention to seducing spirits and doctrines of demons 4.2. through the hypocrisy of men who speak lies, branded in their own conscience as with a hot iron; 4.3. forbidding marriage and commanding to abstain from foods which God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and know the truth. 4.4. For every creature of God is good, and nothing is to be rejected, if it is received with thanksgiving. 4.5. For it is sanctified through the word of God and prayer. 4.11. Command and teach these things. 4.12. Let no man despise your youth; but be an example to those who believe, in word, in your way of life, in love, in spirit, in faith, and in purity. 4.13. Until I come, pay attention to reading, to exhortation, and to teaching. 4.16. Pay attention to yourself, and to your teaching. Continue in these things, for in doing this you will save both yourself and those who hear you. 5.7. Also command these things, that they may be without reproach. 5.21. I charge you in the sight of God, and Christ Jesus, and the elect angels, that you observe these things without prejudice, doing nothing by partiality. 5.22. Lay hands hastily on no one, neither be a participant in other men's sins. Keep yourself pure. 6.2. Those who have believing masters, let them not despise them, because they are brothers, but rather let them serve them, because those who partake of the benefit are believing and beloved. Teach and exhort these things. 6.13. I charge you before God, who gives life to all things, and before Christ Jesus, who before Pontius Pilate testified the good confession 6.17. Charge those who are rich in this present world that they not be haughty, nor have their hope set on the uncertainty of riches, but on the living God, who richly provides us with everything to enjoy;
62. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 3.14-3.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

63. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 3.15-3.16, 4.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.15. From infancy, you have known the sacred writings which are able to make you wise for salvation through faith, which is in Christ Jesus. 3.16. Every writing inspired by God is profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for instruction which is in righteousness 4.13. Bring the cloak that I left at Troas with Carpus when you come, and the books, especially the parchments.
64. New Testament, Acts, 1.8, 1.15, 1.16, 1.17, 1.18, 1.19, 1.20, 1.21, 1.22, 1.23, 1.24, 1.25, 1.26, 2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.25, 2.26, 2.27, 2.28, 2.29, 2.30, 2.31, 2.37, 3, 3.18, 3.21, 3.24, 4, 4.24, 4.25, 4.26, 4.27, 4.28, 5.31, 5.36, 5.37, 6.9, 7.2, 7.26, 7.48, 7.49, 7.50, 7.59, 8.28, 8.30, 8.34, 9.2, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24, 9.25, 10.1-11.18, 10.26, 10.36, 10.37, 10.38, 10.39, 10.40, 10.41, 10.42, 10.43, 11.26, 11.28, 13, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.9, 13.10, 13.11, 13.12, 13.13, 13.14, 13.16, 13.17, 13.18, 13.19, 13.20, 13.21, 13.22, 13.23, 13.24, 13.25, 13.26, 13.27, 13.28, 13.29, 13.30, 13.31, 13.32, 13.33, 13.34, 13.35, 13.36, 13.37, 13.38, 13.39, 13.40, 13.41, 13.42, 13.43, 13.44, 13.45, 13.46, 13.47, 13.48, 13.49, 13.50, 13.51, 13.52, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 14.11, 14.12, 14.13, 14.14, 14.15, 14.16, 14.17, 14.18, 14.19, 14.20, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.12, 15.13, 15.14, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17, 15.18, 15.19, 15.20, 15.21, 15.22, 15.23, 15.24, 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.28, 15.29, 16.1, 16.2, 16.3, 16.12, 16.13, 16.14, 16.15, 16.22, 16.23, 16.24, 16.25, 16.26, 16.27, 16.28, 16.29, 16.30, 16.31, 16.32, 16.33, 16.34, 16.35, 16.36, 16.37, 16.38, 16.39, 17, 17.1, 17.2, 17.4, 17.7, 17.10, 17.11, 17.12, 17.16, 17.17, 17.18, 17.19, 17.20, 17.21, 17.22, 17.23, 17.24, 17.25, 17.26, 17.27, 17.28, 17.29, 17.30, 17.31, 17.32, 17.33, 17.34, 18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 18.4, 18.5, 18.6, 18.7, 18.8, 18.9, 18.10, 18.11, 18.12, 18.13, 18.14, 18.15, 18.16, 18.17, 18.19, 18.24, 18.25, 18.26, 19.8, 21, 21.15, 21.16, 21.17, 21.18, 21.19, 21.20, 21.21, 21.22, 21.23, 21.24, 21.25, 21.26, 22, 22.1, 22.3, 22.19, 23, 23.1, 23.6, 24, 24.5, 24.12, 24.14, 24.15, 25, 25.9, 25.10, 26, 26.6, 26.7, 26.8, 26.11, 26.22, 26.27, 28.17, 28.18, 28.19, 28.20, 28.21, 28.22, 28.23, 28.24, 28.25, 28.26, 28.27, 28.28, 28.29, 28.30, 28.31 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.15. In these days, Peter stood up in the midst of the disciples (and the number of names was about one hundred twenty), and said
65. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.3, 3.12, 3.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. Blessed is he who reads and those who hear the words of the prophecy, and keep the things that are written in it, for the time is at hand. 3.12. He who overcomes, I will make him a pillar in the temple of my God, and he will go out from there no more. I will write on him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, the new Jerusalem, which comes down out of heaven from my God, and my own new name. 3.21. He who overcomes, I will give to him to sit down with me on my throne, as I also overcame, and sat down with my Father on his throne.
66. New Testament, Galatians, 1.18, 2.8, 4.21-5.1, 4.25, 4.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem tovisit Peter, and stayed with him fifteen days.
67. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.1-1.5, 2.2, 12.22, 13.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. God, having in the past spoken to the fathers through the prophets at many times and in various ways 1.2. has at the end of these days spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, through whom also he made the worlds. 1.3. His Son is the radiance of his glory, the very image of his substance, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself made purification for our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high; 1.4. having become so much better than the angels, as he has inherited a more excellent name than they have. 1.5. For to which of the angels did he say at any time, "You are my Son, Today have I become your father?"and again, "I will be to him a Father, And he will be to me a Son? 2.2. For if the word spoken through angels proved steadfast, and every transgression and disobedience received a just recompense; 12.22. But you have come to Mount Zion, and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to innumerable hosts of angels 13.22. But I exhort you, brothers, endure the word of exhortation, for I have written to you in few words.
68. New Testament, Romans, 1.5, 1.16, 2.9-2.10, 2.27-2.29, 3.21, 11.13, 12.7-12.8, 15.19, 15.25-15.26, 15.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. through whom we received grace and apostleship, for obedience of faith among all the nations, for his name's sake; 1.16. For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God for salvation for everyone who believes; for the Jew first, and also for the Greek. 2.9. oppression and anguish, on every soul of man who works evil, on the Jew first, and also on the Greek. 2.10. But glory and honor and peace to every man who works good, to the Jew first, and also to the Greek. 2.27. Won't the uncircumcision which is by nature, if it fulfills the law, judge you, who with the letter and circumcision are a transgressor of the law? 2.28. For he is not a Jew who is one outwardly, neither is that circumcision which is outward in the flesh; 2.29. but he is a Jew who is one inwardly, and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit not in the letter; whose praise is not from men, but from God. 3.21. But now apart from the law, a righteousness of God has been revealed, being testified by the law and the prophets; 11.13. For I speak to you who are Gentiles. Since then as I am an apostle to Gentiles, I glorify my ministry; 12.7. or service, let us give ourselves to service; or he who teaches, to his teaching; 12.8. or he who exhorts, to his exhorting: he who gives, let him do it with liberality; he who rules, with diligence; he who shows mercy, with cheerfulness. 15.19. in the power of signs and wonders, in the power of God's Spirit; so that from Jerusalem, and around as far as to Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Christ; 15.25. But now, I say, I am going to Jerusalem, serving the saints. 15.26. For it has been the good pleasure of Macedonia and Achaia to make a certain contribution for the poor among the saints who are at Jerusalem. 15.31. that I may be delivered from those who are disobedient in Judea, and that my service which I have for Jerusalem may be acceptable to the saints;
69. New Testament, John, 1.45, 6.59, 18.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.45. Philip found Nathanael, and said to him, "We have found him, of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, wrote: Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph. 6.59. These things he said in the synagogue, as he taught in Capernaum. 18.19. The high priest therefore asked Jesus about his disciples, and about his teaching.
70. New Testament, Luke, 1, 1.1, 1.5-2.52, 1.26, 1.27, 1.28, 1.29, 1.30, 1.31, 1.32, 1.33, 1.34, 1.35, 1.36, 1.37, 1.38, 2, 2.1, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 2.19, 2.20, 2.25, 2.26, 2.27, 2.28, 2.29, 2.30, 2.31, 2.32, 2.33, 2.34, 2.35, 2.36, 2.37, 2.38, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 3.20, 3.21, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 3.25, 3.26, 3.27, 3.28, 3.29, 3.30, 3.31, 3.32, 3.33, 3.34, 3.35, 3.36, 3.37, 3.38, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.21, 4.22, 4.23, 4.24, 4.25, 4.26, 4.27, 4.28, 4.29, 4.30, 4.31, 4.32, 4.33, 4.34, 4.35, 4.36, 4.37, 4.38, 4.40, 4.41, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 8.41, 8.49, 9.31, 13.10, 13.11, 13.12, 13.13, 13.14, 13.15, 13.16, 13.17, 13.18, 13.19, 13.20, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.12, 15.13, 15.14, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17, 15.18, 15.19, 15.20, 15.21, 15.22, 15.23, 15.24, 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.28, 15.29, 15.30, 15.31, 15.32, 16.16, 16.29, 16.31, 17.7, 17.8, 17.9, 17.10, 17.11, 17.12, 17.13, 17.14, 17.15, 17.16, 17.17, 17.18, 17.19, 17.20, 17.21, 17.22, 17.23, 17.24, 19.10, 20.42, 23.35, 23.37, 23.39, 23.51, 24.21, 24.25, 24.27, 24.44, 24.46, 24.47 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

71. New Testament, Mark, 1.1-1.8, 1.21, 5.22, 5.35-5.36, 5.38, 6.1-6.2, 10.45, 13.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. 1.2. As it is written in the prophets, "Behold, I send my messenger before your face, Who will prepare your way before you. 1.3. The voice of one crying in the wilderness, 'Make ready the way of the Lord! Make his paths straight!' 1.4. John came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching the baptism of repentance for forgiveness of sins. 1.5. All the country of Judea and all those of Jerusalem went out to him. They were baptized by him in the Jordan river, confessing their sins. 1.6. John was clothed with camel's hair and a leather belt around his loins. He ate locusts and wild honey. 1.7. He preached, saying, "After me comes he who is mightier than I, the thong of whose sandals I am not worthy to stoop down and loosen. 1.8. I baptized you in water, but he will baptize you in the Holy Spirit. 1.21. They went into Capernaum, and immediately on the Sabbath day he entered into the synagogue and taught. 5.22. Behold, one of the rulers of the synagogue, Jairus by name, came; and seeing him, he fell at his feet 5.35. While he was still speaking, they came from the synagogue ruler's house saying, "Your daughter is dead. Why bother the Teacher any more? 5.36. But Jesus, when he heard the message spoken, immediately said to the ruler of the synagogue, "Don't be afraid, only believe. 5.38. He came to the synagogue ruler's house, and he saw an uproar, weeping, and great wailing. 6.1. He went out from there. He came into his own country, and his disciples followed him. 6.2. When the Sabbath had come, he began to teach in the synagogue, and many hearing him were astonished, saying, "Where did this man get these things?" and, "What is the wisdom that is given to this man, that such mighty works come about by his hands? 10.45. For the Son of Man also came not to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many. 13.11. When they lead you away and deliver you up, don't be anxious beforehand, or premeditate what you will say, but say whatever will be given you in that hour. For it is not you who speak, but the Holy Spirit.
72. New Testament, Matthew, 3.1-3.12, 5.17, 5.31-5.32, 6.5-6.15, 7.12-7.13, 9.18, 9.23, 11.13, 22.40 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. In those days, John the Baptizer came, preaching in the wilderness of Judea, saying 3.2. Repent, for the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand! 3.3. For this is he who was spoken of by Isaiah the prophet, saying, "The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make ready the way of the Lord, Make his paths straight. 3.4. Now John himself wore clothing made of camel's hair, with a leather belt around his waist. His food was locusts and wild honey. 3.5. Then people from Jerusalem, all of Judea, and all the region around the Jordan went out to him. 3.6. They were baptized by him in the Jordan, confessing their sins. 3.7. But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming for his baptism, he said to them, "You offspring of vipers, who warned you to flee from the wrath to come? 3.8. Therefore bring forth fruit worthy of repentance! 3.9. Don't think to yourselves, 'We have Abraham for our father,' for I tell you that God is able to raise up children to Abraham from these stones. 3.10. Even now the ax lies at the root of the trees. Therefore, every tree that doesn't bring forth good fruit is cut down, and cast into the fire. 3.11. I indeed baptize you in water for repentance, but he who comes after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to carry. He will baptize you in the Holy Spirit. 3.12. His winnowing fork is in his hand, and he will thoroughly cleanse his threshing floor. He will gather his wheat into the barn, but the chaff he will burn up with unquenchable fire. 5.17. Don't think that I came to destroy the law or the prophets. I didn't come to destroy, but to fulfill. 5.31. It was also said, 'Whoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorce,' 5.32. but I tell you that whoever who puts away his wife, except for the cause of sexual immorality, makes her an adulteress; and whoever marries her when she is put away commits adultery. 6.5. When you pray, you shall not be as the hypocrites, for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen by men. Most assuredly, I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.6. But you, when you pray, enter into your inner chamber, and having shut your door, pray to your Father who is in secret, and your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly. 6.7. In praying, don't use vain repetitions, as the Gentiles do; for they think that they will be heard for their much speaking. 6.8. Therefore don't be like them, for your Father knows what things you need, before you ask him. 6.9. Pray like this: 'Our Father in heaven, may your name be kept holy. 6.10. Let your kingdom come. Let your will be done, as in heaven, so on earth. 6.11. Give us today our daily bread. 6.12. Forgive us our debts, as we also forgive our debtors. 6.13. Bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. For yours is the kingdom, the power, and the glory forever. Amen.' 6.14. For if you forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. 6.15. But if you don't forgive men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses. 7.12. Therefore whatever you desire for men to do to you, you shall also do to them; for this is the law and the prophets. 7.13. Enter in by the narrow gate; for wide is the gate and broad is the way that leads to destruction, and many are those who enter in by it. 9.18. While he told these things to them, behold, a ruler came and worshiped him, saying, "My daughter has just died, but come and lay your hand on her, and she will live. 9.23. When Jesus came into the ruler's house, and saw the flute players, and the crowd in noisy disorder 11.13. For all the prophets and the law prophesied until John. 22.40. The whole law and the prophets depend on these two commandments.
73. Suetonius, Tiberius, 32.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

74. Tacitus, Histories, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.5.  Whatever their origin, these rites are maintained by their antiquity: the other customs of the Jews are base and abominable, and owe their persistence to their depravity. For the worst rascals among other peoples, renouncing their ancestral religions, always kept sending tribute and contributions to Jerusalem, thereby increasing the wealth of the Jews; again, the Jews are extremely loyal toward one another, and always ready to show compassion, but toward every other people they feel only hate and enmity. They sit apart at meals, and they sleep apart, and although as a race, they are prone to lust, they abstain from intercourse with foreign women; yet among themselves nothing is unlawful. They adopted circumcision to distinguish themselves from other peoples by this difference. Those who are converted to their ways follow the same practice, and the earliest lesson they receive is to despise the gods, to disown their country, and to regard their parents, children, and brothers as of little account. However, they take thought to increase their numbers; for they regard it as a crime to kill any late-born child, and they believe that the souls of those who are killed in battle or by the executioner are immortal: hence comes their passion for begetting children, and their scorn of death. They bury the body rather than burn it, thus following the Egyptians' custom; they likewise bestow the same care on the dead, and hold the same belief about the world below; but their ideas of heavenly things are quite the opposite. The Egyptians worship many animals and monstrous images; the Jews conceive of one god only, and that with the mind alone: they regard as impious those who make from perishable materials representations of gods in man's image; that supreme and eternal being is to them incapable of representation and without end. Therefore they set up no statues in their cities, still less in their temples; this flattery is not paid their kings, nor this honour given to the Caesars. But since their priests used to chant to the accompaniment of pipes and cymbals and to wear garlands of ivy, and because a golden vine was found in their temple, some have thought that they were devotees of Father Liber, the conqueror of the East, in spite of the incongruity of their customs. For Liber established festive rites of a joyous nature, while the ways of the Jews are preposterous and mean.
75. Tosefta, Megillah, 3.5-3.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

76. Tosefta, Sukkah, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.6. Why did they blow three blasts? To make the people cease from work. The sexton took the trumpets, and went to the top of the highest roof in the city to summon those near the city to cease from work. Those near the limits of the city assembled themselves together and came to the schoolhouse. They did not come immediately the trumpets blew, but waited till all were gathered together, and then all came at once. When did they assemble? After one could fill a bottle of water, or fry a fish, or light his lamp. "
77. Anon., Deuteronomy Rabbah, 7.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

7.8. וַיִּקְרָא משֶׁה אֶל כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל (דברים כט, א), הֲלָכָה, אָדָם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁעָמַד לִקְרוֹת בַּתּוֹרָה מַהוּ שֶׁיְהֵא מֻתָּר לוֹ לִקְרוֹת פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁלשָׁה פְּסוּקִים, כָּךְ שָׁנוּ חֲכָמִים הַקּוֹרֵא בַּתּוֹרָה לֹא יִפְחֹת מִשְּׁלשָׁה פְּסוּקִים. לִמְדוּנוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ לָמָּה הִתְקִינוּ שֶׁלֹא יִפְחֹת מִשְּׁלשָׁה פְּסוּקִים, כְּנֶגֶד אַבְרָהָם יִצְחָק וְיַעֲקֹב. דָּבָר אַחֵר, כְּנֶגֶד משֶׁה אַהֲרֹן וּמִרְיָם, שֶׁנִּתְּנָה תּוֹרָה עַל יְדֵיהֶן. אָמַר רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא רָאָה הַפָּחוּת בִּימֵי משֶׁה מַה שֶׁלֹא רָאָה יְחֶזְקֵאל גָּדוֹל בַּנְּבִיאִים, בְּנֵי אָדָם שֶׁדִּבְּרָה עִמָּהֶם שְׁכִינָה פָּנִים בְּפָנִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ה, ד): פָּנִים בְּפָנִים דִּבֶּר ה' עִמָּכֶם וגו'. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי, מִנַּיִן אַתָּה אוֹמֵר אִלּוּ הָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל חֲסֵרִים אֲפִלּוּ אָדָם אֶחָד לֹא הָיְתָה הַשְּׁכִינָה נִגְלֵית עֲלֵיהֶן, דִּכְתִיב (שמות יט, יא): כִּי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִשִׁי יֵרֵד ה' לְעֵינֵי כָל הָעָם עַל הַר סִינָי, מַעֲשֶׂה בְּרַבִּי שֶׁהָיָה דוֹרֵשׁ בְּבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ הַגָּדוֹל, וּכְשֶׁהָיָה מְבַקֵּשׁ לִכָּנֵס לִדְרשׁ הָיָה אוֹמֵר רְאוּ אִם נִתְכַּנְסוּ כָּל הַקָּהָל, וּמֵהֵיכָן אַתָּה לָמֵד מִמַּתַּן תּוֹרָה, מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ד, י): בֶּאֱמֹר ה' אֵלַי הַקְהֶל לִי אֶת הָעָם וְאַשְׁמִעֵם אֶת דְּבָרָי. דָּבָר אַחֵר, רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי אַתְּ מוֹצֵא כְּשֶׁנָּתַן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְמשֶׁה אֶת הַתּוֹרָה בִּקְרִיאָה נְתָנָהּ לוֹ, מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יט, כ): וַיִּקְרָא ה' לְמשֶׁה אֶל רֹאשׁ הָהָר וַיַּעַל משֶׁה, אַף משֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ כְּשֶׁבָּא לִשְׁנוֹת אֶת הַתּוֹרָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אָמַר לָהֶם כְּשֵׁם שֶׁקִּבַּלְתִּי אֶת הַתּוֹרָה בִּקְרִיאָה כָּךְ אֲנִי מוֹסֵר לְבָנָיו בִּקְרִיָּה, מִנַּיִן, מִמַּה שֶּׁכָּתוּב בָּעִנְיָן (דברים כט, א): וַיִּקְרָא משֶׁה אֶל כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם.
78. Anon., Qohelet Rabba, 9.17 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

79. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 28.3, 30.8, 80.1, 98.13 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

28.3. וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶמְחֶה אֶת הָאָדָם, רַבִּי לֵוִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר אֲפִלּוּ אִסְטְרוֹבִּלִּין שֶׁל רֵחַיִּים נִמְחֶה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר אֲפִלּוּ עֲפָרוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן נִמְחֶה. כַּד דָּרְשָׁה רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּצִפּוֹרִי בְּצִבּוּרָא וְלֹא קִבְּלוּ מִינֵיהּ. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יְהוֹצָדָק אָמַר אֲפִלּוּ לוּז שֶׁל שִׁדְרָה, שֶׁמִּמֶּנוּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מֵצִיץ אֶת הָאָדָם לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, נִמְחָה. אַדְרִיָּאנוֹס שְׁחִיק עֲצָמוֹת שָׁאַל אֶת רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן חֲנַנְיָא אָמַר לוֹ מֵהֵיכָן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מֵצִיץ אֶת הָאָדָם לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, אָמַר לוֹ מִלּוּז שֶׁל שִׁדְרָה, אָמַר לוֹ מִנַּיִן אַתָּה יוֹדֵעַ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַיְתִיתֵיהּ לְיָדִי וַאֲנָא מוֹדַע לָךְ, טָחֲנוֹ בָּרֵחַיִם וְלֹא נִטְחַן, שְׂרָפוֹ בָּאֵשׁ וְלֹא נִשְׂרַף, נְתָנוֹ בְּמַיִם וְלֹא נִמְחֶה, נְתָנוֹ עַל הַסַּדָּן וְהִתְחִיל מַכֶּה עָלָיו בְּפַטִּישׁ, נֶחְלַק הַסַּדָּן וְנִבְקַע הַפַּטִּישׁ וְלֹא חָסַר כְּלוּם. 30.8. תָּמִים הָיָה בְּדֹרֹתָיו (בראשית ו, ט), בַּר חַטְיָיא אָמַר כָּל מִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בּוֹ תָּמִים, הִשְּׁלִים שָׁנָיו לְמִדַּת שָׁבוּעַ. הָיָה, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן כָּל מִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בּוֹ הָיָה, מִתְּחִלָּתוֹ וְעַד סוֹפוֹ הוּא צַדִּיק. הֲתִיבוּן לֵיהּ וְהָכְתִיב (יחזקאל לג, כד): אֶחָד הָיָה אַבְרָהָם וַיִּירַשׁ אֶת הָאָרֶץ, מֵעַתָּה הוּא תְּחִלָּתוֹ וְהוּא סוֹפוֹ. אֲמַר לְהוֹן אַף הִיא לָא תַבְרָא, דְּהָא רַבִּי לֵוִי בְּשֵׁם רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ אָמַר בֶּן שָׁלשׁ שָׁנִים הִכִּיר אַבְרָהָם אֶת בּוֹרְאוֹ וכו', רַבִּי חֲנִינָא וְרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן תַּרְוֵיהוֹן אָמְרִין בֶּן אַרְבָּעִים וּשְׁמוֹנֶה שָׁנָה הִכִּיר אַבְרָהָם אֶת בּוֹרְאוֹ, וּמַה אֲנִי מְקַיֵּם הָיָה, שֶׁהָיָה מְתֻקָּן לְהַדְרִיךְ כָּל הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ בִּתְשׁוּבָה. (בראשית ג, כב): הֵן הָאָדָם הָיָה, מְתֻקָּן לְמִיתָה, נָחָשׁ (בראשית ג, א): הָיָה, מְתֻקָּן לְפֻרְעָנוּת, קַיִן (בראשית ד, ב): הָיָה, מְתֻקָּן לְגָלוּת, אִיּוֹב (איוב א, א): הָיָה, מְתֻקָּן לְיִסּוּרִין, נֹחַ הָיָה, מְתֻקָּן לַנֵּס, משֶׁה (שמות ג, א): הָיָה, מְתֻקָּן לַגּוֹאֵל, מָרְדְּכַי (אסתר ב, ה): הָיָה, מְתֻקָּן לִגְאֻלָּה. רַבִּי לֵוִי וְרַבָּנָן, רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר כָּל מִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בּוֹ הָיָה, רָאָה עוֹלָם חָדָשׁ, אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל חֲמִשָּׁה הֵן: נֹחַ, אֶתְמוֹל (איוב יד, יט): אֲבָנִים שָׁחֲקוּ מַיִם, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אֲפִלּוּ אִצְטְרֻבָּלִין שֶׁל רֵחַיִם נִמְחֶה בַּמַּיִם, וְהָכָא אַתְּ אָמַר (בראשית ט, יח): וַיִּהְיוּ בְנֵי נֹחַ הַיֹּצְאִים מִן הַתֵּבָה, אֶתְמָהָא, אֶלָּא רָאָה עוֹלָם חָדָשׁ. יוֹסֵף (תהלים קה, יח): עִנּוּ בַכֶּבֶל רַגְלוֹ, וְעַכְשָׁו (בראשית מב, ו): וְיוֹסֵף הוּא הַשַּׁלִּיט, אֶלָּא שֶׁרָאָה עוֹלָם חָדָשׁ. משֶׁה, אֶתְמוֹל בּוֹרֵחַ מִפְּנֵי פַּרְעֹה, וְעַכְשָׁו הוּא מְשַׁקְּעוֹ בַּיָּם, אֶלָּא שֶׁרָאָה עוֹלָם חָדָשׁ. אִיּוֹב, אֶתְמוֹל (איוב טז, יג): יִשְׁפֹּךְ לָאָרֶץ מְרֵרָתִי, וְעַכְשָׁו (איוב מב, י): וַיּוֹסֶף ה' אֶת כָּל אֲשֶׁר לְאִיּוֹב לְמִשְׁנֶה, אֶלָּא שֶׁרָאָה עוֹלָם חָדָשׁ. מָרְדְּכַי, אֶתְמוֹל הָיָה מְתֻקָּן לִצְלִיבָה, וְעַכְשָׁו הוּא צוֹלֵב אֶת צוֹלְבָיו, אֶלָּא שֶׁרָאָה עוֹלָם חָדָשׁ, רַבָּנָן אָמְרִין כָּל מִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בּוֹ הָיָה, זָן וּמְפַרְנֵס, נֹחַ, זָן וּפִרְנֵס כָּל שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ו, כא): וְאַתָּה קַח לְךָ וגו'. יוֹסֵף (בראשית מז, יב): וַיְכַלְכֵּל יוֹסֵף אֶת אָבִיו וְאֶת אֶחָיו. משֶׁה, זָן וּפִרְנֵס אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה בַּמִּדְבָּר. (איוב לא, יז): וְאֹכַל פִּתִּי לְבַדִּי, שֶׁמָּא (איוב לא, יז): וְלֹא אָכַל יָתוֹם מִמֶּנָּה, אֶתְמָהָא. מָרְדְּכַי זָן וּפִרְנֵס, אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן פַּעַם אַחַת חִזֵּר עַל כָּל הַמֵּנִיקוֹת וְלֹא מָצָא לְאֶסְתֵּר לְאַלְתָּר מֵינִיקָה, וְהָיָה מֵינִיקָהּ הוּא, רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי אַבָּהוּ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בָּא לוֹ חָלָב וְהָיָה מֵינִיקָהּ. כַּד דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ בְּצִבּוּרָא גָּחוֹךְ צִבּוּרָא לְקָלֵיהּ, אֲמַר לְהוֹן וְלָא מַתְנִיתָּא הִיא, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר חָלָב הַזָּכָר טָהוֹר. 80.1. וַתֵּצֵא דִינָה בַּת לֵאָה (בראשית לד, א), (יחזקאל טז, מד): הִנֵּה כָּל הַמּשֵׁל עָלַיִךְ יִמְשֹׁל לֵאמֹר כְּאִמָּה בִּתָּהּ, יוֹסֵי מְעוֹנָאָה תִּרְגֵּם בִּכְנִישָׁתְהוֹן דִּמְעוֹנָא, (הושע ה, א): שִׁמְעוּ זֹאת הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַקְשִׁיבוּ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבֵית הַמֶּלֶךְ הַאֲזִינוּ, אָמַר עָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לִטֹּל אֶת הַכֹּהֲנִים וּלְהַעֲמִידָן בַּדִּין וְלֵאמֹר לָהֶם לָמָּה לֹא יְגַעְתֶּם בַּתּוֹרָה, לֹא הֱיִיתֶם נֶהֱנִים מֵאַרְבַּע וְעֶשְׂרִים מַתְּנוֹת כְּהֻנָּה, וְאִינוּן אָמְרִין לֵיהּ לָא יָהֲבִין לָן כְּלוּם. וְהַקְשִׁיבוּ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל, לָמָּה לֹא הֱיִיתֶם נוֹתְנִים לַכֹּהֲנִים אַרְבַּע וְעֶשְׂרִים מַתְּנוֹת כְּהֻנָּה שֶׁכָּתַבְתִּי לָכֶם בַּתּוֹרָה, וְאִינוּן אָמְרִין לֵיהּ עַל אִלֵּין דְּבֵי נְשִׂיאָה דַּהֲווֹ נָסְבִין כּוֹלָּא. בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ הַאֲזִינוּ כִּי לָכֶם הַמִּשְׁפָּט, שֶׁלָּכֶם הָיָה, (דברים יח, ג): וְזֶה יִהְיֶה מִשְׁפַּט הַכֹּהֲנִים, לְפִיכָךְ לָכֶם וַעֲלֵיכֶם מִדַּת הַדִּין נֶהְפָּכֶת. שָׁמַע רַבִּי וְכָעַס, בְּפַתֵּי רַמְשָׁא סְלֵיק רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ שָׁאֵיל שְׁלָמֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי וּפַיְּסֵי עֲלוֹהִי דְּיוֹסֵי מְעוֹנָאָה, אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי, צְרִיכִין אָנוּ לְהַחֲזִיק טוֹבָה לְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, שֶׁהֵן מַכְנִיסִין מוּמָסִין לְבָתֵּי טְרַטְיָאוֹת וּלְבָתֵּי קַרְקְסָאוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶן וּמְשַׂחֲקִין בָּהֶם כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹא יִהְיוּ מְשִׂיחִין אֵלּוּ עִם אֵלּוּ וְיָבוֹאוּ לִידֵי קְטָטָה בְּטֵלָה, יוֹסֵי מְעוֹנָאָה אָמַר מִלָּה דְּאוֹרָיְיתָא וְאַקְפַּדְתְּ עֲלוֹהִי, אָמַר לוֹ וְיוֹדֵעַ הוּא בְּדִבְרֵי תוֹרָה כְּלוּם, אָמַר לוֹ הֵן. אֲמַר לֵיהּ וְאוּלְפַן קַבֵּיל, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֵין. וְאִי שָׁאֵלְנָא לֵיהּ מְגִיִּיב, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֵין, אִם כֵּן יִסַּק לְהָכָא, וּסְלֵיק לְגַבֵּיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מַהוּ דִּכְתִיב: הִנֵּה כָּל הַמּשֵׁל עָלַיִךָ יִמְשֹׁל לֵאמֹר כְּאִמָּה בִּתָּהּ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ כַּבַּת כֵּן אִמָּהּ, כַּדּוֹר כֵּן נָשִׂיא, כַּמִּזְבֵּחַ כֵּן כֹּהֲנָיו. הָכָא אָמְרֵי לְפוּם גִּנְּתָא גַּנָּנָא. אָמַר לוֹ רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ עַד כַּדּוּן לָא חֲסֵלִית מִן מְפַיְּסֵיהּ עַל הָדָא וְאַתָּה מַיְיתֵי לָן אוֹחֲרִי, עִקָּרוֹ שֶׁל דָּבָר הִנֵּה כָּל הַמּשֵׁל מַהוּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לֵית תּוֹרְתָא עֲנִישָׁא עַד דִּבְרַתָּהּ בְּעִיטָא, לֵית אִתְּתָא זָנְיָא עַד דִּבְרַתָּהּ זָנְיָא. אָמְרוּ לֵיהּ אִם כֵּן לֵאָה אִמֵּנוּ זוֹנָה הָיְתָה, אָמַר לָהֶם (בראשית ל, טז): וַתֵּצֵא לִקְרָאתוֹ וגו', יָצָאת מְקֻשֶּׁטֶת כְּזוֹנָה, לְפִיכָךְ וַתֵּצֵא דִינָה בַּת לֵאָה. 80.1. וַיִּקְּחוּ שְׁנֵי בְנֵי יַעֲקֹב שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי (בראשית לד, כה), מִמַּשְׁמַע שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי, יָדַעְנוּ שֶׁבְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב הֵם, אֶלָּא בְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב שֶׁלֹא נָטְלוּ עֵצָה מִיַּעֲקֹב. שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי, שֶׁנָטְלוּ עֵצָה זֶה מִזֶּה. אֲחֵי דִינָה, וְכִי אֲחוֹת שְׁנֵיהֶם הָיְתָה וַהֲלוֹא אֲחוֹת כָּל הַשְּׁבָטִים הָיְתָה, אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁנָּתְנוּ אֵלּוּ נַפְשָׁם עָלֶיהָ נִקְרֵאת עַל שְׁמָם, וְדִכְוָתָהּ (שמות טו, כ): וַתִּקַּח מִרְיָם הַנְּבִיאָה אֲחוֹת אַהֲרֹן, וְכִי אֲחוֹת אַהֲרֹן הָיְתָה וַהֲלוֹא אֲחוֹת שְׁנֵיהֶם הָיְתָה, אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁנָּתַן אַהֲרֹן נַפְשׁוֹ עָלֶיהָ לְפִיכָךְ נִקְרֵאת עַל שְׁמוֹ, וְדִכְוָתָהּ (במדבר כה, יח): וְעַל דְּבַר כָּזְבִּי בַת נְשִׂיא מִדְיָן אֲחֹתָם, וְכִי אֲחוֹתָם הָיְתָה וַהֲלוֹא בַּת אֻמָּתָן הָיְתָה, אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁנָּתְנָה נַפְשָׁהּ עַל אֻמָּתָהּ נִקְרֵאת אֻמָּתָהּ לִשְׁמָהּ. (בראשית לד, כה): אִישׁ חַרְבּוֹ, רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר בֶּן שְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה הָיוּ. שְׁמוּאֵל שָׁאַל לְלֵוִי בַּר סִיסִי אָמַר לוֹ מַהוּ דֵין דִּכְתִיב (בראשית לד, כה): וַיָּבֹאוּ עַל הָעִיר בֶּטַח, אָמַר לוֹ בְּטוּחִים הָיוּ עַל כֹּחוֹ שֶׁל זָקֵן, וְלֹא הָיָה אָבִינוּ יַעֲקֹב רוֹצֶה שֶׁיַּעֲשׂוּ בָנָיו אוֹתוֹ הַמַּעֲשֶׂה, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁעָשׂוּ בָנָיו אוֹתוֹ מַעֲשֶׂה, אָמַר מָה אֲנִי מַנִּיחַ אֶת בָּנַי לִפֹּל בְּיַד אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, מֶה עָשָׂה נָטַל חַרְבּוֹ וְקַשְׁתּוֹ וְעָמַד לוֹ עַל פִּתְחָהּ שֶׁל שְׁכֶם וְאָמַר אִם יָבוֹאוּ אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם לְהִזְדַּוֵּג לָהֶם לְבָנַי אֲנִי נִלְחַם כְּנֶגְדָן, הוּא דְּהוּא אוֹמֵר לוֹ לְיוֹסֵף (בראשית מח, כב): וַאֲנִי נָתַתִּי לְךָ שְׁכֶם אַחַד עַל אַחֶיךָ וגו', וְהֵיכָן מָצִינוּ שֶׁנָּטַל אָבִינוּ יַעֲקֹב חַרְבּוֹ וְקַשְׁתּוֹ בִּשְׁכֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית מח, כב): אֲשֶׁר לָקַחְתִּי מִיַּד הָאֱמֹרִי בְּחַרְבִּי וּבְקַשְׁתִּי. (בראשית לד, כו): וְאֶת חֲמוֹר וְאֶת שְׁכֶם בְּנוֹ. 98.13. דָּן יָדִין עַמּוֹ כְּאַחַד שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל (בראשית מט, טז), כַּמְּיֻחָד שֶׁל שְׁבָטִים. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר נְחֶמְיָה אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁנִּדְבַּק לַמְיֻחָד שֶׁבַּשְּׁבָטִים אֲפִלּוּ שׁוֹפֵט אֶחָד שֶׁהֶעֱמִיד לֹא הָיָה מַעֲמִיד, וְאֵיזֶה זֶה, זֶה שִׁמְשׁוֹן בֶּן מָנוֹחַ. כִּיחִידוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, מַה יְּחִידוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ סִיּוּעַ כָּךְ שִׁמְשׁוֹן בֶּן מָנוֹחַ אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְסִיּוּעַ, אֶלָּא (שופטים טו, טו): וַיִּמְצָא לְחִי חֲמוֹר טְרִיָה, מַהוּ טְרִיָה, בַּר תְּלָתָא יוֹמִין. רַבִּי אָבוּן אָמַר בִּטְנָהּ תְּרֵין, הִיא דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי אָבוּוֹן, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אָבוּן (שופטים טו, טז): בִּלְחִי הַחֲמוֹר חֲמוֹר חֲמֹרָתָיִם וגו' (שופטים טו, יח): וַיִּצְמָא מְאֹד, דִּמְפַטְפֵּט צָחֵי, אָמַר רַבִּי חוּנְיָא וְרַבִּי עֲזַרְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה צַרְצוּר שֶׁל מַיִם לֹא הָיָה יָכוֹל לִפְשֹׁט אֶת יָדוֹ וְלִטְלוֹ, אֶלָּא (שופטים טו, יח): וַיִּקְרָא אֶל ה' וַיֹּאמַר אַתָּה נָתַתָּ בְיַד עַבְדְּךָ וגו', אָמַר לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים אִם אֵינוֹ בֵּינִי לְבֵינָן אֶלָּא הַמִּילָה הַזֹּאת כְּדַאי הוּא שֶׁלֹא אֶפֹּל בְּיָדָן, מִיָּד (שופטים טו, יט): וַיִּבְקַע אֱלֹהִים אֶת הַמַּכְתֵּשׁ אֲשֶׁר בַּלֶּחִי, רַבִּי לֵוִי וְרַבָּנָן, רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא שְׁמוֹ לֶחִי. רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא מַכְתֵּשׁ שְׁמוֹ. רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהֵבִיא לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַעֲיָן מִבֵּין שִׁנָּיו, בְּאֵיזוֹ זְכוּת, מִבִּרְכָתוֹ שֶׁל משֶׁה שֶׁאָמַר (דברים לג, כב): יְזַנֵּק מִן הַבָּשָׁן, מִבֵּין שִׁנָּיו.
80. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 3.6 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

3.6. וֶהֱבִיאָהּ אֶל בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן (ויקרא ב, ב), תָּנֵי רַבִּי חִיָּא וַאֲפִלּוּ רִבּוֹת, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן (משלי יד, כח): בְּרָב עָם הַדְּרַת מֶלֶךְ. (ויקרא ב, ב): וְקָמַץ מִשָּׁם מְלֹא קֻמְצוֹ מִסָּלְתָּהּ וּמִשַּׁמְנָהּ, מִסַּלְתָּהּ וְלֹא כָּל סָלְתָּהּ, מִשַּׁמְנָהּ וְלֹא כָּל שַׁמְנָהּ, הֲרֵי שֶׁהֵבִיא מִנְחָתוֹ מִגּוֹלָה מֵאַסְפַּמְיָא וְרָאָה אֶת הַכֹּהֵן שֶׁהִקְמִיץ וְאָכַל אֶת הַשְּׁאָר, אָמַר אוֹי לִי, כָּל הַצַּעַר הַזֶּה שֶׁנִּצְטַעַרְתִּי בִּשְׁבִיל זֶה, וְהַכֹּל מְפַיְּסִין אוֹתוֹ וְאוֹמְרִים לוֹ וּמָה אִם זֶה שֶׁלֹּא נִצְטַעֵר אֶלָּא שְׁנֵי פְּסִיעוֹת בֵּין הָאוּלָם לַמִּזְבֵּחַ זָכָה לֶאֱכֹל, אַתָּה שֶׁנִּצְטַעַרְתָּ כָּל הַצַּעַר הַזֶּה, עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא (ויקרא ב, ג): וְהַנּוֹתֶרֶת מִן הַמִּנְחָה לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו, רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר אַבָּא אֲזַל לְחַד אֲתַר אַשְׁכָּחָא הָדֵין פְּסוּקָא רֹאשׁ סִדְרָא: וְהַנּוֹתֶרֶת מִן הַמִּנְחָה לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו, מַה פָּתַח עֲלָהּ (תהלים יז, יד): מִמְתִים יָדְךָ ה' מִמְתִים מֵחֶלֶד. מִמְתִים יָדְךָ ה', מַה גִּבּוֹרִים הֵם אֵלּוּ שֶׁנָּטְלוּ חֶלְקָן מִתַּחַת יָדְךָ ה', וְאֵיזֶה זֶה שִׁבְטוֹ שֶׁל לֵוִי. מִמְתִים מֵחֶלֶד, אֵלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא נָטְלוּ חֵלֶק בָּאָרֶץ. חֶלְקָם בַּחַיִּים, אֵלּוּ קָדְשֵׁי מִקְדָּשׁ. וּצְפוּנְךָ תְּמַלֵּא בִטְנָם, אֵלּוּ קָדְשֵׁי הַגְּבוּל. יִשְׂבְּעוּ בָנִים, (ויקרא ו, יא): כָּל זָכָר בִּבְנֵי אַהֲרֹן יֹאכְלֶנָּה. וְהִנִּיחוּ יִתְרָם לְעוֹלְלֵיהֶם, וְהַנּוֹתֶרֶת מִן הַמִּנְחָה לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו, אַהֲרֹן זָכָה לְבָנִים בֵּין כְּשֵׁרִים בֵּין פְּסוּלִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלאכי ב, ה): בְּרִיתִי הָיְתָה אִתּוֹ הַחַיִּים וְהַשָּׁלוֹם, שֶׁהָיָה רוֹדֵף שָׁלוֹם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל. (מלאכי ב, ה): וָאֶתְּנֵם לוֹ מוֹרָא וַיִּירָאֵנִי, שֶׁקִּבֵּל עָלָיו דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה בְּאֵימָה וּבְיִרְאָה וּבִרְתֵת וּבְזִיעַ. מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (מלאכי ב, ה): מִפְּנֵי שְׁמִי נִחַת, אָמְרוּ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁיָּצַק משֶׁה שֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה עַל רֹאשׁ אַהֲרֹן, נִרְתַּע וְנָפַל לַאֲחוֹרָיו, וְאָמַר, אוֹי לִי שֶׁמָּא מָעַלְתִּי בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה. הֵשִׁיבָה רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְאָמְרָה לוֹ (תהלים קלג, א ג): הִנֵּה מַה טּוֹב וּמַה נָּעִים שֶׁבֶת אַחִים גַּם יָחַד כַּשֶּׁמֶן הַטּוֹב עַל הָרֹאשׁ וגו' כְּטַל חֶרְמוֹן שֶׁיּוֹרֵד וגו'. מַה הַטַּל אֵין בּוֹ מְעִילָה אַף הַשֶּׁמֶן אֵין בּוֹ מְעִילָה. כַּשֶּׁמֶן הַטּוֹב עַל הָרֹאשׁ יוֹרֵד עַל הַזָּקָן זְקַן אַהֲרֹן, וְכִי שְׁנֵי זְקָנִים הָיוּ לְאַהֲרֹן וְאַתְּ אֲמַרְתְּ הַזָּקָן זְקַן, אֶלָּא כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאָה משֶׁה אֶת הַשֶּׁמֶן יוֹרֵד עַל זְקַן אַהֲרֹן הָיָה שָׂמֵחַ כְּאִלּוּ עַל זְקָנוֹ יָרָד. (מלאכי ב, ו): תּוֹרַת אֱמֶת הָיְתָה בְּפִיהוּ, שֶׁלֹּא אָסַר אֶת הַמֻּתָּר וְלֹא הִתִּיר אֶת הָאָסוּר. בְּשָׁלוֹם וּבְמִישׁוֹר הָלַךְ אִתִּי, שֶׁלֹּא הִרְהֵר אַחַר דַּרְכֵי הַמָּקוֹם, כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁלֹּא הִרְהֵר אָבִינוּ אַבְרָהָם. וְרַבִּים הֵשִׁיב מֵעָוֹן, שֶׁהֵשִׁיב פּוֹשְׁעִים לְתַלְמוּד תּוֹרָה, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר (שיר השירים א, ד): מֵישָׁרִים אֲהֵבוּךָ, מַה כְּתִיב בּוֹ בַּסּוֹף (מלאכי ב, ז): כִּי שִׂפְתֵי כֹהֵן יִשְׁמְרוּ דַעַת וְתוֹרָה יְבַקְּשׁוּ מִפִּיהוּ וגו'.
81. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 343 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

82. Clement of Alexandria, Excerpts From Theodotus, 76.2-76.3, 77.3, 80.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

83. Justin, First Apology, 67.3-67.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

84. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

85. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 10.96 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

86. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 10.96 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

87. Anon., The Acts of Paul And Thecla, 4, 7, 9, 3 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

88. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29b. כל היכא דליכא אלא חמש סלעים הוא קודם לבנו מאי טעמא מצוה דגופיה עדיפא כי פליגי היכא דאיכא חמש משועבדים וחמש בני חורין,ר' יהודה סבר מלוה דכתיב בתורה ככתובה בשטר דמיא בהני חמש פריק לבריה ואזיל כהן וטריף ליה לחמש משועבדים לדידיה,ורבנן סברי מלוה דכתיב באורייתא לאו ככתובה בשטר דמיא והילכך מצוה דגופיה עדיף,ת"ר לפדות את בנו ולעלות לרגל פודה את בנו ואחר כך עולה לרגל ר' יהודה אומר עולה לרגל ואח"כ פודה את בנו שזו מצוה עוברת וזו מצוה שאינה עוברת,בשלמא לר' יהודה כדקאמר טעמא אלא רבנן מאי טעמייהו דאמר קרא (שמות לד, כ) כל בכור בניך תפדה והדר לא יראו פני ריקם,ת"ר מנין שאם היו לו חמשה בנים מחמש נשים שחייב לפדות כולן ת"ל כל בכור בניך תפדה פשיטא בפטר רחם תלא רחמנא,מהו דתימא נילף בכור בכור מנחלה מה להלן ראשית אונו אף כאן ראשית אונו קמ"ל:,ללמדו תורה: מנלן דכתיב (דברים יא, יט) ולמדתם אותם את בניכם והיכא דלא אגמריה אבוה מיחייב איהו למיגמר נפשיה דכתיב ולמדתם,איהי מנלן דלא מיחייבא דכתיב ולימדתם ולמדתם כל שמצווה ללמוד מצווה ללמד וכל שאינו מצווה ללמוד אינו מצווה ללמד,ואיהי מנלן דלא מיחייבה למילף נפשה דכתיב ולימדתם ולמדתם כל שאחרים מצווין ללמדו מצווה ללמד את עצמו וכל שאין אחרים מצווין ללמדו אין מצווה ללמד את עצמו ומנין שאין אחרים מצווין ללמדה דאמר קרא ולמדתם אותם את בניכם ולא בנותיכם,ת"ר הוא ללמוד ובנו ללמוד הוא קודם לבנו ר' יהודה אומר אם בנו זריז וממולח ותלמודו מתקיים בידו בנו קודמו כי הא דרב יעקב בריה דרב אחא בר יעקב שדריה אבוה לקמיה דאביי כי אתא חזייה דלא הוה מיחדדין שמעתיה א"ל אנא עדיפא מינך תוב את דאיזיל אנא,שמע אביי דקא הוה אתי הוה ההוא מזיק בי רבנן דאביי דכי הוו עיילי בתרין אפי' ביממא הוו מיתזקי אמר להו לא ליתיב ליה אינש אושפיזא אפשר דמתרחיש ניסא,על בת בההוא בי רבנן אידמי ליה כתנינא דשבעה רישוותיה כל כריעה דכרע נתר חד רישיה אמר להו למחר אי לא איתרחיש ניסא סכינתין,ת"ר ללמוד תורה ולישא אשה ילמוד תורה ואח"כ ישא אשה ואם א"א לו בלא אשה ישא אשה ואח"כ ילמוד תורה אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל הלכה נושא אשה ואח"כ ילמוד תורה,ר' יוחנן אמר ריחיים בצוארו ויעסוק בתורה ולא פליגי הא לן והא להו:,משתבח ליה רב חסדא לרב הונא בדרב המנונא דאדם גדול הוא א"ל כשיבא לידך הביאהו לידי כי אתא חזייה דלא פריס סודרא א"ל מאי טעמא לא פריסת סודרא א"ל דלא נסיבנא אהדרינהו לאפיה מיניה א"ל חזי דלא חזית להו לאפי עד דנסבת,רב הונא לטעמיה דאמר בן עשרים שנה ולא נשא אשה כל ימיו בעבירה בעבירה סלקא דעתך אלא אימא כל ימיו בהרהור עבירה,אמר רבא וכן תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל עד כ' שנה יושב הקב"ה ומצפה לאדם מתי ישא אשה כיון שהגיע כ' ולא נשא אומר תיפח עצמותיו,אמר רב חסדא האי דעדיפנא מחבראי דנסיבנא בשיתסר ואי הוה נסיבנא בארביסר 29b. that banywhere that there are only five isela /iavailable, i.e., enough to redeem only one man, and one is obligated to redeem both himself and his son, bhe,the father, btakes precedence over his son. What is the reason?It is that bhis own mitzva is preferableto one that he performs on behalf of others. bWhen they disagreeis in a case bwhere there island worth bfive iselathat is blienedproperty that has been sold, i.e., he sold this land to other people but it can be reclaimed by his prior creditor, band five iselawhich is entirely bunsoldproperty.,And the reasoning behind the dispute is as follows: bRabbi Yehuda maintainsthat ba loan that is written in the Torah,i.e., any ficial obligation that applies by Torah law, is bconsidered as though it is written in a document,and therefore it can be collected from liened property, like any loan recorded in a document. This means that the liened property worth five iselais available for one’s own redemption, but not for that of his son, as the sale of the property occurred before the birth of his firstborn. Consequently, bwith these five iselaupon which there is no lien bhe redeems his son, andthe bpriest goes and repossessesthe land worth bfive iselathat is blienedproperty bfor hisown redemption. In this manner one can fulfill both mitzvot., bAnd the Rabbis maintain: A loan that is written in the Torah is not considered as though it is written in a document,since buyers will not be aware of this obligation, so that they should be aware that the land may be repossessed. bAnd thereforethere is no advantage for this man to redeem his son with the five iselaupon which there is no lien, and bhis own mitzva is preferable,which means he redeems himself with the free land. With the liened property that is left he cannot redeem his son, as the land was sold before the birth of his firstborn., bThe Sages taught:If one has money bto redeem his son and to ascend toJerusalem on bthe pilgrimage Festival, he redeems his son and then ascendsto Jerusalem bon the pilgrimage Festival. Rabbi Yehuda says: He ascendsto Jerusalem bon the pilgrimage Festival and then redeems his son.His reasoning is bthat thistrip to Jerusalem for the pilgrimage Festival is ba mitzvawhose time soon bpasses, and this,the redemption of the firstborn son, is ba mitzvawhose time does bnotsoon bpass,as it can be fulfilled later.,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according tothe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,it is bas he statedin bhis reasoning,i.e., Rabbi Yehuda provided the rationale for his opinion. bBut what is the reasoning of the Rabbis,who say that he should first redeem his son? The Gemara answers that the reason is bthat the verse states: “All the firstborn of your sons you shall redeem”(Exodus 34:20), bandit bthenstates, in the same verse: b“And none shall appear before me empty,”referring to the pilgrimage Festival in Jerusalem. The order of the verse indicates that one should redeem his firstborn son before traveling to Jerusalem on the pilgrimage Festival., bThe Sages taught: From whereis it derived bthat if one had fivefirstborn bsons, from fivedifferent bwomen, he is obligated to redeem them all? The verse states: “All the firstborn of your sons you shall redeem”(Exodus 34:20), and the emphasis of “all” includes any of one’s firstborn sons. The Gemara asks: bIsn’tit bobviousthis is the case? After all, bthe Merciful One madethis mitzva bdependent upon the opening of the womb,as it states: “Sanctify to Me all the firstborn, whoever opens the womb” (Exodus 13:2). Since each of these sons is the firstborn of his mother, it is clear that the father is required to redeem each of them.,The Gemara answers that this ruling is necessary blest you saythat bwe should derivea verbal analogy between b“firstborn”stated here and b“firstborn” fromthe verses dealing with binheritance: Just as there,the verse describes a firstborn who receives a double portion of the inheritance as: b“The first fruit of his strength”(Deuteronomy 21:17), i.e., he is the firstborn son to his father, and not the first child born to his mother; bso too here,with regard to the redemption of the firstborn son, it is referring to the bfirst fruit of his strength,which would mean that the father need redeem only his oldest child. Therefore, this ibaraita bteaches usthat this is not the case. Rather, every firstborn son to his mother must be redeemed.,§ The ibaraitateaches that a father is obligated bto teachhis son bTorah.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this requirement? bAs it is written: “And you shall teach them [ ivelimadtem /i] to your sons”(Deuteronomy 11:19). bAndin a case bwhere his father did not teach him he is obligated to teach himself, as it is written,i.e., the verse can be read with a different vocalization: bAnd you shall study [ iulmadtem /i]. /b, bFrom where do wederive bthata woman bis not obligatedto teach her son Torah? bAs it is written: “And you shall teach [ ivelimadtem /i],”which can be read as: bAnd you shall study [ iulmadtem /i].This indicates that bwhoever is commanded to studyTorah bis commanded to teach, and whoever is not commanded to study is not commanded to teach.Since a woman is not obligated to learn Torah, she is likewise not obligated to teach it.,The Gemara asks: bAnd from where do wederive bthat she is not obligated to teach herself?The Gemara answers: bAs it is written: “And you shall teach [ ivelimadtem /i],”which can be read as: bAnd you shall study [ iulmadtem /i],which indicates that bwhoever others are commanded to teach is commanded to teach himself, and whoever others are not commanded to teach is not commanded to teach himself. And from whereis it derived bthat others are not commanded to teacha woman? bAs the verse states: “And you shall teach them to your sons”(Deuteronomy 11:19), which emphasizes: bYour sons and not your daughters. /b, bThe Sages taught:If bonewishes bto studyTorah himself band his sonalso wants bto study, he takes precedence over his son. Rabbi Yehuda says: If his son is diligent and sharp, and his study will endure, his son takes precedence over him.This is blike thatanecdote bwhichis told about bRav Ya’akov, son of Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov, whose father sent him to Abayeto study Torah. bWhenthe son bcamehome, his father bsaw that his studies were not sharp,as he was insufficiently bright. Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov bsaid tohis son: bI am preferable to you,and it is better that I go and study. Therefore, byou sitand handle the affairs of the house bso that I can goand study., bAbaye heardthat Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov bwas coming. There was a certain demon in the study hall of Abaye,which was so powerful bthat when twopeople would benter they would be harmed, even during the day.Abaye bsaid tothe people of the town: bDo not giveRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov blodging [ iushpiza /i]so that he will be forced to spend the night in the study hall. Since Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov is a righteous man, bperhaps a miracle will occuron his behalf and he will kill the demon.,Rav Aḥa found no place to spend the night, and bhe entered and spent the night in that study hallof bthe Sages.The demon bappeared to him like a serpentwith bseven heads.Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov began to pray, and with bevery bowthat bhe bowed oneof the demon’s bheads fell off,until it eventually died. The bnext dayRav Aḥa bsaid tothe townspeople: bIf a miracle had not occurred, you would have placed me in danger. /b, bThe Sages taught:If one has to decide whether bto study Torah or to marry a woman,which should he do first? bHe should study Torah and afterward marry a woman. And if it is impossible for himto be bwithout a wife, he should marry a woman and then study Torah. Rav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says:The ihalakha /iis that one should bmarry a woman and afterward study Torah. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa says:How can one do this? With ba millstonehanging bfrom his neck,i.e., with the responsibility of providing for his family weighing upon him, can bhe engage in Torahstudy? The Gemara comments: bAndthe iamora’im bdo not disagree; this is for us and that is for them.In other words, one statement applies to the residents of Babylonia, whereas the other is referring to those living in Eretz Yisrael.,§ With regard to marriage, the Gemara relates: bRav Ḥisda would praise Rav Hamnuna to Rav Hunaby saying bthat he is a great man.Rav Huna bsaid to him: When he comes to you, send him to me. WhenRav Hamnuna bcamebefore him, Rav Huna bsaw that he did not coverhis head with ba cloth,as Torah scholars did. Rav Huna bsaid to him: What is the reasonthat byou do not coveryour head bwith a cloth?Rav Hamnuna bsaid to him:The reason is bthat I am not married,and it was not customary for unmarried men to cover their heads with a cloth. Rav Huna bturned his face away from himin rebuke, and bhe said to him: Seeto it bthat you do not see my face until you marry. /b,The Gemara notes: bRav Hunaconforms bto hisstandard line of breasoning, as he says:If one is btwenty years old and has notyet bmarried a woman, all of his dayswill be bina state of bsinconcerning sexual matters. The Gemara asks: Can it benter your mindthat he will be bina state of bsinall of his days? bRather, saythat this means the following: bAll of his dayswill be bina state of bthoughts of sin,i.e., sexual thoughts. One who does not marry in his youth will become accustomed to thoughts of sexual matters, and the habit will remain with him the rest of his life., bRava said, and similarly, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Untilone reaches the age of btwenty years the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and waits for a man,saying: bWhen will he marry a woman? Once he reachesthe age of btwenty and has not married, He says: Let his bones swell,i.e., he is cursed and God is no longer concerned about him., bRav Ḥisda said:The fact bthat I am superior to my colleaguesis bbecause I marriedat the age of bsixteen, and if I would have married atthe age of bfourteen, /b
89. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

24a. תניא כוותיה דרב חסדא כל אלו שאמרו אין מדליקין בהן בשבת מדליקין בהן ביום טוב חוץ משמן שריפה לפי שאין שורפין קדשים ביום טוב:,איבעיא להו מהו להזכיר של חנוכה בברכת המזון כיון דמדרבנן הוא לא מדכרינן או דילמא משום פרסומי ניסא מדכרינן אמר רבא אמר רב סחורה אמר רב הונא אינו מזכיר ואם בא להזכיר מזכיר בהודאה רב הונא בר יהודה איקלע לבי רבא סבר לאדכורי בבונה ירושלים אמר להו רב ששת כתפלה מה תפלה בהודאה אף ברכת המזון בהודאה:,איבעיא להו מהו להזכיר ראש חודש בברכת המזון אם תימצי לומר בחנוכה דרבנן לא צריך ראש חודש דאורייתא צריך או דילמא כיון דלא אסור בעשיית מלאכה לא מזכרינן רב אמר מזכיר רבי חנינא אמר אינו מזכיר אמר רב זריקא נקוט דרב בידך דקאי רבי אושעיא כוותיה דתני ר' אושעיא ימים שיש בהן קרבן מוסף כגון ר"ח וחוש"מ ערבית ושחרית ומנחה מתפלל שמונה עשרה ואומר מעין המאורע בעבודה ואם לא אמר מחזירין אותו ואין בהן קדושה על הכוס ויש בהן הזכרה בברכת המזון ימים שאין בהן קרבן מוסף כגון שני וחמישי (ושני) ותעניות ומעמדות,שני וחמישי מאי עבידתייהו אלא שני וה' וב' של תעניות ומעמדות ערבית ושחרית ומנחה מתפלל שמונה עשרה ואומר מעין המאורע בשומע תפלה ואם לא אמר אין מחזירין אותו (ואין בהן קדושה על הכוס) ואין בהן הזכרה בברכת המזון:,איבעיא להו מהו להזכיר של חנוכה במוספין כיון דלית ביה מוסף בדידיה לא מדכרינן או דילמא יום הוא שחייב בארבע תפלות רב הונא ורב יהודה דאמרי תרוייהו אינו מזכיר רב נחמן ורבי יוחנן דאמרי תרוייהו מזכיר,אמר אביי לרב יוסף הא דרב הונא ורב יהודה דרב הוא דאמר רב גידל אמר רב ראש חדש שחל להיות בשבת המפטיר בנביא בשבת אינו צריך להזכיר של ראש חדש שאילמלא שבת אין נביא בראש חדש,מי דמי התם נביא בדר"ח ליכא כלל הכא איתיה בערבית ושחרית ומנחה אלא להא דמיא דאמר רב אחדבוי אמר רב מתנה אמר רב יום טוב שחל להיות בשבת המפטיר בנביא במנחה בשבת א"צ להזכיר של יום טוב שאילמלא שבת אין נביא במנחה ביום טוב 24a. bIt was taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion of bRav Ḥisda. All of theseoils bwith whichthe Sages bsaidthat bone may not light on Shabbat, one may light with them on a Festival, with the exception of burnt oil, because one may not burn consecrated items on a Festival. /b, bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: bWhat isthe ruling with regard to the obligation bto mention Hanukkah in Grace after Meals?The dilemma is: bSince it is merely an obligation by rabbinic law, do we not mention it? Or, perhaps due to publicity of the miracle, we mention it. Rava saidthat bRav Seḥora saidthat bRav Huna said: One does not mentionit. bAnd if,nevertheless, bhe comes to mentionit, bhe mentions it inthe blessing of bthanksgiving.The Gemara relates that bRav Huna bar Yehuda happened by Rava’s houseon Hanukkah. When, after eating, he came to recite Grace after Meals, bhe thought to mentionHanukkah binthe blessing: bWho builds Jerusalem. Rav Sheshet said tothe yeshiva students: One mentions Hanukkah in Grace after Meals bjust ashe does binthe iAmida bprayer. Just asin the iAmida bprayerone mentions Hanukkah binthe blessing of bthanksgiving, so too, in Grace after Mealsone mentions Hanukkah binthe blessing of bthanksgiving. /b,Based on the previous dilemma, banadditional bdilemma was raised beforethe Sages: bWhat isthe ruling with regard to the obligation bto mention the New Moon in Grace after Meals?The dilemma is: bIf you saythat bon Hanukkah,since it is only bby rabbinic law, one need notmention it in Grace after Meals; perhaps bthe New Moon,which is bby Torah law, one is requiredto mention it. bOr, perhaps since it is nota day on which it is bprohibited to perform labor, one need not mention it.The Sages disputed this matter: bRav said: One mentionsthe New Moon in Grace after Meals. bRabbi Ḥanina said: One does not mentionit. bRav Zerika said: Takethe ihalakha bof Rav in your handas authoritative, since bRabbi Oshaya holds in accordance with hisopinion. bAs Rabbi Oshaya taughtin a iTosefta /i: bDayson bwhich there is an additional offering sacrificedin the Temple, i.e., bthe New Moon and the intermediate days of a Festival;in bthe evening, morning, and afternoon prayers, one recitesthe beighteenblessings of the iAmidaprayer band saysa passage bpertaining to the eventof the day bduringthe blessing of bTemple service. And if he did not reciteit, bwe require him to returnto the beginning of the prayer and repeat it. bAndon those days, bthere is no ikiddushrecited over the cupof wine at the start of the day, bbut there is mentionof the day recited bin Grace after Meals,in accordance with Rav’s opinion. bDayson bwhich there is no additional offering, i.e., Monday, and Thursday, and fast days, andnon-priestly bwatches [ ima’amadot /i],have a different legal status as detailed below.,Before drawing a conclusion, the Gemara seeks to clarify: bMonday and Thursday, what is their purposein this discussion, i.e., why are Monday and Thursday mentioned here if no special prayers are recited on those days? The Gemara explains: bRather,certainly the reference is to bMonday and Thursday and Mondaythat are bfast daysfor rain band of ima /i’ iamadot /i.On those days, in the bevening, morning, and afternoon prayers, one recites eighteenblessings band recitesa passage bpertaining to the eventof the day, i.e., the fast, binthe blessing: bWho listens to prayer. However, if one did not mentionit, bwe do not require him to returnto the beginning of the prayer and repeat it. bAnd,on those days, bthere is no ikiddushrecited over a cupof wine, band there is no mentionof the day recited bin Grace after Meals. /b, bAnadditional bdilemma was raised beforethe Sages: bWhat isthe ruling with regard to the obligation bto mention Hanukkah inthe badditional prayeron Shabbat during Hanukkah or on the New Moon of Tevet, which falls during Hanukkah? The sides of the dilemma are: Do we say that bsinceHanukkah bhas noadditional prayer bof its own,and the additional prayer has no connection to Hanukkah, bwe do not mentionit? bOr, perhaps it isthe essence of bthe day that is obligatedin the mention of Hanukkah, in which case there is no distinction between the various prayers, and it should be mentioned binall bfour prayers,including the additional prayer on Shabbat and the New Moon. There is a dispute: bRav Huna and Rav Yehuda both said: One does not mentionit. bRav Naḥman and Rabbi Yoḥa both said: One mentionsit., bAbaye said to Rav Yosef: Thisopinion of bRav Huna and Rav Yehudais bRav’sopinion, as bRav Giddel saidthat bRav said:In the case of bthe New Moon that occurs on Shabbat, the one who recites the portion from the Prophets [ ihaftara /i] on Shabbat need not mention the New Moonin the blessing, bas, ifit bwere not Shabbat, there would be noreading from bthe Prophets on the New Moon.The ihaftarais unrelated to the New Moon, and therefore the New Moon is not mentioned in the blessing. The same should be true with regard to mention of Hanukkah in the additional service on the New Moon, as, if it were not the New Moon, he would not be reciting the additional service on Hanukkah. Therefore, when he recites the additional prayer, he need not mention Hanukkah.,The Gemara rejects this comparison. bIsthis bcomparable? There,reading from the bProphetsis bnot at all part ofthe service bon the New Moon. Here, there ismention of Hanukkah binthe bevening, morning, and afternoon prayers. Rather,it is bcomparable to this:As bRav Aḥadvoi saidthat bRav Mattana saidthat bRav said:On ba Festival that occurs on Shabbat, one who recites the portion from the Prophets during the afternoon service on Shabbat need not mention the Festival, as, ifit were bnot Shabbat, there would be noreading from the bProphets during the afternoon service on a Festival.If so, even though there is a ihaftaraduring the morning service on a Festival, since they do not read from the Prophets in the afternoon, the reading is considered totally unrelated to the Festival and one does not mention the Festival. The same is true with regard to Hanukkah. One does not mention Hanukkah in the additional prayer.
90. Cyprian, Letters, 38.2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

91. Cyprian, Letters, 38.2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

92. Cyprian, Letters, 38.2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

93. Cyprian, Letters, 38.2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

94. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 8.7.12-8.7.13 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

95. Anon., Exodus Rabbah, 40.1 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

40.1. וַיְדַבֵּר ה' רְאֵה קָרָאתִי בְּשֵׁם בְּצַלְאֵל, כָּךְ פָּתַח רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בַּר אַבָּא, (איוב כח, כז): אָז רָאָהּ וַיְסַפְּרָהּ הֱכִינָהּ וְגַם חֲקָרָהּ. צָפָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְרָאָה שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל מְקַבְּלִין אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁאִלּוּלֵי כֵן לֹא בָּרָא הָעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: אָז רָאָהּ וַיְסַפְּרָהּ, וּמַה כְּתִיב אַחֲרָיו (איוב כח, כח): וַיֹּאמֶר לָאָדָם הֵן יִרְאַת ה' הִיא חָכְמָה, וְאֵין אָדָם אֶלָּא יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יחזקאל לד, לא): וְאַתֵּן צֹאנִי צֹאן מַרְעִיתִי אָדָם אַתֶּם. אָז רָאָהּ וַיְסַפְּרָהּ, בְּסִינָי. הֱכִינָהּ, בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד. וְגַם חֲקָרָהּ, בְּעַרְבוֹת מוֹאָב בְּאֵלֶּה הַדְּבָרִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָז רָאָהּ וַיְסַפְּרָהּ, אָמְרוּ רַבָּנָן צָרִיךְ אָדָם לִהְיוֹת נוֹטֵל מָשָׁל לוֹמַר פִּרְקוֹ אוֹ אַגָּדָתוֹ אוֹ מִדְרָשׁוֹ, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא מְבַקֵּשׁ לְאָמְרָם בַּצִּבּוּר לֹא יֹאמַר הוֹאִיל שֶׁאֲנִי יוֹדֵעַ בְּיָפֶה כְּשֶׁאֶכָּנֵס לִדְרשׁ אֲנִי אוֹמֵר, אָמַר רַב אַחָא מִן הָאֱלֹהִים אַתָּה לָמֵד, כְּשֶׁבִּקֵּשׁ לוֹמַר תּוֹרָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אֲמָרָהּ אַרְבַּע פְּעָמִים בֵּינוֹ לְבֵין עַצְמוֹ עַד שֶׁלֹא אֲמָרָהּ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: אָז רָאָהּ וַיְסַפְּרָהּ הֱכִינָהּ וְגַם חֲקָרָהּ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ וַיֹּאמֶר לָאָדָם, וְכֵן (שמות כ, א): וַיְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים אֵת כָּל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ לֵאמֹר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל. אָמְרוּ רַבָּנָן רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן תּוֹרְתָא פַּעַם אַחַת בָּא לִפְנֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אָמַר לוֹ עֲמֹד וּקְרָא בַּתּוֹרָה, אָמַר לָהֶם לֹא עָבַרְתִּי עַל הַפָּרָשָׁה, וְשִׁבְּחוּהוּ חֲכָמִים, הֱוֵי: אָז רָאָהּ וַיְסַפְּרָהּ. אָמַר רַבִּי הוֹשְׁעְיָא כָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא יוֹדֵעַ וְאֵין בְּיָדוֹ יִרְאַת חֵטְא אֵין בְּיָדוֹ כְּלוּם. כָּל נַגָּר שֶׁאֵין בְּיָדוֹ אֶרְגַּלְיָא שֶׁלּוֹ אֵינוֹ נַגָּר, לָמָּה שֶׁקַּפֻּלִּיּוֹת שֶׁל תּוֹרָה בְּיִרְאַת חֵטְא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה לג, ו): יִרְאַת ה' הִיא אוֹצָרוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן, כָּל מִי שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ תּוֹרָה וְאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה, מוּטָב לוֹ שֶׁלֹא יָצָא לָעוֹלָם, אֶלָּא נֶהֶפְכָה הַשִּׁלְיָא עַל פָּנָיו. לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר: וַיֹּאמֶר לָאָדָם הֵן יִרְאַת ה' וגו'. אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא, מַהוּ הֵן יִרְאַת ה' וגו', אָמַר הָאֱלֹהִים אִם הָיוּ לְךָ מַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים אֲנִי נוֹתֵן לְךָ שָׂכָר, וּמַה שָׂכָר, תּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיֹּאמֶר לָאָדָם הֵן יִרְאַת ה' הִיא חָכְמָה וְסוּר מֵרַע בִּינָה, וְאִם סַרְתָּ מִן הָרָע, אֲנִי מַעֲמִיד מִמְּךָ בְּנֵי אָדָם שֶׁמְּבִינִים בַּתּוֹרָה, מֵהֵיכָן אַתָּה לָמֵד מִיּוֹכֶבֶד וּמִרְיָם בְּעֵת שֶׁיָּרְאוּ מֵהָאֱלֹהִים, כְּדִכְתִיב (שמות א, יז): וַתִּירֶאןָ הַמְיַלְדוֹת אֶת הָאֱלֹהִים. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא שְׂכַר הַיִּרְאָה תּוֹרָה, שֶׁמִּיּוֹכֶבֶד הֶעֱמִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת משֶׁה וְזָכָה שֶׁתִּכָּתֵב הַתּוֹרָה עַל שְׁמוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלאכי ג, כב): זִכְרוּ תּוֹרַת משֶׁה עַבְדִּי, וּכְתִיב (דברים לג, ד): תּוֹרָה צִוָּה לָנוּ משֶׁה, מִרְיָם עַל יְדֵי שֶׁסָּרָה מִן הָרַע וּמִן הַחֵטְא הֶעֱמִיד מִמֶּנָּהּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּצַלְאֵל וְזָכָה לְחָכְמָה וּלְבִינָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: רְאֵה קָרָאתִי בְשֵׁם בְּצַלְאֵל, וּכְתִיב (שמות לא, ג): וָאֲמַלֵּא אֹתוֹ רוּחַ אֱלֹהִים בְּחָכְמָה וּבִתְבוּנָה וּבְדַעַת.
96. Anon., Numbers Rabba, 11.2 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

11.2. דּוֹמֶה דוֹדִי לִצְבִי אוֹ לְעֹפֶר הָאַיָּלִים וגו' (שיר השירים ב, ט), אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמְרוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים אִן אַתְּ אֲתָא לְגַבָּן תְּחִלָּה, דּוֹמֶה דוֹדִי לִצְבִי, מַה הַצְּבִי הַזֶּה מְדַלֵּג כָּךְ הָיָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְדַלֵּג וּמְקַפֵּץ מִמִּצְרַיִם לַיָּם, וּמִן יָם לְסִינָי. בְּמִצְרַיִם (שמות יב, יב): וְעָבַרְתִּי בְאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם וגו'. בַּיָּם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות טו, ב): זֶה אֵלִי וְאַנְוֵהוּ. לְסִינַי (דברים לג, ב): וַיֹּאמַר ה' מִסִּינַי בָּא. אוֹ לְעֹפֶר הָאַיָּלִים, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן רַבִּי חֲנִינָא אָמַר לְאוּרְזִילָא דְאַיַּלְתָּא. (שיר השירים ב, ט): הִנֵּה זֶה עוֹמֵד אַחַר כָּתְלֵנוּ, זֶה מִדְבַּר סִינָי. (שיר השירים ב, ט): מַשְׁגִּיחַ מִן הַחֲלֹּנוֹת (שמות יט, כ): וַיֵּרֶד ה' עַל הַר סִינַי וגו'. (שיר השירים ב, ט): מֵצִיץ מִן הַחֲרַכִּים. (שמות כ, א): וַיְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים אֵת כָּל הַדְּבָרִים וגו'. (שיר השירים ב, י): עָנָה דוֹדִי וְאָמַר לִי (שמות כ, ב): אָנֹכִי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, דּוֹמֶה דוֹדִי לִצְבִי, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמְרוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים אַתְּ אֲמַרְתְּ לָנוּ אַתְּ אֲתָא לְגַבָּן תְּחִלָּה, דּוֹמֶה דוֹדִי לִצְבִי, מַה הַצְּבִי הַזֶּה נִגְלֶה וְחוֹזֵר וְנִכְסֶה, כָּךְ גּוֹאֵל הָרִאשׁוֹן נִגְלָה וְנִכְסָה. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר כַּגּוֹאֵל הָרִאשׁוֹן כָּךְ גּוֹאֵל הָאַחֲרוֹן, הַגּוֹאֵל הָרִאשׁוֹן זֶה משֶׁה נִגְלָה לָהֶם וְחָזַר וְנִכְסָה מֵהֶם, כַּמָּה נִכְסָה מֵהֶם, רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא אָמַר שְׁלשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שמות ה, כ): וַיִּפְגְּעוּ אֶת משֶׁה וְאֶת אַהֲרֹן וגו', אַף גּוֹאֵל הָאַחֲרוֹן נִגְלֶה לָהֶם וְחוֹזֵר וְנִכְסֶה מֵהֶם. כַּמָּה יְהֵא נִכְסֶה מֵהֶם, אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חָמָא בְּרַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא אַרְבָּעִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה יָמִים, הָדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דניאל יב, יא): וּמֵעֵת הוּסַר הַתָּמִיד וְלָתֵת שִׁקּוּץ שֹׁמֵם יָמִים אֶלֶף מָאתַים וְתִשְׁעִים, וּכְתִיב (דניאל יב, יב): אַשְׁרֵי הַמְחַכֶּה וְיַגִּיעַ לְיָמִים אֶלֶף שְׁלשׁ מֵאוֹת שְׁלשִׁים וַחֲמִשָּׁה, אִלֵּין מוֹתְרַיָּה כַּמָּה אִינּוּן, אַרְבָּעִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה יוֹם שֶׁהוּא נִכְסֶה מֵהֶן, וְחוֹזֵר וְנִגְלֶה לָהֶם. וּלְהֵיכָן מַעֲלֶה אוֹתָן, אִית דְּאָמְרִין לְמִדְבַּר יְהוּדָה וְאִית דְּאָמְרִין לְמִדְבַּר סִיחוֹן וְעוֹג, כָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא מַאֲמִינוֹ וְהוֹלֵךְ אַחֲרָיו, הוּא אוֹכֵל שָׁרְשֵׁי רְתָמִים וַעֲלֵי מְלוּחִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (איוב ל, ד): הַקֹּטְפִים מַלּוּחַ עֲלֵי שִׂיחַ וְשֹׁרֶשׁ רְתָמִים לַחְמָם. וְכָל מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ הוֹלֵךְ אַחֲרָיו הוּא הוֹלֵךְ וּמַשְׁלִים לְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, וּבַסּוֹף אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם הוֹרְגִין אוֹתוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק בַּר מַרְיוֹן לְסוֹף אַרְבָּעִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה יָמִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מוֹרִיד לָהֶם מָן, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (הושע יב, י): עֹד אוֹשִׁיבְךָ בָאֳהָלִים כִּימֵי מוֹעֵד. וְאוֹמֵר (דברים טז, ו): מוֹעֵד צֵאתְךָ מִמִּצְרָיִם, אוֹ לְעֹפֶר הָאַיָּלִים, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא לְאוּרְזִילָא דְאַיַּלְתָּא. הִנֵּה זֶה עוֹמֵד אַחַר כָּתְלֵנוּ, זֶה כֹּתֶל מַעֲרָבִי שֶׁל בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ שֶׁאֵינוֹ חָרֵב לְעוֹלָם, לָמָּה, שֶׁהַשְּׁכִינָה בַּמַּעֲרָב. מַשְׁגִּיחַ מִן הַחֲלֹּנוֹת בִּזְכוּת אָבוֹת. מֵצִיץ מִן הַחֲרַכִּים בִּזְכוּת אִמָּהוֹת. כְּשֵׁם שֶׁיֵּשׁ הֶפְרֵשׁ בֵּין חַלּוֹן לְחָרָךְ כָּךְ יֵשׁ הֶפְרֵשׁ בֵּין זְכוּת אָבוֹת לִזְכוּת אִמָּהוֹת. עָנָה דוֹדִי וְאָמַר לִי, מָה אָמַר (ישעיה מט, יח): חַי אָנִי נְאֻם ה' כִּי כֻלָּם כַּעֲדִי תִלְבָּשִׁי וּתְקַשְּׁרִים כַּכַּלָּה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, דּוֹמֶה דוֹדִי לִצְבִי, מַה הַצְּבִי הַזֶּה מְקַפֵּץ מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם וּמִגָּדֵר לְגָדֵר וּמֵאִילָן לְאִילָן וּמִסֻּכָּה לְסֻכָּה, כָּךְ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְדַלֵּג וּמְקַפֵּץ מִכְּנֶסֶת זוֹ לִכְנֶסֶת זוֹ, כָּל כָּךְ לָמָּה בִּשְׁבִיל לְבָרֵךְ אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כ, כד): בְּכָל הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אַזְכִּיר אֶת שְׁמִי וגו', בְּאֵי זוֹ זְכוּת בִּזְכוּת שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ, דִּכְתִיב: כֹּה תְבָרְכוּ, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (בראשית טו, ה): כֹּה יִהְיֶה זַרְעֶךָ. אוֹ לְעֹפֶר הָאַיָּלִים, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר לְאוּרְזִילָא דְאַיַּלְתָּא, הִנֵּה זֶה עוֹמֵד אַחַר כָּתְלֵנוּ, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְבַקֵּר אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ בְּיוֹם שְׁלִישִׁי לַמִּילָה, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (בראשית יח, א): וַיֵּרָא אֵלָיו ה' בְּאֵלֹנֵי מַמְרֵא וְהוּא ישֵׁב וגו', יָשַׁב כְּתִיב, בָּא לַעֲמֹד אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֵׁב אַבְרָהָם, אַתָּה סִימָן לְבָנֶיךָ שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּנֶיךָ נִכְנָסִין לְבָתֵּי כְנֵסִיּוֹת וּלְבָתֵּי מִדְרָשׁוֹת וְקוֹרְאִין אֶת שְׁמַע וְיוֹשְׁבִים וּכְבוֹדִי עוֹמֵד, וּמַה טַּעַם (תהלים פב, א): אֱלֹהִים נִצָּב בַּעֲדַת אֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי חַגַּאי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִצְחָק אֱלֹהִים עוֹמֵד אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא אֱלֹהִים נִצָּב, אֶטָיְמוֹס, הָא כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (ישעיה סה, כד): וְהָיָה טֶרֶם יִקְרָאוּ וַאֲנִי אֶעֱנֶה, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר: הִנֵּה זֶה עוֹמֵד אַחַר כָּתְלֵנוּ, אֵלּוּ בָּתֵּי כְנֵסִיּוֹת וּבָתֵּי מִדְרָשׁוֹת. מַשְׁגִּיחַ מִן הַחֲלֹּנוֹת, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו: כֹּה תְבָרְכוּ וגו', אָמְרוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים, לַכֹּהֲנִים אַתְּ אוֹמֵר שֶׁיְבָרְכוּ אוֹתָנוּ, אֵין אָנוּ צְרִיכִים אֶלָּא לְבִרְכוֹתֶיךָ, וְלִהְיוֹתֵינוּ מִתְבָּרְכִים מִפִּיךָ, הֲדָא הוּא דִּכְתִיב (דברים כו, טו): הַשְּׁקִיפָה מִמְּעוֹן קָדְשְׁךָ מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבָרֵךְ אֶת עַמְּךָ אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל. אָמַר לָהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמַרְתִּי לַכֹּהֲנִים שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מְבָרְכִין אֶתְכֶם, עִמָּהֶם אֲנִי עוֹמֵד וּמְבָרֵךְ אֶתְכֶם. לְפִיכָךְ הַכֹּהֲנִים פּוֹרְשִׂים אֶת כַּפֵּיהֶם, לוֹמַר שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹמֵד אַחֲרֵינוּ, וּלְכָךְ הוּא אוֹמֵר: מַשְׁגִּיחַ מִן הַחֲלֹּנוֹת, מִבֵּין כִּתְפוֹתֵיהֶם שֶׁל כֹּהֲנִים. מֵצִיץ מִן הַחֲרַכִּים, מִבֵּין אֶצְבְּעוֹתֵיהֶם שֶׁל כֹּהֲנִים. עָנָה דוֹדִי וְאָמַר לִי (במדבר ו, כז): וַאֲנִי אֲבָרֲכֵם. כֹּה תְבָרְכוּ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית יב, ב): וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָדוֹל וגו'. אָמַר רַבִּי פִּינְחָס בֶּן יָאִיר שֶׁבַע בְּרָכוֹת בֵּרַךְ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אַבְרָהָם, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן: וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל (בראשית יב, ב): וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ (בראשית יב, ב): וַאֲגַדְלָה שְׁמֶךָ (בראשית יב, ב): וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה (בראשית יב, ג): וַאֲבָרְכָה מְבָרְכֶיךָ (בראשית יב, ג): וּמְקַלֶּלְךָ אָאֹר (בראשית יב, ג): וְנִבְרְכוּ בְךָ. כְּנֶגֶד שִׁבְעָה פְּסוּקִים שֶׁבְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית שֶׁכָּתוּב בָּהֶן כִּי טוֹב. רַבִּי לֵוִי בַּר חַיָּתָא וְרַבִּי אַבָּא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא אָמַר שָׁלשׁ גְּדֻלּוֹת וְאַרְבַּע בְּרָכוֹת כְּתִיב כָּאן. בִּשֵֹּׂר שֶׁהֵן שְׁלשָׁה אָבוֹת וְאַרְבַּע אִמָּהוֹת. וַהֲלוֹא גְּדֻלּוֹת אֵינָן אֶלָּא שְׁתַּיִם, וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ, גְּדֻלָּה הִיא, דִּכְתִיב (שמואל א יב, ו): ה' אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה אֶת משֶׁה. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ: וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָדוֹל, זֶה שֶׁאוֹמְרִים אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם. וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ, זֶה שֶׁאוֹמְרִים אֱלֹהֵי יִצְחָק. וַאֲגַדְּלָה שְׁמֶךָ, זֶה שֶׁאוֹמְרִים אֱלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב. יָכוֹל יִהְיוּ חוֹתְמִין בְכֻלָּן, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, בְּךָ חוֹתְמִין וְאוֹמְרִים מָגֵן אַבְרָהָם, וְאֵין חוֹתְמִין בְּכֻלָּן. אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר זְעֵירָא וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, בִּרְכָתְךָ קוֹדֶמֶת לְבִרְכָתִי, שֶׁמִּשֶּׁהֵם אוֹמְרִים מָגֵן אַבְרָהָם, אַחַר כָּךְ אוֹמְרִים מְחַיֵּה הַמֵּתִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, וֶהְיֵה בְּרֵכָה, מָה הַבְּרֵכָה הַזּוֹ מְטַהֶרֶת אֶת הַטְּמֵאִים, אַף אַתָּה מְקָרֵב רְחוֹקִים תַּחַת כַּנְפֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה. וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָדוֹל, אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה, אֶתֶּנְךָ, אֲשִׂימְךָ, אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ, מִשֶּׁאֶבְרָא אוֹתְךָ בְּרִיָּה חֲדָשָׁה, וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א, ז): וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָרָקִיעַ, אַתְּ פָּרֶה וְרָבֶה. לְגוֹי גָדוֹל, אָמַר אַבְרָהָם לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, מִנֹּחַ לֹא הֶעֱמַדְתָּ שִׁבְעִים אֻמּוֹת, אָמַר לוֹ אוֹתָהּ אֻמָּה שֶׁכָּתוּב בָּהּ (דברים ד, ז): כִּי מִי גוֹי גָדוֹל, אֲנִי מַעֲמִידָהּ מִמְּךָ. אָמַר רַבִּי פִּנְחָס הַכֹּהֵן בַּר חָמָא אֵימָתַי עָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אַבְרָהָם לְגוֹי גָדוֹל, כְּשֶׁיָּצְאוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּצְרַיִם וּבָאוּ לְסִינַי וְקִבְּלוּ אֶת הַתּוֹרָה וְהִגִּיעוּ לְאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, הִבִּיט בָּהֶם משֶׁה וְאָמַר הֲרֵי הֵן עֲשׂוּיִים כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהִבְטִיחַ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַזָּקֵן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ד, ח): וּמִי גוֹי גָדוֹל. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לְגוֹי גָדוֹל, שֶׁאֶתֵּן לְבָנֶיךָ אֶת הַתּוֹרָה וּמִמֶּנָּהּ יִקָּרְאוּ גוֹי גָדוֹל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ד, ו): רַק עַם חָכָם וְנָבוֹן הַגּוֹי הַגָּדוֹל הַזֶּה. וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ, אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה לְפִי שֶׁהַדֶּרֶךְ גּוֹרֶמֶת לָאָדָם לִשְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים, מְמַעֶטֶת פְּרִיָּה וּרְבִיָּה, מְמַעֶטֶת אֶת הַיְצִיאָה, וּמְמַעֶטֶת אֶת הַשֵּׁם, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר לוֹ: וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָדוֹל, שֶׁאֵין הַדֶּרֶךְ מְמַעֶטֶת לְךָ פְּרִיָּה וּרְבִיָּה. וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ, שֶׁלֹא תְמַעֵט לְךָ הַדֶּרֶךְ אֶת הַיְצִיאָה. וַאֲגַדְּלָה שְׁמֶךָ, שֶׁלֹא תְמַעֵט לְךָ אֶת הַשֵּׁם. אָמְרֵי אִינְשֵׁי בְּמַתְלָא מִבֵּיתָא לְבֵיתָא חָלוּק, מֵאֲתַר לַאֲתַר נְפָשׁ. בְּרַם אַתְּ לָא נֶפֶשׁ חָסֵר וְלָא מָמוֹן אַתְּ חָסֵר. וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, כְּבָר כְּתִיב: וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ, מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מִשֶּׁבָּרָאתִי עוֹלָמִי וְעַד עַכְשָׁו הָיִיתִי זָקוּק לְבָרֵךְ אֶת בְּרִיּוֹתַי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א, כח): וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וגו', וְאוֹמֵר (בראשית ט, א): וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶת נֹחַ וְאֶת בָּנָיו, אֲבָל מִכָּאן וָאֵילָךְ הֲרֵי בְּרָכוֹת מְסוּרוֹת לָךְ, לְמַאן דְּהָנֵי לְךָ לִמְבָרְכָה בָּרֵךְ. וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא בֵּרַךְ אַבְרָהָם לְבָנָיו, לָמָּה כֵן, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ פַּרְדֵּס נְתָנוֹ לְאָרִיס, וְהָיָה בְּתוֹךְ אוֹתוֹ פַּרְדֵּס אִילָן אֶחָד שֶׁל סַם חַיִּים וְאִילָן אֶחָד שֶׁל סַם הַמָּוֶת, אָמַר הֶאָרִיס אֲנִי אֶעֱבֹד וְאַשְׁלִים וּמַה שֶּׁהַמֶּלֶךְ רוֹצֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ בְּפַרְדֵּסוֹ יַעֲשֶׂה. כָּךְ הַמֶּלֶךְ זֶה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, וְהַפַּרְדֵּס זֶה הָעוֹלָם, מְסָרוֹ לְאַבְרָהָם, שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ: וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, מֶה עָשָׂה אַבְרָהָם הָיוּ לוֹ שְׁנֵי בָנִים אֶחָד צַדִּיק וְאֶחָד רָשָׁע, יִצְחָק וְיִשְׁמָעֵאל, אָמַר אַבְרָהָם אִם מְבָרֵךְ אֲנִי אֶת יִצְחָק הֲרֵי יִשְׁמָעֵאל מְבַקֵּשׁ לְהִתְבָּרֵךְ וְהוּא רָשָׁע, אֶלָּא עֶבֶד אָנִי, בָּשָׂר וָדָם אָנִי, לְמָחָר אֶפָּטֵר מִן הָעוֹלָם וּמַה שֶּׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא חָפֵץ לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּעוֹלָמוֹ, יַעֲשֶׂה. כְּשֶׁנִּפְטַר אַבְרָהָם נִגְלָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל יִצְחָק וּבֵרֲכוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית כה, א): וַיְהִי אַחֲרֵי מוֹת אַבְרָהָם וגו', וְיִצְחָק בֵּרַךְ אֶת יַעֲקֹב, וְיַעֲקֹב בֵּרַךְ לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שְׁבָטִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית מט, כח): כָּל אֵלֶּה שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר וְזֹאת אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר לָהֶם אֲבִיהֶם וַיְבָרֶךְ אוֹתָם. מִכָּאן וָאֵילָךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי הַבְּרָכוֹת מְסוּרוֹת לָכֶם, הַכֹּהֲנִים יִהְיוּ מְבָרְכִים אֶת בָּנַי, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאָמַרְתִּי לְאַבְרָהָם אֲבִיהֶם וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר: כֹּה תְבָרְכוּ וגו'.
97. Jerome, Commentary On Ezekiel, 34.3 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

98. Anon., 4 Ezra, 7.89, 9.32

7.89. During the time that they lived in it, they laboriously served the Most High, and withstood danger every hour, that they might keep the law of the Lawgiver perfectly. 9.32. But though our fathers received the law, they did not keep it, and did not observe the statutes; yet the fruit of the law did not perish -- for it could not, because it was thine.
99. Anon., Pesiqta De Rav Kahana, 12.3, 12.25

100. Anon., Midrash Mishle, 31

101. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 306-308, 305

305. after saluting the king went back to their own place. And as is the custom of all the Jews, they washed their hands in the sea and prayed to God and then devoted themselves to reading and
102. Epigraphy, Cij, 766



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 248
aaronic blessing Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 189
abraham, sons of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 99
abraham, two wives of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 99
abraham Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 99
achziv Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 418
acmonia, julia severa inscription Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 118, 137
acolytes Cain, Jerome and the Monastic Clergy: A Commentary on Letter 52 to Nepotian (2013) 142
acts, archisynagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 118, 418
acts, synagogues, synagogues, asia minor Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 117, 118, 137, 149, 153, 418
acts, synagogues, synagogues, greece Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 117, 118, 418
acts, synagogues, synagogues, sermons Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 50, 157, 581, 582, 630
acts, synagogues, synagogues, torah and prophetic readings Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 50, 118, 153, 582
acts of the apostles, greco-roman portrayal Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 602
acts of the apostles, judaism portrayal Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 602
acts of the apostles, teachers in Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 159
acts of the apostles, trifocal perspective Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 602
acts of the apostles Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 602, 610, 611, 612, 616
age/era, eschatological Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 696
aggadah Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 581
akhziv Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 18
alexander severus Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 27
alexandrian jewry Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 118
allegory/allegorical, of hagar/sarah Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 99
amasa, joabs slaying of Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 328
anaphora Cain, Jerome and the Monastic Clergy: A Commentary on Letter 52 to Nepotian (2013) 142
angels, mediators of revelation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 712
angels Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 62
antioch, pisidian, archaeological excavation Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 610
antioch, pisidian, architecture Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 610
antioch, pisidian, history Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 610
antioch, pisidian Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 610, 611, 612
antioch-of-pisidia, archisynagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 117, 137
antioch-of-pisidia, synagogue, synagogue, and paul Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 117, 153, 157, 418, 581
antioch-of-pisidia, synagogue, synagogue, liturgy Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 118
antioch Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 27
antioch of pisidia Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 16; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112, 113, 116
apamea, syria Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 27
aphrodisias, inscriptions Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 118
apostasy Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 260
apostle Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 59
apostles, writings of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 153
apostles (apostoli), of patriarch Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 50
archisynagogue, priests Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
archisynagogue, synagogue/proseuche Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 149
archisynagōgoi, pagan associations Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 610
archisynagōgos Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 610, 611
archon Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 16; Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137, 418
archon of the synagogue Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 16
arrangement and reasoning of rhetoric Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 44
art, priests Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 62
art, qumran Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 62
asia minor, acts Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 117, 118
asia minor, archisynagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 117
asia minor, inscriptions Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 117, 118
asia minor, synagogues Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 117, 118
associations Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 50
astray, to lead/go/wander Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 712
asyndeton Cain, Jerome and the Monastic Clergy: A Commentary on Letter 52 to Nepotian (2013) 142
athens, ancient views of Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 612
athens, epicurus, epicureans Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 612
athens, jewish presence Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 612
athens, lukes description Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 612
athens Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 322; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
authority, of the teacher of righteousness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 712
authority Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
bagnall, r. Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 610
bahr g.j. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 179
banquets Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 50
baptism Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 187
barnabas Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 16, 18
barren woman Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 99
baucis and philemon Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 616
ben sira Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 178
benedictions and graces Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 187
beroea Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
bet hillel Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 113
black, clifton Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 269
blessings, study Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 117
books, heavenly Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 712
books, holy Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 712
bread Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 197
caesarea Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
calendar Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 197
capua Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 16
causes of corruption, theological concerns Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 193, 197
celebration Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 197
christ assembly (see also synagogue) Keith, The Gospel as Manuscript: An Early History of the Jesus Tradition as Material Artifact (2020) 213
christian clerics Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 248
christian homilies Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 260
christianity, summary of classical rhetoric and Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 269
church fathers, rabbis and synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 418
church fathers Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 269
clarke, w.k.l., septuagint use in acts Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 328
claudius, emperor Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 602
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 749
clothes, ripping Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 616
congregational participation Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 189
contextualisation Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 322
corinth Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 16; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
covenant, covenantal Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 59
covenant, renewed Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 62
crispus Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 16
damascus Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
david, the king, davidic kingdom Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 59
david (biblical) Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 44
dead sea scrolls Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 62
decorations (in synagogue) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 50
demons Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 187
diaspora Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 602, 611
differentiation Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 322
donor, donation, individuals Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
dugmore c.w. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 189
egypt Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 248
eighth day Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 197
elders, dura europos Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
elders Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 50
elders and synagogue, and amidah, instruction Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 157
elisha Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 253
ephesians, addressees/recipients Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 322
ephesians, author/authorship Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 322
ephesus Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
epiphanius of salamis Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 28
eschatology, eschatological Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
essenes Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 278; Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 113
eucharist, eucharistic, community practice Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 50
eucharist, ritual meal Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 50
eucharist Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 197
exegesis, exegetical, interpretation of scripture, messianic/eschatological interpretation Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 59
exhortation Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 260
exodus Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 62
exorcism Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 187
exordium Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 11
ezekiel Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 62
faith Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
flesh Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 116
gallio, proconsul of achaia Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 602
gathering (σύναξις) Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 50
gazda, e.k. Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 610
gentiles Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 99; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113, 116
glory, divine Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 62
god-fearers Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 213
gospels Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 116, 119
greece Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
greek language Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 269
gymnasiarch, and sermon Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 153, 582
gymnasiarch, and torah reading Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 153, 418, 582
gymnasiarch, antioch-of-pisidia Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 153, 418
gymnasiarch, jesus in nazareth Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 153
gymnasiarch, rabbinic literature Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 153
gymnasiarch, sabbaths and holidays Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 582
haftarah Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 99; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 611
hagar Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 99
hallel psalms Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 826
healing Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 418
heinemann j. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 179
herod agrippa i Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 602
herod the great Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 602
holy spirit Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 116
hope Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 197
hymn Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 197
iconium Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
iconography of Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 278
identity, jewish Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 189
ideology Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 197
idolatry Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 50
implicit/explicit interpretation Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 99
inscriptions, theodotus Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 50
instruction, school, education Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 157
instruction/teaching, by enoch Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 696
interpretation, biblical Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 62
interpretation, rabbinic Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 62
intertextuality and intertext Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 99
italy Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
james, letter of Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 159
jeremias j. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 189
jerusalem, earthly Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 153
jerusalem Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112, 113
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 59
jesus, kingly/davidic messiahship/descent Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 59
jesus, rhetoric and Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 269
jesus, sermons about Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 44
jesus, sermons by Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 44
jesus, suffering Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 59
jesus of nazareth Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 278
jewish scriptures Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 322
jews, babylon Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 82
jews, diaspora Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 82
jews, distribution of communities Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 82
jews, symbols Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 82
jews, syria Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 82
jews Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112, 113, 116, 119
john (the baptist) Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 116
john mark, defection Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 611
john the baptist Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 253
josephus Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 278
judah Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 153
judaism Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 11
judas, death of Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 328
kennedy, george Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 269
knowledge Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 62
law, mosaic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 50, 153; Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 62
law/law Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112, 113
law/torah, mosaic Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 696
leadership, priests Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
leadership, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137, 157, 418
lectio continua Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 826
lectionary manuscripts, in jewish liturgies Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 826
lectionary manuscripts, readings, liturgical Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 826, 828
lectors Cain, Jerome and the Monastic Clergy: A Commentary on Letter 52 to Nepotian (2013) 142
letter of aristeas Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 157
levites Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 153
liturgical, services Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 153
liturgy, jewish Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 50
liturgy Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 62
liturgy and scripture, graeco-roman symposia, early liturgies resembling Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 828
liturgy and scripture, hebrew bible/old testament in early liturgies Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 828
liturgy and scripture, in new testament period Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 828
liturgy and scripture, psalms, liturgical use of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 826
liturgy and scripture, synagogues, readings in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 826, 828
liturgy and scripture Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 826, 828
lords day Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 197
lords prayer Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 179
love Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 59
luke, archisynagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137, 418
luke, archon of the synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 418
luke, jesus Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 50, 118, 149, 153, 157, 582
luke, prophetic reading Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 149, 153, 582
luke, sermon Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 157, 582
luke-acts, anointing of jesus Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 184
luke-acts, baptism of jesus Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 178, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 197, 198, 199
luke-acts, david Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193
luke-acts, mirroring Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 193
luke-acts, old testament in Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 178, 190, 191, 192, 193
luke-acts, paul Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 178, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193
luke-acts, psalms in Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 193
luke-acts, resurrection Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 190, 191, 192, 193
luke-acts, septuagintal style Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 328
luke Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 116
lukes hermeneutic, septuagintalisms Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 328
lycaon-zeus legend Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 616
lystra, anatolian village Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 616
macedonia Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 117
maon (nirim) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 582
mark, archisynagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 418
mark Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 269
matthew, jesus Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 418
meal, eucharistic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 50
meal, festive Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 50
meal, jewish Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 50
meals, jewish Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 28
message Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 116
message from god/gods Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
message of salvation Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112, 113
messiah, gods anointed, messiahship, messianic, davidic, kingly Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 59
messiah, gods anointed, suffering, death of the messiah Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 59
messianic community Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 59
methuselah Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 696
michigan, university of, antioch of pisidia Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 610
minhah Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 582
minor Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 610
misinterpretation; see also interpretation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 712
missiology Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 322
mission of paul Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 116
moses, art Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 62
moses, origin of torah reading Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 149
moses Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 153; Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 62; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 113
mouth Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 712
mystery, mysteries, mysterious Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 119
naaman Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 253
naaran basilical synagogue, basilical synagogue, priests Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
narratio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 11
naveh (hauran), priests Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
nazarenes Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
nazareth, jesus in synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 50, 149, 153, 157
nazareth Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 116
ng, d.y. Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 610
obedience, covenant Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 696, 712
obstinacy Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112
old testament, lukes use of Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 178, 190, 191, 192, 193
pagan, pagans, and synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 118
pagan, pagans, leadership Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
pagan/classical world, graeco-roman symposia, early christian liturgies resembling Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 828
pastoral epistles, the, differences among Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 159
pastoral epistles, the, teachers in Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 159
patriarch, patriarchate, appointments Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 50
paul, missionary activity Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 189
paul, pauline Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 59
paul, sermon at antioch by Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 44, 269
paul, testament of Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 159
paul Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 137
paul (apostle) Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 213
paul (the apostle) Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 112, 113, 116, 119
pentecost Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 197
perga Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 149
persecution Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 213
peter, simon Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 59
petihta Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 582
philemon and baucis Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 616
philippi, nasi Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 582