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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8240
New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 11.24
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

44 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 25.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.2. וְהָיָה אִם־בִּן הַכּוֹת הָרָשָׁע וְהִפִּילוֹ הַשֹּׁפֵט וְהִכָּהוּ לְפָנָיו כְּדֵי רִשְׁעָתוֹ בְּמִסְפָּר׃ 25.2. then it shall be, if the wicked man deserve to be beaten, that the judge shall cause him to lie down, and to be beaten before his face, according to the measure of his wickedness, by number."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 8.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.21. וַיָּרַח יְהוָה אֶת־רֵיחַ הַנִּיחֹחַ וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־לִבּוֹ לֹא־אֹסִף לְקַלֵּל עוֹד אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה בַּעֲבוּר הָאָדָם כִּי יֵצֶר לֵב הָאָדָם רַע מִנְּעֻרָיו וְלֹא־אֹסִף עוֹד לְהַכּוֹת אֶת־כָּל־חַי כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי׃ 8.21. And the LORD smelled the sweet savour; and the LORD said in His heart: ‘I will not again curse the ground any more for man’s sake; for the imagination of man’s heart is evil from his youth; neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done."
3. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 15.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.12. This proposal pleased them
5. Livy, History, 1.7.12 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 8.20-8.26 (1st cent. CE

8.20.  "But there is another battle more terrible and a struggle not slight but much greater than this and fraught with greater danger, I mean the fight against pleasure. Nor is it like that battle which Homer speaks of when he says, Fiercely then around the ships The struggle was renewed. With halberds and with trenchant battle-axe They fought, with mighty sword and two-edged spear. 8.21.  No, it is no such battle, for pleasure uses no open force but deceives and casts a spell with baneful drugs, just as Homer says Circe drugged the comrades of Odysseus, and some forthwith became swine, some wolves, and some other kinds of beasts. Yes, such is this thing pleasure, that hatches no single plot but all kinds of plots, and aims to undo men through sight, sound, smell, taste, and touch, with food too, and drink and carnal lust, tempting the waking and the sleeping alike. 8.22.  For it is not possible to set guards and then lie down to sleep as in ordinary warfare, since it is just then of all times that she makes her attack, at one time weakening and enslaving the soul by means of sleep itself, at another, sending mischievous and insidious dreams that suggest her. 8.23.  "Now work is carried on by means of touch for the most part and proceeds in that way, but pleasure assails a man through each and every sense that he has; and while he must face and grapple with work, to pleasure he must give the widest berth possible and have none but unavoidable dealings with her. 8.24.  And herein the strongest man is indeed strongest, one might almost say, who can keep the farthest away from pleasures; for it is impossible to dwell with pleasure or even to dally with her for any length of time without being completely enslaved. Hence when she gets the mastery and overpowers the soul by her charms, the rest of Circe's sorcery at once follows. With a stroke of her wand pleasure coolly drives her victim into a sort of sty and pens him up 8.25.  and now from that time forth the man goes on living as a pig or a wolf. Pleasure also brings divers and deadly vipers into being, and other crawling things that attend constantly upon her as they lie about her doors, and though yearning for pleasure and serving her, they yet suffer a thousand hardships all in vain. 8.26.  For pleasure, after overpowering and taking possession of her victims, delivers them over to hardships, the most hateful and most difficult to endure. "This is the contest which I steadfastly maintain, and in which I risk my life against pleasure and hardship, yet not a single wretched mortal gives heed to me, but only to the jumpers and runners and dancers.
7. Epictetus, Discourses, 3.22 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Ignatius, To The Ephesians, 1.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.2. for when ye heard that I was on my way from Syria, in bonds for the sake of the common Name and hope, and was hoping through your prayers to succeed in fighting with wild beasts in Rome, that by so succeeding I might have power to be a disciple, ye were eager to visit me: --
9. Ignatius, To The Romans, 4.2-4.3, 6.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.2. Rather entice the wild beasts, that they may become my sepulchre and may leave no part of my body behind, so that I may not, when I am fallen asleep, be burdensome to any one. Then shall I be truly a disciple of Jesus Christ, when the world shall not so much as see my body. Supplicate the Lord for me, that through these instruments I may be found a sacrifice to God. 4.3. I do not enjoin you, as Peter and Paul did. They were Apostles, I am a convict; they were free, but I am a slave to this very hour. Yet if I shall suffer, then am I a freed-man of Jesus Christ, and I shall rise free in Him. Now I am learning in my bonds to put away every desire. 6.3. Permit me to be an imitator of the passion of my God. If any man hath Him within himself, let him understand what I desire, and let him have fellow- feeling with me, for he knoweth the things which straiten me.
10. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 4.238, 14.235, 14.259-14.261, 20.197-20.203 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.238. But for him that acts contrary to this law, let him be beaten with forty stripes save one by the public executioner; let him undergo this punishment, which is a most ignominious one for a free-man, and this because he was such a slave to gain as to lay a blot upon his dignity; 14.235. 17. “Lucius Antonius, the son of Marcus, vice-quaestor, and vice-praetor, to the magistrates, senate, and people of the Sardians, sendeth greeting. Those Jews that are our fellowcitizens of Rome came to me, and demonstrated that they had an assembly of their own, according to the laws of their forefathers, and this from the beginning, as also a place of their own, wherein they determined their suits and controversies with one another. Upon their petition therefore to me, that these might be lawful for them, I gave order that these their privileges be preserved, and they be permitted to do accordingly.” 14.259. 24. The decree of the Sardians. “This decree was made by the senate and people, upon the representation of the praetors: Whereas those Jews who are fellowcitizens, and live with us in this city, have ever had great benefits heaped upon them by the people, and have come now into the senate 14.261. Now the senate and people have decreed to permit them to assemble together on the days formerly appointed, and to act according to their own laws; and that such a place be set apart for them by the praetors, for the building and inhabiting the same, as they shall esteem fit for that purpose; and that those that take care of the provision for the city, shall take care that such sorts of food as they esteem fit for their eating may be imported into the city.” 20.197. 1. And now Caesar, upon hearing the death of Festus, sent Albinus into Judea, as procurator. But the king deprived Joseph of the high priesthood, and bestowed the succession to that dignity on the son of Aus, who was also himself called Aus. 20.198. Now the report goes that this eldest Aus proved a most fortunate man; for he had five sons who had all performed the office of a high priest to God, and who had himself enjoyed that dignity a long time formerly, which had never happened to any other of our high priests. 20.199. But this younger Aus, who, as we have told you already, took the high priesthood, was a bold man in his temper, and very insolent; he was also of the sect of the Sadducees, who are very rigid in judging offenders, above all the rest of the Jews, as we have already observed; 20.201. but as for those who seemed the most equitable of the citizens, and such as were the most uneasy at the breach of the laws, they disliked what was done; they also sent to the king [Agrippa], desiring him to send to Aus that he should act so no more, for that what he had already done was not to be justified; 20.202. nay, some of them went also to meet Albinus, as he was upon his journey from Alexandria, and informed him that it was not lawful for Aus to assemble a sanhedrim without his consent. 20.203. Whereupon Albinus complied with what they said, and wrote in anger to Aus, and threatened that he would bring him to punishment for what he had done; on which king Agrippa took the high priesthood from him, when he had ruled but three months, and made Jesus, the son of Damneus, high priest.
11. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.284-2.296, 2.457-2.482, 2.484-2.498, 2.559-2.561 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.284. 4. Now at this time it happened that the Grecians at Caesarea had been too hard for the Jews, and had obtained of Nero the government of the city, and had brought the judicial determination: at the same time began the war, in the twelfth year of the reign of Nero, and the seventeenth of the reign of Agrippa, in the month of Artemisius [Jyar]. 2.285. Now the occasion of this war was by no means proportionable to those heavy calamities which it brought upon us. For the Jews that dwelt at Caesarea had a synagogue near the place, whose owner was a certain Cesarean Greek: the Jews had endeavored frequently to have purchased the possession of the place, and had offered many times its value for its price; 2.286. but as the owner overlooked their offers, so did he raise other buildings upon the place, in way of affront to them, and made workingshops of them, and left them but a narrow passage, and such as was very troublesome for them to go along to their synagogue. Whereupon the warmer part of the Jewish youth went hastily to the workmen, and forbade them to build there; 2.287. but as Florus would not permit them to use force, the great men of the Jews, with John the publican, being in the utmost distress what to do, persuaded Florus, with the offer of eight talents, to hinder the work. 2.288. He then, being intent upon nothing but getting money, promised he would do for them all they desired of him, and then went away from Caesarea to Sebaste, and left the sedition to take its full course, as if he had sold a license to the Jews to fight it out. 2.289. 5. Now on the next day, which was the seventh day of the week, when the Jews were crowding apace to their synagogue, a certain man of Caesarea, of a seditious temper, got an earthen vessel, and set it with the bottom upward, at the entrance of that synagogue, and sacrificed birds. This thing provoked the Jews to an incurable degree, because their laws were affronted, and the place was polluted. 2.291. Hereupon Jucundus, the master of the horse, who was ordered to prevent the fight, came thither, and took away the earthen vessel, and endeavored to put a stop to the sedition; but when he was overcome by the violence of the people of Caesarea, the Jews caught up their books of the law, and retired to Narbata, which was a place to them belonging, distant from Caesarea sixty furlongs. 2.292. But John, and twelve of the principal men with him, went to Florus, to Sebaste, and made a lamentable complaint of their case, and besought him to help them; and with all possible decency, put him in mind of the eight talents they had given him; but he had the men seized upon and put in prison, and accused them for carrying the books of the law out of Caesarea. 2.293. 6. Moreover, as to the citizens of Jerusalem, although they took this matter very ill, yet did they restrain their passion; but Florus acted herein as if he had been hired, and blew up the war into a flame, and sent some to take seventeen talents out of the sacred treasure, and pretended that Caesar wanted them. 2.294. At this the people were in confusion immediately, and ran together to the temple, with prodigious clamors, and called upon Caesar by name, and besought him to free them from the tyranny of Florus. 2.295. Some also of the seditious cried out upon Florus, and cast the greatest reproaches upon him, and carried a basket about, and begged some spills of money for him, as for one that was destitute of possessions, and in a miserable condition. Yet was not he made ashamed hereby of his love of money, but was more enraged, and provoked to get still more; 2.296. and instead of coming to Caesarea, as he ought to have done, and quenching the flame of war, which was beginning thence, and so taking away the occasion of any disturbances, on which account it was that he had received a reward [of eight talents], he marched hastily with an army of horsemen and footmen against Jerusalem, that he might gain his will by the arms of the Romans, and might, by his terror, and by his threatenings, bring the city into subjection. 2.457. 1. Now the people of Caesarea had slain the Jews that were among them on the very same day and hour [when the soldiers were slain], which one would think must have come to pass by the direction of Providence; insomuch that in one hour’s time above twenty thousand Jews were killed, and all Caesarea was emptied of its Jewish inhabitants; for Florus caught such as ran away, and sent them in bonds to the galleys. 2.458. Upon which stroke that the Jews received at Caesarea, the whole nation was greatly enraged; so they divided themselves into several parties, and laid waste the villages of the Syrians, and their neighboring cities, Philadelphia, and Sebonitis, and Gerasa, and Pella, and Scythopolis 2.459. and after them Gadara, and Hippos; and falling upon Gaulonitis, some cities they destroyed there, and some they set on fire, and then they went to Kedasa, belonging to the Tyrians, and to Ptolemais, and to Gaba, and to Caesarea; 2.461. 2. However, the Syrians were even with the Jews in the multitude of the men whom they slew; for they killed those whom they caught in their cities, and that not only out of the hatred they bare them, as formerly, but to prevent the danger under which they were from them; 2.462. o that the disorders in all Syria were terrible, and every city was divided into two armies, encamped one against another, and the preservation of the one party was in the destruction of the other; 2.463. o the daytime was spent in shedding of blood, and the night in fear,—which was of the two the more terrible; for when the Syrians thought they had ruined the Jews, they had the Judaizers in suspicion also; and as each side did not care to slay those whom they only suspected on the other, so did they greatly fear them when they were mingled with the other, as if they were certainly foreigners. 2.464. Moreover, greediness of gain was a provocation to kill the opposite party, even to such as had of old appeared very mild and gentle towards them; for they without fear plundered the effects of the slain, and carried off the spoils of those whom they slew to their own houses, as if they had been gained in a set battle; and he was esteemed a man of honor who got the greatest share, as having prevailed over the greatest number of his enemies. 2.465. It was then common to see cities filled with dead bodies, still lying unburied, and those of old men, mixed with infants, all dead, and scattered about together; women also lay amongst them, without any covering for their nakedness: you might then see the whole province full of inexpressible calamities, while the dread of still more barbarous practices which were threatened was everywhere greater than what had been already perpetrated. 2.466. 3. And thus far the conflict had been between Jews and foreigners; but when they made excursions to Scythopolis, they found Jews that acted as enemies; for as they stood in battle-array with those of Scythopolis, and preferred their own safety before their relation to us, they fought against their own countrymen; 2.467. nay, their alacrity was so very great, that those of Scythopolis suspected them. These were afraid, therefore, lest they should make an assault upon the city in the nighttime, and, to their great misfortune, should thereby make an apology for themselves to their own people for their revolt from them. So they commanded them, that in case they would confirm their agreement and demonstrate their fidelity to them, who were of a different nation, they should go out of the city, with their families, to a neighboring grove; 2.468. and when they had done as they were commanded, without suspecting anything, the people of Scythopolis lay still for the interval of two days, to tempt them to be secure; but on the third night they watched their opportunity, and cut all their throats, some of them as they lay unguarded, and some as they lay asleep. The number that was slain was above thirteen thousand, and then they plundered them of all that they had. 2.469. 4. It will deserve our relation what befell Simon; he was the son of one Saul, a man of reputation among the Jews. This man was distinguished from the rest by the strength of his body, and the boldness of his conduct, although he abused them both to the mischieving of his countrymen; 2.471. But a just punishment overtook him for the murders he had committed upon those of the same nation with him; for when the people of Scythopolis threw their darts at them in the grove, he drew his sword, but did not attack any of the enemy; for he saw that he could do nothing against such a multitude; but he cried out after a very moving manner and said,— 2.472. “O you people of Scythopolis, I deservedly suffer for what I have done with relation to you, when I gave you such security of my fidelity to you, by slaying so many of those that were related to me. Wherefore we very justly experience the perfidiousness of foreigners, while we acted after a most wicked manner against our own nation. I will therefore die, polluted wretch as I am, by mine own hands; for it is not fit I should die by the hand of our enemies; 2.473. and let the same action be to me both a punishment for my great crimes, and a testimony of my courage to my commendation, that so no one of our enemies may have it to brag of, that he it was that slew me, and no one may insult upon me as I fall.” 2.474. Now when he had said this, he looked round about him upon his family with eyes of commiseration, and of rage (that family consisted of a wife and children, and his aged parents); 2.475. o, in the first place, he caught his father by his gray hairs, and ran his sword through him, and after him he did the same to his mother, who willingly received it; and after them he did the like to his wife and children, every one almost offering themselves to his sword, as desirous to prevent being slain by their enemies; 2.476. o when he had gone over all his family, he stood upon their bodies to be seen by all, and stretching out his right hand, that his action might be observed by all, he sheathed his entire sword into his own bowels. This young man was to be pitied, on account of the strength of his body and the courage of his soul; but since he had assured foreigners of his fidelity [against his own countrymen], he suffered deservedly. 2.477. 5. Besides this murder at Scythopolis, the other cities rose up against the Jews that were among them; those of Askelon slew two thousand five hundred, and those of Ptolemais two thousand, and put not a few into bonds; 2.478. those of Tyre also put a great number to death, but kept a greater number in prison; moreover, those of Hippos, and those of Gadara, did the like while they put to death the boldest of the Jews, but kept those of whom they wereafraid in custody; as did the rest of the cities of Syria, according as they every one either hated them or were afraid of them; 2.479. only the Antiochians, the Sidonians, and Apamians spared those that dwelt with them, andthey would not endure either to kill any of the Jews, or to put them in bonds. And perhaps they spared them, because their own number was so great that they despised their attempts. But I think that the greatest part of this favor was owing to their commiseration of those whom they saw to make no innovations. 2.481. 6. There was also a plot laid against the Jews in Agrippa’s kingdom; for he was himself gone to Cestius Gallus, to Antioch, but had left one of his companions, whose name was Noarus, to take care of the public affairs; which Noarus was of kin to king Sohemus. 2.482. Now there came certain men seventy in number, out of Batanea, who were the most considerable for their families and prudence of the rest of the people; these desired to have an army put into their hands, that if any tumult should happen, they might have about them a guard sufficient to restrain such as might rise up against them. 2.484. But as to the seditious, they took the citadel which was called Cypros, and was above Jericho, and cut the throats of the garrison, and utterly demolished the fortifications. 2.485. This was about the same time that the multitude of the Jews that were at Macherus persuaded the Romans who were in garrison to leave the place, and deliver it up to them. 2.486. These Romans being in great fear, lest the place should be taken by force, made an agreement with them to depart upon certain conditions; and when they had obtained the security they desired, they delivered up the citadel, into which the people of Macherus put a garrison for their own security, and held it in their own power. 2.487. 7. But for Alexandria, the sedition of the people of the place against the Jews was perpetual, and this from that very time when Alexander [the Great], upon finding the readiness of the Jews in assisting him against the Egyptians, and as a reward for such their assistance, gave them equal privileges in this city with the Grecians themselves; 2.488. which honorary reward Continued among them under his successors, who also set apart for them a particular place, that they might live without being polluted [by the Gentiles], and were thereby not so much intermixed with foreigners as before; they also gave them this further privilege, that they should be called Macedonians. Nay, when the Romans got possession of Egypt, neither the first Caesar, nor anyone that came after him, thought of diminishing the honors which Alexander had bestowed on the Jews. 2.489. But still conflicts perpetually arose with the Grecians; and although the governors did every day punish many of them, yet did the sedition grow worse; 2.491. but when their adversaries saw them, they immediately cried out, and called them their enemies, and said they came as spies upon them; upon which they rushed out, and laid violent hands upon them; and as for the rest, they were slain as they ran away; but there were three men whom they caught, and hauled them along, in order to have them burnt alive; 2.492. but all the Jews came in a body to defend them, who at first threw stones at the Grecians, but after that they took lamps, and rushed with violence into the theater, and threatened that they would burn the people to a man; and this they had soon done, unless Tiberius Alexander, the governor of the city, had restrained their passions. 2.493. However, this man did not begin to teach them wisdom by arms, but sent among them privately some of the principal men, and thereby entreated them to be quiet, and not provoke the Roman army against them; but the seditious made a jest of the entreaties of Tiberius, and reproached him for so doing. 2.494. 8. Now when he perceived that those who were for innovations would not be pacified till some great calamity should overtake them, he sent out upon them those two Roman legions that were in the city, and together with them five thousand other soldiers, who, by chance, were come together out of Libya, to the ruin of the Jews. They were also permitted not only to kill them, but to plunder them of what they had, and to set fire to their houses. 2.495. These soldiers rushed violently into that part of the city which was called Delta, where the Jewish people lived together, and did as they were bidden, though not without bloodshed on their own side also; for the Jews got together, and set those that were the best armed among them in the forefront, and made a resistance for a great while; but when once they gave back, they were destroyed unmercifully; 2.496. and this their destruction was complete, some being caught in the open field, and others forced into their houses, which houses were first plundered of what was in them, and then set on fire by the Romans; wherein no mercy was shown to the infants, and no regard had to the aged; but they went on in the slaughter of persons of every age 2.497. till all the place was overflowed with blood, and fifty thousand of them lay dead upon heaps; nor had the remainder been preserved, had they not betaken themselves to supplication. So Alexander commiserated their condition, and gave orders to the Romans to retire; 2.498. accordingly, these being accustomed to obey orders, left off killing at the first intimation; but the populace of Alexandria bare so very great hatred to the Jews, that it was difficult to recall them, and it was a hard thing to make them leave their dead bodies. 2.559. 2. In the meantime, the people of Damascus, when they were informed of the destruction of the Romans, set about the slaughter of those Jews that were among them; 2.561. on which account it was that their greatest concern was, how they might conceal these things from them; so they came upon the Jews, and cut their throats, as being in a narrow place, in number ten thousand, and all of them unarmed, and this in one hour’s time, without any body to disturb them.
12. Josephus Flavius, Life, 10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Juvenal, Satires, 3.58-3.66, 3.109-3.125, 14.100, 14.103 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14. Mishnah, Makkot, 3.12 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.12. How do they lash him? His two hands are tied to a pillar on either side of it and the minister of the synagogue grabs his clothing, if they are torn, they are torn; if they are ripped open, they are ripped open, until he exposes the offender’s chest. And a stone is placed behind the offender, the minister of the synagogue stands on it, a strap of cowhide in his hands, doubled over into two, and redoubled, and two straps that rise and fall attached to it."
15. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 10.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.1. All Israel have a portion in the world to come, for it says, “Your people, all of them righteous, shall possess the land for ever; They are the shoot that I planted, my handiwork in which I glory” (Isaiah 60:2. And these are the ones who have no portion in the world to come: He who maintains that resurrection is not a biblical doctrine, that the torah was not divinely revealed, and an epikoros. Rabbi Akiva says: “Even one who reads non-canonical books and one who whispers [a charm] over a wound and says, “I will not bring upon you any of the diseases whichbrought upon the Egyptians: for I the lord am you healer” (Exodus 15:26). Abba Shaul says: “Also one who pronounces the divine name as it is spelled.”"
16. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.15-1.17, 4.3, 5.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.15. but just as he who called you is holy, you yourselves also be holy in all of your behavior; 1.16. because it is written, "You shall be holy; for I am holy. 1.17. If you call on him as Father, who without respect of persons judges according to each man's work, pass the time of your living as strangers here in reverent fear: 4.3. For we have spent enough of our past time living in doing the desire of the Gentiles, and to have walked in lewdness, lusts, drunken binges, orgies, carousings, and abominable idolatries. 5.9. Withstand him steadfast in your faith, knowing that your brothers who are in the world are undergoing the same sufferings.
17. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.22-1.24, 4.8, 4.10-4.13, 4.15, 7.1-7.40, 9.1, 9.19-9.23, 10.18, 10.25, 10.32, 11.2-11.16, 12.2, 12.13, 13.3, 15.9, 15.32, 16.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.22. For Jews ask for signs,Greeks seek after wisdom 1.23. but we preach Christ crucified; astumbling block to Jews, and foolishness to Greeks 1.24. but to thosewho are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ is the power of God andthe wisdom of God. 4.8. You are already filled. Youhave already become rich. You have come to reign without us. Yes, and Iwish that you did reign, that we also might reign with you. 4.10. We are fools for Christ's sake, but you are wisein Christ. We are weak, but you are strong. You have honor, but we havedishonor. 4.11. Even to this present hour we hunger, thirst, arenaked, are beaten, and have no certain dwelling place. 4.12. We toil,working with our own hands. Being reviled, we bless. Being persecuted,we endure. 4.13. Being defamed, we entreat. We are made as the filthof the world, the dirt wiped off by all, even until now. 4.15. For though you have ten thousand tutors in Christ, yetnot many fathers. For in Christ Jesus, I became your father through thegospel. 7.1. Now concerning the things about which you wrote to me: it isgood for a man not to touch a woman. 7.2. But, because of sexualimmoralities, let each man have his own wife, and let each woman haveher own husband. 7.3. Let the husband render to his wife the affectionowed her, and likewise also the wife to her husband. 7.4. The wifedoesn't have authority over her own body, but the husband. Likewisealso the husband doesn't have authority over his own body, but thewife. 7.5. Don't deprive one another, unless it is by consent for aseason, that you may give yourselves to fasting and prayer, and may betogether again, that Satan doesn't tempt you because of your lack ofself-control. 7.6. But this I say by way of concession, not of commandment. 7.7. Yet I wish that all men were like me. However each man has his own giftfrom God, one of this kind, and another of that kind. 7.8. But I sayto the unmarried and to widows, it is good for them if they remain evenas I am. 7.9. But if they don't have self-control, let them marry. Forit's better to marry than to burn. 7.10. But to the married I command-- not I, but the Lord -- that the wife not leave her husband 7.11. (but if she departs, let her remain unmarried, or else be reconciled toher husband), and that the husband not leave his wife. 7.12. But to the rest I -- not the Lord -- say, if any brother hasan unbelieving wife, and she is content to live with him, let him notleave her. 7.13. The woman who has an unbelieving husband, and he iscontent to live with her, let her not leave her husband. 7.14. For theunbelieving husband is sanctified in the wife, and the unbelieving wifeis sanctified in the husband. Otherwise your children would be unclean,but now are they holy. 7.15. Yet if the unbeliever departs, let therebe separation. The brother or the sister is not under bondage in suchcases, but God has called us in peace. 7.16. For how do you know,wife, whether you will save your husband? Or how do you know, husband,whether you will save your wife? 7.17. Only, as the Lord hasdistributed to each man, as God has called each, so let him walk. So Icommand in all the assemblies. 7.18. Was anyone called having been circumcised? Let him not becomeuncircumcised. Has anyone been called in uncircumcision? Let him not becircumcised. 7.19. Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision isnothing, but the keeping of the commandments of God. 7.20. Let eachman stay in that calling in which he was called. 7.21. Were you calledbeing a bondservant? Don't let that bother you, but if you get anopportunity to become free, use it. 7.22. For he who was called in theLord being a bondservant is the Lord's free man. Likewise he who wascalled being free is Christ's bondservant. 7.23. You were bought witha price. Don't become bondservants of men. 7.24. Brothers, let eachman, in whatever condition he was called, stay in that condition withGod. 7.25. Now concerning virgins, I have no commandment from the Lord,but I give my judgment as one who has obtained mercy from the Lord tobe trustworthy. 7.26. I think that it is good therefore, because ofthe distress that is on us, that it is good for a man to be as he is. 7.27. Are you bound to a wife? Don't seek to be freed. Are you freefrom a wife? Don't seek a wife. 7.28. But if you marry, you have notsinned. If a virgin marries, she has not sinned. Yet such will haveoppression in the flesh, and I want to spare you. 7.29. But I saythis, brothers: the time is short, that from now on, both those whohave wives may be as though they had none; 7.30. and those who weep,as though they didn't weep; and those who rejoice, as though theydidn't rejoice; and those who buy, as though they didn't possess; 7.31. and those who use the world, as not using it to the fullest. Forthe mode of this world passes away. 7.32. But I desire to have you tobe free from cares. He who is unmarried is concerned for the things ofthe Lord, how he may please the Lord; 7.33. but he who is married isconcerned about the things of the world, how he may please his wife. 7.34. There is also a difference between a wife and a virgin. Theunmarried woman cares about the things of the Lord, that she may beholy both in body and in spirit. But she who is married cares about thethings of the world -- how she may please her husband. 7.35. This Isay for your own profit; not that I may ensnare you, but for that whichis appropriate, and that you may attend to the Lord withoutdistraction. 7.36. But if any man thinks that he is behavinginappropriately toward his virgin, if she is past the flower of herage, and if need so requires, let him do what he desires. He doesn'tsin. Let them marry. 7.37. But he who stands steadfast in his heart,having no necessity, but has power over his own heart, to keep his ownvirgin, does well. 7.38. So then both he who gives his own virgin inmarriage does well, and he who doesn't give her in marriage doesbetter. 7.39. A wife is bound by law for as long as her husband lives;but if the husband is dead, she is free to be married to whoever shedesires, only in the Lord. 7.40. But she is happier if she stays asshe is, in my judgment, and I think that I also have God's Spirit. 9.1. Am I not free? Am I not an apostle? Haven't I seen JesusChrist, our Lord? Aren't you my work in the Lord? 9.19. For though I was free fromall, I brought myself under bondage to all, that I might gain the more. 9.20. To the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain Jews; to thosewho are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain those whoare under the law; 9.21. to those who are without law, as without law(not being without law toward God, but under law toward Christ), that Imight win those who are without law. 9.22. To the weak I became asweak, that I might gain the weak. I have become all things to all men,that I may by all means save some. 9.23. Now I do this for thegospel's sake, that I may be a joint partaker of it. 10.18. Consider Israel after theflesh. Don't those who eat the sacrifices have communion with the altar? 10.25. Whatever is sold in the butcher shop, eat, asking no questionfor the sake of conscience 10.32. Give no occasions for stumbling, either to Jews, or to Greeks,or to the assembly of God; 11.2. Now Ipraise you, brothers, that you remember me in all things, and hold firmthe traditions, even as I delivered them to you. 11.3. But I wouldhave you know that the head of every man is Christ, and the head of thewoman is the man, and the head of Christ is God. 11.4. Every manpraying or prophesying, having his head covered, dishonors his head. 11.5. But every woman praying or prophesying with her head unveileddishonors her head. For it is one and the same thing as if she wereshaved. 11.6. For if a woman is not covered, let her also be shorn.But if it is shameful for a woman to be shorn or shaved, let her becovered. 11.7. For a man indeed ought not to have his head covered,because he is the image and glory of God, but the woman is the glory ofthe man. 11.8. For man is not from woman, but woman from man; 11.9. for neither was man created for the woman, but woman for the man. 11.10. For this cause the woman ought to have authority on her head,because of the angels. 11.11. Nevertheless, neither is the woman independent of the man,nor the man independent of the woman, in the Lord. 11.12. For as womancame from man, so a man also comes through a woman; but all things arefrom God. 11.13. Judge for yourselves. Is it appropriate that a womanpray to God unveiled? 11.14. Doesn't even nature itself teach you thatif a man has long hair, it is a dishonor to him? 11.15. But if a womanhas long hair, it is a glory to her, for her hair is given to her for acovering. 11.16. But if any man seems to be contentious, we have nosuch custom, neither do God's assemblies. 12.2. You know that when you were heathen, you were ledaway to those mute idols, however you might be led. 12.13. For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whetherJews or Greeks, whether bond or free; and were all given to drink intoone Spirit. 13.3. If I dole out all my goods tofeed the poor, and if I give my body to be burned, but don't have love,it profits me nothing. 15.9. For I am the least of theapostles, who is not worthy to be called an apostle, because Ipersecuted the assembly of God. 15.32. If I fought withanimals at Ephesus for human purposes, what does it profit me? If thedead are not raised, then "let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die. 16.1. Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I commandedthe assemblies of Galatia, you do likewise.
18. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.6-1.7, 1.9-1.10, 2.11, 2.14-2.16, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.6. You became imitators of us, and of the Lord, having received the word in much affliction, with joy of the Holy Spirit 1.7. so that you became an example to all who believe in Macedonia and in Achaia. 1.9. For they themselves report concerning us what kind of a reception we had from you; and how you turned to God from idols, to serve a living and true God 1.10. and to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead -- Jesus, who delivers us from the wrath to come. 2.11. As you know how we exhorted, comforted, and implored every one of you, as a father does his own children 2.14. For you, brothers, became imitators of the assemblies of God which are in Judea in Christ Jesus; for you also suffered the same things from your own countrymen, even as they did from the Jews; 2.15. who killed both the Lord Jesus and their own prophets, and drove us out, and didn't please God, and are contrary to all men; 2.16. forbidding us to speak to the Gentiles that they may be saved; to fill up their sins always. But wrath has come on them to the uttermost. 3.1. Therefore, when we couldn't stand it any longer, we thought it good to be left behind at Athens alone
19. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.19, 2.1-2.2, 3.7, 3.12-3.13, 4.7-4.11, 6.1-6.10, 8.1-8.4, 10.1, 10.12, 11.3, 11.13-11.23, 11.25-11.33, 12.1-12.12, 13.3-13.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.3. But the Lord is faithful, who will establish you, and guard you from the evil one.
21. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 1.5, 2.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. having been reminded of the unfeigned faith that is in you; which lived first in your grandmother Lois, and your mother Eunice, and, I am persuaded, in you also. 2.10. Therefore I endure all things for the elect's sake, that they also may obtain the salvation which is in Christ Jesus with eternal glory.
22. New Testament, Acts, 2.28, 4.2, 4.18, 4.34, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 5.20, 5.21, 5.22, 5.23, 5.24, 5.25, 5.26, 5.27, 5.28, 5.29, 5.30, 5.31, 5.32, 5.33, 5.34, 5.35, 5.36, 5.37, 5.38, 5.39, 5.40, 8, 8.1, 8.6, 8.7, 8.11, 9.1, 9.2, 11.27, 11.28, 11.29, 11.30, 12.1, 12.2, 12.19, 13.5, 13.14, 13.44, 13.45, 13.46, 13.47, 13.48, 13.49, 13.50, 13.51, 13.52, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 14.11, 14.12, 14.13, 14.14, 14.15, 14.16, 14.17, 14.18, 14.19, 15.5, 16, 16.1, 16.13, 16.17, 16.18, 16.19, 16.20, 16.22, 17, 17.1, 17.2, 17.3, 17.4, 17.5, 17.6, 17.7, 17.8, 17.9, 17.10, 17.13, 17.14, 17.16, 17.17, 17.18, 17.19, 17.20, 17.21, 18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 18.4, 18.5, 18.6, 18.7, 18.8, 18.9, 18.10, 18.11, 18.12, 18.13, 18.14, 18.15, 18.16, 18.17, 18.25, 19.9, 19.13, 19.14, 19.15, 19.16, 19.17, 19.23, 21, 21.25, 21.27, 21.28, 21.29, 21.30, 21.31, 21.32, 21.33, 21.34, 21.35, 21.36, 22.4, 22.14, 22.19, 22.22, 22.30-23.9, 26.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11.27. Now in these days, prophets came down from Jerusalem to Antioch.
23. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.20. the mystery of the seven stars which you saw in my right hand, and the seven golden lampstands. The seven stars are the angels of the seven assemblies. The seven lampstands are seven assemblies.
24. New Testament, Philemon, 2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

25. New Testament, Colossians, 3.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.11. where there can't be Greek and Jew, circumcision and uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, bondservant, freeman; but Christ is all, and in all.
26. New Testament, Ephesians, 3.1-3.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. For this cause I, Paul, am the prisoner of Christ Jesus on behalf of you Gentiles 3.2. if it is so that you have heard of the administration of that grace of God which was given me toward you; 3.3. how that by revelation the mystery was made known to me, as I wrote before in few words 3.4. by which, when you read, you can perceive my understanding in the mystery of Christ; 3.5. which in other generations was not made known to the sons of men, as it has now been revealed to his holy apostles and prophets in the Spirit; 3.6. that the Gentiles are fellow heirs, and fellow members of the body, and fellow partakers of his promise in Christ Jesus through the gospel 3.7. whereof I was made a servant, according to the gift of that grace of God which was given me according to the working of his power. 3.8. To me, the very least of all saints, was this grace given, to preach to the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ 3.9. and to make all men see what is the administration of the mystery which for ages has been hidden in God, who created all things through Jesus Christ; 3.10. to the intent that now through the assembly the manifold wisdom of God might be made known to the principalities and the powers in the heavenly places 3.11. according to the eternal purpose which he purposed in Christ Jesus our Lord; 3.12. in whom we have boldness and access in confidence through our faith in him. 3.13. Therefore I ask that you may not lose heart at my troubles for you, which are your glory.
27. New Testament, Galatians, 1.11-1.17, 1.23, 2.2, 2.7-2.10, 2.12-2.15, 2.19, 3.1, 3.28, 4.8, 4.13, 4.19, 5.12, 5.16, 5.18, 5.24, 6.14, 6.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.11. But Imake known to you, brothers, concerning the gospel which was preachedby me, that it is not according to man. 1.12. For neither did Ireceive it from man, nor was I taught it, but it came to me throughrevelation of Jesus Christ. 1.13. For you have heard of my way ofliving in time past in the Jews' religion, how that beyond measure Ipersecuted the assembly of God, and ravaged it. 1.14. I advanced inthe Jews' religion beyond many of my own age among my countrymen, beingmore exceedingly zealous for the traditions of my fathers. 1.15. Butwhen it was the good pleasure of God, who separated me from my mother'swomb, and called me through his grace 1.16. to reveal his Son in me,that I might preach him among the Gentiles, I didn't immediately conferwith flesh and blood 1.17. nor did I go up to Jerusalem to those whowere apostles before me, but I went away into Arabia. Then I returnedto Damascus. 1.23. but they only heard: "He who once persecuted us nowpreaches the faith that he once tried to destroy. 2.2. I went up byrevelation, and I laid before them the gospel which I preach among theGentiles, but privately before those who were respected, for fear thatI might be running, or had run, in vain. 2.7. but to the contrary, when they saw that Ihad been entrusted with the gospel for the uncircumcision, even asPeter with the gospel for the circumcision 2.8. (for he who appointedPeter to the apostleship of the circumcision appointed me also to theGentiles); 2.9. and when they perceived the grace that was given tome, James and Cephas and John, they who were reputed to be pillars,gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, that we should goto the Gentiles, and they to the circumcision. 2.10. They only askedus to remember the poor -- which very thing I was also zealous to do. 2.12. For before some people came fromJames, he ate with the Gentiles. But when they came, he drew back andseparated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision. 2.13. And the rest of the Jews joined him in his hypocrisy; so that evenBarnabas was carried away with their hypocrisy. 2.14. But when I sawthat they didn't walk uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, Isaid to Peter before them all, "If you, being a Jew, live as theGentiles do, and not as the Jews do, why do you compel the Gentiles tolive as the Jews do? 2.15. We, being Jews by nature, and not Gentile sinners 2.19. For I, through the law, died to the law,that I might live to God. 3.1. Foolish Galatians, who has bewitched you not to obey thetruth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ was openly set forth among you as crucified? 3.28. There is neither Jewnor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither malenor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. 4.8. However at that time, not knowing God, youwere in bondage to those who by nature are not gods. 4.13. but youknow that because of weakness of the flesh I preached the gospel to youthe first time. 4.19. My little children, of whom I am again in travail untilChrist is formed in you-- 5.12. I wish that those who disturb you would cut themselvesoff. 5.16. But I say, walk by the Spirit, and you won't fulfill the lust ofthe flesh. 5.18. But if you are led by theSpirit, you are not under the law. 5.24. Those who belong to Christhave crucified the flesh with its passions and lusts. 6.14. But far be it from me to boast, except inthe cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through which the world has beencrucified to me, and I to the world. 6.16. As many as walk by this rule, peace and mercy be on them, and onGod's Israel.
28. New Testament, Hebrews, 12.1-12.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.1. Therefore let us also, seeing we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, lay aside every weight and the sin which so easily entangles us, and let us run with patience the race that is set before us 12.2. looking to Jesus, the author and perfecter of faith, who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God. 12.3. For consider him who has endured such contradiction of sinners against himself, that you don't grow weary, fainting in your souls. 12.4. You have not yet resisted to blood, striving against sin;
29. New Testament, Philippians, 2.2-2.11, 2.13, 3.6, 3.8, 3.10-3.11, 3.17, 4.2-4.3, 4.18-4.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.2. make my joy full, by being like-minded, having the same love, being of one accord, of one mind; 2.3. doing nothing through rivalry or through conceit, but in humility, each counting others better than himself; 2.4. each of you not just looking to his own things, but each of you also to the things of others. 2.5. Have this in your mind, which was also in Christ Jesus 2.6. who, existing in the form of God, didn't consider it robbery to be equal with God 2.7. but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of men. 2.8. And being found in human form, he humbled himself, becoming obedient to death, yes, the death of the cross. 2.9. Therefore God also highly exalted him, and gave to him the name which is above every name; 2.10. that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those in heaven, those on earth, and those under the earth 2.11. and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. 2.13. For it is God who works in you both to will and to work, for his good pleasure. 3.6. concerning zeal, persecuting the assembly; concerning the righteousness which is in the law, found blameless. 3.8. Yes most assuredly, and I count all things to be loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus, my Lord, for whom I suffered the loss of all things, and count them nothing but refuse, that I may gain Christ 3.10. that I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his sufferings, becoming conformed to his death; 3.11. if by any means I may attain to the resurrection from the dead. 3.17. Brothers, be imitators together of me, and note those who walk this way, even as you have us for an example. 4.2. I exhort Euodia, and I exhort Syntyche, to think the same way in the Lord. 4.3. Yes, I beg you also, true yoke-fellow, help these women, for they labored with me in the gospel, with Clement also, and the rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the book of life. 4.18. But I have all things, and abound. I am filled, having received from Epaphroditus the things that came from you, a sweet-smelling fragrance, an acceptable and well-pleasing sacrifice to God. 4.19. My God will supply every need of yours according to his riches in glory in Christ Jesus. 4.20. Now to our God and Father be the glory forever and ever! Amen.
30. New Testament, Romans, 1.1-1.7, 1.16, 2.9-2.10, 2.17-2.24, 2.28, 3.9, 3.29, 8.4-8.9, 8.14-8.15, 8.17, 8.29, 9.2, 9.4, 9.24, 10.12, 11.1, 11.13-11.14, 15.3-15.6, 15.17-15.19, 15.24, 15.26, 16.1-16.16, 16.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God 1.2. which he promised before through his prophets in the holy Scriptures 1.3. concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh 1.4. who was declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord 1.5. through whom we received grace and apostleship, for obedience of faith among all the nations, for his name's sake; 1.6. among whom you are also called to belong to Jesus Christ; 1.7. to all who are in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 1.16. For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God for salvation for everyone who believes; for the Jew first, and also for the Greek. 2.9. oppression and anguish, on every soul of man who works evil, on the Jew first, and also on the Greek. 2.10. But glory and honor and peace to every man who works good, to the Jew first, and also to the Greek. 2.17. Indeed you bear the name of a Jew, and rest on the law, and glory in God 2.18. and know his will, and approve the things that are excellent, being instructed out of the law 2.19. and are confident that you yourself are a guide of the blind, a light to those who are in darkness 2.20. a corrector of the foolish, a teacher of babies, having in the law the form of knowledge and of the truth. 2.21. You therefore who teach another, don't you teach yourself? You who preach that a man shouldn't steal, do you steal? 2.22. You who say a man shouldn't commit adultery, do you commit adultery? You who abhor idols, do you rob temples? 2.23. You who glory in the law, through your disobedience of the law do you dishonor God? 2.24. For "the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you," just as it is written. 2.28. For he is not a Jew who is one outwardly, neither is that circumcision which is outward in the flesh; 3.9. What then? Are we better than they? No, in no way. For we previously charged both Jews and Greeks, that they are all under sin. 3.29. Or is God the God of Jews only? Isn't he the God of Gentiles also? Yes, of Gentiles also 8.4. that the ordice of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. 8.5. For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit, the things of the Spirit. 8.6. For the mind of the flesh is death, but the mind of the Spirit is life and peace; 8.7. because the mind of the flesh is hostile towards God; for it is not subject to God's law, neither indeed can it be. 8.8. Those who are in the flesh can't please God. 8.9. But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if it is so that the Spirit of God dwells in you. But if any man doesn't have the Spirit of Christ, he is not his. 8.14. For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, these are children of God. 8.15. For you didn't receive the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you received the Spirit of adoption, by whom we cry, "Abba! Father! 8.17. and if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if indeed we suffer with him, that we may also be glorified with him. 8.29. For whom he foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers. 9.2. that I have great sorrow and unceasing pain in my heart. 9.4. who are Israelites; whose is the adoption, the glory, the covets, the giving of the law, the service, and the promises; 9.24. us, whom he also called, not from the Jews only, but also from the Gentiles? 10.12. For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; for the same Lord is Lord of all, and is rich to all who call on him. 11.1. I ask then, Did God reject his people? May it never be! For I also am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. 11.13. For I speak to you who are Gentiles. Since then as I am an apostle to Gentiles, I glorify my ministry; 11.14. if by any means I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh, and may save some of them. 15.3. For even Christ didn't please himself. But, as it is written, "The reproaches of those who reproached you fell on me. 15.4. For whatever things were written before were written for our learning, that through patience and through encouragement of the Scriptures we might have hope. 15.5. Now the God of patience and of encouragement grant you to be of the same mind one with another according to Christ Jesus 15.6. that with one accord you may with one mouth glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. 15.17. I have therefore my boasting in Christ Jesus in things pertaining to God. 15.18. For I will not dare to speak of any things except those which Christ worked through me, for the obedience of the Gentiles, by word and deed 15.19. in the power of signs and wonders, in the power of God's Spirit; so that from Jerusalem, and around as far as to Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Christ; 15.24. whenever I journey to Spain, I will come to you. For I hope to see you on my journey, and to be helped on my way there by you, if first I may enjoy your company for a while. 15.26. For it has been the good pleasure of Macedonia and Achaia to make a certain contribution for the poor among the saints who are at Jerusalem. 16.1. I commend to you Phoebe, our sister, who is a servant of the assembly that is at Cenchreae 16.2. that you receive her in the Lord, in a way worthy of the saints, and that you assist her in whatever matter she may need from you, for she herself also has been a helper of many, and of my own self. 16.3. Greet Prisca and Aquila, my fellow workers in Christ Jesus 16.4. who for my life, laid down their own necks; to whom not only I give thanks, but also all the assemblies of the Gentiles. 16.5. Greet the assembly that is in their house. Greet Epaenetus, my beloved, who is the first fruits of Achaia to Christ. 16.6. Greet Mary, who labored much for us. 16.7. Greet Andronicus and Junias, my relatives and my fellow prisoners, who are notable among the apostles, who also were in Christ before me. 16.8. Greet Amplias, my beloved in the Lord. 16.9. Greet Urbanus, our fellow worker in Christ, and Stachys, my beloved. 16.10. Greet Apelles, the approved in Christ. Greet those who are of the household of Aristobulus. 16.11. Greet Herodion, my kinsman. Greet them of the household of Narcissus, who are in the Lord. 16.12. Greet Tryphaena and Tryphosa, who labor in the Lord. Greet Persis, the beloved, who labored much in the Lord. 16.13. Greet Rufus, the chosen in the Lord, and his mother and mine. 16.14. Greet Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas, and the brothers who are with them. 16.15. Greet Philologus and Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas, and all the saints who are with them. 16.16. Greet one another with a holy kiss. The assemblies of Christ greet you. 16.23. Gaius, my host and host of the whole assembly, greets you. Erastus, the treasurer of the city, greets you, as does Quartus, the brother.
31. New Testament, John, 1.1-1.18, 9.22, 12.42, 16.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 1.2. The same was in the beginning with God. 1.3. All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made. 1.4. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. 1.5. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness hasn't overcome it. 1.6. There came a man, sent from God, whose name was John. 1.7. The same came as a witness, that he might testify about the light, that all might believe through him. 1.8. He was not the light, but was sent that he might testify about the light. 1.9. The true light that enlightens everyone was coming into the world. 1.10. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, and the world didn't recognize him. 1.11. He came to his own, and those who were his own didn't receive him. 1.12. But as many as received him, to them he gave the right to become God's children, to those who believe in his name: 1.13. who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. 1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. 1.15. John testified about him. He cried out, saying, "This was he of whom I said, 'He who comes after me has surpassed me, for he was before me.' 1.16. From his fullness we all received grace upon grace. 1.17. For the law was given through Moses. Grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. 1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. 9.22. His parents said these things because they feared the Jews; for the Jews had already agreed that if any man would confess him as Christ, he would be put out of the synagogue. 12.42. Nevertheless even of the rulers many believed in him, but because of the Pharisees they didn't confess it, so that they wouldn't be put out of the synagogue 16.2. They will put you out of the synagogues. Yes, the time comes that whoever kills you will think that he offers service to God.
32. New Testament, Luke, 1.5, 2.1-2.2, 3.1-3.2, 12.11, 21.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. There was in the days of Herod, the king of Judea, a certain priest named Zacharias, of the priestly division of Abijah. He had a wife of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elizabeth. 2.1. Now it happened in those days, that a decree went out from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be enrolled. 2.2. This was the first enrollment made when Quirinius was governor of Syria. 3.1. Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of the region of Ituraea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene 3.2. in the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas, the word of God came to John, the son of Zacharias, in the wilderness. 12.11. When they bring you before the synagogues, the rulers, and the authorities, don't be anxious how or what you will answer, or what you will say; 21.12. But before all these things, they will lay their hands on you and will persecute you, delivering you up to synagogues and prisons, bringing you before kings and governors for my name's sake.
33. New Testament, Mark, 13.9, 14.32-14.42, 15.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.9. But watch yourselves, for they will deliver you up to councils. You will be beaten in synagogues. You will stand before rulers and kings for my sake, for a testimony to them. 14.32. They came to a place which was named Gethsemane. He said to his disciples, "Sit here, while I pray. 14.33. He took with him Peter, James, and John, and began to be greatly troubled and distressed. 14.34. He said to them, "My soul is exceedingly sorrowful, even to death. Stay here, and watch. 14.35. He went forward a little, and fell on the ground, and prayed that, if it were possible, the hour might pass away from him. 14.36. He said, "Abba, Father, all things are possible to you. Please remove this cup from me. However, not what I desire, but what you desire. 14.37. He came and found them sleeping, and said to Peter, "Simon, are you sleeping? Couldn't you watch one hour? 14.38. Watch and pray, that you not enter into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak. 14.39. Again he went away, and prayed, saying the same words. 14.40. Again he returned, and found them sleeping, for their eyes were very heavy, and they didn't know what to answer him. 14.41. He came the third time, and said to them, "Sleep on now, and take your rest. It is enough. The hour has come. Behold, the Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. 14.42. Arise, let us be going. Behold, he who betrays me is at hand. 15.1. Immediately in the morning the chief priests, with the elders and scribes, and the whole council, held a consultation, and bound Jesus, and carried him away, and delivered him up to Pilate.
34. New Testament, Matthew, 10.17-10.18, 23.24, 23.34, 28.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.17. But beware of men: for they will deliver you up to councils, and in their synagogues they will scourge you. 10.18. Yes, and you will be brought before governors and kings for my sake, for a testimony to them and to the Gentiles. 23.24. You blind guides, who strain out a gnat, and swallow a camel! 23.34. Therefore, behold, I send to you prophets, wise men, and scribes. Some of them you will kill and crucify; and some of them you will scourge in your synagogues, and persecute from city to city; 28.20. teaching them to observe all things which I commanded you. Behold, I am with you always, even to the end of the age." Amen.
35. Tacitus, Histories, 5.5.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

36. Tosefta, Hulin, 2.19-2.24 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

37. Apuleius, The Golden Ass, 11 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

38. Athenagoras, Apology Or Embassy For The Christians, 4.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

39. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 69 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

69. The devil, since he emulates the truth, has invented fables about Bacchus, Hercules, and Æsculapius Justin: Be well assured, then, Trypho, that I am established in the knowledge of and faith in the Scriptures by those counterfeits which he who is called the devil is said to have performed among the Greeks; just as some were wrought by the Magi in Egypt, and others by the false prophets in Elijah's days. For when they tell that Bacchus, son of Jupiter, was begotten by [Jupiter's] intercourse with Semele, and that he was the discoverer of the vine; and when they relate, that being torn in pieces, and having died, he rose again, and ascended to heaven; and when they introduce wine into his mysteries, do I not perceive that [the devil] has imitated the prophecy announced by the patriarch Jacob, and recorded by Moses? And when they tell that Hercules was strong, and travelled over all the world, and was begotten by Jove of Alcmene, and ascended to heaven when he died, do I not perceive that the Scripture which speaks of Christ, 'strong as a giant to run his race,' has been in like manner imitated? And when he [the devil] brings forward Æsculapius as the raiser of the dead and healer of all diseases, may I not say that in this matter likewise he has imitated the prophecies about Christ? But since I have not quoted to you such Scripture as tells that Christ will do these things, I must necessarily remind you of one such: from which you can understand, how that to those destitute of a knowledge of God, I mean the Gentiles, who, 'having eyes, saw not, and having a heart, understood not,' worshipping the images of wood, [how even to them] Scripture prophesied that they would renounce these [vanities], and hope in this Christ. It is thus written: Rejoice, thirsty wilderness: let the wilderness be glad, and blossom as the lily: the deserts of the Jordan shall both blossom and be glad: and the glory of Lebanon was given to it, and the honour of Carmel. And my people shall see the exaltation of the Lord, and the glory of God. Be strong, you careless hands and enfeebled knees. Be comforted, you faint in soul: be strong, fear not. Behold, our God gives, and will give, retributive judgment. He shall come and save us. Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall hear. Then the lame shall leap as an hart, and the tongue of the stammerers shall be distinct: for water has broken forth in the wilderness, and a valley in the thirsty land; and the parched ground shall become pools, and a spring of water shall [rise up] in the thirsty land. Isaiah 35:1-7 The spring of living water which gushed forth from God in the land destitute of the knowledge of God, namely the land of the Gentiles, was this Christ, who also appeared in your nation, and healed those who were maimed, and deaf, and lame in body from their birth, causing them to leap, to hear, and to see, by His word. And having raised the dead, and causing them to live, by His deeds He compelled the men who lived at that time to recognise Him. But though they saw such works, they asserted it was magical art. For they dared to call Him a magician, and a deceiver of the people. Yet He wrought such works, and persuaded those who were [destined to] believe in Him; for even if any one be labouring under a defect of body, yet be an observer of the doctrines delivered by Him, He shall raise him up at His second advent perfectly sound, after He has made him immortal, and incorruptible, and free from grief.
40. Lucian, Hermotimus, Or Sects, 81 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

41. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 6.104 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.104. So they get rid of geometry and music and all such studies. Anyhow, when somebody showed Diogenes a clock, he pronounced it a serviceable instrument to save one from being late for dinner. Again, to a man who gave a musical recital before him he said:By men's minds states are ordered well, and households,Not by the lyre's twanged strings or flute's trilled notes.They hold further that Life according to Virtue is the End to be sought, as Antisthenes says in his Heracles: exactly like the Stoics. For indeed there is a certain close relationship between the two schools. Hence it has been said that Cynicism is a short cut to virtue; and after the same pattern did Zeno of Citium live his life.
42. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 3.11, 4.22.4 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

4.22.4. The same author also describes the beginnings of the heresies which arose in his time, in the following words: And after James the Just had suffered martyrdom, as the Lord had also on the same account, Symeon, the son of the Lord's uncle, Clopas, was appointed the next bishop. All proposed him as second bishop because he was a cousin of the Lord.Therefore, they called the Church a virgin, for it was not yet corrupted by vain discourses.
43. Augustine, The City of God, 6.11, 18.12 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

6.11. Seneca, among the other superstitions of civil theology, also found fault with the sacred things of the Jews, and especially the sabbaths, affirming that they act uselessly in keeping those seventh days, whereby they lose through idleness about the seventh part of their life, and also many things which demand immediate attention are damaged. The Christians, however, who were already most hostile to the Jews, he did not dare to mention, either for praise or blame, lest, if he praised them, he should do so against the ancient custom of his country, or, perhaps, if he should blame them, he should do so against his own will. When he was speaking concerning those Jews, he said, When, meanwhile, the customs of that most accursed nation have gained such strength that they have been now received in all lands, the conquered have given laws to the conquerors. By these words he expresses his astonishment; and, not knowing what the providence of God was leading him to say, subjoins in plain words an opinion by which he showed what he thought about the meaning of those sacred institutions: For, he says, those, however, know the cause of their rites, while the greater part of the people know not why they perform theirs. But concerning the solemnities of the Jews, either why or how far they were instituted by divine authority, and afterwards, in due time, by the same authority taken away from the people of God, to whom the mystery of eternal life was revealed, we have both spoken elsewhere, especially when we were treating against the Manich ans, and also intend to speak in this work in a more suitable place. 18.12. During this period, that is, from Israel's exodus from Egypt down to the death of Joshua the Son of Nun, through whom that people received the land of promise, rituals were instituted to the false gods by the kings of Greece, which, by stated celebration, recalled the memory of the flood, and of men's deliverance from it, and of that troublous life they then led in migrating to and fro between the heights and the plains. For even the Luperci, when they ascend and descend the sacred path, are said to represent the men who sought the mountain summits because of the inundation of water, and returned to the lowlands on its subsidence. In those times, Dionysus, who was also called Father Liber, and was esteemed a god after death, is said to have shown the vine to his host in Attica. Then the musical games were instituted for the Delphic Apollo, to appease his anger, through which they thought the regions of Greece were afflicted with barrenness, because they had not defended his temple which Danaos burnt when he invaded those lands; for they were warned by his oracle to institute these games. But king Ericthonius first instituted games to him in Attica, and not to him only, but also to Minerva, in which games the olive was given as the prize to the victors, because they relate that Minerva was the discoverer of that fruit, as Liber was of the grape. In those years Europa is alleged to have been carried off by Xanthus king of Crete (to whom we find some give another name), and to have borne him Rhadamanthus, Sarpedon, and Minos, who are more commonly reported to have been the sons of Jupiter by the same woman. Now those who worship such gods regard what we have said about Xanthus king of Crete as true history; but this about Jupiter, which the poets sing, the theatres applaud, and the people celebrate, as empty fable got up as a reason for games to appease the deities, even with the false ascription of crimes to them. In those times Hercules was held in honor in Tyre, but that was not the same one as he whom we spoke of above. In the more secret history there are said to have been several who were called Father Liber and Hercules. This Hercules, whose great deeds are reckoned as twelve (not including the slaughter of Ant us the African, because that affair pertains to another Hercules), is declared in their books to have burned himself on Mount Œta, because he was not able, by that strength with which he had subdued monsters, to endure the disease under which he languished. At that time the king, or rather tyrant Busiris, who is alleged to have been the son of Neptune by Libya the daughter of Epaphus, is said to have offered up his guests in sacrifice to the gods. Now it must not be believed that Neptune committed this adultery, lest the gods should be criminated; yet such things must be ascribed to them by the poets and in the theatres, that they may be pleased with them. Vulcan and Minerva are said to have been the parents of Ericthonius king of Athens, in whose last years Joshua the Son of Nun is found to have died. But since they will have it that Minerva is a virgin, they say that Vulcan, being disturbed in the struggle between them, poured out his seed into the earth, and on that account the man born of it received that name; for in the Greek language ἔρις is strife, and χθὼν earth, of which two words Ericthonius is a compound. Yet it must be admitted that the more learned disprove and disown such things concerning their gods, and declare that this fabulous belief originated in the fact that in the temple at Athens, which Vulcan and Minerva had in common, a boy who had been exposed was found wrapped up in the coils of a dragon, which signified that he would become great, and, as his parents were unknown, he was called the son of Vulcan and Minerva, because they had the temple in common. Yet that fable accounts for the origin of his name better than this history. But what does it matter to us? Let the one in books that speak the truth edify religious men, and the other in lying fables delight impure demons. Yet these religious men worship them as gods. Still, while they deny these things concerning them they cannot clear them of all crime, because at their demand they exhibit plays in which the very things they wisely deny are basely done, and the gods are appeased by these false and base things. Now, even although the play celebrates an unreal crime of the gods, yet to delight in the ascription of an unreal crime is a real one.
44. Epiphanius, Panarion, 30.11 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
2 corinthians Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 94
acts, synagogues, synagogues, jerusalem Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 143
adjudication, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 143
allegory, allegorical interpretation, aristobulus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 174
amoraic midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 181
amulets Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 108
angels Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 108
anti-judaism Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 164
antisthenes Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164
apokalypto/apokalypsis Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 381
apollodorus (ps.-apollodorus) Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 665
apologetic, portrait of paul Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 754
apostle Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 764; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 646, 656
apostles decree Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 324
apostleship, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164
apostleship Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 381
apuleius Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 754
aramaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 181
aristobulus, aratus, phaenomena Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 174
aristobulus, diaspora consciousness Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 174
aristobulus, general profile Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 174
aristobulus, orpheus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 174
aristobulus, philos predecessor Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 174
aristobulus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 174
armament, pauls Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164
armament Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164
arnobius Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 665
artemis, goddess and cult, primacy/supremacy Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 292
artemis, goddess and cult, processions Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 292
artemis, goddess and cult, sacrifice Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 292
ascent to heaven Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 381
atheism, accusations against, christians Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 665
athens Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 754; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 324
audience Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 198
augustine Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 181
authorial intent Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 292
authority(ies) Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 108
beatings Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 198
birkat ha-minim Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 164, 165; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 656
boasting Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 381
boldness, cynic Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 764
caesarea maritima Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 148
christianity, early history Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 142
church fathers Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 665
churches/tradition of paul pauline Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 181, 324
circumcision Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 416; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 181, 324
claudius Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 50
clement of alexandria Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 665
conflict, of jews and christians (parting of the ways) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 181, 601
contribution, corinthian Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 16
corinth Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 754; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 324
crucifixion Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 27
culture, cultural affiliations in galilee Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 142, 182
cynics/cynicism, superiority Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 764
cynics/cynicism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164, 764
d/demonisation Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 108
damascus, and paul Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 182
decapolis Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 148
deliver/deliverance Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 108
devotion Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 308
diagoras of melos, (the atheist) Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 665
diaspora, judaism in the diaspora Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 148
diaspora Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 50, 62, 164; Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 308; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 174; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 646
domitian passim, esp. Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 50, 62
early high christology Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 308
ecstasis, ecstasy, ecstatic, ex stasis Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 198
ephesus Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 50
epictetus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 764
essenes Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 405, 416
example, of churches Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 16
excommunication Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 601, 646, 656
exorcisms/exorcise/exorcists/exorcistic Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 108
father, fatherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 249
father Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 308
flogging, in synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 143
flogging Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 50, 62, 164, 179
formation of christian ethos deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 174
galatians, letter to the Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 381
gallio Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 50
gamaliel (gamliel) the elder, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 656
gamaliel (gamliel) the younger, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 656
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 181
glory Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 308
god-fearer, god-fearing Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 324
god-fearers Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 50
greek, ethnos Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 181
habitus Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 198
hardships Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164
heal/healers/healings Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 108
hellenism, hellenistic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 181
heracles/hercules, christian literature Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 665
heracles/hercules, church fathers Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 665
heracles/hercules, cult of Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 665
heracles/hercules, in church fathers Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 665
heracles/hercules, paul Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 665
heracles/hercules Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 665
heretics Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 164, 165, 179
high priest Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 308
high priests Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 148
honor and dishonor deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 174
ignatius of antioch Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 22
imitatio christi paul Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 27
immolation (of heracles) Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 665
incantations Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 108
index of subjects, shammaite) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 601, 656
invoke/invocations Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 108
israel Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 116, 179
james (brother of jesus), death of Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 142
jerusalem, christians Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 16
jerusalem Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 62; Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 308; Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 108
jesus, passion of Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 405
jewish christians Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 148
jews, revolts against rome Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 142
josephus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 656
judaea Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 148
judaism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 754
judean (geographical-political) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 324
justin martyr Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 764
juvenal, street philosophers Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 754
juvenal Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 116
law in paul Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 324
lucian Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 764
macedonia Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 16; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 324
manliness Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 94
mark, jesus before sanhedrin Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 742
mark, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 143
mark, trial of jesus Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 742
mark Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 742
martyr/martyrdom Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 665
matthew, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 143
medicines/medical Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 108
messiah' Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 249
midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 324
mishnah Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 179
mission, christian mission Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 148
monotheism, exclusive Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 116
monotheism, zeuss name changed to god Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 174
monotheism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 308
moses Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 149
multiform (~ judaism, pharisaism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 646
oral tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 646
orpheus, aristobulus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 174
pagan, paganism Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 324
pagan deities, name changes Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 174
parallels/parallelism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164
paul, and rhetoric Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 405
paul, apostle, travels Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 86
paul, apostolic commission deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 174
paul, as persecutor Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 182
paul, conversion Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 182
paul, flogging in synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 143
paul, jerusalem Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 143
paul, missionary activity Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 188
paul, pauline, paulinism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 308
paul, pauls sufferings Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 148
paul, seer of revelation compared Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 22
paul, situation of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 174
paul Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 742; Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 148; Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 50, 62, 116, 164, 179; Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 405, 416; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 16; Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 27; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 381
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 181, 324, 601, 646, 656
paul imitation of christ Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 27
paul of tarsus Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 94
paul pharisee Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 601, 646, 656
pella, flight to Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 142
peregrinus proteus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 764
peristasis catalogue Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164, 665
persecution Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 308
peter Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 742
philippi Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 16
philippi (macedonia) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 324
philo of alexandria, aristobuluss successor Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 174
philo of alexandria Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 174
philosopher Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 754, 764
pilate Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 742
pleasure Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164
pliny the younger Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 656
polemic Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 665
pontius pilate Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 148
poverty Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 16
power, power of god, powers Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 381
preaching Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 754
priest, priesthood Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 308
proselytes Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 62
proseuche (prayer house), diaspora, black sea region Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 143
ps.-hecataeus, aristobulus comparison Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 174
ps.-hecataeus, diaspora jewrys loyalty to homeland Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 174
ps.-hecataeus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 174
rabbinic tradition/literature, movement Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 646
rabbis Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 601, 656
religio licita Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 50
revelation Nicklas et al., Other Worlds and Their Relation to This World: Early Jewish and Ancient Christian Traditions (2010) 214
revolt/war Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 646
rhetoric, greco–roman Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 405
roads Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 86
roll, israel Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 86
roman empire, judicial procedure Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 742
rome, roman Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 308
sacrifice Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 308
sadducees Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 656
salvation Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 754
sanhedrin, powers Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 742
sanhedrin Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 742
satan Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 108
scribe Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 143
seer of revelation, christs voice/witness of jesus, functioning as Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 22
seer of revelation, communities and churches of asia, relationship to Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 22
seer of revelation, ignatius of antioch compared Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 22
seer of revelation, paul compared Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 22
seer of revelation Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 22
self-understanding, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164
seneca Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 116
septuagint, synagogue, septuagint, susannah Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 143
septuagint Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 601
shaman Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 198
silas Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 324
spirits, evil Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 108
stoicism, cosmology Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164
stoicism, divine commission Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 764
stoicism, military imagery Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164
stoicism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164
suffering Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 292; Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 27
superiority Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 764
susannah (book) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 143
synagogue Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 754; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 324
tacitus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 656
teaching Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 754
temple, diaspora loyalty Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 174
temple Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 308
temple tax Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 62
theodosius i Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 164
thessalonica Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 16
thessalonika Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 324
timothy Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 324
torah Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 179
trauma Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 198
vice Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 764
virtue Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 764
vision Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 381
vision of christ Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 381
weakness Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164
weapon Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164
weiss, johannes Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 665
wild beasts Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 292
wisdom deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 174
word/the word, preached Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 16
worship Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 308
yavne Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 601, 646
yehuda (yuda), r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 601