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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8240
New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 11.22-11.25
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

44 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 25.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.2. וְהָיָה אִם־בִּן הַכּוֹת הָרָשָׁע וְהִפִּילוֹ הַשֹּׁפֵט וְהִכָּהוּ לְפָנָיו כְּדֵי רִשְׁעָתוֹ בְּמִסְפָּר׃ 25.2. then it shall be, if the wicked man deserve to be beaten, that the judge shall cause him to lie down, and to be beaten before his face, according to the measure of his wickedness, by number."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 34 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 15.5, 37.26-37.27, 49.8-49.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.5. וַיּוֹצֵא אֹתוֹ הַחוּצָה וַיֹּאמֶר הַבֶּט־נָא הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וּסְפֹר הַכּוֹכָבִים אִם־תּוּכַל לִסְפֹּר אֹתָם וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ כֹּה יִהְיֶה זַרְעֶךָ׃ 37.26. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוּדָה אֶל־אֶחָיו מַה־בֶּצַע כִּי נַהֲרֹג אֶת־אָחִינוּ וְכִסִּינוּ אֶת־דָּמוֹ׃ 37.27. לְכוּ וְנִמְכְּרֶנּוּ לַיִּשְׁמְעֵאלִים וְיָדֵנוּ אַל־תְּהִי־בוֹ כִּי־אָחִינוּ בְשָׂרֵנוּ הוּא וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶחָיו׃ 49.8. יְהוּדָה אַתָּה יוֹדוּךָ אַחֶיךָ יָדְךָ בְּעֹרֶף אֹיְבֶיךָ יִשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ לְךָ בְּנֵי אָבִיךָ׃ 49.9. גּוּר אַרְיֵה יְהוּדָה מִטֶּרֶף בְּנִי עָלִיתָ כָּרַע רָבַץ כְּאַרְיֵה וּכְלָבִיא מִי יְקִימֶנּוּ׃ 15.5. And He brought him forth abroad, and said: ‘Look now toward heaven, and count the stars, if thou be able to count them’; and He said unto him: ‘So shall thy seed be.’" 37.26. And Judah said unto his brethren: ‘What profit is it if we slay our brother and conceal his blood?" 37.27. Come, and let us sell him to the Ishmaelites, and let not our hand be upon him; for he is our brother, our flesh.’ And his brethren hearkened unto him." 49.8. Judah, thee shall thy brethren praise; Thy hand shall be on the neck of thine enemies; Thy father’s sons shall bow down before thee." 49.9. Judah is a lion’s whelp; From the prey, my son, thou art gone up. He stooped down, he couched as a lion, And as a lioness; who shall rouse him up?" 49.10. The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, Nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, As long as men come to Shiloh; And unto him shall the obedience of the peoples be."
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 17.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.11. כִּי נֶפֶשׁ הַבָּשָׂר בַּדָּם הִוא וַאֲנִי נְתַתִּיו לָכֶם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כִּי־הַדָּם הוּא בַּנֶּפֶשׁ יְכַפֵּר׃ 17.11. For the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that maketh atonement by reason of the life."
5. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 15.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 16.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 16.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 18.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18.2. And the one is the Lord from all eternity and unto all eternity, whereas the other is Lord of the season of iniquity that now is.
10. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 41, 40 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

40. These things therefore being manifest to us, and since we look into the depths of the divine knowledge, it behooves us to do all things in [their proper] order, which the Lord has commanded us to perform at stated times. He has enjoined offerings [to be presented] and service to be performed [to Him], and that not thoughtlessly or irregularly, but at the appointed times and hours. Where and by whom He desires these things to be done, He Himself has fixed by His own supreme will, in order that all things, being piously done according to His good pleasure, may be acceptable unto Him. Those, therefore, who present their offerings at the appointed times, are accepted and blessed; for inasmuch as they follow the laws of the Lord, they sin not. For his own peculiar services are assigned to the high priest, and their own proper place is prescribed to the priests, and their own special ministrations devolve on the Levites. The layman is bound by the laws that pertain to laymen.
11. Epictetus, Discourses, 3.22 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. Ignatius, To The Ephesians, 1.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.2. for when ye heard that I was on my way from Syria, in bonds for the sake of the common Name and hope, and was hoping through your prayers to succeed in fighting with wild beasts in Rome, that by so succeeding I might have power to be a disciple, ye were eager to visit me: --
13. Ignatius, To The Romans, 4.2-4.3, 6.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.2. Rather entice the wild beasts, that they may become my sepulchre and may leave no part of my body behind, so that I may not, when I am fallen asleep, be burdensome to any one. Then shall I be truly a disciple of Jesus Christ, when the world shall not so much as see my body. Supplicate the Lord for me, that through these instruments I may be found a sacrifice to God. 4.3. I do not enjoin you, as Peter and Paul did. They were Apostles, I am a convict; they were free, but I am a slave to this very hour. Yet if I shall suffer, then am I a freed-man of Jesus Christ, and I shall rise free in Him. Now I am learning in my bonds to put away every desire. 6.3. Permit me to be an imitator of the passion of my God. If any man hath Him within himself, let him understand what I desire, and let him have fellow- feeling with me, for he knoweth the things which straiten me.
14. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 5.323, 11.8.6, 20.97, 20.200 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.323. 2. When Ruth was come with her mother-in-law to Bethlehem, Booz, who was near of kin to Elimelech, entertained her; and when Naomi was so called by her fellow citizens, according to her true name, she said, “You might more truly call me Mara.” Now Naomi signifies in the Hebrew tongue happiness, and Mara, sorrow. 20.97. 1. Now it came to pass, while Fadus was procurator of Judea, that a certain magician, whose name was Theudas, persuaded a great part of the people to take their effects with them, and follow him to the river Jordan; for he told them he was a prophet, and that he would, by his own command, divide the river, and afford them an easy passage over it;
15. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. I have proposed to myself, for the sake of such as live under the government of the Romans, to translate those books into the Greek tongue, which I formerly composed in the language of our country, and sent to the Upper Barbarians; I, Joseph, the son of Matthias, by birth a Hebrew, a priest also, and one who at first fought against the Romans myself, and was forced to be present at what was done afterward [am the author of this work]. 1.3. 12. I have comprehended all these things in seven books, and have left no occasion for complaint or accusation to such as have been acquainted with this war; and I have written it down for the sake of those that love truth, but not for those that please themselves [with fictitious relations]. And I will begin my account of these things with what I call my First Chapter. 1.3. When Antigonus heard of this, he sent some of his party with orders to hinder, and lay ambushes for these collectors of corn. This command was obeyed, and a great multitude of armed men were gathered together about Jericho, and lay upon the mountains, to watch those that brought the provisions.
16. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.77 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.77. we also offer perpetual sacrifices for them; nor do we only offer them every day at the common expenses of all the Jews, but although we offer no other such sacrifices out of our common expenses, no, not for our own children, yet do we this as a peculiar honor to the emperors, and to them alone, while we do the same to no other person whomsoever.
17. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.22-1.23, 1.25, 1.27, 3.5-3.15, 3.21-3.23, 4.1-4.5, 4.8, 4.10, 4.13, 5.5, 7.17, 9.1-9.2, 9.19-9.23, 10.18, 10.32, 12.2, 12.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.22. For Jews ask for signs,Greeks seek after wisdom 1.23. but we preach Christ crucified; astumbling block to Jews, and foolishness to Greeks 1.25. Because the foolishness of God is wiser thanmen, and the weakness of God is stronger than men. 1.27. but God chose the foolishthings of the world that he might put to shame those who are wise. Godchose the weak things of the world, that he might put to shame thethings that are strong; 3.5. Who then isApollos, and who is Paul, but servants through whom you believed; andeach as the Lord gave to him? 3.6. I planted. Apollos watered. But Godgave the increase. 3.7. So then neither he who plants is anything, norhe who waters, but God who gives the increase. 3.8. Now he who plantsand he who waters are the same, but each will receive his own rewardaccording to his own labor. 3.9. For we are God's fellow workers. Youare God's farming, God's building. 3.10. According to the grace of Godwhich was given to me, as a wise master builder I laid a foundation,and another builds on it. But let each man be careful how he builds onit. 3.11. For no one can lay any other foundation than that which hasbeen laid, which is Jesus Christ. 3.12. But if anyone builds on thefoundation with gold, silver, costly stones, wood, hay, or stubble; 3.13. each man's work will be revealed. For the Day will declare it,because it is revealed in fire; and the fire itself will test what sortof work each man's work is. 3.14. If any man's work remains which hebuilt on it, he will receive a reward. 3.15. If any man's work isburned, he will suffer loss, but he himself will be saved, but asthrough fire. 3.21. Therefore let no one boast in men. For all things are yours 3.22. whether Paul, or Apollos, or Cephas, or the world, or life, or death,or things present, or things to come. All are yours 3.23. and you areChrist's, and Christ is God's. 4.1. So let a man think of us as Christ's servants, and stewards ofGod's mysteries. 4.2. Here, moreover, it is required of stewards, thatthey be found faithful. 4.3. But with me it is a very small thing thatI should be judged by you, or by man's judgment. Yes, I don't judge myown self. 4.4. For I know nothing against myself. Yet I am notjustified by this, but he who judges me is the Lord. 4.5. Thereforejudge nothing before the time, until the Lord comes, who will bothbring to light the hidden things of darkness, and reveal the counselsof the hearts. Then each man will get his praise from God. 4.8. You are already filled. Youhave already become rich. You have come to reign without us. Yes, and Iwish that you did reign, that we also might reign with you. 4.10. We are fools for Christ's sake, but you are wisein Christ. We are weak, but you are strong. You have honor, but we havedishonor. 4.13. Being defamed, we entreat. We are made as the filthof the world, the dirt wiped off by all, even until now. 5.5. are to deliver such a one to Satan for thedestruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day ofthe Lord Jesus. 7.17. Only, as the Lord hasdistributed to each man, as God has called each, so let him walk. So Icommand in all the assemblies. 9.1. Am I not free? Am I not an apostle? Haven't I seen JesusChrist, our Lord? Aren't you my work in the Lord? 9.2. If to others Iam not an apostle, yet at least I am to you; for you are the seal of myapostleship in the Lord. 9.19. For though I was free fromall, I brought myself under bondage to all, that I might gain the more. 9.20. To the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain Jews; to thosewho are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain those whoare under the law; 9.21. to those who are without law, as without law(not being without law toward God, but under law toward Christ), that Imight win those who are without law. 9.22. To the weak I became asweak, that I might gain the weak. I have become all things to all men,that I may by all means save some. 9.23. Now I do this for thegospel's sake, that I may be a joint partaker of it. 10.18. Consider Israel after theflesh. Don't those who eat the sacrifices have communion with the altar? 10.32. Give no occasions for stumbling, either to Jews, or to Greeks,or to the assembly of God; 12.2. You know that when you were heathen, you were ledaway to those mute idols, however you might be led. 12.13. For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whetherJews or Greeks, whether bond or free; and were all given to drink intoone Spirit.
18. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 2.14-2.16, 5.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.14. For you, brothers, became imitators of the assemblies of God which are in Judea in Christ Jesus; for you also suffered the same things from your own countrymen, even as they did from the Jews; 2.15. who killed both the Lord Jesus and their own prophets, and drove us out, and didn't please God, and are contrary to all men; 2.16. forbidding us to speak to the Gentiles that they may be saved; to fill up their sins always. But wrath has come on them to the uttermost. 5.12. But we beg you, brothers, to know those who labor among you, and are over you in the Lord, and admonish you
19. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 1.4, 3.1-3.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. neither to pay attention to myths and endless genealogies, which cause disputes, rather than God's stewardship, which is in faith -- 3.1. This is a faithful saying: if a man seeks the office of an overseer, he desires a good work. 3.2. The overseer therefore must be without reproach, the husband of one wife, temperate, sensible, modest, hospitable, good at teaching; 3.3. not a drinker, not violent, not greedy for money, but gentle, not quarrelsome, not covetous; 3.4. one who rules his own house well, having children in subjection with all reverence;
20. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1, 2, 3, 3.6, 3.7, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 4, 4.3, 4.4, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 5, 6, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.14, 6.14-7.1, 6.16, 7, 7.1, 8, 9, 10, 10.10, 10.12, 11, 11.4, 11.5, 11.13, 11.14, 11.15, 11.16, 11.17, 11.18, 11.19, 11.20, 11.21, 11.23, 11.24, 11.25, 11.26, 11.27, 11.28, 11.29, 11.30, 11.31, 11.32, 11.33, 12, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8, 12.9, 12.10, 12.11, 12.12, 13, 13.3, 13.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

21. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.3. But the Lord is faithful, who will establish you, and guard you from the evil one.
22. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 2.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.8. Remember Jesus Christ, risen from the dead, of the seed of David, according to my gospel
23. New Testament, Acts, 2.28, 3.25, 4.2, 5.36, 6.1, 7.2, 7.5-7.6, 8.6-8.7, 8.11, 9.2, 9.7-9.8, 11.1, 13.23, 13.26, 15.1, 16.17-16.18, 18.25, 19.13-19.17, 19.23, 21.20-21.30, 22.3-22.4, 22.14, 22.22, 22.25-22.26 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.28. You made known to me the ways of life. You will make me full of gladness with your presence.' 3.25. You are the sons of the prophets, and of the covet which God made with our fathers, saying to Abraham, 'In your seed will all the families of the earth be blessed.' 4.2. being upset because they taught the people and proclaimed in Jesus the resurrection from the dead. 5.36. For before these days Theudas rose up, making himself out to be somebody; to whom a number of men, about four hundred, joined themselves: who was slain; and all, as many as obeyed him, were dispersed, and came to nothing. 6.1. Now in those days, when the number of the disciples was multiplying, there arose a grumbling of the Grecian Jews against the Hebrews because their widows were neglected in the daily service. 7.2. He said, "Brothers and fathers, listen. The God of glory appeared to our father Abraham, when he was in Mesopotamia, before he lived in Haran 7.5. He gave him no inheritance in it, no, not so much as to set his foot on. He promised that he would give it to him in possession, and to his seed after him, when he still had no child. 7.6. God spoke in this way: that his seed would live as aliens in a strange land, and that they would be enslaved and mistreated for four hundred years. 8.6. The multitudes listened with one accord to the things that were spoken by Philip, when they heard and saw the signs which he did. 8.7. For unclean spirits came out of many of those who had them. They came out, crying with a loud voice. Many who had been paralyzed and lame were healed. 8.11. They listened to him, because for a long time he had amazed them with his sorceries. 9.2. and asked for letters from him to the synagogues of Damascus, that if he found any who were of the Way, whether men or women, he might bring them bound to Jerusalem. 9.7. The men who traveled with him stood speechless, hearing the voice, but seeing no one. 9.8. Saul arose from the ground, and when his eyes were opened, he saw no one. They led him by the hand, and brought him into Damascus. 11.1. Now the apostles and the brothers who were in Judea heard that the Gentiles had also received the word of God. 13.23. From this man's seed, God has brought salvation to Israel according to his promise 13.26. Brothers, children of the stock of Abraham, and those among you who fear God, the word of this salvation is sent out to you. 15.1. Some men came down from Judea and taught the brothers, "Unless you are circumcised after the custom of Moses, you can't be saved. 16.17. The same, following after Paul and us, cried out, "These men are servants of the Most High God, who proclaim to us the way of salvation! 16.18. This she did for many days. But Paul, becoming greatly annoyed, turned and said to the spirit, "I charge you in the name of Jesus Christ to come out of her!" It came out that very hour. 18.25. This man had been instructed in the way of the Lord; and being fervent in spirit, he spoke and taught accurately the things concerning Jesus, although he knew only the baptism of John. 19.13. But some of the itinerant Jews, exorcists, took on themselves to name over those who had the evil spirits the name of the Lord Jesus, saying, "We adjure you by Jesus whom Paul preaches. 19.14. There were seven sons of one Sceva, a Jewish chief priest, who did this. 19.15. The evil spirit answered, "Jesus I know, and Paul I know, but who are you? 19.16. The man in whom the evil spirit was leaped on them, and overpowered them, and prevailed against them, so that they fled out of that house naked and wounded. 19.17. This became known to all, both Jews and Greeks, who lived at Ephesus. Fear fell on them all, and the name of the Lord Jesus was magnified. 19.23. About that time there arose no small stir concerning the Way. 21.20. They, when they heard it, glorified God. They said to him, "You see, brother, how many thousands there are among the Jews of those who have believed, and they are all zealous for the law. 21.21. They have been informed about you, that you teach all the Jews who are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, telling them not to circumcise their children neither to walk after the customs. 21.22. What then? The assembly must certainly meet, for they will hear that you have come. 21.23. Therefore do what we tell you. We have four men who have a vow on them. 21.24. Take them, and purify yourself with them, and pay their expenses for them, that they may shave their heads. Then all will know that there is no truth in the things that they have been informed about you, but that you yourself also walk keeping the law. 21.25. But concerning the Gentiles who believe, we have written our decision that they should observe no such thing, except that they should keep themselves from food offered to idols, from blood, from strangled things, and from sexual immorality. 21.26. Then Paul took the men, and the next day, purified himself and went with them into the temple, declaring the fulfillment of the days of purification, until the offering was offered for every one of them. 21.27. When the seven days were almost completed, the Jews from Asia, when they saw him in the temple, stirred up all the multitude and laid hands on him 21.28. crying out, "Men of Israel, help! This is the man who teaches all men everywhere against the people, and the law, and this place. Moreover, he also brought Greeks into the temple, and has defiled this holy place! 21.29. For they had seen Trophimus, the Ephesian, with him in the city, and they supposed that Paul had brought him into the temple. 21.30. All the city was moved, and the people ran together. They seized Paul and dragged him out of the temple. Immediately the doors were shut. 22.3. I am indeed a Jew, born in Tarsus of Cilicia, but brought up in this city at the feet of Gamaliel, instructed according to the strict manner of the law of our fathers, being zealous for God, even as you all are this day. 22.4. I persecuted this Way to the death, binding and delivering into prisons both men and women. 22.14. He said, 'The God of our fathers has appointed you to know his will, and to see the Righteous One, and to hear a voice from his mouth. 22.22. They listened to him until he said that, then they lifted up their voice, and said, "Rid the earth of this fellow, for he isn't fit to live! 22.25. When they had tied him up with thongs, Paul asked the centurion who stood by, "Is it lawful for you to scourge a man who is a Roman, and not found guilty? 22.26. When the centurion heard it, he went to the commanding officer and told him, "Watch what you are about to do, for this man is a Roman!
24. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.20, 2.9, 3.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.20. the mystery of the seven stars which you saw in my right hand, and the seven golden lampstands. The seven stars are the angels of the seven assemblies. The seven lampstands are seven assemblies. 2.9. I know your works, oppression, and your poverty (but you are rich), and the blasphemy of those who say they are Jews, and they are not, but are a synagogue of Satan. 3.9. Behold, I give of the synagogue of Satan, of those who say they are Jews, and they are not, but lie. Behold, I will make them to come and worship before your feet, and to know that I have loved you.
25. New Testament, James, 2.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.21. Wasn't Abraham our father justified by works, in that he offered up Isaac his son on the altar?
26. New Testament, Colossians, 2.11, 3.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. in whom you were also circumcised with a circumcision not made with hands, in the putting off of the body of the sins of the flesh, in the circumcision of Christ; 3.11. where there can't be Greek and Jew, circumcision and uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, bondservant, freeman; but Christ is all, and in all.
27. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.5, 2.11-2.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. having predestined us for adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his desire 2.11. Therefore remember that once you, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called "uncircumcision" by that which is called "circumcision," (in the flesh, made by hands); 2.12. that you were at that time separate from Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covets of the promise, having no hope and without God in the world. 2.13. But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off are made near in the blood of Christ.
28. New Testament, Galatians, 1.7-1.9, 1.11-1.17, 2.3-2.4, 2.7-2.10, 2.15, 3.1-3.5, 3.7, 3.16, 3.19, 3.28-3.29, 4.1-4.5, 5.2-5.8, 5.11-5.12, 5.16-5.25, 6.8, 6.12-6.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. and there isn'tanother gospel. Only there are some who trouble you, and want topervert the gospel of Christ. 1.8. But even though we, or an angelfrom heaven, should preach to you any gospel other than that which wepreached to you, let him be cursed. 1.9. As we have said before, so Inow say again: if any man preaches to you any gospel other than thatwhich you received, let him be cursed. 1.11. But Imake known to you, brothers, concerning the gospel which was preachedby me, that it is not according to man. 1.12. For neither did Ireceive it from man, nor was I taught it, but it came to me throughrevelation of Jesus Christ. 1.13. For you have heard of my way ofliving in time past in the Jews' religion, how that beyond measure Ipersecuted the assembly of God, and ravaged it. 1.14. I advanced inthe Jews' religion beyond many of my own age among my countrymen, beingmore exceedingly zealous for the traditions of my fathers. 1.15. Butwhen it was the good pleasure of God, who separated me from my mother'swomb, and called me through his grace 1.16. to reveal his Son in me,that I might preach him among the Gentiles, I didn't immediately conferwith flesh and blood 1.17. nor did I go up to Jerusalem to those whowere apostles before me, but I went away into Arabia. Then I returnedto Damascus. 2.3. But not even Titus, whowas with me, being a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised. 2.4. Thiswas because of the false brothers secretly brought in, who stole in tospy out our liberty which we have in Christ Jesus, that they mightbring us into bondage; 2.7. but to the contrary, when they saw that Ihad been entrusted with the gospel for the uncircumcision, even asPeter with the gospel for the circumcision 2.8. (for he who appointedPeter to the apostleship of the circumcision appointed me also to theGentiles); 2.9. and when they perceived the grace that was given tome, James and Cephas and John, they who were reputed to be pillars,gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, that we should goto the Gentiles, and they to the circumcision. 2.10. They only askedus to remember the poor -- which very thing I was also zealous to do. 2.15. We, being Jews by nature, and not Gentile sinners 3.1. Foolish Galatians, who has bewitched you not to obey thetruth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ was openly set forth among you as crucified? 3.2. I just want to learn this from you. Did you receivethe Spirit by the works of the law, or by hearing of faith? 3.3. Areyou so foolish? Having begun in the Spirit, are you now completed inthe flesh? 3.4. Did you suffer so many things in vain, if it is indeedin vain? 3.5. He therefore who supplies the Spirit to you, and worksmiracles among you, does he do it by the works of the law, or byhearing of faith? 3.7. Know therefore that those whoare of faith, the same are sons of Abraham. 3.16. Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and tohis seed. He doesn't say, "To seeds," as of many, but as of one, "Toyour seed," which is Christ. 3.19. What then is the law? It was added because of transgressions,until the seed should come to whom the promise has been made. It wasordained through angels by the hand of a mediator. 3.28. There is neither Jewnor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither malenor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. 3.29. If you are Christ's, then you are Abraham's seed and heirs according to promise. 4.1. But I say that so long as the heir is a child, he is nodifferent from a bondservant, though he is lord of all; 4.2. but isunder guardians and stewards until the day appointed by the father. 4.3. So we also, when we were children, were held in bondage under theelements of the world. 4.4. But when the fullness of the time came,God sent out his Son, born to a woman, born under the law 4.5. thathe might redeem those who were under the law, that we might receive theadoption of sons. 5.2. Behold, I, Paul, tell you that if you receive circumcision, Christ willprofit you nothing. 5.3. Yes, I testify again to every man whoreceives circumcision, that he is a debtor to do the whole law. 5.4. You are alienated from Christ, you who desire to be justified by thelaw. You have fallen away from grace. 5.5. For we, through the Spirit,by faith wait for the hope of righteousness. 5.6. For in Christ Jesusneither circumcision amounts to anything, nor uncircumcision, but faithworking through love. 5.7. You were running well! Who interfered withyou that you should not obey the truth? 5.8. This persuasion is notfrom him who calls you. 5.11. But I, brothers, if I still preach circumcision, why am Istill persecuted? Then the stumbling-block of the cross has beenremoved. 5.12. I wish that those who disturb you would cut themselvesoff. 5.16. But I say, walk by the Spirit, and you won't fulfill the lust ofthe flesh. 5.17. For the flesh lusts against the Spirit, and theSpirit against the flesh; and these are contrary to one other, that youmay not do the things that you desire. 5.18. But if you are led by theSpirit, you are not under the law. 5.19. Now the works of the fleshare obvious, which are: adultery, sexual immorality, uncleanness,lustfulness 5.20. idolatry, sorcery, hatred, strife, jealousies,outbursts of anger, rivalries, divisions, heresies 5.21. envyings,murders, drunkenness, orgies, and things like these; of which Iforewarn you, even as I also forewarned you, that those who practicesuch things will not inherit the Kingdom of God. 5.22. But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience,kindness, goodness, faithfulness 5.23. gentleness, and self-control.Against such things there is no law. 5.24. Those who belong to Christhave crucified the flesh with its passions and lusts. 5.25. If we liveby the Spirit, let's also walk by the Spirit. 6.8. For hewho sows to his own flesh will from the flesh reap corruption. But hewho sows to the Spirit will from the Spirit reap eternal life. 6.12. As many as desire to look good in the flesh, they compel you tobe circumcised; only that they may not be persecuted for the cross ofChrist. 6.13. For even they who receive circumcision don't keep thelaw themselves, but they desire to have you circumcised, that they mayboast in your flesh. 6.14. But far be it from me to boast, except inthe cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through which the world has beencrucified to me, and I to the world. 6.15. For in Christ Jesus neitheris circumcision anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation. 6.16. As many as walk by this rule, peace and mercy be on them, and onGod's Israel.
29. New Testament, Hebrews, 2.16, 7.5, 9.22, 11.11, 11.18, 13.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.16. For most assuredly, not to angels does he give help, but he gives help to the seed of Abraham. 7.5. They indeed of the sons of Levi who receive the priest's office have a commandment to take tithes of the people according to the law, that is, of their brothers, though these have come out of the loins of Abraham 9.22. According to the law, nearly everything is cleansed with blood, and apart from shedding of blood there is no remission. 11.11. By faith, even Sarah herself received power to conceive, and she bore a child when she was past age, since she counted him faithful who had promised. 11.18. even he to whom it was said, "In Isaac will your seed be called; 13.10. We have an altar from which those who serve the holy tabernacle have no right to eat.
30. New Testament, Philippians, 1.1, 3.2-3.7, 3.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul and Timothy, servants of Jesus Christ; To all the saints in Christ Jesus who are at Philippi, with the overseers and deacons: 3.2. Beware of the dogs, beware of the evil workers, beware of the false circumcision. 3.3. For we are the circumcision, who worship God in the Spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh; 3.4. though I myself might have confidence even in the flesh. If any other man thinks that he has confidence in the flesh, I yet more: 3.5. circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; concerning the law, a Pharisee; 3.6. concerning zeal, persecuting the assembly; concerning the righteousness which is in the law, found blameless. 3.7. However, what things were gain to me, these have I counted loss for Christ. 3.17. Brothers, be imitators together of me, and note those who walk this way, even as you have us for an example.
31. New Testament, Romans, 1.1-1.16, 2.9, 2.17-2.29, 3.8, 3.29-3.31, 4.1, 4.11-4.13, 4.16-4.18, 7.5-7.7, 8.4-8.5, 8.12-8.21, 8.23, 9.2-9.8, 9.24-9.27, 9.29-9.31, 10.1, 10.12, 10.19, 10.21, 11.1-11.2, 11.7-11.10, 11.13-11.14, 11.25-11.26, 15.10, 15.14, 15.17-15.19, 15.24, 15.30-15.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God 1.2. which he promised before through his prophets in the holy Scriptures 1.3. concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh 1.4. who was declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord 1.5. through whom we received grace and apostleship, for obedience of faith among all the nations, for his name's sake; 1.6. among whom you are also called to belong to Jesus Christ; 1.7. to all who are in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 1.8. First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for all of you, that your faith is proclaimed throughout the whole world. 1.9. For God is my witness, whom I serve in my spirit in the gospel of his Son, how unceasingly I make mention of you always in my prayers 1.10. requesting, if by any means now at last I may be prospered by the will of God to come to you. 1.11. For I long to see you, that I may impart to you some spiritual gift, to the end that you may be established; 1.12. that is, that I with you may be encouraged in you, each of us by the other's faith, both yours and mine. 1.13. Now I don't desire to have you unaware, brothers, that I often planned to come to you, and was hindered so far, that I might have some fruit among you also, even as among the rest of the Gentiles. 1.14. I am debtor both to Greeks and to foreigners, both to the wise and to the foolish. 1.15. So, as much as is in me, I am eager to preach the gospel to you also who are in Rome. 1.16. For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God for salvation for everyone who believes; for the Jew first, and also for the Greek. 2.9. oppression and anguish, on every soul of man who works evil, on the Jew first, and also on the Greek. 2.17. Indeed you bear the name of a Jew, and rest on the law, and glory in God 2.18. and know his will, and approve the things that are excellent, being instructed out of the law 2.19. and are confident that you yourself are a guide of the blind, a light to those who are in darkness 2.20. a corrector of the foolish, a teacher of babies, having in the law the form of knowledge and of the truth. 2.21. You therefore who teach another, don't you teach yourself? You who preach that a man shouldn't steal, do you steal? 2.22. You who say a man shouldn't commit adultery, do you commit adultery? You who abhor idols, do you rob temples? 2.23. You who glory in the law, through your disobedience of the law do you dishonor God? 2.24. For "the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you," just as it is written. 2.25. For circumcision indeed profits, if you are a doer of the law, but if you are a transgressor of the law, your circumcision has become uncircumcision. 2.26. If therefore the uncircumcised keep the ordices of the law, won't his uncircumcision be accounted as circumcision? 2.27. Won't the uncircumcision which is by nature, if it fulfills the law, judge you, who with the letter and circumcision are a transgressor of the law? 2.28. For he is not a Jew who is one outwardly, neither is that circumcision which is outward in the flesh; 2.29. but he is a Jew who is one inwardly, and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit not in the letter; whose praise is not from men, but from God. 3.8. Why not (as we are slanderously reported, and as some affirm that we say), "Let us do evil, that good may come?" Those who say so are justly condemned. 3.29. Or is God the God of Jews only? Isn't he the God of Gentiles also? Yes, of Gentiles also 3.30. since indeed there is one God who will justify the circumcised by faith, and the uncircumcised through faith. 3.31. Do we then nullify the law through faith? May it never be! No, we establish the law. 4.1. What then will we say that Abraham, our forefather, has found according to the flesh? 4.11. He received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had while he was in uncircumcision, that he might be the father of all those who believe, though they be in uncircumcision, that righteousness might also be accounted to them. 4.12. The father of circumcision to those who not only are of the circumcision, but who also walk in the steps of that faith of our father Abraham, which he had in uncircumcision. 4.13. For the promise to Abraham and to his seed that he should be heir of the world wasn't through the law, but through the righteousness of faith. 4.16. For this cause it is of faith, that it may be according to grace, to the end that the promise may be sure to all the seed, not to that only which is of the law, but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all. 4.17. As it is written, "I have made you a father of many nations." This is in the presence of him whom he believed: God, who gives life to the dead, and calls the things that are not, as though they were. 4.18. Who in hope believed against hope, to the end that he might become a father of many nations, according to that which had been spoken, "So will your seed be. 7.5. For when we were in the flesh, the sinful passions which were through the law, worked in our members to bring forth fruit to death. 7.6. But now we have been discharged from the law, having died to that in which we were held; so that we serve in newness of the spirit, and not in oldness of the letter. 7.7. What shall we say then? Is the law sin? May it never be! However, I wouldn't have known sin, except through the law. For I wouldn't have known coveting, unless the law had said, "You shall not covet. 8.4. that the ordice of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. 8.5. For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit, the things of the Spirit. 8.12. So then, brothers, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live after the flesh. 8.13. For if you live after the flesh, you must die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live. 8.14. For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, these are children of God. 8.15. For you didn't receive the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you received the Spirit of adoption, by whom we cry, "Abba! Father! 8.16. The Spirit himself testifies with our spirit that we are children of God; 8.17. and if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if indeed we suffer with him, that we may also be glorified with him. 8.18. For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which will be revealed toward us. 8.19. For the creation waits with eager expectation for the sons of God to be revealed. 8.20. For the creation was subjected to vanity, not of its own will, but because of him who subjected it, in hope 8.21. that the creation itself also will be delivered from the bondage of decay into the liberty of the glory of the children of God. 8.23. Not only so, but ourselves also, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for adoption, the redemption of our body. 9.2. that I have great sorrow and unceasing pain in my heart. 9.3. For I could wish that I myself were accursed from Christ for my brothers' sake, my relatives according to the flesh 9.4. who are Israelites; whose is the adoption, the glory, the covets, the giving of the law, the service, and the promises; 9.5. of whom are the fathers, and from whom is Christ as concerning the flesh, who is over all, God, blessed forever. Amen. 9.6. But it is not as though the word of God has come to nothing. For they are not all Israel, that are of Israel. 9.7. Neither, because they are Abraham's seed, are they all children. But, "In Isaac will your seed be called. 9.8. That is, it is not the children of the flesh who are children of God, but the children of the promise are counted as a seed. 9.24. us, whom he also called, not from the Jews only, but also from the Gentiles? 9.25. As he says also in Hosea, "I will call them 'my people,' which were not my people; And her 'beloved,' who was not beloved. 9.26. It will be that in the place where it was said to them, 'You are not my people,' There they will be called 'sons of the living God.' 9.27. Isaiah cries concerning Israel, "If the number of the children of Israel are as the sand of the sea, It is the remt who will be saved; 9.29. As Isaiah has said before, "Unless the Lord of Hosts had left us a seed, We would have become like Sodom, And would have been made like Gomorrah. 9.30. What shall we say then? That the Gentiles, who didn't follow after righteousness, attained to righteousness, even the righteousness which is of faith; 9.31. but Israel, following after a law of righteousness, didn't arrive at the law of righteousness. 10.1. Brothers, my heart's desire and my prayer to God is for Israel, that they may be saved. 10.12. For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; for the same Lord is Lord of all, and is rich to all who call on him. 10.19. But I ask, didn't Israel know? First Moses says, "I will provoke you to jealousy with that which is no nation, With a nation void of understanding I will make you angry. 10.21. But as to Israel he says, "All day long I stretched out my hands to a disobedient and contrary people. 11.1. I ask then, Did God reject his people? May it never be! For I also am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. 11.2. God didn't reject his people, which he foreknew. Or don't you know what the Scripture says about Elijah? How he pleads with God against Israel: 11.7. What then? That which Israel seeks for, that he didn't obtain, but the elect obtained it, and the rest were hardened. 11.8. According as it is written, "God gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear, to this very day. 11.9. David says, "Let their table be made a snare, and a trap, A stumbling block, and a retribution to them. 11.10. Let their eyes be darkened, that they may not see. Bow down their back always. 11.13. For I speak to you who are Gentiles. Since then as I am an apostle to Gentiles, I glorify my ministry; 11.14. if by any means I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh, and may save some of them. 11.25. For I don't desire, brothers, to have you ignorant of this mystery, so that you won't be wise in your own conceits, that a partial hardening has happened to Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in 11.26. and so all Israel will be saved. Even as it is written, "There will come out of Zion the Deliverer, And he will turn away ungodliness from Jacob. 15.10. Again he says, "Rejoice, you Gentiles, with his people. 15.14. I myself am also persuaded about you, my brothers, that you yourselves are full of goodness, filled with all knowledge, able also to admonish others. 15.17. I have therefore my boasting in Christ Jesus in things pertaining to God. 15.18. For I will not dare to speak of any things except those which Christ worked through me, for the obedience of the Gentiles, by word and deed 15.19. in the power of signs and wonders, in the power of God's Spirit; so that from Jerusalem, and around as far as to Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Christ; 15.24. whenever I journey to Spain, I will come to you. For I hope to see you on my journey, and to be helped on my way there by you, if first I may enjoy your company for a while. 15.30. Now I beg you, brothers, by our Lord Jesus Christ, and by the love of the Spirit, that you strive together with me in your prayers to God for me 15.31. that I may be delivered from those who are disobedient in Judea, and that my service which I have for Jerusalem may be acceptable to the saints;
32. New Testament, John, 7.42, 8.33, 8.37, 8.39, 8.53, 9.22, 12.42, 16.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.42. Hasn't the Scripture said that the Christ comes of the seed of David, and from Bethlehem, the village where David was? 8.33. They answered him, "We are Abraham's seed, and have never been in bondage to anyone. How do you say, 'You will be made free?' 8.37. I know that you are Abraham's seed, yet you seek to kill me, because my word finds no place in you. 8.39. They answered him, "Our father is Abraham."Jesus said to them, "If you were Abraham's children, you would do the works of Abraham. 8.53. Are you greater than our father, Abraham, who died? The prophets died. Who do you make yourself out to be? 9.22. His parents said these things because they feared the Jews; for the Jews had already agreed that if any man would confess him as Christ, he would be put out of the synagogue. 12.42. Nevertheless even of the rulers many believed in him, but because of the Pharisees they didn't confess it, so that they wouldn't be put out of the synagogue 16.2. They will put you out of the synagogues. Yes, the time comes that whoever kills you will think that he offers service to God.
33. New Testament, Luke, 1.55, 1.73, 3.8, 10.1-10.12, 19.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.55. As he spoke to our fathers, To Abraham and his seed forever. 1.73. The oath which he spoke to Abraham, our father 3.8. Bring forth therefore fruits worthy of repentance, and don't begin to say among yourselves, 'We have Abraham for our father;' for I tell you that God is able to raise up children to Abraham from these stones! 10.1. Now after these things, the Lord also appointed seventy others, and sent them two by two before his face into every city and place, where he was about to come. 10.2. Then he said to them, "The harvest is indeed plentiful, but the laborers are few. Pray therefore to the Lord of the harvest, that he may send out laborers into his harvest. 10.3. Go your ways. Behold, I send you out as lambs among wolves. 10.4. Carry no purse, nor wallet, nor sandals. Greet no one on the way. 10.5. Into whatever house you enter, first say, 'Peace be to this house.' 10.6. If a son of peace is there, your peace will rest on him; but if not, it will return to you. 10.7. Remain in that same house, eating and drinking the things they give, for the laborer is worthy of his wages. Don't go from house to house. 10.8. Into whatever city you enter, and they receive you, eat the things that are set before you. 10.9. Heal the sick who are therein, and tell them, 'The Kingdom of God has come near to you.' 10.10. But into whatever city you enter, and they don't receive you, go out into the streets of it and say 10.11. 'Even the dust from your city that clings to us, we wipe off against you. Nevertheless know this, that the Kingdom of God has come near to you.' 10.12. I tell you, it will be more tolerable in that day for Sodom than for that city. 19.9. Jesus said to him, "Today, salvation has come to this house, because he also is a son of Abraham.
34. New Testament, Matthew, 3.9, 28.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.9. Don't think to yourselves, 'We have Abraham for our father,' for I tell you that God is able to raise up children to Abraham from these stones. 28.20. teaching them to observe all things which I commanded you. Behold, I am with you always, even to the end of the age." Amen.
35. Tosefta, Hulin, 2.19-2.24 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

36. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 4.19 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.19. Those born in Leo are of the following description: round head, reddish hair, huge wrinkled forehead, coarse ears, large development of neck, partly bald, red complexion, grey eyes, large jaws, coarse mouth, gross in the upper parts, huge breast, the under limbs tapering. The same are by nature persons who allow nothing to interfere with their own decision, pleasing themselves, irascible, passionate, scorners, obstinate, forming no design, not loquacious, indolent, making an improper use of leisure, familiar, wholly abandoned to pleasures of women, adulterers, immodest, in faith untrue, importunate, daring, penurious, spoliators, remarkable; as regards fellowship, useful; as regards friendship, useless.
37. Justin, First Apology, 13 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13. What sober-minded man, then, will not acknowledge that we are not atheists, worshipping as we do the Maker of this universe, and declaring, as we have been taught, that He has no need of streams of blood and libations and incense; whom we praise to the utmost of our power by the exercise of prayer and thanksgiving for all things wherewith we are supplied, as we have been taught that the only honour that is worthy of Him is not to consume by fire what He has brought into being for our sustece, but to use it for ourselves and those who need, and with gratitude to Him to offer thanks by invocations and hymns for our creation, and for all the means of health, and for the various qualities of the different kinds of things, and for the changes of the seasons; and to present before Him petitions for our existing again in incorruption through faith in Him. Our teacher of these things is Jesus Christ, who also was born for this purpose, and was crucified under Pontius Pilate, procurator of Jud a, in the times of Tiberius C sar; and that we reasonably worship Him, having learned that He is the Son of the true God Himself, and holding Him in the second place, and the prophetic Spirit in the third, we will prove. For they proclaim our madness to consist in this, that we give to a crucified man a place second to the unchangeable and eternal God, the Creator of all; for they do not discern the mystery that is herein, to which, as we make it plain to you, we pray you to give heed.
38. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 80.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Justin: It is this about which we are at a loss, and with reason, because, while you endure such things, you do not observe all the other customs which we are now discussing. This circumcision is not, however, necessary for all men, but for you alone, in order that, as I have already said, you may suffer these things which you now justly suffer. Nor do we receive that useless baptism of cisterns, for it has nothing to do with this baptism of life. Wherefore also God has announced that you have forsaken Him, the living fountain, and dug for yourselves broken cisterns which can hold no water. Even you, who are the circumcised according to the flesh, have need of our circumcision; but we, having the latter, do not require the former. For if it were necessary, as you suppose, God would not have made Adam uncircumcised; would not have had respect to the gifts of Abel when, being uncircumcised, he offered sacrifice and would not have been pleased with the uncircumcision of Enoch, who was not found, because God had translated him. Lot, being uncircumcised, was saved from Sodom, the angels themselves and the Lord sending him out. Noah was the beginning of our race; yet, uncircumcised, along with his children he went into the ark. Melchizedek, the priest of the Most High, was uncircumcised; to whom also Abraham the first who received circumcision after the flesh, gave tithes, and he blessed him: after whose order God declared, by the mouth of David, that He would establish the everlasting priest. Therefore to you alone this circumcision was necessary, in order that the people may be no people, and the nation no nation; as also Hosea, one of the twelve prophets, declares. Moreover, all those righteous men already mentioned, though they kept no Sabbaths, were pleasing to God; and after them Abraham with all his descendants until Moses, under whom your nation appeared unrighteous and ungrateful to God, making a calf in the wilderness: wherefore God, accommodating Himself to that nation, enjoined them also to offer sacrifices, as if to His name, in order that you might not serve idols. Which precept, however, you have not observed; nay, you sacrificed your children to demons. And you were commanded to keep Sabbaths, that you might retain the memorial of God. For His word makes this announcement, saying, 'That you may know that I am God who redeemed you.' Ezekiel 20:12
39. Lucian, Hermotimus, Or Sects, 81 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

40. Minucius Felix, Octavius, 9 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

41. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 6.104 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.104. So they get rid of geometry and music and all such studies. Anyhow, when somebody showed Diogenes a clock, he pronounced it a serviceable instrument to save one from being late for dinner. Again, to a man who gave a musical recital before him he said:By men's minds states are ordered well, and households,Not by the lyre's twanged strings or flute's trilled notes.They hold further that Life according to Virtue is the End to be sought, as Antisthenes says in his Heracles: exactly like the Stoics. For indeed there is a certain close relationship between the two schools. Hence it has been said that Cynicism is a short cut to virtue; and after the same pattern did Zeno of Citium live his life.
42. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 3.5.3 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

3.5.3. But the people of the church in Jerusalem had been commanded by a revelation, vouchsafed to approved men there before the war, to leave the city and to dwell in a certain town of Perea called Pella. And when those that believed in Christ had come there from Jerusalem, then, as if the royal city of the Jews and the whole land of Judea were entirely destitute of holy men, the judgment of God at length overtook those who had committed such outrages against Christ and his apostles, and totally destroyed that generation of impious men.
43. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Thomas, 43 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

44. Nag Hammadi, The Tripartite Tractate, 110.22-110.32 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 191, 192, 193; Marcar, Divine Regeneration and Ethnic Identity in 1 Peter: Mapping Metaphors of Family, Race, and Nation (2022) 149; Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 118
agrippa i Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376
alexandria, synagogue in alexandria Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 149
amoraic midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 181
amulets Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 108
ancestry, genealogy Marcar, Divine Regeneration and Ethnic Identity in 1 Peter: Mapping Metaphors of Family, Race, and Nation (2022) 149
angels Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 108
antioch (syrian) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376
antisthenes Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164
apocalyptic(ism) (see also dualism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 454
apokalypto/apokalypsis Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 381
apollos, new testament image of Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 339
apollos Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 339
apostle Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 764; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376, 454
apostles Dijkstra, The Early Reception and Appropriation of the Apostle Peter (60-800 CE): The Anchors of the Fisherman (2020) 44
apostleship, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164
apostleship Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 381
aramaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 181, 454
armament, pauls Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164
armament Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164
artapanus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 175
ascent to heaven Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 381
asia minor Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376
audience Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 198
augustine Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 181
authority(ies) Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 108
barnabas Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376
beatings Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 198
benjamin, tribe of Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 149
boasting Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 381
boldness, cynic Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 764
christianity, early history Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 141
churches/tradition of paul pauline Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 181, 454
circumcision Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 141; Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 149; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 175; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 181, 376
clement of rome Dijkstra, The Early Reception and Appropriation of the Apostle Peter (60-800 CE): The Anchors of the Fisherman (2020) 44
community, corinth Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 167
conflict, of jews and christians (parting of the ways) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 181, 601
corinth, corinthian christian community Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 339
corinth Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376
corinthians Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 191, 193
culture, cultural affiliations in galilee Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 141
cynics/cynicism, superiority Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 764
cynics/cynicism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164, 764
d/demonisation Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 108
deliver/deliverance Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 108
diaspora, judaism in the diaspora Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 149
diaspora Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 175; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376
east, the Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 71
ecstasis, ecstasy, ecstatic, ex stasis Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 198
epictetus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 764
epigraphic texts Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 246
episkopos Dijkstra, The Early Reception and Appropriation of the Apostle Peter (60-800 CE): The Anchors of the Fisherman (2020) 44
ethnic reasoning, jewish Marcar, Divine Regeneration and Ethnic Identity in 1 Peter: Mapping Metaphors of Family, Race, and Nation (2022) 149
ethnos/ethne, as gentiles Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 191
ethnos/ethne, in paul Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 191
excommunication Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 601
exegesis Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 167
exorcisms/exorcise/exorcists/exorcistic Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 108
ezekiel, tragedian, hebraios, use of Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 175
ezekiel, tragedian Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 175
family Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 366
first letter of paul to timothy Dijkstra, The Early Reception and Appropriation of the Apostle Peter (60-800 CE): The Anchors of the Fisherman (2020) 44
freedpersons (and their descendants), manumission Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 71
galatians, letter to the Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 381
genos/gene/gens/genus, in paul Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 193
gentile christians Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 71
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 181, 376
gentiles, as contrast with jews Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 191
glory, of moses Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 167
glory Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 167
gnosticism, valentinian gnosticism, jewish thought in Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 118
gospel of the circumcision Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 454
greek, ethnos Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 181
habitus Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 198
hardships Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164
heal/healers/healings Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 108
hebraios, ethnic label Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 175
hebrew Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 246
hebrew language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 454
hebrews/israelites, and paul Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 191, 192, 193
hebrews Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 140
hellenism, hellenistic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 181, 454
humiliores Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 71
idolatry, in paul Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 191
ignatius of antioch Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 22
incantations Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 108
index of subjects, shammaite) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 601
interpretation, christian Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 167
interpretation, hellenistic jewish Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 167
interpretation, polemical Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 167
invoke/invocations Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 108
israel Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 246
james (brother of jesus), death of Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 141
james (brother of jesus) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376
jerusalem Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 108
jerusalem church Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 454
jesus/christ Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 167
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 454
jesus christ Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 191
jew, in christian discourse Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 246
jew Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 246; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 366
jewish christians Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 149; Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 71
jews, graeco-roman views of Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 246
jews, jewish Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 71
jews, judaism Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 140
jews/judeans/ioudaioi, and ethnic vocabulary in paul Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 191, 192, 193
jews/judeans/ioudaioi, and idolatry Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 191
jews/judeans/ioudaioi, and non-jews in paul Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 193
john the baptist, and baptist groups Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 339
josephus Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 167
judah Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 118
judaism Dijkstra, The Early Reception and Appropriation of the Apostle Peter (60-800 CE): The Anchors of the Fisherman (2020) 44
judas, as abraham-like figure Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 118
judea (region) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376
justin martyr Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 764
law, 2 corinthians Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 167
law, christianity Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 167
law in paul Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376
lineage and genealogy as identity marker, in paul Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 191, 192, 193
lucian Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 764
luke Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376
medicines/medical Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 108
messiah Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 454
moses, appearance Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 167
moses, art Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 167
moses, hebraios, use of Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 175
moses, legislator Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 167
moses, pagan literature Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 167
moses, polemics Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 167
moses Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 167; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376, 454
nation Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 366
non-jew Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 366
palestine Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 339
parallels/parallelism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164
paul, apostle, travels Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 86
paul, jewishness of Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 123
paul, seer of revelation compared Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 22
paul Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 167; Dijkstra, The Early Reception and Appropriation of the Apostle Peter (60-800 CE): The Anchors of the Fisherman (2020) 44; Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 149; Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 191, 192, 193; Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 71; Marcar, Divine Regeneration and Ethnic Identity in 1 Peter: Mapping Metaphors of Family, Race, and Nation (2022) 149; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 381
paul (apostle) Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 140
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 181, 376, 454, 601
paul of tarsus, and apollos Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 339
paul pharisee Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 601
pauline writings Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 339
pella, flight to Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 141
peregrinus proteus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 764
peristasis catalogue Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164
philo of alexandria Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 167
philosopher Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 764
pleasure Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164
polemics Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 167
power, power of god, powers Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 381
proselytes Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 71; Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 140
purification ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376
rabbis Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 601
revelation Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 167; Nicklas et al., Other Worlds and Their Relation to This World: Early Jewish and Ancient Christian Traditions (2010) 214
roads Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 86
roll, israel Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 86
roman, empire Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376
sacrifice, and atonement Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 1012
sacrifices, of humans Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 118
sacrifices, of jesus Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 118
samaritans Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 140
satan Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 108
sebomenoi Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 71
sects, sectarianism, jewish Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 246
seer of revelation, christs voice/witness of jesus, functioning as Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 22
seer of revelation, communities and churches of asia, relationship to Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 22
seer of revelation, ignatius of antioch compared Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 22
seer of revelation, paul compared Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 22
seer of revelation Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 22
self-understanding, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164
septuagint Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 601
shaman Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 198
sinai Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 167
socially elevated Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 71
sophistry Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 167
spirit Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 167
spirits, evil Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 108
stoicism, cosmology Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164
stoicism, divine commission Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 764
stoicism, military imagery Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164
stoicism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164; Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 339
superiority Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 764
synagogues Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 149
syria Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 339
temple Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 1012
temple ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376
tiberius julius alexander' Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 149
timothy Dijkstra, The Early Reception and Appropriation of the Apostle Peter (60-800 CE): The Anchors of the Fisherman (2020) 44
trauma Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 198
valentinus, valentinianism Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 140
values/character as identity marker, for paul Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 191, 192
vice Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 764
virtue Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 764
vision Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 381
vision of christ Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 381
weakness Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164
weapon Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 164
worship/ritual/cult as identity markers, for jews in paul Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 191
yavne Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 601
yehuda (yuda), r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 601
zeal (for the law) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 376