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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8236
New Testament, 1 Timothy, 3.6-3.7


μὴ νεόφυτον, ἵνα μὴ τυφωθεὶς εἰς κρίμα ἐμπέσῃ τοῦ διαβόλου.not a new convert, lest being puffed up he fall into the same condemnation as the devil.


δεῖ δὲ καὶ μαρτυρίαν καλὴν ἔχειν ἀπὸ τῶν ἔξωθεν, ἵνα μὴ εἰς ὀνειδισμὸν ἐμπέσῃ καὶ παγίδα τοῦ διαβόλου.Moreover he must have good testimony from those who are outside, to avoid falling into reproach and the snare of the devil.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

52 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.4. שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד׃ 6.4. HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE."
2. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 115.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

115.3. וֵאלֹהֵינוּ בַשָּׁמָיִם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־חָפֵץ עָשָׂה׃ 115.3. But our God is in the heavens; Whatsoever pleased Him He hath done."
3. Plato, Gorgias, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

520a. Call. I do; but what is one to say of such worthless people? Soc. And what is one to say of those who, professing to govern the state and take every care that she be as good as possible, turn upon her and accuse her, any time it suits them, of being utterly wicked? Do you see any difference between these men and the others? Sophist and orator, my estimable friend, are the same thing, or very much of a piece, as I was telling Polus; but you in your ignorance think the one thing
4. Xenophon, Memoirs, 2.2.4-2.2.5 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2.2.4. of course you don’t suppose that lust provokes men to beget children, when the streets and the stews are full of means to satisfy that? We obviously select for wives the women who will bear us the best children, and then marry them to raise a family. 2.2.5. The man supports the woman who is to share with him the duty of parentage and provides for the expected children whatever he thinks will contribute to their benefit in life, and accumulates as much of it as he can. The woman conceives and bears her burden in travail, risking her life, and giving of her own food; and, with much labour, having endured to the end and brought forth her child, she rears and cares for it, although she has not received any good thing, and the babe neither recognises its benefactress nor can make its wants known to her: still she guesses what is good for it and what it likes, and seeks to supply these things, and rears it for a long season, enduring toil day and night, nothing knowing what return she will get.
5. Xenophon, On Household Management, 7.41 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

7.41. But I assure you, dear, there are other duties peculiar to you that are pleasant to perform. It is delightful to teach spinning to a maid who had no knowledge of it when you received her, and to double her worth to you: to take in hand a girl who is ignorant of housekeeping and service, and after teaching her and making her trustworthy and serviceable to find her worth any amount: to have the power of rewarding the discreet and useful members of your household, and of punishing anyone who turns out to be a rogue.
6. Cicero, On Old Age, 33, 7, 10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7. Philodemus, De Oeconomia, 14.9-14.15, 18.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

8. Horace, Sermones, 1.1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.1. 1. I suppose that, by my books of the Antiquities of the Jews, most excellent Epaphroditus, I have made it evident to those who peruse them, that our Jewish nation is of very great antiquity, and had a distinct subsistence of its own originally; as also I have therein declared how we came to inhabit this country wherein we now live. Those Antiquities contain the history of five thousand years, and are taken out of our sacred books; but are translated by me into the Greek tongue. 1.1. but as for the place where the Grecians inhabit, ten thousand destructions have overtaken it, and blotted out the memory of former actions; so that they were ever beginning a new way of living, and supposed that every one of them was the origin of their new state. It was also late, and with difficulty, that they came to know the letters they now use; for those who would advance their use of these letters to the greatest antiquity pretend that they learned them from the Phoenicians and from Cadmus; 1.1. but after some considerable time, Armais, who was left in Egypt, did all those very things, by way of opposition, which his brother had forbidden him to do, without fear; for he used violence to the queen, and continued to make use of the rest of the concubines, without sparing any of them; nay, at the persuasion of his friends he put on the diadem, and set up to oppose his brother;
9. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 114-118, 113 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Joseph, 37 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

37. This is enough to say on this part of the subject. Accordingly, the young man, having been conducted into Egypt, and there, as has already been stated, having become the slave of a eunuch, gave in a few days such proofs of virtue and excellence of disposition, that he had authority over his fellow servants given to him, and the management of the whole household committed to his charge; for already his master had learnt by many circumstances to perceive that his servant in all his words and in all his actions was under the immediate direction of divine providence.
11. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 181 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

181. Should I not say to this man, If you have a regard to your own advantage you will destroy everything that is excellent, and that too without deriving any advantage therefrom? You will put an end to the honour due to parents, the attention of a wife, the education of children, the blameless services of servants, the management of a house, the government of a city, the firm establishment of laws, the guardianship of morals, reverence to one's elders, the habit of speaking well of the dead, good fellowship with the living, piety towards God as shown both in words and in deeds: for you are overturning and throwing into confusion all these things, sowing seed for yourself alone, and nursing up pleasure, that gluttonous intemperate origin of all evil. LIV.
12. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.16 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.16. for they who see that the different seasons of the year owe their existence to the advances and retreats of the sun, in which periods also the generation of animals, and plants, and fruits, are perfected according to well-defined times, and who see also that the moon is the servant and successor of the sun, taking that care and superintendence of the world by night which the sun takes by day; and also that the other stars, in accordance with their sympathy with things on earth, labour continually and do ten thousand things which contribute to the duration of the existing state of things, have been led into an inextricable error, imagining that these bodies are the only gods.
13. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 63 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

63. and I have learnt by myself not to approve of, as fit for dominion, any one of those men who appear to be suitable. "I, indeed, myself, did neither undertake the charge of caring for and providing for the common prosperity of my own accord, nor because I was appointed to the office by any human being; but I undertook to govern this people because God manifestly declared his will by visible oracles and distinct commandments, and commanded me to rule them; and I, after having besought and supplicated him to excuse me, because I had a respect unto the greatness of the business, at last, after he had repeated his commandments many times, I with fear obeyed.
14. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 65-67, 75-79, 64 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

64. But since the entertainments of the greatest celebrity are full of such trifling and folly, bearing conviction in themselves, if any one should think fit not to regard vague opinion and the character which has been commonly handed down concerning them as feasts which have gone off with the most eminent success, I will oppose to them the entertainments of those persons who have devoted their whole life and themselves to the knowledge and contemplation of the affairs of nature in accordance with the most sacred admonitions and precepts of the prophet Moses.
15. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 57, 45 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

45. Moreover, as among cities, some being governed by an oligarchy or by tyrants, endure slavery, having those who have subdued them and made themselves masters of them for severe and cruel tyrants; while others, existing under the superintending care of the laws and under those good protectors, are free and happy. So also in the case of men; those who are under the dominion of anger, or appetite, or any other passion, or of treacherous wickedness, are in every respect slaves; and those who live in accordance with the law are free.
16. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 18.7 (1st cent. CE

18.7.  And let no one of the more 'advanced' critics chide me for selecting Meder's plays in preference to the Old Comedy, or Euripides in preference to the earlier writers of Tragedy. For physicians do not prescribe the most costly diet for their patients, but that which is salutary. Now it would be a long task to enumerate all the advantages to be derived from these writers; indeed, not only has Meder's portrayal of every character and every charming trait surpassed all the skill of the early writers of Comedy, but the suavity and plausibility of Euripides, while perhaps not completely attaining to the grandeur of the tragic poet's way of deifying his characters, or to his high dignity, are very useful for the man in public life; and furthermore, he cleverly fills his plays with an abundance of characters and moving incidents, and strews them with maxims useful on all occasions, since he was not without acquaintance with philosophy.
17. Epictetus, Discourses, 1.24.8, 3.22, 3.24-3.25, 3.24.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. Ignatius, To Polycarp, 2.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.3. The season requireth thee, as pilots require winds or as a storm-tossed mariner a haven, that it may attain unto God. Be sober, as God's athlete. The prize is incorruption and life eternal, concerning which thou also art persuaded. In all things I am devoted to thee -- I and my bonds which thou didst cherish.
19. Ignatius, To The Ephesians, 1.2, 11.2, 12.1-12.2, 21.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.2. for when ye heard that I was on my way from Syria, in bonds for the sake of the common Name and hope, and was hoping through your prayers to succeed in fighting with wild beasts in Rome, that by so succeeding I might have power to be a disciple, ye were eager to visit me: -- 11.2. Let nothing glitter in your eyes apart from Him, in whom I carry about my bonds, my spiritual pearls in which I would fain rise again through your prayer, whereof may it be my lot to be always a partaker, that I may be found in the company of those Christians of Ephesus who moreover were ever of one mind with the Apostles in the power of Jesus Christ. 12.1. I know who I am and to whom I write. I am a convict, ye have received mercy: I am in peril, ye are established. 12.2. Ye are the high-road of those that are on their way to die unto God. Ye are associates in the mysteries with Paul, who was sanctified, who obtained a good report, who is worthy of all felicitation; in whose foot-steps I would fain be found treading, when I shall attain unto God; who in every letter maketh mention of you in Christ Jesus. 21.2. Pray for the church which is in Syria, whence I am led a prisoner to Rome -- I who am the very last of the faithful there; according as I was counted worthy to be found unto the honour of God. Fare ye well in God the Father and in Jesus Christ our common hope.
20. Ignatius, To The Magnesians, 1.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.2. For being counted worthy to bear a most godly name, in these bonds, which I carry about, I sing the praise of the churches; and I pray that there may be in them union of the flesh and of the spirit which are Jesus Christ's, our never-failing life -- an union of faith and of love which is preferred before all things, and -- what is more than all -- an union with Jesus and with the Father; in whom if we endure patiently all the despite of the prince of this world and escape therefrom, we shall attain unto God.
21. Ignatius, To The Romans, 5.1, 9.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.1. From Syria even unto Rome I fight with wild beasts, by land and sea, by night and by day, being bound amidst ten leopards, even a company of soldiers, who only wax worse when they are kindly treated. Howbeit through their wrong doings I become more completely a disciple; yet am I not hereby justified. 9.2. But for myself I am ashamed to be called one of them; for neither am I worthy, being the very last of them and an untimely birth: but I have found mercy that I should be some one, if so be I shall attain unto God.
22. Ignatius, To The Smyrnaeans, 10.2, 11.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

23. Ignatius, To The Trallians, 10.1, 12.2, 13.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10.1. But if it were as certain persons who are godless, that is unbelievers, say, that He suffered only in semblance, being themselves mere semblance, why am I in bonds? And why also do I desire to fight with wild beasts? So I die in vain. Truly then I lie against the Lord. 12.2. My bonds exhort you, which for Jesus Christ's sake I bear about, entreating that I may attain unto God; abide ye in your concord and in prayer one with another. For it becometh you severally, and more especially the presbyters, to cheer the soul of your bishop unto the honour of the Father [and to the honour] of Jesus Christ and of the Apostles. 13.1. The love of the Smyrnaeans and Ephesians saluteth you. Remember in your prayers the church which is in Syria; whereof [also] I am not worthy to be called a member, being the very last of them.
24. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 2.236 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

25. New Testament, 1 Peter, 2.9, 3.8, 5.2, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.9. But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for God's own possession, that you may show forth the excellencies of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light: 3.8. Finally, be all like-minded, compassionate, loving as brothers, tenderhearted, courteous 5.2. Shepherd the flock of God which is among you, exercising the oversight, not under compulsion, but voluntarily, not for dishonest gain, but willingly; 5.4. When the chief Shepherd is revealed, you will receive the crown of glory that doesn't fade away.
26. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.1, 2.16, 7.8-7.9, 15.8, 15.32 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, called to be an apostle of Jesus Christ through the willof God, and our brother Sosthenes 2.16. For who has knownthe mind of the Lord, that he should instruct him?" But we haveChrist's mind. 7.8. But I sayto the unmarried and to widows, it is good for them if they remain evenas I am. 7.9. But if they don't have self-control, let them marry. Forit's better to marry than to burn. 15.8. and last of all, as to the child born at the wrongtime, he appeared to me also. 15.32. If I fought withanimals at Ephesus for human purposes, what does it profit me? If thedead are not raised, then "let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die.
27. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 5.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.12. But we beg you, brothers, to know those who labor among you, and are over you in the Lord, and admonish you
28. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 1.1-1.4, 1.16, 1.18, 2.2, 2.8-2.15, 3.1-3.5, 3.7-3.13, 3.15-3.16, 4.3-4.8, 4.11-4.16, 5.1-5.23, 6.1-6.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus according to the commandment of God our Savior, and Christ Jesus our hope; 1.2. to Timothy, my true child in faith: Grace, mercy, and peace, from God our Father and Christ Jesus our Lord. 1.3. As I exhorted you to stay at Ephesus when I was going into Macedonia, that you might charge certain men not to teach a different doctrine 1.4. neither to pay attention to myths and endless genealogies, which cause disputes, rather than God's stewardship, which is in faith -- 1.16. However, for this cause I obtained mercy, that in me first, Jesus Christ might display all his patience, for an example of those who were going to believe in him for eternal life. 1.18. This charge I commit to you, my child Timothy, according to the prophecies which led the way to you, that by them you may wage the good warfare; 2.2. for kings and all who are in high places; that we may lead a tranquil and quiet life in all godliness and reverence. 2.8. I desire therefore that the men in every place pray, lifting up holy hands without wrath and doubting. 2.9. In the same way, that women also adorn themselves in decent clothing, with modesty and propriety; not just with braided hair, gold, pearls, or expensive clothing; 2.10. but (which becomes women professing godliness) with good works. 2.11. Let a woman learn in quietness with all subjection. 2.12. But I don't permit a woman to teach, nor to exercise authority over a man, but to be in quietness. 2.13. For Adam was first formed, then Eve. 2.14. Adam wasn't deceived, but the woman, being deceived, has fallen into disobedience; 2.15. but she will be saved through her child-bearing, if they continue in faith, love, and sanctification with sobriety. 3.1. This is a faithful saying: if a man seeks the office of an overseer, he desires a good work. 3.2. The overseer therefore must be without reproach, the husband of one wife, temperate, sensible, modest, hospitable, good at teaching; 3.3. not a drinker, not violent, not greedy for money, but gentle, not quarrelsome, not covetous; 3.4. one who rules his own house well, having children in subjection with all reverence; 3.5. (but if a man doesn't know how to rule his own house, how will he take care of the assembly of God?) 3.7. Moreover he must have good testimony from those who are outside, to avoid falling into reproach and the snare of the devil. 3.8. Deacons, in the same way, must be reverent, not double-tongued, not addicted to much wine, not greedy for money; 3.9. holding the mystery of the faith in a pure conscience. 3.10. Let them also first be tested; then let them serve as deacons, if they are blameless. 3.11. Their wives in the same way must be reverent, not slanderers, temperate, faithful in all things. 3.12. Let deacons be husbands of one wife, ruling their children and their own houses well. 3.13. For those who have served well as deacons gain to themselves a good standing, and great boldness in the faith which is in Christ Jesus. 3.15. but if I wait long, that you may know how men ought to behave themselves in the house of God, which is the assembly of the living God, the pillar and ground of the truth. 3.16. Without controversy, the mystery of godliness is great: God was revealed in the flesh, Justified in the spirit, Seen by angels, Preached among the nations, Believed on in the world, And received up in glory. 4.3. forbidding marriage and commanding to abstain from foods which God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and know the truth. 4.4. For every creature of God is good, and nothing is to be rejected, if it is received with thanksgiving. 4.5. For it is sanctified through the word of God and prayer. 4.6. If you instruct the brothers of these things, you will be a good servant of Christ Jesus, nourished in the words of the faith, and of the good doctrine which you have followed. 4.7. But refuse profane and old wives' fables. Exercise yourself toward godliness. 4.8. For bodily exercise has some value, but godliness has value for all things, having the promise of the life which is now, and of that which is to come. 4.11. Command and teach these things. 4.12. Let no man despise your youth; but be an example to those who believe, in word, in your way of life, in love, in spirit, in faith, and in purity. 4.13. Until I come, pay attention to reading, to exhortation, and to teaching. 4.14. Don't neglect the gift that is in you, which was given to you by prophecy, with the laying on of the hands of the elders. 4.15. Be diligent in these things. Give yourself wholly to them, that your progress may be revealed to all. 4.16. Pay attention to yourself, and to your teaching. Continue in these things, for in doing this you will save both yourself and those who hear you. 5.1. Don't rebuke an older man, but exhort him as a father; the younger men as brothers; 5.2. the elder women as mothers; the younger as sisters, in all purity. 5.3. Honor widows who are widows indeed. 5.4. But if any widow has children or grandchildren, let them learn first to show piety towards their own family, and to repay their parents, for this is acceptable in the sight of God. 5.5. Now she who is a widow indeed, and desolate, has her hope set on God, and continues in petitions and prayers night and day. 5.6. But she who gives herself to pleasure is dead while she lives. 5.7. Also command these things, that they may be without reproach. 5.8. But if anyone doesn't provide for his own, and especially his own household, he has denied the faith, and is worse than an unbeliever. 5.9. Let no one be enrolled as a widow under sixty years old, having been the wife of one man 5.10. being approved by good works, if she has brought up children, if she has been hospitable to strangers, if she has washed the saints' feet, if she has relieved the afflicted, and if she has diligently followed every good work. 5.11. But refuse younger widows, for when they have grown wanton against Christ, they desire to marry; 5.12. having condemnation, because they have rejected their first pledge. 5.13. Besides, they also learn to be idle, going about from house to house. Not only idle, but also gossips and busybodies, saying things which they ought not. 5.14. I desire therefore that the younger widows marry, bear children, rule the household, and give no occasion to the adversary for reviling. 5.15. For already some have turned aside after Satan. 5.16. If any man or woman who believes has widows, let them relieve them, and don't let the assembly be burdened; that it might relieve those who are widows indeed. 5.17. Let the elders who rule well be counted worthy of double honor, especially those who labor in the word and in teaching. 5.18. For the Scripture says, "You shall not muzzle the ox when it treads out the grain." And, "The laborer is worthy of his wages. 5.19. Don't receive an accusation against an elder, except at the word of two or three witnesses. 5.20. Those who sin, reprove in the sight of all, that the rest also may be in fear. 5.21. I charge you in the sight of God, and Christ Jesus, and the elect angels, that you observe these things without prejudice, doing nothing by partiality. 5.22. Lay hands hastily on no one, neither be a participant in other men's sins. Keep yourself pure. 5.23. Be no longer a drinker of water only, but use a little wine for your stomach's sake and your frequent infirmities. 6.1. Let as many as are bondservants under the yoke count their own masters worthy of all honor, that the name of God and the doctrine not be blasphemed. 6.2. Those who have believing masters, let them not despise them, because they are brothers, but rather let them serve them, because those who partake of the benefit are believing and beloved. Teach and exhort these things. 6.3. If anyone teaches a different doctrine, and doesn't consent to sound words, the words of our Lord Jesus Christ, and to the doctrine which is according to godliness 6.4. he is conceited, knowing nothing, but obsessed with arguments, disputes, and word battles, from which come envy, strife, reviling, evil suspicions 6.5. constant friction of men of corrupt minds and destitute of the truth, who suppose that godliness is a means of gain. Withdraw yourself from such. 6.6. But godliness with contentment is great gain. 6.7. For we brought nothing into the world, and we certainly can't carry anything out. 6.8. But having food and clothing, we will be content with that. 6.9. But those who are determined to be rich fall into a temptation and a snare and many foolish and harmful lusts, such as drown men in ruin and destruction. 6.10. For the love of money is a root of all kinds of evil. Some have been led astray from the faith in their greed, and have pierced themselves through with many sorrows. 6.11. But you, man of God, flee these things, and follow after righteousness, godliness, faith, love, patience, and gentleness. 6.12. Fight the good fight of faith. Lay hold of the eternal life to which you were called, and you confessed the good confession in the sight of many witnesses. 6.13. I charge you before God, who gives life to all things, and before Christ Jesus, who before Pontius Pilate testified the good confession 6.14. that you keep the commandment without spot, blameless, until the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ; 6.15. which in its own times he will show, who is the blessed and only Ruler, the King of kings, and Lord of lords; 6.16. who alone has immortality, dwelling in unapproachable light; whom no man has seen, nor can see: to whom be honor and eternal power. Amen. 6.17. Charge those who are rich in this present world that they not be haughty, nor have their hope set on the uncertainty of riches, but on the living God, who richly provides us with everything to enjoy; 6.18. that they do good, that they be rich in good works, that they be ready to distribute, willing to communicate; 6.19. laying up in store for themselves a good foundation against the time to come, that they may lay hold of eternal life. 6.20. Timothy, guard that which is committed to you, turning away from the empty chatter and oppositions of the knowledge which is falsely so called;
29. New Testament, 2 John, 1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

30. New Testament, 2 Peter, 1.3, 1.6, 3.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. seeing that his divine power has granted to us all things that pertain to life and godliness, through the knowledge of him who called us by his own glory and virtue; 1.6. and in knowledge, self-control; and in self-control patience; and in patience godliness; 3.11. Therefore since all these things are thus to be destroyed, what manner of persons ought you to be in holy living and godliness
31. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.1, 4.8-4.9, 6.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

32. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 1.1, 1.8, 2.1-2.5, 2.8-2.9, 2.16, 2.23-2.25, 3.1-3.8, 3.14, 4.2, 4.5, 4.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ through the will of God, according to the promise of the life which is in Christ Jesus 1.8. Therefore don't be ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, nor of me his prisoner; but endure hardship for the gospel according to the power of God 2.1. You therefore, my child, be strengthened in the grace that is in Christ Jesus. 2.2. The things which you have heard from me among many witnesses, commit the same to faithful men, who will be able to teach others also. 2.3. You therefore must endure hardship, as a good soldier of Christ Jesus. 2.4. No soldier on service entangles himself in the affairs of life, that he may please him who enrolled him as a soldier. 2.5. Also, if anyone competes in athletics, he isn't crowned unless he has competed by the rules. 2.8. Remember Jesus Christ, risen from the dead, of the seed of David, according to my gospel 2.9. in which I suffer hardship to the point of chains as a criminal. But God's word isn't chained. 2.16. But shun empty chatter, for they will proceed further in ungodliness 2.23. But refuse foolish and ignorant questionings, knowing that they generate strife. 2.24. The Lord's servant must not quarrel, but be gentle towards all, able to teach, patient 2.25. in gentleness correcting those who oppose him: perhaps God may give them repentance leading to a full knowledge of the truth 3.1. But know this, that in the last days, grievous times will come. 3.2. For men will be lovers of self, lovers of money, boastful, arrogant, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy 3.3. without natural affection, unforgiving, slanderers, without self-control, fierce, no lovers of good 3.4. traitors, headstrong, conceited, lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God; 3.5. holding a form of godliness, but having denied the power thereof. Turn away from these, also. 3.6. For of these are those who creep into houses, and take captive gullible women loaded down with sins, led away by various lusts 3.7. always learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth. 3.8. Even as Jannes and Jambres opposed Moses, so do these also oppose the truth; men corrupted in mind, reprobate concerning the faith. 3.14. But you remain in the things which you have learned and have been assured of, knowing from whom you have learned them. 4.2. preach the word; be urgent in season and out of season; reprove, rebuke, and exhort, with all patience and teaching. 4.5. But you be sober in all things, suffer hardship, do the work of an evangelist, and fulfill your ministry. 4.15. of whom you also must beware; for he greatly opposed our words.
33. New Testament, Acts, 3.12, 5.41, 11.30, 14.23, 20.17 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.12. When Peter saw it, he answered to the people, "You men of Israel, why do you marvel at this man? Why do you fasten your eyes on us, as though by our own power or godliness we had made him walk? 5.41. They therefore departed from the presence of the council, rejoicing that they were counted worthy to suffer dishonor for Jesus' name. 11.30. which they also did, sending it to the elders by the hands of Barnabas and Saul. 14.23. When they had appointed elders for them in every assembly, and had prayed with fasting, they commended them to the Lord, on whom they had believed. 20.17. From Miletus he sent to Ephesus, and called to himself the elders of the assembly.
34. New Testament, James, 5.2, 5.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.2. Your riches are corrupted and your garments are moth-eaten. 5.14. Is any among you sick? Let him call for the elders of the assembly, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord
35. New Testament, Philemon, 10, 13, 9, 1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

36. New Testament, Colossians, 1.1, 4.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus through the will of God, and Timothy our brother 4.18. The salutation of me, Paul, with my own hand: remember my bonds. Grace be with you. Amen.
37. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.1, 3.1, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus through the will of God, to the saints who are at Ephesus, and the faithful in Christ Jesus: 3.1. For this cause I, Paul, am the prisoner of Christ Jesus on behalf of you Gentiles 4.1. I therefore, the prisoner in the Lord, beg you to walk worthily of the calling with which you were called
38. New Testament, Galatians, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, an apostle (not from men, neither through man, but through Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead)
39. New Testament, Philippians, 1.7, 1.13, 1.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. It is even right for me to think this way on behalf of all of you, because I have you in my heart, because, both in my bonds and in the defense and confirmation of the gospel, you all are partakers with me of grace. 1.13. so that it became evident to the whole praetorian guard, and to all the rest, that my bonds are in Christ; 1.17. but the latter out of love, knowing that I am appointed for the defense of the gospel.
40. New Testament, Romans, 1.1-1.6, 12.8, 16.1-16.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God 1.2. which he promised before through his prophets in the holy Scriptures 1.3. concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh 1.4. who was declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord 1.5. through whom we received grace and apostleship, for obedience of faith among all the nations, for his name's sake; 1.6. among whom you are also called to belong to Jesus Christ; 12.8. or he who exhorts, to his exhorting: he who gives, let him do it with liberality; he who rules, with diligence; he who shows mercy, with cheerfulness. 16.1. I commend to you Phoebe, our sister, who is a servant of the assembly that is at Cenchreae 16.2. that you receive her in the Lord, in a way worthy of the saints, and that you assist her in whatever matter she may need from you, for she herself also has been a helper of many, and of my own self.
41. New Testament, Titus, 1.1, 1.3-1.9, 1.12, 1.16, 2.3-2.9, 2.11-2.14, 3.1-3.2, 3.12-3.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, a servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus Christ, according to the faith of God's elect, and the knowledge of the truth which is according to godliness 1.3. but in his own time revealed his word in the message with which I was entrusted according to the commandment of God our Savior; 1.4. to Titus, my true child according to a common faith: Grace, mercy, and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ our Savior. 1.5. I left you in Crete for this reason, that you would set in order the things that were lacking, and appoint elders in every city, as I directed you; 1.6. if anyone is blameless, the husband of one wife, having children who believe, who are not accused of loose or unruly behavior. 1.7. For the overseer must be blameless, as God's steward; not self-pleasing, not easily angered, not given to wine, not violent, not greedy for dishonest gain; 1.8. but given to hospitality, as a lover of good, sober-minded, fair, holy, self-controlled; 1.9. holding to the faithful word which is according to the teaching, that he may be able to exhort in the sound doctrine, and to convict those who contradict him. 1.12. One of them, a prophet of their own, said, "Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, and idle gluttons. 1.16. They profess that they know God, but by their works they deny him, being abominable, disobedient, and unfit for any good work. 2.3. and that older women likewise be reverent in behavior, not slanderers nor enslaved to much wine, teachers of that which is good; 2.4. that they may train the young women to love their husbands, to love their children 2.5. to be sober-minded, chaste, workers at home, kind, being in subjection to their own husbands, that God's word may not be blasphemed. 2.6. Likewise, exhort the younger men to be sober-minded; 2.7. in all things showing yourself an example of good works; in your teaching showing integrity, seriousness, incorruptibility 2.8. and soundness of speech that can't be condemned; that he who opposes you may be ashamed, having no evil thing to say about us. 2.9. Exhort servants to be in subjection to their own masters, and to be well-pleasing in all things; not contradicting; 2.11. For the grace of God has appeared, bringing salvation to all men 2.12. instructing us to the intent that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we would live soberly, righteously, and godly in this present world; 2.13. looking for the blessed hope and appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ; 2.14. who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify for himself a people for his own possession, zealous for good works. 3.1. Remind them to be in subjection to rulers and to authorities, to be obedient, to be ready for every good work 3.2. to speak evil of no one, not to be contentious, to be gentle, showing all humility toward all men. 3.12. When I send Artemas to you, or Tychicus, be diligent to come to me to Nicopolis, for I have determined to winter there. 3.13. Send Zenas, the lawyer, and Apollos on their journey speedily, that nothing may be lacking for them.
42. New Testament, Luke, 12.42, 16.1, 16.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.42. The Lord said, "Who then is the faithful and wise steward, whom his lord will set over his household, to give them their portion of food at the right times? 16.1. He also said to his disciples, "There was a certain rich man who had a manager. An accusation was made to him that this man was wasting his possessions. 16.8. His lord commended the dishonest manager because he had done wisely, for the sons of this world are, in their own generation, wiser than the sons of the light.
43. New Testament, Matthew, 5.1, 5.3, 22.37 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.1. Seeing the multitudes, he went up onto the mountain. When he had sat down, his disciples came to him. 5.3. Blessed are the poor in spirit, For theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven. 22.37. Jesus said to him, "'You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind.'
44. Plutarch, Comparison of Aristides And Cato, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

45. Plutarch, Consolation To His Wife, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

46. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 6.5-6.6, 94.40, 94.46-94.47, 108.9-108.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

47. Lucian, The Dance, 81 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

48. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 2.6.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

49. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 2.6.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

50. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 6.43 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.43. As for those who were excited over their dreams he would say that they cared nothing for what they did in their waking hours, but kept their curiosity for the visions called up in their sleep. At Olympia, when the herald proclaimed Dioxippus to be victor over the men, Diogenes protested, Nay, he is victorious over slaves, I over men.Still he was loved by the Athenians. At all events, when a youngster broke up his tub, they gave the boy a flogging and presented Diogenes with another. Dionysius the Stoic says that after Chaeronea he was seized and dragged off to Philip, and being asked who he was, replied, A spy upon your insatiable greed. For this he was admired and set free.
51. Augustine, The City of God, 14.2-14.3, 14.6-14.9, 14.28 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

14.3. But if any one says that the flesh is the cause of all vices and ill conduct, inasmuch as the soul lives wickedly only because it is moved by the flesh, it is certain he has not carefully considered the whole nature of man. For the corruptible body, indeed, weighs down the soul. Wisdom 9:15 Whence, too, the apostle, speaking of this corruptible body, of which he had shortly before said, though our outward man perish, 2 Corinthians 4:16 says, We know that if our earthly house of this tabernacle were dissolved, we have a building of God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. For in this we groan, earnestly desiring to be clothed upon with our house which is from heaven: if so be that being clothed we shall not be found naked. For we that are in this tabernacle do groan, being burdened: not for that we would be unclothed, but clothed upon, that mortality might be swallowed up in life. 2 Corinthians 5:1-4 We are then burdened with this corruptible body; but knowing that the cause of this burdensomeness is not the nature and substance of the body, but its corruption, we do not desire to be deprived of the body, but to be clothed with its immortality. For then, also, there will be a body, but it shall no longer be a burden, being no longer corruptible. At present, then, the corruptible body presses down the soul, and the earthly tabernacle weighs down the mind that muses upon many things, nevertheless they are in error who suppose that all the evils of the soul proceed from the body. Virgil, indeed, seems to express the sentiments of Plato in the beautiful lines, where he says - A fiery strength inspires their lives, An essence that from heaven derives, Though clogged in part by limbs of clay And the dull 'vesture of decay;' but though he goes on to mention the four most common mental emotions - desire, fear, joy, sorrow - with the intention of showing that the body is the origin of all sins and vices, saying - Hence wild desires and grovelling fears, And human laughter, human tears, Immured in dungeon-seeming nights They look abroad, yet see no light, yet we believe quite otherwise. For the corruption of the body, which weighs down the soul, is not the cause but the punishment of the first sin; and it was not the corruptible flesh that made the soul sinful, but the sinful soul that made the flesh corruptible. And though from this corruption of the flesh there arise certain incitements to vice, and indeed vicious desires, yet we must not attribute to the flesh all the vices of a wicked life, in case we thereby clear the devil of all these, for he has no flesh. For though we cannot call the devil a fornicator or drunkard, or ascribe to him any sensual indulgence (though he is the secret instigator and prompter of those who sin in these ways), yet he is exceedingly proud and envious. And this viciousness has so possessed him, that on account of it he is reserved in chains of darkness to everlasting punishment. Now these vices, which have dominion over the devil, the apostle attributes to the flesh, which certainly the devil has not. For he says hatred, variance, emulations, strife, envying are the works of the flesh; and of all these evils pride is the origin and head, and it rules in the devil though he has no flesh. For who shows more hatred to the saints? Who is more at variance with them? Who more envious, bitter, and jealous? And since he exhibits all these works, though he has no flesh, how are they works of the flesh, unless because they are the works of man, who is, as I said, spoken of under the name of flesh? For it is not by having flesh, which the devil has not, but by living according to himself - that is, according to man - that man became like the devil. For the devil too, wished to live according to himself when he did not abide in the truth; so that when he lied, this was not of God, but of himself, who is not only a liar, but the father of lies, he being the first who lied, and the originator of lying as of sin. 14.6. But the character of the human will is of moment; because, if it is wrong, these motions of the soul will be wrong, but if it is right, they will be not merely blameless, but even praiseworthy. For the will is in them all; yea, none of them is anything else than will. For what are desire and joy but a volition of consent to the things we wish? And what are fear and sadness but a volition of aversion from the things which we do not wish? But when consent takes the form of seeking to possess the things we wish, this is called desire; and when consent takes the form of enjoying the things we wish, this is called joy. In like manner, when we turn with aversion from that which we do not wish to happen, this volition is termed fear; and when we turn away from that which has happened against our will, this act of will is called sorrow. And generally in respect of all that we seek or shun, as a man's will is attracted or repelled, so it is changed and turned into these different affections. Wherefore the man who lives according to God, and not according to man, ought to be a lover of good, and therefore a hater of evil. And since no one is evil by nature, but whoever is evil is evil by vice, he who lives according to God ought to cherish towards evil men a perfect hatred, so that he shall neither hate the man because of his vice, nor love the vice because of the man, but hate the vice and love the man. For the vice being cursed, all that ought to be loved, and nothing that ought to be hated, will remain. 14.8. Those emotions which the Greeks call εὐπαθείαι, and which Cicero calls constantiœ, the Stoics would restrict to three; and, instead of three perturbations in the soul of the wise man, they substituted severally, in place of desire, will; in place of joy, contentment; and for fear, caution; and as to sickness or pain, which we, to avoid ambiguity, preferred to call sorrow, they denied that it could exist in the mind of a wise man. Will, they say, seeks the good, for this the wise man does. Contentment has its object in good that is possessed, and this the wise man continually possesses. Caution avoids evil, and this the wise man ought to avoid. But sorrow arises from evil that has already happened; and as they suppose that no evil can happen to the wise man, there can be no representative of sorrow in his mind. According to them, therefore, none but the wise man wills, is contented, uses caution; and that the fool can do no more than desire, rejoice, fear, be sad. The former three affections Cicero calls constantiœ, the last four perturbationes. Many, however, calls these last passions; and, as I have said, the Greeks call the former εὐπαθείαι, and the latter πάθη . And when I made a careful examination of Scripture to find whether this terminology was sanctioned by it, I came upon this saying of the prophet: There is no contentment to the wicked, says the Lord; Isaiah 57:21 as if the wicked might more properly rejoice than be contented regarding evils, for contentment is the property of the good and godly. I found also that verse in the Gospel: Whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye even so unto them? Matthew 7:12 which seems to imply that evil or shameful things may be the object of desire, but not of will. Indeed, some interpreters have added good things, to make the expression more in conformity with customary usage, and have given this meaning, Whatsoever good deeds that you would that men should do unto you. For they thought that this would prevent any one from wishing other men to provide him with unseemly, not to say shameful gratifications - luxurious banquets, for example - on the supposition that if he returned the like to them he would be fulfilling this precept. In the Greek Gospel, however, from which the Latin is translated, good does not occur, but only, All things whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye even so unto them, and, as I believe, because good is already included in the word would; for He does not say desire. Yet though we may sometimes avail ourselves of these precise proprieties of language, we are not to be always bridled by them; and when we read those writers against whose authority it is unlawful to reclaim, we must accept the meanings above mentioned in passages where a right sense can be educed by no other interpretation, as in those instances we adduced partly from the prophet, partly from the Gospel. For who does not know that the wicked exult with joy? Yet there is no contentment for the wicked, says the Lord. And how so, unless because contentment, when the word is used in its proper and distinctive significance, means something different from joy? In like manner, who would deny that it were wrong to enjoin upon men that whatever they desire others to do to them they should themselves do to others, lest they should mutually please one another by shameful and illicit pleasure? And yet the precept, Whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye even so to them, is very wholesome and just. And how is this, unless because the will is in this place used strictly, and signifies that will which cannot have evil for its object? But ordinary phraseology would not have allowed the saying, Be unwilling to make any manner of lie, Sirach 7:13 had there not been also an evil will, whose wickedness separates if from that which the angels celebrated, Peace on earth, of good will to men. Luke 2:14 For good is superfluous if there is no other kind of will but good will. And why should the apostle have mentioned it among the praises of charity as a great thing, that it rejoices not in iniquity, unless because wickedness does so rejoice? For even with secular writers these words are used indifferently. For Cicero, that most fertile of orators, says, I desire, conscript fathers, to be merciful. And who would be so pedantic as to say that he should have said I will rather than I desire, because the word is used in a good connection? Again, in Terence, the profligate youth, burning with wild lust, says, I will nothing else than Philumena. That this will was lust is sufficiently indicated by the answer of his old servant which is there introduced: How much better were it to try and banish that love from your heart, than to speak so as uselessly to inflame your passion still more! And that contentment was used by secular writers in a bad sense that verse of Virgil testifies, in which he most succinctly comprehends these four perturbations - Hence they fear and desire, grieve and are content The same author had also used the expression, the evil contentments of the mind. So that good and bad men alike will, are cautious, and contented; or, to say the same thing in other words, good and bad men alike desire, fear, rejoice, but the former in a good, the latter in a bad fashion, according as the will is right or wrong. Sorrow itself, too, which the Stoics would not allow to be represented in the mind of the wise man, is used in a good sense, and especially in our writings. For the apostle praises the Corinthians because they had a godly sorrow. But possibly some one may say that the apostle congratulated them because they were penitently sorry, and that such sorrow can exist only in those who have sinned. For these are his words: For I perceive that the same epistle has made you sorry, though it were but for a season. Now I rejoice, not that you were made sorry, but that you sorrowed to repentance; for you were made sorry after a godly manner, that you might receive damage by us in nothing. For godly sorrow works repentance to salvation not to be repented of, but the sorrow of the world works death. For, behold, this selfsame thing that you sorrowed after a godly sort, what carefulness it wrought in you! 2 Corinthians 7:8-11 Consequently the Stoics may defend themselves by replying, that sorrow is indeed useful for repentance of sin, but that this can have no place in the mind of the wise man, inasmuch as no sin attaches to him of which he could sorrowfully repent, nor any other evil the endurance or experience of which could make him sorrowful. For they say that Alcibiades (if my memory does not deceive me), who believed himself happy, shed tears when Socrates argued with him, and demonstrated that he was miserable because he was foolish. In his case, therefore, folly was the cause of this useful and desirable sorrow, wherewith a man mourns that he is what he ought not to be. But the Stoics maintain not that the fool, but that the wise man, cannot be sorrowful. 14.9. But so far as regards this question of mental perturbations, we have answered these philosophers in the ninth book of this work, showing that it is rather a verbal than a real dispute, and that they seek contention rather than truth. Among ourselves, according to the sacred Scriptures and sound doctrine, the citizens of the holy city of God, who live according to God in the pilgrimage of this life, both fear and desire, and grieve and rejoice. And because their love is rightly placed, all these affections of theirs are right. They fear eternal punishment, they desire eternal life; they grieve because they themselves groan within themselves, waiting for the adoption, the redemption of their body; Romans 8:23 they rejoice in hope, because there shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory. 1 Corinthians 15:54 In like manner they fear to sin, they desire to persevere; they grieve in sin, they rejoice in good works. They fear to sin, because they hear that because iniquity shall abound, the love of many shall wax cold. Matthew 24:12 They desire to persevere, because they hear that it is written, He that endures to the end shall be saved. Matthew 10:22 They grieve for sin, hearing that If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us. 1 John 1:8 They rejoice in good works, because they hear that the Lord loves a cheerful giver. 2 Corinthians 9:7 In like manner, according as they are strong or weak, they fear or desire to be tempted, grieve or rejoice in temptation. They fear to be tempted, because they hear the injunction, If a man be overtaken in a fault, you which are spiritual restore such an one in the spirit of meekness; considering yourself, lest you also be tempted. Galatians 6:l They desire to be tempted, because they hear one of the heroes of the city of God saying, Examine me, O Lord, and tempt me: try my reins and my heart. They grieve in temptations, because they see Peter weeping; Matthew 26:75 they rejoice in temptations, because they hear James saying, My brethren, count it all joy when you fall into various temptations. James 1:2 And not only on their own account do they experience these emotions, but also on account of those whose deliverance they desire and whose perdition they fear, and whose loss or salvation affects them with grief or with joy. For if we who have come into the Church from among the Gentiles may suitably instance that noble and mighty hero who glories in his infirmities, the teacher (doctor) of the nations in faith and truth, who also labored more than all his fellow apostles, and instructed the tribes of God's people by his epistles, which edified not only those of his own time, but all those who were to be gathered in - that hero, I say, and athlete of Christ, instructed by Him, anointed of His Spirit, crucified with Him, glorious in Him, lawfully maintaining a great conflict on the theatre of this world, and being made a spectacle to angels and men, 1 Corinthians 4:9 and pressing onwards for the prize of his high calling, Philippians 3:14 - very joyfully do we with the eyes of faith behold him rejoicing with them that rejoice, and weeping with them that weep; Romans 12:15 though hampered by fightings without and fears within; 2 Corinthians 7:5 desiring to depart and to be with Christ; Philippians 1:23 longing to see the Romans, that he might have some fruit among them as among other Gentiles; Romans 1:11-13 being jealous over the Corinthians, and fearing in that jealousy lest their minds should be corrupted from the chastity that is in Christ; 2 Corinthians 11:1-3 having great heaviness and continual sorrow of heart for the Israelites, Romans 9:2 because they, being ignorant of God's righteousness, and going about to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted themselves unto the righteousness of God; Romans 10:3 and expressing not only his sorrow, but bitter lamentation over some who had formally sinned and had not repented of their uncleanness and fornications. 2 Corinthians 12:21 If these emotions and affections, arising as they do from the love of what is good and from a holy charity, are to be called vices, then let us allow these emotions which are truly vices to pass under the name of virtues. But since these affections, when they are exercised in a becoming way, follow the guidance of right reason, who will dare to say that they are diseases or vicious passions? Wherefore even the Lord Himself, when He condescended to lead a human life in the form of a slave, had no sin whatever, and yet exercised these emotions where He judged they should be exercised. For as there was in Him a true human body and a true human soul, so was there also a true human emotion. When, therefore, we read in the Gospel that the hard-heartedness of the Jews moved Him to sorrowful indignation, Mark 3:5 that He said, I am glad for your sakes, to the intent you may believe, John 11:15 that when about to raise Lazarus He even shed tears, John 11:35 that He earnestly desired to eat the passover with His disciples, Luke 22:15 that as His passion drew near His soul was sorrowful, Matthew 26:38 these emotions are certainly not falsely ascribed to Him. But as He became man when it pleased Him, so, in the grace of His definite purpose, when it pleased Him He experienced those emotions in His human soul. But we must further make the admission, that even when these affections are well regulated, and according to God's will, they are peculiar to this life, not to that future life we look for, and that often we yield to them against our will. And thus sometimes we weep in spite of ourselves, being carried beyond ourselves, not indeed by culpable desire; but by praiseworthy charity. In us, therefore, these affections arise from human infirmity; but it was not so with the Lord Jesus, for even His infirmity was the consequence of His power. But so long as we wear the infirmity of this life, we are rather worse men than better if we have none of these emotions at all. For the apostle vituperated and abominated some who, as he said, were without natural affection. Romans 1:31 The sacred Psalmist also found fault with those of whom he said, I looked for some to lament with me, and there was none. For to be quite free from pain while we are in this place of misery is only purchased, as one of this world's literati perceived and remarked, at the price of blunted sensibilities both of mind and body. And therefore that which the Greeks call ἀπαθεια, and what the Latins would call, if their language would allow them, impassibilitas, if it be taken to mean an impassibility of spirit and not of body, or, in other words, a freedom from those emotions which are contrary to reason and disturb the mind, then it is obviously a good and most desirable quality, but it is not one which is attainable in this life. For the words of the apostle are the confession, not of the common herd, but of the eminently pious, just, and holy men: If we say we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us. 1 John 1:8 When there shall be no sin in a man, then there shall be this απάθεια . At present it is enough if we live without crime; and he who thinks he lives without sin puts aside not sin, but pardon. And if that is to be called apathy, where the mind is the subject of no emotion, then who would not consider this insensibility to be worse than all vices? It may, indeed, reasonably be maintained that the perfect blessedness we hope for shall be free from all sting of fear or sadness; but who that is not quite lost to truth would say that neither love nor joy shall be experienced there? But if by apathy a condition be meant in which no fear terrifies nor any pain annoys, we must in this life renounce such a state if we would live according to God's will, but may hope to enjoy it in that blessedness which is promised as our eternal condition. For that fear of which the Apostle John says, There is no fear in love; but perfect love casts out fear, because fear has torment. He that fears is not made perfect in love, 1 John 4:18 - that fear is not of the same kind as the Apostle Paul felt lest the Corinthians should be seduced by the subtlety of the serpent; for love is susceptible of this fear, yea, love alone is capable of it. But the fear which is not in love is of that kind of which Paul himself says, For you have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear. Romans 8:15 But as for that clean fear which endures for ever, if it is to exist in the world to come (and how else can it be said to endure for ever?), it is not a fear deterring us from evil which may happen, but preserving us in the good which cannot be lost. For where the love of acquired good is unchangeable, there certainly the fear that avoids evil is, if I may say so, free from anxiety. For under the name of clean fear David signifies that will by which we shall necessarily shrink from sin, and guard against it, not with the anxiety of weakness, which fears that we may strongly sin, but with the tranquillity of perfect love. Or if no kind of fear at all shall exist in that most imperturbable security of perpetual and blissful delights, then the expression, The fear of the Lord is clean, enduring for ever, must be taken in the same sense as that other, The patience of the poor shall not perish forever. For patience, which is necessary only where ills are to be borne, shall not be eternal, but that which patience leads us to will be eternal. So perhaps this clean fear is said to endure for ever, because that to which fear leads shall endure. And since this is so - since we must live a good life in order to attain to a blessed life, a good life has all these affections right, a bad life has them wrong. But in the blessed life eternal there will be love and joy, not only right, but also assured; but fear and grief there will be none. Whence it already appears in some sort what manner of persons the citizens of the city of God must be in this their pilgrimage, who live after the spirit, not after the flesh - that is to say, according to God, not according to man - and what manner of persons they shall be also in that immortality whither they are journeying. And the city or society of the wicked, who live not according to God, but according to man, and who accept the doctrines of men or devils in the worship of a false and contempt of the true divinity, is shaken with those wicked emotions as by diseases and disturbances. And if there be some of its citizens who seem to restrain and, as it were, temper those passions, they are so elated with ungodly pride, that their disease is as much greater as their pain is less. And if some, with a vanity monstrous in proportion to its rarity, have become enamored of themselves because they can be stimulated and excited by no emotion, moved or bent by no affection, such persons rather lose all humanity than obtain true tranquillity. For a thing is not necessarily right because it is inflexible, nor healthy because it is insensible. 14.28. Accordingly, two cities have been formed by two loves: the earthly by the love of self, even to the contempt of God; the heavenly by the love of God, even to the contempt of self. The former, in a word, glories in itself, the latter in the Lord. For the one seeks glory from men; but the greatest glory of the other is God, the witness of conscience. The one lifts up its head in its own glory; the other says to its God, You are my glory, and the lifter up of mine head. In the one, the princes and the nations it subdues are ruled by the love of ruling; in the other, the princes and the subjects serve one another in love, the latter obeying, while the former take thought for all. The one delights in its own strength, represented in the persons of its rulers; the other says to its God, I will love You, O Lord, my strength. And therefore the wise men of the one city, living according to man, have sought for profit to their own bodies or souls, or both, and those who have known God glorified Him not as God, neither were thankful, but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened; professing themselves to be wise,- that is, glorying in their own wisdom, and being possessed by pride -they became fools, and changed the glory of the incorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and four-footed beasts, and creeping things. For they were either leaders or followers of the people in adoring images, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Romans 1:21-25 But in the other city there is no human wisdom, but only godliness, which offers due worship to the true God, and looks for its reward in the society of the saints, of holy angels as well as holy men, that God may be all in all. 1 Corinthians 15:28
52. Stobaeus, Eclogues, 2.7.5, 2.7.11



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abuse, forbidden Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 121
abuse Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 121
accusation, about old age Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 280
addressee Marquis, Epistolary Fiction in Ancient Greek Literature (2023) 184
agōn, ethical Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 742
amor Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 60
antithesis Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 438
apology Marquis, Epistolary Fiction in Ancient Greek Literature (2023) 184
apostle Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 568
apostolus Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 60
appius claudius Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 564
aristotle, on old age Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 563
aristotle Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 280
augustus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 287
authenticity Marquis, Epistolary Fiction in Ancient Greek Literature (2023) 184
authority Marquis, Epistolary Fiction in Ancient Greek Literature (2023) 184
bishop, relationship to presbyters Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 160
bishop, requirements on Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 161
bishop Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 124
bonum Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 60
bultmann, rudolf Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 742
burtchaell, james Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 280
caritas Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 60
cato Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 563
censure Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 121
child(ren) Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 564, 565, 566, 570
christianity Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 280
ciuitas Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 60
claudius Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 564
community Marquis, Epistolary Fiction in Ancient Greek Literature (2023) 184
coniunx perpetua Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 563
cult Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 198
cynics/cynicism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 559, 561, 742
dahl, influence, virtue lists Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 559, 560
deacon Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 124
death Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 280
diakone Marquis, Epistolary Fiction in Ancient Greek Literature (2023) 184
dibelius, martin Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 287, 438, 567
didache Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 124
diligo/dilectio/diligenter Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 60
dio chrysostom Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 566, 742
doctrine, erroneous Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 570
doctrine Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 570
domestic religion Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 376
domestic violence Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 565
elders Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 160
elect of god Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 198
emotions Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 60
ephesus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 562; Marquis, Epistolary Fiction in Ancient Greek Literature (2023) 184
epictetus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 561
epicureanism, adaptability Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 568
epicureanism, wealth Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 559, 567
episcopos Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 561
epistle, pastorals Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 121, 280, 416, 438, 535, 559, 560, 561, 562, 563, 564, 565, 566, 567, 568, 569, 570, 742
epistle, socratic Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 742
epistolary, situation Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 562, 569
epistolary Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 569
epistolary genre, epistolary conventions Marquis, Epistolary Fiction in Ancient Greek Literature (2023) 184
ethics Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 742
euripides Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 416
exhortation, moral Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 742
exhortation Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 121, 566, 742
family Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 561, 570
gentleness Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 121
gnomologies Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 742
good, goodness Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 60
gospels Marquis, Epistolary Fiction in Ancient Greek Literature (2023) 184
greetings Marquis, Epistolary Fiction in Ancient Greek Literature (2023) 184
happiness/the happy life Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 60
heresy Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 121, 416, 570
hermeneutic, of literalism Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 198
hierocles Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 564, 566
hospitality Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 535
household, codes Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 563
household, management Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 559, 560, 561, 562, 563, 564, 565, 566, 567, 568, 569, 570
household Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 287, 566, 567, 568, 569, 570
ignatius of antioch Marquis, Epistolary Fiction in Ancient Greek Literature (2023) 184
imitation Marquis, Epistolary Fiction in Ancient Greek Literature (2023) 184
inclusio Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 563
individualism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 568
instruction, pagan Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 742
jewish sects, mosess care Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 566
john chrysostom Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 563
letter, cynic Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 742
love, brotherly, martyrdom as expression of Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 198
love, charity Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 60
lucian Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 560, 563
lust Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 121
marriage, in new testament Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 412
martyr and martyrdom, christian, x Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 198
martyr and martyrdom, exhortation to Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 198
martyr and martyrdom, origen on Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 198
martyr and martyrdom, tertullian on Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 198
martyr and martyrdom Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 198
maxims Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 416
maximus of tyre Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 561
metaphor Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 121, 535
model Marquis, Epistolary Fiction in Ancient Greek Literature (2023) 184
morality Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 563, 568
moses Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 566
name, divine Bull, Lied and Turner, Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty (2011) 11
norden, eduard Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 561
old age Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 280, 563, 564
orthodox Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 121
paraenesis, antithesis Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 438
paraenesis, characteristics Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 438
paraenesis, imitation Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 568
paraenesis Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 416, 438, 535, 568
parallels/parallelism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 742
parent Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 121, 566
pastoral care Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 121
pastoral epistles, the, authorship Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 160
pastoral epistles Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 121, 416, 438, 535, 559, 560, 561, 562, 563, 564, 565, 566, 567, 568, 569, 570
pastorals Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 121, 416, 438, 535, 559, 560, 561, 562, 563, 564, 565, 566, 567, 568, 569, 570
paul, adversaries Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 148, 161
paul, succession from Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 160
paul Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 566, 569
paul (apostle) Marquis, Epistolary Fiction in Ancient Greek Literature (2023) 184
peratic Bull, Lied and Turner, Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty (2011) 11
peristasis catalogue Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 742
philodemus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 567
philophronesis Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 438
philosopher Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 559, 560, 561, 568, 569, 570
philosophical Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 416
physical description, senex Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 280, 287
plato Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 280
pleasure, in old age Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 280
pleasure Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 280, 287, 416, 438
poetry Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 416
polemic Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 742
political religion Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 376
postscript Marquis, Epistolary Fiction in Ancient Greek Literature (2023) 184
praecepta Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 568
preaching Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 121
precept Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 568
presbyter, relationship to bishops Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 160
presbyter, salary Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 161
presbyter Marquis, Epistolary Fiction in Ancient Greek Literature (2023) 184
prescript Marquis, Epistolary Fiction in Ancient Greek Literature (2023) 184
progress, moral Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 121
prophet, in the didache Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 124
proverb Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 416, 438
proverbs, titus, letter of Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 416
proverbs, virtue/vice lists Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 416
pseudepigraphy Marquis, Epistolary Fiction in Ancient Greek Literature (2023) 184
psychagogy Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 566, 568
rebuke Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 121
religion, domestic Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 376
religion, political Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 376
repetition Marquis, Epistolary Fiction in Ancient Greek Literature (2023) 184
reproach Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 563
responsibility Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 566, 567, 568
rhetoric Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 567; Marquis, Epistolary Fiction in Ancient Greek Literature (2023) 184
roman empire religious environment of Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 198
rome Marquis, Epistolary Fiction in Ancient Greek Literature (2023) 184
sadness Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 60
salvation, in pastorals Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 438
self-control Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 287
sender Marquis, Epistolary Fiction in Ancient Greek Literature (2023) 184
seneca Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 568
sermon on the mount Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 198
sermons Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 60
sexuality, new testament perspectives Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 412
silence Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 121
slave/slavery Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 564, 566, 567
social ranking, in roman empire (after constantine) Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 376
social ranking, of jesus group members Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 376
socrates Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 416
soteriology, in pastorals Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 438
st. paul Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 60
stoicism, oikonomia Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 561, 566
stoicism, sage Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 561
stoicism, wise man Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 561, 566
stoicism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 561, 566
suffering, of the righteous' Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 198
teacher, gender of Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 148
teacher Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 563
teaching, sound Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 121
teaching Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 562, 564, 567, 570
tertullian, on martyrdom Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 198
thanksgiving, in letters Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 438
timothy, appointment of Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 148
timothy, rhetorical function Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 160
timothy Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 562, 565, 567, 568, 570
titus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 416, 569, 570
topos, topoi Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 563
tradition, literary Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 559
tradition Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 568
transmission (of text) Marquis, Epistolary Fiction in Ancient Greek Literature (2023) 184
uoluntas Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 60
vergil Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 60
vice, list Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 121, 416, 438
vice Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 565, 570
virtue, domestic Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 563
virtue, life of Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 416, 438, 559, 562, 568
virtue, list of Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 121
virtue Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 287, 560, 561, 565, 566, 567, 568, 569, 570
wealth Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 535, 559, 567
weapon Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 280, 287
widows Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 148
wife Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 564, 566, 570
wise Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 566
women, duties Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 287
women, social status Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 148
women Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 280, 563, 564, 570
xenophon, oikonomia Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 562, 565