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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8235
New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 5.1-5.5


Περὶ δὲ τῶν χρόνων καὶ τῶν καιρῶν, ἀδελφοί, οὐ χρείαν ἔχετε ὑμῖν γράφεσθαιBut concerning the times and the seasons, brothers, you have no need that anything be written to you.


αὐτοὶ γὰρ ἀκριβῶς οἴδατε ὅτι ἡμέρα Κυρίου ὡς κλέπτης ἐν νυκτὶ οὕτως ἔρχεται.For you yourselves know well that the day of the Lord comes like a thief in the night.


ὅταν λέγωσιν Εἰρήνη καὶ ἀσφάλεια, τότε αἰφνίδιος αὐτοῖς ἐπίσταται ὄλεθρος ὥσπερ ἡ ὠδὶν τῇ ἐν γαστρὶ ἐχούσῃ, καὶ οὐ μὴ ἐκφύγωσιν.For when they are saying, "Peace and safety," then sudden destruction will come on them, like birth pains on a pregnant woman; and they will in no way escape.


ὑμεῖς δέ, ἀδελ φοί, οὐκ ἐστὲ ἐν σκότει, ἵνα ἡ ἡμέρα ὑμᾶς ὡς κλέπτας καταλάβῃBut you, brothers, aren't in darkness, that the day should overtake you like a thief.


πάντες γὰρ ὑμεῖς υἱοὶ φωτός ἐστε καὶ υἱοὶ ἡμέρας. Οὐκ ἐσμὲν νυκτὸς οὐδὲ σκότους·You are all sons of light, and sons of the day. We don't belong to the night, nor to darkness


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

47 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 19.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.15. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָעָם הֱיוּ נְכֹנִים לִשְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים אַל־תִּגְּשׁוּ אֶל־אִשָּׁה׃ 19.15. And he said unto the people: ‘Be ready against the third day; come not near a woman.’"
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 3.4-3.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.4. וַיֹּאמֶר הַנָּחָשׁ אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה לֹא־מוֹת תְּמֻתוּן׃ 3.5. כִּי יֹדֵעַ אֱלֹהִים כִּי בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְכֶם מִמֶּנּוּ וְנִפְקְחוּ עֵינֵיכֶם וִהְיִיתֶם כֵּאלֹהִים יֹדְעֵי טוֹב וָרָע׃ 3.4. And the serpent said unto the woman: ‘Ye shall not surely die;" 3.5. for God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as God, knowing good and evil.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 10.35, 13.31 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

10.35. וְהַגּוֹרָלוֹת הִפַּלְנוּ עַל־קֻרְבַּן הָעֵצִים הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם וְהָעָם לְהָבִיא לְבֵית אֱלֹהֵינוּ לְבֵית־אֲבֹתֵינוּ לְעִתִּים מְזֻמָּנִים שָׁנָה בְשָׁנָה לְבַעֵר עַל־מִזְבַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ כַּכָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה׃ 13.31. וּלְקֻרְבַּן הָעֵצִים בְּעִתִּים מְזֻמָּנוֹת וְלַבִּכּוּרִים זָכְרָה־לִּי אֱלֹהַי לְטוֹבָה׃ 10.35. And we cast lots, the priests, the Levites, and the people, for the wood-offering, to bring it into the house of our God, according to our fathers’houses, at times appointed, year by year, to burn upon the altar of the LORD our God, as it is written in the Law;" 13.31. and for the wood-offering, at times appointed, and for the first-fruits. Remember me, O my God, for good."
4. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

261a. Phaedrus. We have need of these arguments, Socrates. Bring them here and examine their words and their meaning. Socrates. Come here, then, noble creatures, and persuade the fair young Phaedrus that unless he pay proper attention to philosophy he will never be able to speak properly about anything. And let Phaedrus answer. Phaedrus. Ask your questions. Socrates. Is not rhetoric in its entire nature an art which leads the soul by means of words, not only in law courts and the various other public assemblages
5. Anon., Testament of Naphtali, 8.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.8. For there is a season for a man to embrace his wife, And a season to abstain therefrom for his prayer.
6. Cicero, On Friendship, 20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 1.71 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.71. Quapropter si ea, quae dixi, sole ipso illustriora et clariora sunt, si omnia dixi hausta omnia dixi hausta = nihil dixi nisi quod haustum esset e fonte naturae, si tota oratio nostra omnem sibi fidem sensibus confirmat, id est incorruptis atque integris testibus, si infantes pueri, mutae etiam bestiae paene loquuntur magistra ac duce natura nihil esse prosperum nisi voluptatem, nihil asperum nisi dolorem, de quibus neque depravate iudicant neque corrupte, depravatae ... corruptae A nonne ei maximam gratiam habere debemus, qui hac exaudita quasi voce naturae sic eam firme graviterque comprehenderit, ut omnes bene sanos in viam placatae, tranquillae, quietae, beatae vitae deduceret? Qui quod tibi parum videtur eruditus, ea causa est, quod nullam eruditionem esse duxit, nisi quae beatae vitae disciplinam iuvaret.
8. Cicero, In Verrem, 2.4.52.116 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

9. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Qmmt, 63, 13 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 2.21, 4.37, 7.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.21. וְהוּא מְהַשְׁנֵא עִדָּנַיָּא וְזִמְנַיָּא מְהַעְדֵּה מַלְכִין וּמְהָקֵים מַלְכִין יָהֵב חָכְמְתָא לְחַכִּימִין וּמַנְדְּעָא לְיָדְעֵי בִינָה׃ 7.25. וּמִלִּין לְצַד עליא [עִלָּאָה] יְמַלִּל וּלְקַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין יְבַלֵּא וְיִסְבַּר לְהַשְׁנָיָה זִמְנִין וְדָת וְיִתְיַהֲבוּן בִּידֵהּ עַד־עִדָּן וְעִדָּנִין וּפְלַג עִדָּן׃ 2.21. And He changeth the times and the seasons; He removeth kings, and setteth up kings; He giveth wisdom unto the wise, And knowledge to them that know understanding;" 7.25. And he shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High; and he shall think to change the seasons and the law; and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and half a time."
11. Philodemus, De Oeconomia, 23 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

12. Horace, Sermones, 1.1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.1. 1. I suppose that, by my books of the Antiquities of the Jews, most excellent Epaphroditus, I have made it evident to those who peruse them, that our Jewish nation is of very great antiquity, and had a distinct subsistence of its own originally; as also I have therein declared how we came to inhabit this country wherein we now live. Those Antiquities contain the history of five thousand years, and are taken out of our sacred books; but are translated by me into the Greek tongue. 1.1. but as for the place where the Grecians inhabit, ten thousand destructions have overtaken it, and blotted out the memory of former actions; so that they were ever beginning a new way of living, and supposed that every one of them was the origin of their new state. It was also late, and with difficulty, that they came to know the letters they now use; for those who would advance their use of these letters to the greatest antiquity pretend that they learned them from the Phoenicians and from Cadmus; 1.1. but after some considerable time, Armais, who was left in Egypt, did all those very things, by way of opposition, which his brother had forbidden him to do, without fear; for he used violence to the queen, and continued to make use of the rest of the concubines, without sparing any of them; nay, at the persuasion of his friends he put on the diadem, and set up to oppose his brother;
13. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 92 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

92. In every festival then and assembly among men, the following are the most remarkable and celebrated points, security, relaxation, truce, drunkenness, deep drinking, revelling, luxury, amusement, music at the doors, banquets lasting through the night, unseemly pleasures, wedding feasts during the day, violent acts of insolence, practices of intemperance, indulgence of folly, pursuits of shameful things, an utter destruction and renunciation of what is good, wakefulness during the night for the indulgence of immoderate appetites, sleep by day when it is the proper time to be awake, a turning upside down of the laws of nature. 92. But there are also some people who, without any idea of acquiring gain, do from a bad habit incessantly and inconsiderately swear upon every occasion, even when there is nothing at all about which any doubt is raised, as if they were desirous to fill up the deficiency of their argument with oaths, as if it would not be better to cut their conversation short, or I might rather say to utter nothing at all, but to preserve entire silence, for from a frequency of oaths arises a habit of perjury and impiety.
14. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 74, 42 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

42. For that which those men who gain victories in the Olympic games, when perfectly sober in the arena, and having all the Greeks for spectators do by day, exerting all their skill for the purpose of gaining victory and the crown, these men with base designs do at convivial entertainments, getting drunk by night, in the hour of darkness, when soaked in wine, acting without either knowledge, or art, or skill, to the insult, and injury, and great disgrace of those who are subjected to their violence.
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.68-2.69 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.68. But, in the first place, before assuming that office, it was necessary for him to purify not only his soul but also his body, so that it should be connected with and defiled by no passion, but should be pure from everything which is of a mortal nature, from all meat and drink, and from all connection with women. 2.69. And this last thing, indeed, he had despised for a long time, and almost from the first moment that he began to prophesy and to feel a divine inspiration, thinking that it was proper that he should at all times be ready to give his whole attention to the commands of God. And how he neglected all meat and drink for forty days together, evidently because he had more excellent food than that in those contemplations with which he was inspired from above from heaven, by which also he was improved in the first instance in his mind, and, secondly, in his body, through his soul, increasing in strength and health both of body and soul, so that those who saw him afterwards could not believe that he was the same person.
16. Anon., 2 Baruch, 30, 29 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 9-10 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

18. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 1.9, 1.63, 12.42 (1st cent. CE

19. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.13, 1.23, 2.2, 4.8-4.13, 7.25, 8.1, 9.19, 10.1, 12.1, 12.26, 13.12-13.13, 14.26-14.33, 15.3, 15.19, 15.34-15.37, 15.41, 16.1, 16.5-16.9, 16.12-16.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.13. Is Christ divided? Was Paul crucified for you?Or were you baptized into the name of Paul? 1.23. but we preach Christ crucified; astumbling block to Jews, and foolishness to Greeks 2.2. ForI determined not to know anything among you, except Jesus Christ, andhim crucified. 4.8. You are already filled. Youhave already become rich. You have come to reign without us. Yes, and Iwish that you did reign, that we also might reign with you. 4.9. For,I think that God has displayed us, the apostles, last of all, like mensentenced to death. For we are made a spectacle to the world, both toangels and men. 4.10. We are fools for Christ's sake, but you are wisein Christ. We are weak, but you are strong. You have honor, but we havedishonor. 4.11. Even to this present hour we hunger, thirst, arenaked, are beaten, and have no certain dwelling place. 4.12. We toil,working with our own hands. Being reviled, we bless. Being persecuted,we endure. 4.13. Being defamed, we entreat. We are made as the filthof the world, the dirt wiped off by all, even until now. 7.25. Now concerning virgins, I have no commandment from the Lord,but I give my judgment as one who has obtained mercy from the Lord tobe trustworthy. 8.1. Now concerning things sacrificed to idols: We know that we allhave knowledge. Knowledge puffs up, but love builds up. 9.19. For though I was free fromall, I brought myself under bondage to all, that I might gain the more. 10.1. Now I would not have you ignorant, brothers, that our fatherswere all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; 12.1. Now concerning spiritual gifts, brothers, I don't want you tobe ignorant. 12.26. When one member suffers,all the members suffer with it. Or when one member is honored, all themembers rejoice with it. 13.12. For now we see in a mirror, dimly, butthen face to face. Now I know in part, but then I will know fully, evenas I was also fully known. 13.13. But now faith, hope, and love remain-- these three. The greatest of these is love. 14.26. What is it then, brothers? When you come together, each oneof you has a psalm, has a teaching, has a revelation, has anotherlanguage, has an interpretation. Let all things be done to build eachother up. 14.27. If any man speaks in another language, let it be two,or at the most three, and in turn; and let one interpret. 14.28. Butif there is no interpreter, let him keep silent in the assembly, andlet him speak to himself, and to God. 14.29. Let the prophets speak,two or three, and let the others discern. 14.30. But if a revelationis made to another sitting by, let the first keep silent. 14.31. Foryou all can prophesy one by one, that all may learn, and all may beexhorted. 14.32. The spirits of the prophets are subject to theprophets 14.33. for God is not a God of confusion, but of peace.As in all the assemblies of the saints 15.3. For I delivered to youfirst of all that which I also received: that Christ died for our sinsaccording to the Scriptures 15.19. If we have only hoped inChrist in this life, we are of all men most pitiable. 15.34. Wake up righteously, and don't sin, for some have no knowledgeof God. I say this to your shame. 15.35. But someone will say, "Howare the dead raised?" and, "With what kind of body do they come? 15.36. You foolish one, that which you yourself sow is not made aliveunless it dies. 15.37. That which you sow, you don't sow the body thatwill be, but a bare grain, maybe of wheat, or of some other kind. 15.41. There is one glory of the sun, another gloryof the moon, and another glory of the stars; for one star differs fromanother star in glory. 16.1. Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I commandedthe assemblies of Galatia, you do likewise. 16.5. But I will come to you when I have passed throughMacedonia, for I am passing through Macedonia. 16.6. But with you itmay be that I will stay, or even winter, that you may send me on myjourney wherever I go. 16.7. For I do not wish to see you now inpassing, but I hope to stay a while with you, if the Lord permits. 16.8. But I will stay at Ephesus until Pentecost 16.9. for a greatand effective door has opened to me, and there are many adversaries. 16.12. Now concerning Apollos, the brother, I begged him much tocome to you with the brothers; and it was not at all his desire to comenow; but he will come when he has an opportunity. 16.13. Watch! Stand firm in the faith! Be courageous! Be strong!
20. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.1-1.10, 2.1-2.2, 2.5, 2.7-2.16, 2.19, 3.1, 3.3-3.4, 3.8, 3.13, 4.1-4.18, 5.2-5.23, 5.26-5.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, Silvanus, and Timothy, to the assembly of the Thessalonians in God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 1.2. We always give thanks to God for all of you, mentioning you in our prayers 1.3. remembering without ceasing your work of faith and labor of love and patience of hope in our Lord Jesus Christ, before our God and Father. 1.4. We know, brothers loved by God, that you are chosen 1.5. and that our gospel came to you not in word only, but also in power, and in the Holy Spirit, and with much assurance. You know what kind of men we showed ourselves to be among you for your sake. 1.6. You became imitators of us, and of the Lord, having received the word in much affliction, with joy of the Holy Spirit 1.7. so that you became an example to all who believe in Macedonia and in Achaia. 1.8. For from you has sounded forth the word of the Lord, not only in Macedonia and Achaia, but also in every place your faith toward God has gone forth; so that we need not to say anything. 1.9. For they themselves report concerning us what kind of a reception we had from you; and how you turned to God from idols, to serve a living and true God 1.10. and to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead -- Jesus, who delivers us from the wrath to come. 2.1. For you yourselves know, brothers, our visit to you wasn't in vain 2.2. but having suffered before and been shamefully treated, as you know, at Philippi, we grew bold in our God to tell you the gospel of God in much conflict. 2.5. For neither were we at any time found using words of flattery, as you know, nor a cloak of covetousness (God is witness) 2.7. But we were gentle in the midst of you, as when a nurse cherishes her own children. 2.8. Even so, affectionately longing for you, we were well pleased to impart to you, not the gospel of God only, but also our own souls, because you had become very dear to us. 2.9. For you remember, brothers, our labor and travail; for working night and day, that we might not burden any of you, we preached to you the gospel of God. 2.10. You are witnesses with God, how holy, righteously, and blamelessly we behaved ourselves toward you who believe. 2.11. As you know how we exhorted, comforted, and implored every one of you, as a father does his own children 2.12. to the end that you should walk worthily of God, who calls you into his own kingdom and glory. 2.13. For this cause we also thank God without ceasing, that, when you received from us the word of the message of God, you accepted it not as the word of men, but, as it is in truth, the word of God, which also works in you who believe. 2.14. For you, brothers, became imitators of the assemblies of God which are in Judea in Christ Jesus; for you also suffered the same things from your own countrymen, even as they did from the Jews; 2.15. who killed both the Lord Jesus and their own prophets, and drove us out, and didn't please God, and are contrary to all men; 2.16. forbidding us to speak to the Gentiles that they may be saved; to fill up their sins always. But wrath has come on them to the uttermost. 2.19. For what is our hope, or joy, or crown of rejoicing? Isn't it even you, before our Lord Jesus at his coming? 3.1. Therefore, when we couldn't stand it any longer, we thought it good to be left behind at Athens alone 3.3. that no one be moved by these afflictions. For you know that we are appointed to this task. 3.4. For most assuredly, when we were with you, we told you beforehand that we are to suffer affliction, even as it happened, and you know. 3.8. For now we live, if you stand fast in the Lord. 3.13. to the end he may establish your hearts blameless in holiness before our God and Father, at the coming of our Lord Jesus with all his saints. 4.1. Finally then, brothers, we beg and exhort you in the Lord Jesus, that as you received from us how you ought to walk and to please God, that you abound more and more. 4.2. For you know what charge we gave you through the Lord Jesus. 4.3. For this is the will of God: your sanctification, that you abstain from sexual immorality 4.4. that each one of you know how to possess himself of his own vessel in sanctification and honor 4.5. not in the passion of lust, even as the Gentiles who don't know God; 4.6. that no one should take advantage of and wrong a brother or sister in this matter; because the Lord is an avenger in all these things, as also we forewarned you and testified. 4.7. For God called us not for uncleanness, but in sanctification. 4.8. Therefore he who rejects doesn't reject man, but God, who has also given his Holy Spirit to you. 4.9. But concerning brotherly love, you have no need that one write to you. For you yourselves are taught by God to love one another 4.10. for indeed you do it toward all the brothers who are in all Macedonia. But we exhort you, brothers, that you abound more and more; 4.11. and that you make it your ambition to lead a quiet life, and to do your own business, and to work with your own hands, even as we charged you; 4.12. that you may walk properly toward those who are outside, and may have need of nothing. 4.13. But we don't want you to be ignorant, brothers, concerning those who have fallen asleep, so that you don't grieve like the rest, who have no hope. 4.14. For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so those who have fallen asleep in Jesus will God bring with him. 4.15. For this we tell you by the word of the Lord, that we who are alive, who are left to the coming of the Lord, will in no way precede those who have fallen asleep. 4.16. For the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with God's trumpet. The dead in Christ will rise first 4.17. then we who are alive, who are left, will be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air. So we will be with the Lord forever. 4.18. Therefore comfort one another with these words. 5.2. For you yourselves know well that the day of the Lord comes like a thief in the night. 5.3. For when they are saying, "Peace and safety," then sudden destruction will come on them, like birth pains on a pregt woman; and they will in no way escape. 5.4. But you, brothers, aren't in darkness, that the day should overtake you like a thief. 5.5. You are all sons of light, and sons of the day. We don't belong to the night, nor to darkness 5.6. so then let's not sleep, as the rest do, but let's watch and be sober. 5.7. For those who sleep, sleep in the night, and those who are drunken are drunken in the night. 5.8. But let us, since we belong to the day, be sober, putting on the breastplate of faith and love, and, for a helmet, the hope of salvation. 5.9. For God didn't appoint us to wrath, but to the obtaining of salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ 5.10. who died for us, that, whether we wake or sleep, we should live together with him. 5.11. Therefore exhort one another, and build each other up, even as you also do. 5.12. But we beg you, brothers, to know those who labor among you, and are over you in the Lord, and admonish you 5.13. and to respect and honor them in love for their work's sake. Be at peace among yourselves. 5.14. We exhort you, brothers, admonish the disorderly, encourage the fainthearted, support the weak, be patient toward all. 5.15. See that no one returns evil for evil to anyone, but always follow after that which is good, for one another, and for all. 5.16. Rejoice always. 5.17. Pray without ceasing. 5.18. In everything give thanks, for this is the will of God in Christ Jesus toward you. 5.19. Don't quench the Spirit. 5.20. Don't despise prophesies. 5.21. Test all things, and hold firmly that which is good. 5.22. Abstain from every form of evil. 5.23. May the God of peace himself sanctify you completely. May your whole spirit, soul, and body be preserved blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. 5.26. Greet all the brothers with a holy kiss. 5.27. I solemnly charge you by the Lord that this letter be read to all the holy brothers.
21. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.6. who gave himself as a ransom for all; the testimony in its own times;
22. New Testament, 2 Peter, 3.3-3.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.3. knowing this first, that in the last days mockers will come, walking after their own lusts 3.4. and saying, "Where is the promise of his coming? For, from the day that the fathers fell asleep, all things continue as they were from the beginning of the creation. 3.5. For this they willfully forget, that there were heavens from of old, and an earth formed out of water and amid water, by the word of God; 3.6. by which means the world that then was, being overflowed with water, perished. 3.7. But the heavens that now are, and the earth, by the same word have been stored up for fire, being reserved against the day of judgment and destruction of ungodly men. 3.8. But don't forget this one thing, beloved, that one day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day. 3.9. The Lord is not slow concerning his promise, as some count slowness; but is patient with us, not wishing that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance.
23. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.12, 1.13, 1.14, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.14, 4.16-5.10, 6.1, 6.14, 8.2, 11.3, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 11.10, 11.11, 11.14, 12.14, 12.15, 12.16, 12.17, 12.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

24. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 2.1-2.10, 3.7-3.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. Now, brothers, concerning the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, and our gathering together to him, we ask you 2.2. not to be quickly shaken in your mind, nor yet be troubled, either by spirit, or by word, or by letter as from us, saying that the day of Christ had come. 2.3. Let no one deceive you in any way. For it will not be, unless the falling away comes first, and the man of sin is revealed, the son of destruction 2.4. he who opposes and exalts himself against all that is called God or that is worshiped; so that he sits as God in the temple of God, setting himself up as God. 2.5. Don't you remember that, when I was still with you, I told you these things? 2.6. Now you know what is restraining him, to the end that he may be revealed in his own season. 2.7. For the mystery of lawlessness already works. Only there is one who restrains now, until he is taken out of the way. 2.8. Then the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Lord will kill with the breath of his mouth, and bring to nothing by the brightness of his coming; 2.9. even he whose coming is according to the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying wonders 2.10. and with all deception of wickedness for those who are being lost, because they didn't receive the love of the truth, that they might be saved. 3.7. For you know how you ought to imitate us. For we didn't behave ourselves rebelliously among you 3.8. neither did we eat bread from anyone's hand without paying for it, but in labor and travail worked night and day, that we might not burden any of you; 3.9. not because we don't have the right, but to make ourselves an example to you, that you should imitate us. 3.10. For even when we were with you, we commanded you this: "If anyone will not work, neither let him eat.
25. New Testament, Acts, 1.7, 14.17, 17.2, 17.4, 17.22-17.31, 21.25 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.7. He said to them, "It isn't for you to know times or seasons which the Father has set within His own authority. 14.17. Yet he didn't leave himself without witness, in that he did good and gave you rains from the sky and fruitful seasons, filling our hearts with food and gladness. 17.2. Paul, as was his custom, went in to them, and for three Sabbath days reasoned with them from the Scriptures 17.4. Some of them were persuaded, and joined Paul and Silas, of the devout Greeks a great multitude, and not a few of the chief women. 17.22. Paul stood in the midst of the Areopagus, and said, "You men of Athens, I perceive that you are very religious in all things. 17.23. For as I passed along, and observed the objects of your worship, I found also an altar with this inscription: 'TO AN UNKNOWN GOD.' What therefore you worship in ignorance, this I announce to you. 17.24. The God who made the world and all things in it, he, being Lord of heaven and earth, dwells not in temples made with hands 17.25. neither is he served by men's hands, as though he needed anything, seeing he himself gives to all life and breath, and all things. 17.26. He made from one blood every nation of men to dwell on all the surface of the earth, having determined appointed seasons, and the bounds of their habitation 17.27. that they should seek the Lord, if perhaps they might reach out for him and find him, though he is not far from each one of us. 17.28. 'For in him we live, and move, and have our being.' As some of your own poets have said, 'For we are also his offspring.' 17.29. Being then the offspring of God, we ought not to think that the Divine Nature is like gold, or silver, or stone, engraved by art and device of man. 17.30. The times of ignorance therefore God overlooked. But now he commands that all men everywhere should repent 17.31. because he has appointed a day in which he will judge the world in righteousness by the man whom he has ordained; whereof he has given assurance to all men, in that he has raised him from the dead. 21.25. But concerning the Gentiles who believe, we have written our decision that they should observe no such thing, except that they should keep themselves from food offered to idols, from blood, from strangled things, and from sexual immorality.
26. New Testament, Apocalypse, 20.1-20.7, 20.11-20.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20.1. I saw an angel coming down out of heaven, having the key of the abyss and a great chain in his hand. 20.2. He seized the dragon, the old serpent, which is the devil and Satan, who deceives the whole inhabited earth, and bound him for a thousand years 20.3. and cast him into the abyss, and shut it, and sealed it over him, that he should deceive the nations no more, until the thousand years were finished. After this, he must be freed for a short time. 20.4. I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was given to them. I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded for the testimony of Jesus, and for the word of God, and such as didn't worship the beast nor his image, and didn't receive the mark on their forehead and on their hand. They lived, and reigned with Christ for the thousand years. 20.5. The rest of the dead didn't live until the thousand years were finished. This is the first resurrection. 20.6. Blessed and holy is he who has part in the first resurrection. Over these, the second death has no power, but they will be priests of God and of Christ, and will reign with him one thousand years. 20.7. And after the thousand years, Satan will be released from his prison 20.11. I saw a great white throne, and him who sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away. There was found no place for them. 20.12. I saw the dead, the great and the small, standing before the throne, and they opened books. Another book was opened, which is the book of life. The dead were judged out of the things which were written in the books, according to their works.
27. New Testament, James, 5.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.8. You also be patient. Establish your hearts, for the coming of the Lord is at hand.
28. New Testament, Colossians, 2.2, 2.12-2.13, 3.1-3.5, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.2. that their hearts may be comforted, they being knit together in love, and gaining all riches of the full assurance of understanding, that they may know the mystery of God, both of the Father and of Christ 2.12. having been buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the working of God, who raised him from the dead. 2.13. You were dead through your trespasses and the uncircumcision of your flesh. He made you alive together with him, having forgiven us all our trespasses; 3.1. If then you were raised together with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated on the right hand of God. 3.2. Set your mind on the things that are above, not on the things that are on the earth. 3.3. For you died, and your life is hidden with Christ in God. 3.4. When Christ, our life, is revealed, then you will also be revealed with him in glory. 3.5. Put to death therefore your members which are on the earth: sexual immorality, uncleanness, depraved passion, evil desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry; 4.2. Continue steadfastly in prayer, watching therein with thanksgiving;
29. New Testament, Ephesians, 5.2, 5.21-5.25, 6.10-6.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.2. Walk in love, even as Christ also loved you, and gave himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling fragrance. 5.21. subjecting yourselves one to another in the fear of Christ. 5.22. Wives, be subject to your own husbands, as to the Lord. 5.23. For the husband is the head of the wife, and Christ also is the head of the assembly, being himself the savior of the body. 5.24. But as the assembly is subject to Christ, so let the wives also be to their own husbands in everything. 5.25. Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the assembly, and gave himself up for it; 6.10. Finally, be strong in the Lord, and in the strength of his might. 6.11. Put on the whole armor of God, that you may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil. 6.12. For our wrestling is not against flesh and blood, but against the principalities, against the powers, against the world's rulers of the darkness of this age, and against the spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places. 6.13. Therefore, put on the whole armor of God, that you may be able to withstand in the evil day, and, having done all, to stand. 6.14. Stand therefore, having the utility belt of truth buckled around your waist, and having put on the breastplate of righteousness 6.15. and having fitted your feet with the preparation of the gospel of peace; 6.16. above all, taking up the shield of faith, with which you will be able to quench all the fiery darts of the evil one. 6.17. And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God; 6.18. with all prayer and requests, praying at all times in the Spirit, and being watchful to this end in all perseverance and requests for all the saints:
30. New Testament, Galatians, 1.4, 3.1, 5.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us out of this present evil age, according to the will of our God and Father -- 3.1. Foolish Galatians, who has bewitched you not to obey thetruth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ was openly set forth among you as crucified? 5.13. For you, brothers, were called for freedom. Only don't useyour freedom for gain to the flesh, but through love be servants to oneanother.
31. New Testament, Hebrews, 6.9, 11.32, 12.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.9. But, beloved, we are persuaded of better things for you, and things that accompany salvation, even though we speak like this. 11.32. What more shall I say? For the time would fail me if I told of Gideon, Barak, Samson, Jephthah, David, Samuel, and the prophets; 12.23. to the general assembly and assembly of the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven, to God the Judge of all, to the spirits of just men made perfect
32. New Testament, Philippians, 1.18-1.19, 2.20-2.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. What does it matter? Only that in every way, whether in pretense or in truth, Christ is proclaimed. I rejoice in this, yes, and will rejoice. 1.19. For I know that this will turn out to my salvation, through your supplication and the supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ 2.20. For I have no one else like-minded, who will truly care about you. 2.21. For they all seek their own, not the things of Jesus Christ. 2.22. But you know the proof of him, that, as a child serves a father, so he served with me in furtherance of the gospel. 2.23. Therefore I hope to send him at once, as soon as I see how it will go with me. 2.24. But I trust in the Lord that I myself also will come shortly.
33. New Testament, Romans, 3.6, 5.6, 5.8, 8.32, 12.9-12.10, 12.12-12.21, 13.11-13.14, 14.1-14.3, 14.13, 14.15, 15.1-15.7, 15.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.6. May it never be! For then how will God judge the world? 5.6. For while we were yet weak, at the right time Christ died for the ungodly. 5.8. But God commends his own love toward us, in that while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. 8.32. He who didn't spare his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how would he not also with him freely give us all things? 12.9. Let love be without hypocrisy. Abhor that which is evil. Cling to that which is good. 12.10. In love of the brothers be tenderly affectionate one to another; in honor preferring one another; 12.12. rejoicing in hope; enduring in troubles; continuing steadfastly in prayer; 12.13. contributing to the needs of the saints; given to hospitality. 12.14. Bless those who persecute you; bless, and don't curse. 12.15. Rejoice with those who rejoice. Weep with those who weep. 12.16. Be of the same mind one toward another. Don't set your mind on high things, but associate with the humble. Don't be wise in your own conceits. 12.17. Repay no one evil for evil. Respect what is honorable in the sight of all men. 12.18. If it is possible, as much as it is up to you, be at peace with all men. 12.19. Don't seek revenge yourselves, beloved, but give place to God's wrath. For it is written, "Vengeance belongs to me; I will repay, says the Lord. 12.20. Therefore "If your enemy is hungry, feed him. If he is thirsty, give him a drink. For in doing so, you will heap coals of fire on his head. 12.21. Don't be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good. 13.11. Do this, knowing the time, that it is already time for you to awaken out of sleep, for salvation is now nearer to us than when we first believed. 13.12. The night is far gone, and the day is near. Let's therefore throw off the works of darkness, and let's put on the armor of light. 13.13. Let us walk properly, as in the day; not in reveling and drunkenness, not in sexual promiscuity and lustful acts, and not in strife and jealousy. 13.14. But put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh, for its lusts. 14.1. Now receive one who is weak in faith, but not for disputes over opinions. 14.2. One man has faith to eat all things, but he who is weak eats only vegetables. 14.3. Don't let him who eats despise him who doesn't eat. Don't let him who doesn't eat judge him who eats, for God has received him. 14.13. Therefore let's not judge one another any more, but judge this rather, that no man put a stumbling block in his brother's way, or an occasion for falling. 14.15. Yet if because of food your brother is grieved, you walk no longer in love. Don't destroy with your food him for whom Christ died. 15.1. Now we who are strong ought to bear the weaknesses of the weak, and not to please ourselves. 15.2. Let each one of us please his neighbor for that which is good, to be building him up. 15.3. For even Christ didn't please himself. But, as it is written, "The reproaches of those who reproached you fell on me. 15.4. For whatever things were written before were written for our learning, that through patience and through encouragement of the Scriptures we might have hope. 15.5. Now the God of patience and of encouragement grant you to be of the same mind one with another according to Christ Jesus 15.6. that with one accord you may with one mouth glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. 15.7. Therefore receive one another, even as Christ also received you, to the glory of God. 15.14. I myself am also persuaded about you, my brothers, that you yourselves are full of goodness, filled with all knowledge, able also to admonish others.
34. New Testament, Titus, 2.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.14. who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify for himself a people for his own possession, zealous for good works.
35. New Testament, Luke, 12.37, 16.8, 21.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.37. Blessed are those servants, whom the lord will find watching when he comes. Most assuredly I tell you, that he will dress himself, and make them recline, and will come and serve them. 16.8. His lord commended the dishonest manager because he had done wisely, for the sons of this world are, in their own generation, wiser than the sons of the light. 21.7. They asked him, "Teacher, so when will these things be? What is the sign that these things are about to happen?
36. New Testament, Mark, 10.30, 10.45, 13.4, 13.26, 13.29, 13.32-13.37, 14.32-14.42 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.30. but he will receive one hundred times more now in this time, houses, brothers, sisters, mothers, children, and land, with persecutions; and in the age to come eternal life. 10.45. For the Son of Man also came not to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many. 13.4. Tell us, when will these things be? What is the sign that these things are all about to be fulfilled? 13.26. Then they will see the Son of Man coming in clouds with great power and glory. 13.29. even so you also, when you see these things coming to pass, know that it is near, at the doors. 13.32. But of that day or that hour no one knows, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but only the Father. 13.33. Watch, keep alert, and pray; for you don't know when the time is. 13.34. It is like a man, traveling to another country, having left his house, and given authority to his servants, and to each one his work, and also commanded the doorkeeper to keep watch. 13.35. Watch therefore, for you don't know when the lord of the house is coming, whether at evening, or at midnight, or when the rooster crows, or in the morning; 13.36. lest coming suddenly he might find you sleeping. 13.37. What I tell you, I tell all: Watch. 14.32. They came to a place which was named Gethsemane. He said to his disciples, "Sit here, while I pray. 14.33. He took with him Peter, James, and John, and began to be greatly troubled and distressed. 14.34. He said to them, "My soul is exceedingly sorrowful, even to death. Stay here, and watch. 14.35. He went forward a little, and fell on the ground, and prayed that, if it were possible, the hour might pass away from him. 14.36. He said, "Abba, Father, all things are possible to you. Please remove this cup from me. However, not what I desire, but what you desire. 14.37. He came and found them sleeping, and said to Peter, "Simon, are you sleeping? Couldn't you watch one hour? 14.38. Watch and pray, that you not enter into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak. 14.39. Again he went away, and prayed, saying the same words. 14.40. Again he returned, and found them sleeping, for their eyes were very heavy, and they didn't know what to answer him. 14.41. He came the third time, and said to them, "Sleep on now, and take your rest. It is enough. The hour has come. Behold, the Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. 14.42. Arise, let us be going. Behold, he who betrays me is at hand.
37. New Testament, Matthew, 20.28, 24.1-24.3, 24.42-24.43, 25.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20.28. even as the Son of Man came not to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many. 24.1. Jesus went out from the temple, and was going on his way. His disciples came to him to show him the buildings of the temple. 24.2. But he answered them, "Don't you see all of these things? Most assuredly I tell you, there will not be left here one stone on another, that will not be thrown down. 24.3. As he sat on the Mount of Olives, the disciples came to him privately, saying, "Tell us, when will these things be? What is the sign of your coming, and of the end of the age? 24.42. Watch therefore, for you don't know in what hour your Lord comes. 24.43. But know this, that if the master of the house had known in what watch of the night the thief was coming, he would have watched, and would not have allowed his house to be broken into. 25.19. Now after a long time the lord of those servants came, and reconciled accounts with them.
38. Plutarch, Against Colotes, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

39. Plutarch, Beasts Are Rational, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

40. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 9.17, 121.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

41. Hermas, Mandates, 5.2.8, 12.2.4-12.2.5 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

42. Lucian, The Passing of Peregrinus, 13 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

43. Minucius Felix, Octavius, 8 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

44. Tertullian, Apology, 40 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

40. On the contrary, they deserve the name of faction who conspire to bring odium on good men and virtuous, who cry out against innocent blood, offering as the justification of their enmity the baseless plea, that they think the Christians the cause of every public disaster, of every affliction with which the people are visited. If the Tiber rises as high as the city walls, if the Nile does not send its waters up over the fields, if the heavens give no rain, if there is an earthquake, if there is famine or pestilence, straightway the cry is, Away with the Christians to the lion! What! shall you give such multitudes to a single beast? Pray, tell me how many calamities befell the world and particular cities before Tiberius reigned - before the coming, that is, of Christ? We read of the islands of Hiera, and Anaphe, and Delos, and Rhodes, and Cos, with many thousands of human beings, having been swallowed up. Plato informs us that a region larger than Asia or Africa was seized by the Atlantic Ocean. An earthquake, too, drank up the Corinthian sea; and the force of the waves cut off a part of Lucania, whence it obtained the name of Sicily. These things surely could not have taken place without the inhabitants suffering by them. But where - I do not say were Christians, those despisers of your gods - but where were your gods themselves in those days, when the flood poured its destroying waters over all the world, or, as Plato thought, merely the level portion of it? For that they are of later date than that calamity, the very cities in which they were born and died, nay, which they founded, bear ample testimony; for the cities could have no existence at this day unless as belonging to postdiluvian times. Palestine had not yet received from Egypt its Jewish swarm (of emigrants), nor had the race from which Christians sprung yet settled down there, when its neighbors Sodom and Gomorrha were consumed by fire from heaven. The country yet smells of that conflagration; and if there are apples there upon the trees, it is only a promise to the eye they give - you but touch them, and they turn to ashes. Nor had Tuscia and Campania to complain of Christians in the days when fire from heaven overwhelmed Vulsinii, and Pompeii was destroyed by fire from its own mountain. No one yet worshipped the true God at Rome, when Hannibal at Cann counted the Roman slain by the pecks of Roman rings. Your gods were all objects of adoration, universally acknowledged, when the Senones closely besieged the very Capitol. And it is in keeping with all this, that if adversity has at any time befallen cities, the temples and the walls have equally shared in the disaster, so that it is clear to demonstration the thing was not the doing of the gods, seeing it also overtook themselves. The truth is, the human race has always deserved ill at God's hand. First of all, as undutiful to Him, because when it knew Him in part, it not only did not seek after Him, but even invented other gods of its own to worship; and further, because, as the result of their willing ignorance of the Teacher of righteousness, the Judge and Avenger of sin, all vices and crimes grew and flourished. But had men sought, they would have come to know the glorious object of their seeking; and knowledge would have produced obedience, and obedience would have found a gracious instead of an angry God. They ought then to see that the very same God is angry with them now as in ancient times, before Christians were so much as spoken of. It was His blessings they enjoyed - created before they made any of their deities: and why can they not take it in, that their evils come from the Being whose goodness they have failed to recognize? They suffer at the hands of Him to whom they have been ungrateful. And, for all that is said, if we compare the calamities of former times, they fall on us more lightly now, since God gave Christians to the world; for from that time virtue put some restraint on the world's wickedness, and men began to pray for the averting of God's wrath. In a word, when the summer clouds give no rain, and the season is matter of anxiety, you indeed - full of feasting day by day, and ever eager for the banquet, baths and taverns and brothels always busy - offer up to Jupiter your rain-sacrifices; you enjoin on the people barefoot processions; you seek heaven at the Capitol; you look up to the temple-ceilings for the longed-for clouds - God and heaven not in all your thoughts. We, dried up with fastings, and our passions bound tightly up, holding back as long as possible from all the ordinary enjoyments of life, rolling in sackcloth and ashes, assail heaven with our importunities - touch God's heart - and when we have extorted divine compassion, why, Jupiter gets all the honour!
45. Tertullian, On The Soul, 43 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

46. Tertullian, On The Resurrection of The Flesh, 24, 22 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

22. We must after all this turn our attention to those scriptures also which forbid our belief in such a resurrection as is held by your Animalists (for I will not call them Spiritualists), that it is either to be assumed as taking place now, as soon as men come to the knowledge of the truth, or else that it is accomplished immediately after their departure from this life. Now, forasmuch as the seasons of our entire hope have been fixed in the Holy Scripture, and since we are not permitted to place the accomplishment thereof, as I apprehend, previous to Christ's coming, our prayers are directed towards the end of this world, to the passing away thereof at the great day of the Lord - of His wrath and vengeance - the last day, which is hidden (from all), and known to none but the Father, although announced beforehand by signs and wonders, and the dissolution of the elements, and the conflicts of nations. I would turn out the words of the prophets, if the Lord Himself had said nothing (except that prophecies were the Lord's own word); but it is more to my purpose that He by His own mouth confirms their statement. Being questioned by His disciples when those things were to come to pass which He had just been uttering about the destruction of the temple, He discourses to them first of the order of Jewish events until the overthrow of Jerusalem, and then of such as concerned all nations up to the very end of the world. For after He had declared that Jerusalem was to be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles should be fulfilled, Luke 21:24 - meaning, of course, those which were to be chosen of God, and gathered in with the remt of Israel- He then goes on to proclaim, against this world and dispensation (even as Joel had done, and Daniel, and all the prophets with one consent ), that there should be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars, distress of nations with perplexity, the sea and the waves roaring, men's hearts failing them for fear, and for looking after those things which are coming on the earth. Luke 21:25-26 For, says He, the powers of heaven shall be shaken; and then shall they see the Son of man coming in the clouds, with power and great glory. And when these things begin to come to pass, then look up, and lift up your heads, for your redemption draws near. He spoke of its drawing near, not of its being present already; and of those things beginning to come to pass, not of their having happened: because when they have come to pass, then our redemption shall be at hand, which is said to be approaching up to that time, raising and exciting our minds to what is then the proximate harvest of our hope. He immediately annexes a parable of this in the trees which are tenderly sprouting into a flower-stalk, and then developing the flower, which is the precursor of the fruit. So likewise you, (He adds), when you shall see all these things come to pass, know that the kingdom of heaven is near at hand. Watch, therefore, and pray always, that you may be accounted worthy to escape all those things, and to stand before the Son of man; Luke 21:36 that is, no doubt, at the resurrection, after all these things have been previously transacted. Therefore, although there is a sprouting in the acknowledgment of all this mystery, yet it is only in the actual presence of the Lord that the flower is developed and the fruit borne. Who is it then, that has aroused the Lord, now at God's right hand, so unseasonably and with such severity shake terribly (as Isaiah Isaiah 2:19 expresses it) that earth, which, I suppose, is as yet unshattered? Who has thus early put Christ's enemies beneath His feet (to use the language of David ), making Him more hurried than the Father, while every crowd in our popular assemblies is still with shouts consigning the Christians to the lions? Who has yet beheld Jesus descending from heaven in like manner as the apostles saw Him ascend, according to the appointment of the two angels? Acts 1:11 Up to the present moment they have not, tribe by tribe, smitten their breasts, looking on Him whom they pierced. No one has as yet fallen in with Elias; Malachi 4:5 no one has as yet escaped from Antichrist; 1 John 4:3 no one has as yet had to bewail the downfall of Babylon. Revelation 18:2 And is there now anybody who has risen again, except the heretic? He, of course, has already quitted the grave of his own corpse - although he is even now liable to fevers and ulcers; he, too, has already trodden down his enemies - although he has even now to struggle with the powers of the world. And as a matter of course, he is already a king - although he even now owes to C sar the things which are C sar's. Matthew 22:21
47. Anon., 4 Ezra, 4.33, 4.35

4.33. Then I answered and said, "How long and when will these things be? Why are our years few and evil? 4.35. Did not the souls of the righteous in their chambers ask about these matters, saying, `How long are we to remain here? And when will come the harvest of our reward?


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
afterlife Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 182
alexandre, j. Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 103
anger, of gods Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 362
anxiety, of christians Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 359
anxiety, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 359
aphrodisias Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 325
apocalyptic(ism) (see also dualism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 325, 329
apocalyptic, jewish Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 362, 369
apostolic tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 330
appropriation Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
armor Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 143
asia minor Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 325
atheism, accusations against, christians Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 362
awakening Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
baptism Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 103; Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 86
beasley-murray g.r. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 137
biographical closure Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 182
bitterness Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 143
body (as detached from the soul) Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 182
brother Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 581
brotherly love Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 249
byrne, brendan Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 282
caecilius Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 581
christ, followers of Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 182
christian Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 359, 362
christianity, convert Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 359, 581
christianity, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 359, 362
christianity, philosophy Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 359, 362
cicero Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 329
cognitive aspect Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
communities, ideal of, fulfilling human calling Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 282
comparison, similarities and differences within Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 13
consolation Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 402
conversion, philosophical Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
conversion, psychological aspects Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
conversion Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 359
corporeality Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 103
cosmology/cosmological Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
cynics/cynicism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 182
d/demonisation Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 86
daniel, book of Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 137
day of the lord Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 369
day of the lord or judgement, the Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 121, 122
death Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 399; Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 103; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 182
defense Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 249
desires, evil, wicked Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 143
diogenes, the cynic Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 182
disposition Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
distress (thlipsis), christian Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 359, 362
distress (thlipsis), conversion Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 359, 388
distress (thlipsis), pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 359
distress (thlipsis), thessalonians Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 359
dreams Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 121
drunkenness Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
edification Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 402
epicureanism, attacks against Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 182
epicureanism, comparison to pauline christianity Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 13
epicureanism, education Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 182
epicureanism, manual labor Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 373
epicureanism, peace and security Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 369
epicureanism, simplicity of life Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 373
epicureanism, thessalonians Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 182, 369, 373
epicurus, philanthrōpia Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 182
epicurus, self-taught Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 182
epicurus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 182, 369
epistemology/epistemological Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 86
epistle, genre Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 182
epistolary, form Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 249
eschatology, admonitions Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 182
eschatology, and human vocation Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 282
eschatology, conversion Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 362
eschatology Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 369, 373
example, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 388
exhortation, paraenesis Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
exhortation Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 182
fear, of god or the lord Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 143
four- (or five‐) kingdom paradigm Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 122
fullness of time Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 137
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 325
genuine humanness, signs of Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 282
glory Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 581
god-fearer, god-fearing Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 325
greek, language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 329
greek-jewish (graeco-jewish), literature and culture Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 330
hardships, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 359
hellenism, hellenistic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 329, 330
hellenistic Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
hendiadys Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 373
human vocation, and community Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 282
human vocation, and eschatology Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 282
ignatius Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 330
interpretation words Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 116
jesus, identity of Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 86
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 325
jews Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
judaism and christianity Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 62
judgement, final Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 122
judgement, of god Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 362
knowledge Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 182
letters of recommendation Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 211
lord, the Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 182
lords supper Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 116
love Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 182
lucian Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 581
luke Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 325
macedonia Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 325
manual labor Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 373
maximus of tyre Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 182
medicine, ancient Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 230
messianic woes Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 122
metaphors, arming oneself Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 143
midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 325
mind Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
morality, sexual Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 388, 581
morality Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 362
moses Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 325
of Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 282
of jesus Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 122
pagan, paganism Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 329
paraenesis Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 329
parallels/parallelism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 182
parousia Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 230, 581
pastoral, method Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 230
pastoral epistles Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 182
paul, as pastor Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 388, 399, 402
paul, gospel of Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 359, 362
paul/pauline Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 86
paul Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 182; Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 62
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 325, 329, 330
pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 388, 399, 402
periodisation of history Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 121, 122
philanthropy Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 182
philodemus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 373
philosopher, moral Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 230
philosophy, philosophical Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
physical description, thesslanonians Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 249, 369, 373
plato Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 230
pleasure Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 182, 230, 249, 359, 362, 369, 373, 388, 399, 402
plutarch Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 182
portrayal in acts, reception of Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 103
preaching, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 359, 362, 388
prophets/prophetic Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 86
proselyte, proselytism Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 325
protreptic Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
proverbs, thessalonians, first Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 182
psychagogy Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 13; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 230, 581
psychic Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
qumran halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 329
reciprocity Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 402
reputation, of epicurus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 182
resurrection, body Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 399
resurrection, spiritual Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 103
resurrection, timing of Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 103
resurrection Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 399; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 329
rhetoric, medicine Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 230
rhetoric Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 230
rhetorical devices Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 211
rival Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
roman imperial period Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
rome Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 182
salvation, and life Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 11
salvation, apocalyptic features of Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 11
salvation, history of Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 11
satan Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 86
self-understanding, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 388
seneca Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 373; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 330
septuagint Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 121; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 330
soberness Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
socrates Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 230
socratic Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
sophist Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 581
soul Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 230
stichwort (catchword) Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 62
stoics Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 182
synagogue Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 325
teacher, false Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 369
teaching, eschatological Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 388
teaching Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 230
temper, sharp Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 143
temporal terminology\n, καιρός Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 121, 122
temporal terminology\n, χρόνος Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 121, 122
tertullian Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 103
thanksgiving, in letters Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 249
theology, virtues Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 182
timothy Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 249, 359
tradition, apocalyptic Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 362
truth Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
virtue Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 182
wakefulness Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
way of life Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
weakness Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 230
weapon Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 182, 230, 249
weapons Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 143
wenham d. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 137
wine' Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 116
wine Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
wisdom Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
word/the word, divine vs. human Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 182
word/the word, rhetorical tool Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 230
wrath, divine Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 362
wrath Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 362
wright n.t. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 137