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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8234
New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 9.6


ἢ μόνος ἐγὼ καὶ Βαρνάβας οὐκ ἔχομεν ἐξουσίαν μὴ ἐργάζεσθαι;Or have onlyBarnabas and I no right to not work?


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

25 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 16.4, 21.1-21.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.4. כְּתֹנֶת־בַּד קֹדֶשׁ יִלְבָּשׁ וּמִכְנְסֵי־בַד יִהְיוּ עַל־בְּשָׂרוֹ וּבְאַבְנֵט בַּד יַחְגֹּר וּבְמִצְנֶפֶת בַּד יִצְנֹף בִּגְדֵי־קֹדֶשׁ הֵם וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם אֶת־בְּשָׂרוֹ וּלְבֵשָׁם׃ 21.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֱמֹר אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם לְנֶפֶשׁ לֹא־יִטַּמָּא בְּעַמָּיו׃ 21.1. וְהַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל מֵאֶחָיו אֲ‍שֶׁר־יוּצַק עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ שֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה וּמִלֵּא אֶת־יָדוֹ לִלְבֹּשׁ אֶת־הַבְּגָדִים אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ לֹא יִפְרָע וּבְגָדָיו לֹא יִפְרֹם׃ 21.2. כִּי אִם־לִשְׁאֵרוֹ הַקָּרֹב אֵלָיו לְאִמּוֹ וּלְאָבִיו וְלִבְנוֹ וּלְבִתּוֹ וּלְאָחִיו׃ 21.2. אוֹ־גִבֵּן אוֹ־דַק אוֹ תְּבַלֻּל בְּעֵינוֹ אוֹ גָרָב אוֹ יַלֶּפֶת אוֹ מְרוֹחַ אָשֶׁךְ׃ 21.3. וְלַאֲחֹתוֹ הַבְּתוּלָה הַקְּרוֹבָה אֵלָיו אֲשֶׁר לֹא־הָיְתָה לְאִישׁ לָהּ יִטַּמָּא׃ 21.4. לֹא יִטַּמָּא בַּעַל בְּעַמָּיו לְהֵחַלּוֹ׃ 16.4. He shall put on the holy linen tunic, and he shall have the linen breeches upon his flesh, and shall be girded with the linen girdle, and with the linen mitre shall he be attired; they are the holy garments; and he shall bathe his flesh in water, and put them on." 21.1. And the LORD said unto Moses: Speak unto the priests the sons of Aaron, and say unto them: There shall none defile himself for the dead among his people;" 21.2. except for his kin, that is near unto him, for his mother, and for his father, and for his son, and for his daughter, and for his brother;" 21.3. and for his sister a virgin, that is near unto him, that hath had no husband, for her may he defile himself." 21.4. He shall not defile himself, being a chief man among his people, to profane himself."
2. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 19.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.13. כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמֵת בְּנֶפֶשׁ הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר־יָמוּת וְלֹא יִתְחַטָּא אֶת־מִשְׁכַּן יְהוָה טִמֵּא וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל כִּי מֵי נִדָּה לֹא־זֹרַק עָלָיו טָמֵא יִהְיֶה עוֹד טֻמְאָתוֹ בוֹ׃ 19.13. Whosoever toucheth the dead, even the body of any man that is dead, and purifieth not himself—he hath defiled the tabernacle of the LORD—that soul shall be cut off from Israel; because the water of sprinkling was not dashed against him, he shall be unclean; his uncleanness is yet upon him."
3. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 44.18 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

44.18. פַּאֲרֵי פִשְׁתִּים יִהְיוּ עַל־רֹאשָׁם וּמִכְנְסֵי פִשְׁתִּים יִהְיוּ עַל־מָתְנֵיהֶם לֹא יַחְגְּרוּ בַּיָּזַע׃ 44.18. They shall have linen tires upon their heads, and shall have linen breeches upon their loins; they shall not gird themselves with any thing that causeth sweat."
4. Cicero, On Duties, 1.11-1.13, 3.11-3.12, 3.63-3.64, 3.70 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.11. Principio generi animantium omni est a natura tributum, ut se, vitam corpusque tueatur, declinet ea, quae nocitura videantur, omniaque, quae sint ad vivendum necessaria, anquirat et paret, ut pastum, ut latibula, ut alia generis eiusdem. Commune item animantium omnium est coniunctionis adpetitus procreandi causa et cura quaedam eorum, quae procreata sint; sed inter hominem et beluam hoc maxime interest, quod haec tantum, quantum sensu movetur, ad id solum, quod adest quodque praesens est, se accommodat paulum admodum sentiens praeteritum aut futurum; homo autem, quod rationis est particeps, per quam consequentia cernit, causas rerum videt earumque praegressus et quasi antecessiones non ignorat, similitudines comparat rebusque praesentibus adiungit atque annectit futuras, facile totius vitae cursum videt ad eamque degendam praeparat res necessarias. 1.12. Eademque natura vi rationis hominem conciliat homini et ad orationis et ad vitae societatem ingeneratque in primis praecipuum quendam amorem in eos, qui procreati sunt, impellitque, ut hominum coetus et celebrationes et esse et a se obiri velit ob easque causas studeat parare ea, quae suppeditent ad cultum et ad victum, nec sibi soli, sed coniugi, liberis ceterisque, quos caros habeat tuerique debeat; quae cura exsuscitat etiam animos et maiores ad rem gerendam facit. 1.13. In primisque hominis est propria veri inquisitio atque investigatio. Itaque cum sumus necessariis negotiis curisque vacui, tum avemus aliquid videre, audire, addiscere cognitionemque rerum aut occultarum aut admirabilium ad beate vivendum necessariam ducimus. Ex quo intellegitur, quod verum, simplex sincerumque sit, id esse naturae hominis aptissimum. Huic veri videndi cupiditati adiuncta est appetitio quaedam principatus, ut nemini parere animus bene informatus a natura velit nisi praecipienti aut docenti aut utilitatis causa iuste et legitime imperanti; ex quo magnitudo animi exsistit humanarumque rerum contemptio. 3.11. Quam ob rem de iudicio Panaeti dubitari non potest; rectene autem hanc tertiam partem ad exquirendum officium adiunxerit an secus, de eo fortasse disputari potest. Nam, sive honestum solum bonum est, ut Stoicis placet, sive, quod honestum est, id ita summum bonum est, quem ad modum Peripateticis vestris videtur, ut omnia ex altera parte collocata vix minimi momenti instar habeant, dubitandum non est, quin numquam possit utilitas cum honestate contendere. Itaque accepimus Socratem exsecrari solitum eos, qui primum haec natura cohaerentia opinione distraxissent. Cui quidem ita sunt Stoici assensi, ut et, quicquid honestum esset, id utile esse censerent nec utile quicquam, quod non honestum. 3.12. Quodsi is esset Panaetius, qui virtutem propterea colendam diceret, quod ea efficiens utilitatis esset, ut ii, qui res expetendas vel voluptate vel indolentia metiuntur, liceret ei dicere utilitatem aliquando cum honestate pugnare; sed cum sit is, qui id solum bonum iudicet, quod honestum sit, quae autem huic repugnent specie quadam utilitatis, eorum neque accessione meliorem vitam fieri nec decessione peiorem, non videtur debuisse eius modi deliberationem introducere, in qua, quod utile videretur, cum eo, quod honestum est, compararetur. 3.63. Hecatonem quidem Rhodium, discipulum Panaeti, video in iis libris, quos de officio scripsit Q. Tuberoni, dicere sapientis esse nihil contra mores, leges, instituta facientem habere rationem rei familiaris. Neque enim solum nobis divites esse volumus, sed liberis, propinquis, amicis maximeque rei publicae. Singulorum enim facultates et copiae divitiae sunt civitatis. Huic Scaevolae factum, de quo paulo ante dixi, placere nullo modo potest; etenim omnino tantum se negat facturum compendii sui causa, quod non liceat. Huic nec laus magna tribuenda nec gratia est. 3.64. Sed, sive et simulatio et dissimulatio dolus malus est, perpaucae res sunt, in quibus non dolus malus iste versetur, sive vir bonus est is, qui prodest, quibus potest, nocet nemini, certe istum virum bonum non facile reperimus. Numquam igitur est utile peccare, quia semper est turpe, et, quia semper est honestum virum bonum esse, semper est utile. 3.70. Nam quanti verba illa: UTI NE PROPTER TE FIDEMVE TUAM CAPTUS FRAUDATUSVE SIM! quam illa aurea: UT INTER BONOS BENE AGIER OPORTET ET SINE FRAUDATIONE! Sed, qui sint boni, et quid sit bene agi, magna quaestio est. Q. quidem Scaevola, pontifex maximus, summam vim esse dicebat in omnibus iis arbitriis, in quibus adderetur EX FIDE BONA, fideique bonae nomen existimabat manare latissime, idque versari in tutelis societatibus, fiduciis mandatis, rebus emptis venditis, conductis locatis, quibus vitae societas contineretur; in iis magni esse iudicis statuere, praesertim cum in plerisque essent iudicia contraria, quid quemque cuique praestare oporteret. 3.11.  In regard to Panaetius's real intentions, therefore, no doubt can be entertained. But whether he was or was not justified in adding this third division to the inquiry about duty may, perhaps, be a matter for debate. For whether moral goodness is the only good, as the Stoics believe, or whether, as your Peripatetics think, moral goodness is in so far the highest good that everything else gathered together into the opposing scale would have scarcely the slightest weight, it is beyond question that expediency can never conflict with moral rectitude. And so, we have heard, Socrates used to pronounce a curse upon those who first drew a conceptual distinction between things naturally inseparable. With this doctrine the Stoics are in agreement in so far as they maintain that if anything is morally right, it is expedient, and if anything is not morally right, it is not expedient. 3.12.  But if Panaetius were the sort of man to say that virtue is worth cultivating only because it is productive of advantage, as do certain philosophers who measure the desirableness of things by the standard of pleasure or of absence of pain, he might argue that expediency sometimes clashes with moral rectitude. But since he is a man who judges that the morally right is the only good, and that those things which come in conflict with it have only the appearance of expediency and cannot make life any better by their presence nor any worse by their absence, it follows that he ought not to have raised a question involving the weighing of what seems expedient against what is morally right. 3.63.  Now I observe that Hecaton of Rhodes, a pupil of Panaetius, says in his books on "Moral Duty" dedicated to Quintus Tubero that "it is a wise man's duty to take care of his private interests, at the same time doing nothing contrary to the civil customs, laws, and institutions. But that depends on our purpose in seeking prosperity; for we do not aim to be rich for ourselves alone but for our children, relatives, friends, and, above all, for our country. For the private fortunes of individuals are the wealth of the state." Hecaton could not for a moment approve of Scaevola's act, which I cited a moment ago; for he openly avows that he will abstain from doing for his own profit only what the law expressly forbids. Such a man deserves no great praise nor gratitude. 3.64.  Be that as it may, if both pretence and concealment constitute "criminal fraud," there are very few transactions into which "criminal fraud" does not enter; or, if he only is a good man who helps all he can, and harms no one, it will certainly be no easy matter for us to find the good man as thus defined. To conclude, then, it is never expedient to do wrong, because wrong is always immoral; and it is always expedient to be good, because goodness is always moral. 3.70.  For how weighty are the words: "That I be not deceived and defrauded through you and my confidence in you"! How precious are these "As between honest people there ought to be honest dealing, and no deception"! But who are "honest people," and what is "honest dealing" — these are serious questions. It was Quintus Scaevola, the pontifex maximus, who used to attach the greatest importance to all questions of arbitration to which the formula was appended "as good faith requires"; and he held that the expression "good faith" had a very extensive application, for it was employed in trusteeships and partnerships, in trusts and commissions, in buying and selling, in hiring and letting — in a word, in all the transactions on which the social relations of daily life depend; in these, he said, it required a judge of great ability to decide the extent of each individual's obligation to the other, especially when the counter-claims were admissible in most cases.
5. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 101-168, 85-100 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

100. And Jacob's brother, he says, was Jubal, and the interpretation of this latter name is "inclining," being symbolically speech according to utterance; for this is naturally the brother of intellect; and it is with extraordinary propriety that he called the conversation of that intellect which changes affairs, "inclining," for it agrees after a fashion and harmonizes with both, as the equivalent weight does in a scale, or as a vessel which is tossed by the sea inclines first to one side and then to the other, from the violence of the waves; for the foolish man has not learnt how to say anything firm or stable.
6. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.1, 2.4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. The first volume of this treatise relates to the subject of the birth and bringing up of Moses, and also of his education and of his government of his people, which he governed not merely irreproachably, but in so exceedingly praiseworthy a manner; and also of all the affairs, which took place in Egypt, and in the travels and journeyings of the nation, and of the events which happened with respect to their crossing the Red Sea and in the desert, which surpass all power of description; and, moreover, of all the labours which he conducted to a successful issue, and of the inheritances which he distributed in portions to his soldiers. But the book which we are now about to compose relates to the affairs which follow those others in due order, and bear a certain correspondence and connection with them. 2.4. It becomes a king to command what ought to be done, and to forbid what ought not to be done; but the commanding what ought to be done, and the prohibition of what ought not to be done, belongs especially to the law, so that the king is at once a living law, and the law is a just king.
7. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 1.5, 2.6, 4.9, 4.11, 6.15, 6.18, 7.3, 16.1-16.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.5. if it shall be my care to communicate to you some portion of that which I received, it shall turn to my reward for having ministered to such spirits, I was eager to send you a trifle, that along with your faith ye might have your knowledge also perfect. 2.6. These things therefore He annulled, that the new law of our Lord Jesus Christ, being free from the yoke of constraint, might have its oblation not made by human hands. 4.9. But though I would fain write many things, not as a teacher, but as becometh one who loveth you not to fall short of that which we possess, I was anxious to write to you, being your devoted slave. Wherefore let us take heed in these last days. For the whole time of our faith shall profit us nothing, unless we now, in the season of lawlessness and in the offenses that shall be, as becometh sons of God, offer resistance, that the Black One may not effect an entrance. 4.11. For the scripture saith; Woe unto them that are wise for themselves, and understanding in their own sight. Let us become spiritual, let us become a temple perfect unto God. As far as in us lies, let us exercise ourselves in the fear of God, [and] let us strive to keep His commandments, that we may rejoice in His ordices. 6.15. For a holy temple unto the Lord, my brethren, is the abode of our heart. 6.18. Now we have already said above; And let them increase and multiply and rule over the fishes. But who is he that is able [now] to rule over beasts and fishes and fowls of the heaven; for we ought to perceive that to rule implieth power, so that one should give orders and have dominion. 7.3. But moreover when crucified He had vinegar and gall given Him to drink. Hear how on this matter the priests of the temple have revealed. Seeing that there is a commandment in scripture, Whatsoever shall not observe the fast shall surely die, the Lord commanded, because He was in His own person about to offer the vessel of His Spirit a sacrifice for our sins, that the type also which was given in Isaac who was offered upon the alter should be fulfilled. 16.1. Moreover I will tell you likewise concerning the temple, how these wretched men being led astray set their hope on the building, and not on their God that made them, as being a house of God. 16.1. For he that desireth to be saved looketh not to the man, but to Him that dwelleth and speaketh in him, being amazed at this that he has never at any time heard these words from the mouth of the speaker, nor himself ever desired to hear them. This is the spiritual temple built up to the Lord. 16.2. For like the Gentiles almost they consecrated Him in the temple. But what saith the Lord abolishing the temple? Learn ye. Who hath measured the heaven with a span, or hath measured the earth with his hand? Have not I, saith the Lord? The heaven is My throne and the earth the footstool of My feet. What manner of house will ye build for Me? Or what shall be my resting place? Ye perceive that their hope is vain. 16.3. Furthermore He saith again; Behold they that pulled down this temple themselves shall build it. 16.4. So it cometh to pass; for because they went to war it was pulled down by their enemies. Now also the very servants of their enemies shall build it up. 16.5. Again, it was revealed how the city and the temple and the people of Israel should be betrayed. For the scripture saith; And it shall be in the last days, that the Lord shall deliver up the sheep of the pasture and the fold and the tower thereof to destruction. And it came to pass as the Lord spake. 16.6. But let us enquire whether there be any temple of God. There is; in the place where he himself undertakes to make and finish it. For it is written And it shall come to pass, when the week is being accomplished, the temple of God shall be built gloriously in the name of the Lord. 16.7. I find then that there is a temple, How then shall it be built in the name of the Lord? Understand ye. Before we believed on God, the abode of our heart was corrupt and weak, a temple truly built by hands; for it was full of idolatry and was a house of demons, because we did whatsoever was contrary to God. 16.8. But it shall be built in the name of the Lord. Give heed then that the temple of the Lord may be built gloriously. 16.9. How? Understand ye. By receiving the remission of our sins and hoping on the Name we became new, created afresh from the beginning. Wherefore God dwelleth truly in our habitation within us. How? The word of his faith, the calling of his promise, the wisdom of the ordices, the commandments of the teaching, He Himself prophesying in us, He Himself dwelling in us, opening for us who had been in bondage unto death the door of the temple, which is the mouth, and giving us repentance leadeth us to the incorruptible temple.
8. Epictetus, Discourses, 3.22.39, 3.22.43, 3.22.48, 3.22.82, 3.24.67 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 13.63, 13.73, 20.216-20.218 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.63. out of a desire to purchase to himself a memorial and eternal fame he resolved to send to king Ptolemy and queen Cleopatra, to ask leave of them that he might build a temple in Egypt like to that at Jerusalem, and might ordain Levites and priests out of their own stock. 13.73. However, Onias found other Jews like to himself, together with priests and Levites, that there performed divine service. But we have said enough about this temple. 20.216. 6. Now as many of the Levites, which is a tribe of ours, as were singers of hymns, persuaded the king to assemble a sanhedrim, and to give them leave to wear linen garments, as well as the priests for they said that this would be a work worthy the times of his government, that he might have a memorial of such a novelty, as being his doing. 20.217. Nor did they fail of obtaining their desire; for the king, with the suffrages of those that came into the sanhedrim, granted the singers of hymns this privilege, that they might lay aside their former garments, and wear such a linen one as they desired; 20.218. and as a part of this tribe ministered in the temple, he also permitted them to learn those hymns as they had besought him for. Now all this was contrary to the laws of our country, which, whenever they have been transgressed, we have never been able to avoid the punishment of such transgressions.
10. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.30. But of him, you are in ChristJesus, who was made to us wisdom from God, and righteousness andsanctification, and redemption:
11. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 4.9, 4.11-4.12, 5.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.9. But concerning brotherly love, you have no need that one write to you. For you yourselves are taught by God to love one another 4.11. and that you make it your ambition to lead a quiet life, and to do your own business, and to work with your own hands, even as we charged you; 4.12. that you may walk properly toward those who are outside, and may have need of nothing. 5.14. We exhort you, brothers, admonish the disorderly, encourage the fainthearted, support the weak, be patient toward all.
12. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.5, 6.8-6.10, 10.18, 11.13, 13.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 3.6-3.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.6. Now we command you, brothers, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that you withdraw yourselves from every brother who walks in rebellion, and not after the tradition which they received from us. 3.7. For you know how you ought to imitate us. For we didn't behave ourselves rebelliously among you 3.8. neither did we eat bread from anyone's hand without paying for it, but in labor and travail worked night and day, that we might not burden any of you; 3.9. not because we don't have the right, but to make ourselves an example to you, that you should imitate us. 3.10. For even when we were with you, we commanded you this: "If anyone will not work, neither let him eat. 3.11. For we hear of some who walk among you in rebellion, who don't work at all, but are busybodies. 3.12. Now those who are that way, we command and exhort in the Lord Jesus Christ, that with quietness they work, and eat their own bread. 3.13. But you, brothers, don't be weary in doing well.
14. New Testament, Acts, 3.19-3.26, 4.35-4.37, 9.26-9.28, 11.21-11.30, 12.24-12.25, 13.1-13.3, 13.6-13.8, 13.42-13.50, 14.1-14.4, 14.11-14.15, 14.19-14.20, 14.22-14.24, 15.1-15.3, 15.11-15.13, 15.21-15.26, 15.33-15.40 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.19. Repent therefore, and turn again, that your sins may be blotted out, that so there may come times of refreshing from the presence of the Lord 3.20. and that he may send Christ Jesus, who was ordained for you before 3.21. whom the heaven must receive until the times of restoration of all things, whereof God spoke by the mouth of his holy prophets that have been from ancient times. 3.22. For Moses indeed said to the fathers, 'The Lord God will raise up a prophet to you from among your brothers, like me. You shall listen to him in all things whatever he says to you. 3.23. It will be, that every soul that will not listen to that prophet will be utterly destroyed from among the people.' 3.24. Yes, and all the prophets from Samuel and those who followed after, as many as have spoken, they also told of these days. 3.25. You are the sons of the prophets, and of the covet which God made with our fathers, saying to Abraham, 'In your seed will all the families of the earth be blessed.' 3.26. God, having raised up his servant, Jesus, sent him to you first, to bless you, in turning away everyone of you from your wickedness. 4.35. and laid them at the apostles' feet, and distribution was made to each, according as anyone had need. 4.36. Joses, who by the apostles was surnamed Barnabas (which is, being interpreted, Son of Exhortation), a Levite, a man of Cyprus by race 4.37. having a field, sold it, and brought the money and laid it at the apostles' feet. 9.26. When Saul had come to Jerusalem, he tried to join himself to the disciples. They were all afraid of him, not believing that he was a disciple. 9.27. But Barnabas took him, and brought him to the apostles, and declared to them how he had seen the Lord in the way, and that he had spoken to him, and how at Damascus he had preached boldly in the name of Jesus. 9.28. He was with them going in and going out at Jerusalem 11.21. The hand of the Lord was with them, and a great number believed and turned to the Lord. 11.22. The report concerning them came to the ears of the assembly which was in Jerusalem. They sent out Barnabas to go as far as Antioch 11.23. who, when he had come, and had seen the grace of God, was glad. He exhorted them all, that with purpose of heart they would remain near to the Lord. 11.24. For he was a good man, and full of the Holy Spirit and of faith, and many people were added to the Lord. 11.25. Barnabas went out to Tarsus to look for Saul. 11.26. When he had found him, he brought him to Antioch. It happened, that even for a whole year they were gathered together with the assembly, and taught many people. The disciples were first called Christians in Antioch. 11.27. Now in these days, prophets came down from Jerusalem to Antioch. 11.28. One of them named Agabus stood up, and indicated by the Spirit that there should be a great famine over all the world, which also happened in the days of Claudius. 11.29. The disciples, as anyone had plenty, each determined to send relief to the brothers who lived in Judea; 11.30. which they also did, sending it to the elders by the hands of Barnabas and Saul. 12.24. But the word of God grew and multiplied. 12.25. Barnabas and Saul returned to Jerusalem, when they had fulfilled their service, also taking with them John whose surname was Mark. 13.1. Now in the assembly that was at Antioch there were some prophets and teachers: Barnabas, Simeon who was called Niger, Lucius of Cyrene, Manaen the foster-brother of Herod the tetrarch, and Saul. 13.2. As they served the Lord and fasted, the Holy Spirit said, "Separate Barnabas and Saul for me, for the work to which I have called them. 13.3. Then, when they had fasted and prayed and laid their hands on them, they sent them away. 13.6. When they had gone through the island to Paphos, they found a certain sorcerer, a false prophet, a Jew, whose name was Bar Jesus 13.7. who was with the proconsul, Sergius Paulus, a man of understanding. The same summoned Barnabas and Saul, and sought to hear the word of God. 13.8. But Elymas the sorcerer (for so is his name by interpretation) withstood them, seeking to turn aside the proconsul from the faith. 13.42. So when the Jews went out of the synagogue, the Gentiles begged that these words might be preached to them the next Sabbath. 13.43. Now when the synagogue broke up, many of the Jews and of the devout proselytes followed Paul and Barnabas; who, speaking to them, urged them to continue in the grace of God. 13.44. The next Sabbath almost the whole city was gathered together to hear the word of God. 13.45. But when the Jews saw the multitudes, they were filled with jealousy, and contradicted the things which were spoken by Paul, and blasphemed. 13.46. Paul and Barnabas spoke out boldly, and said, "It was necessary that God's word should be spoken to you first. Since indeed you thrust it from you, and judge yourselves unworthy of eternal life, behold, we turn to the Gentiles. 13.47. For so has the Lord commanded us, saying, 'I have set you as a light of the Gentiles, That you should be for salvation to the uttermost parts of the earth.' 13.48. As the Gentiles heard this, they were glad, and glorified the word of God. As many as were appointed to eternal life believed. 13.49. The Lord's word was spread abroad throughout all the region. 13.50. But the Jews urged on the devout women of honorable estate, and the chief men of the city, and stirred up a persecution against Paul and Barnabas, and threw them out of their borders. 14.1. It happened in Iconium that they entered together into the synagogue of the Jews, and so spoke that a great multitude both of Jews and of Greeks believed. 14.2. But the disobedient Jews stirred up and embittered the souls of the Gentiles against the brothers. 14.3. Therefore they stayed there a long time, speaking boldly in the Lord, who testified to the word of his grace, granting signs and wonders to be done by their hands. 14.4. But the multitude of the city was divided. Part sided with the Jews, and part with the apostles. 14.11. When the multitude saw what Paul had done, they lifted up their voice, saying in the language of Lycaonia, "The gods have come down to us in the likeness of men! 14.12. They called Barnabas "Jupiter," and Paul "Mercury," because he was the chief speaker. 14.13. The priest of Jupiter, whose temple was in front of their city, brought oxen and garlands to the gates, and would have made a sacrifice with the multitudes. 14.14. But when the apostles, Barnabas and Paul, heard of it, they tore their clothes, and sprang into the multitude, crying out 14.15. Men, why are you doing these things? We also are men of like passions with you, and bring you good news, that you should turn from these vain things to the living God, who made the sky and the earth and the sea, and all that is in them; 14.19. But some Jews from Antioch and Iconium came there, and having persuaded the multitudes, they stoned Paul, and dragged him out of the city, supposing that he was dead. 14.20. But as the disciples stood around him, he rose up, and entered into the city. On the next day he went out with Barnabas to Derbe. 14.22. confirming the souls of the disciples, exhorting them to continue in the faith, and that through many afflictions we must enter into the Kingdom of God. 14.23. When they had appointed elders for them in every assembly, and had prayed with fasting, they commended them to the Lord, on whom they had believed. 14.24. They passed through Pisidia, and came to Pamphylia. 15.1. Some men came down from Judea and taught the brothers, "Unless you are circumcised after the custom of Moses, you can't be saved. 15.2. Therefore when Paul and Barnabas had no small discord and discussion with them, they appointed Paul and Barnabas, and some others of them, to go up to Jerusalem to the apostles and elders about this question. 15.3. They, being sent on their way by the assembly, passed through both Phoenicia and Samaria, declaring the conversion of the Gentiles. They caused great joy to all the brothers. 15.11. But we believe that we are saved through the grace of the Lord Jesus, just as they are. 15.12. All the multitude kept silence, and they listened to Barnabas and Paul reporting what signs and wonders God had done among the Gentiles through them. 15.13. After they were silent, James answered, "Brothers, listen to me. 15.21. For Moses from generations of old has in every city those who preach him, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath. 15.22. Then it seemed good to the apostles and the elders, with the whole assembly, to choose men out of their company, and send them to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas: Judas called Barsabbas, and Silas, chief men among the brothers. 15.23. They wrote these things by their hand: "The apostles, the elders, and the brothers, to the brothers who are of the Gentiles in Antioch, Syria, and Cilicia: greetings. 15.24. Because we have heard that some who went out from us have troubled you with words, unsettling your souls, saying, 'You must be circumcised and keep the law,' to whom we gave no commandment; 15.25. it seemed good to us, having come to one accord, to choose out men and send them to you with our beloved Barnabas and Paul 15.26. men who have risked their lives for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. 15.33. After they had spent some time there, they were sent back with greetings from the brothers to the apostles. 15.35. But Paul and Barnabas stayed in Antioch, teaching and preaching the word of the Lord, with many others also. 15.36. After some days Paul said to Barnabas, "Let's return now and visit our brothers in every city in which we proclaimed the word of the Lord, to see how they are doing. 15.37. Barnabas planned to take John with them also, who was called Mark. 15.38. But Paul didn't think that it was a good idea to take with them someone who withdrew from them from Pamphylia, and didn't go with them to do the work. 15.39. Then there arose a sharp contention, so that they separated from each other. Barnabas took Mark with him, and sailed away to Cyprus 15.40. but Paul chose Silas, and went out, being commended by the brothers to the grace of God.
15. New Testament, Galatians, 2.1-2.21, 3.19, 3.23, 4.21, 5.18, 6.2, 6.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. Then after a period of fourteen years I went up again toJerusalem with Barnabas, taking Titus also with me. 2.2. I went up byrevelation, and I laid before them the gospel which I preach among theGentiles, but privately before those who were respected, for fear thatI might be running, or had run, in vain. 2.3. But not even Titus, whowas with me, being a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised. 2.4. Thiswas because of the false brothers secretly brought in, who stole in tospy out our liberty which we have in Christ Jesus, that they mightbring us into bondage; 2.5. to whom we gave no place in the way ofsubjection, not for an hour, that the truth of the gospel mightcontinue with you. 2.6. But from those who were reputed to beimportant (whatever they were, it makes no difference to me; Goddoesn't show partiality to man) -- they, I say, who were respectedimparted nothing to me 2.7. but to the contrary, when they saw that Ihad been entrusted with the gospel for the uncircumcision, even asPeter with the gospel for the circumcision 2.8. (for he who appointedPeter to the apostleship of the circumcision appointed me also to theGentiles); 2.9. and when they perceived the grace that was given tome, James and Cephas and John, they who were reputed to be pillars,gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, that we should goto the Gentiles, and they to the circumcision. 2.10. They only askedus to remember the poor -- which very thing I was also zealous to do. 2.11. But when Peter came to Antioch, I resisted him to the face,because he stood condemned. 2.12. For before some people came fromJames, he ate with the Gentiles. But when they came, he drew back andseparated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision. 2.13. And the rest of the Jews joined him in his hypocrisy; so that evenBarnabas was carried away with their hypocrisy. 2.14. But when I sawthat they didn't walk uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, Isaid to Peter before them all, "If you, being a Jew, live as theGentiles do, and not as the Jews do, why do you compel the Gentiles tolive as the Jews do? 2.15. We, being Jews by nature, and not Gentile sinners 2.16. yet knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law butthrough the faith of Jesus Christ, even we believed in Christ Jesus,that we might be justified by faith in Christ, and not by the works ofthe law, because no flesh will be justified by the works of the law. 2.17. But if, while we sought to be justified in Christ, we ourselvesalso were found sinners, is Christ a servant of sin? Certainly not! 2.18. For if I build up again those things which I destroyed, I provemyself a law-breaker. 2.19. For I, through the law, died to the law,that I might live to God. 2.20. I have been crucified with Christ, andit is no longer I that live, but Christ living in me. That life which Inow live in the flesh, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me,and gave himself up for me. 2.21. I don't make void the grace of God.For if righteousness is through the law, then Christ died for nothing! 3.19. What then is the law? It was added because of transgressions,until the seed should come to whom the promise has been made. It wasordained through angels by the hand of a mediator. 3.23. But before faith came, we were kept in custodyunder the law, shut up to the faith which should afterwards berevealed. 4.21. Tell me, you that desire to be under the law, don't you listen to thelaw? 5.18. But if you are led by theSpirit, you are not under the law. 6.2. Bear one another'sburdens, and so fulfill the law of Christ. 6.10. So then, as we have opportunity, let's do whatis good toward all men, and especially toward those who are of thehousehold of the faith.
16. New Testament, Hebrews, 7.1-7.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.1. For this Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of God Most High, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings and blessed him 7.2. to whom also Abraham divided a tenth part of all (being first, by interpretation, king of righteousness, and then also king of Salem, which is king of peace; 7.3. without father, without mother, without genealogy, having neither beginning of days nor end of life, but made like the Son of God), remains a priest continually. 7.4. Now consider how great this man was, to whom even Abraham, the patriarch, gave a tenth out of the best spoils. 7.5. They indeed of the sons of Levi who receive the priest's office have a commandment to take tithes of the people according to the law, that is, of their brothers, though these have come out of the loins of Abraham 7.6. but he whose genealogy is not counted from them has taken tithes of Abraham, and has blessed him who has the promises. 7.7. But without any dispute the less is blessed by the better. 7.8. Here people who die receive tithes, but there one receives tithes of whom it is testified that he lives. 7.9. So to say, through Abraham even Levi, who receives tithes, has paid tithes 7.10. for he was yet in the loins of his father when Melchizedek met him. 7.11. Now if there was perfection through the Levitical priesthood (for under it the people have received the law), what further need was there for another priest to arise after the order of Melchizedek, and not be called after the order of Aaron? 7.12. For the priesthood being changed, there is of necessity a change made also in the law. 7.13. For he of whom these things are said belongs to another tribe, from which no one has officiated at the altar. 7.14. For it is evident that our Lord has sprung out of Judah, about which tribe Moses spoke nothing concerning priesthood. 7.15. This is yet more abundantly evident, if after the likeness of Melchizedek there arises another priest 7.16. who has been made, not after the law of a fleshly commandment, but after the power of an endless life: 7.17. for it is testified, "You are a priest forever, According to the order of Melchizedek. 7.18. For there is an annulling of a foregoing commandment because of its weakness and uselessness 7.19. (for the law made nothing perfect), and a bringing in thereupon of a better hope, through which we draw near to God. 7.20. Inasmuch as he was not made priest without the taking of an oath 7.21. (for they indeed have been made priests without an oath), but he with an oath by him that says of him, "The Lord swore and will not change his mind, 'You are a priest forever, According to the order of Melchizedek'". 7.22. By so much has Jesus become the collateral of a better covet. 7.23. Many, indeed, have been made priests, because they are hindered from continuing by death. 7.24. But he, because he lives forever, has his priesthood unchangeable. 7.25. Therefore he is also able to save to the uttermost those who draw near to God through him, seeing he ever lives to make intercession for them. 7.26. For such a high priest was fitting for us: holy, guiltless, undefiled, separated from sinners, and made higher than the heavens; 7.27. who doesn't need, like those high priests, to daily offer up sacrifices, first for his own sins, and then for the sins of the people. For this he did once for all, when he offered up himself. 7.28. For the law appoints men as high priests who have weakness, but the word of the oath which came after the law appoints a Son forever who has been perfected.
17. New Testament, Philippians, 1.22, 2.2-2.5, 3.2-3.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.22. But if I live on in the flesh, this will bring fruit from my work; yet I don't make known what I will choose. 2.2. make my joy full, by being like-minded, having the same love, being of one accord, of one mind; 2.3. doing nothing through rivalry or through conceit, but in humility, each counting others better than himself; 2.4. each of you not just looking to his own things, but each of you also to the things of others. 2.5. Have this in your mind, which was also in Christ Jesus 3.2. Beware of the dogs, beware of the evil workers, beware of the false circumcision. 3.3. For we are the circumcision, who worship God in the Spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh;
18. New Testament, Romans, 2.3-2.4, 3.1, 3.9, 3.29-3.31, 4.9, 6.1, 6.3, 6.15, 7.1, 7.7, 9.14, 9.30 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.3. Do you think this, O man who judges those who practice such things, and do the same, that you will escape the judgment of God? 2.4. Or do you despise the riches of his goodness, forbearance, and patience, not knowing that the goodness of God leads you to repentance? 3.1. Then what advantage does the Jew have? Or what is the profit of circumcision? 3.9. What then? Are we better than they? No, in no way. For we previously charged both Jews and Greeks, that they are all under sin. 3.29. Or is God the God of Jews only? Isn't he the God of Gentiles also? Yes, of Gentiles also 3.30. since indeed there is one God who will justify the circumcised by faith, and the uncircumcised through faith. 3.31. Do we then nullify the law through faith? May it never be! No, we establish the law. 4.9. Is this blessing then pronounced on the circumcised, or on the uncircumcised also? For we say that faith was accounted to Abraham for righteousness. 6.1. What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? 6.3. Or don't you know that all we who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? 6.15. What then? Shall we sin, because we are not under law, but under grace? May it never be! 7.1. Or don't you know, brothers (for I speak to men who know the law), that the law has dominion over a man for as long as he lives? 7.7. What shall we say then? Is the law sin? May it never be! However, I wouldn't have known sin, except through the law. For I wouldn't have known coveting, unless the law had said, "You shall not covet. 9.14. What shall we say then? Is there unrighteousness with God? May it never be! 9.30. What shall we say then? That the Gentiles, who didn't follow after righteousness, attained to righteousness, even the righteousness which is of faith;
19. New Testament, John, 1.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.19. This is John's testimony, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, "Who are you?
20. New Testament, Luke, 10.32 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.32. In the same way a Levite also, when he came to the place, and saw him, passed by on the other side.
21. New Testament, Mark, 2.13-2.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.13. He went out again by the seaside. All the multitude came to him, and he taught them. 2.14. As he passed by, he saw Levi, the son of Alphaeus, sitting at the tax office, and he said to him, "Follow me." And he arose and followed him.
22. New Testament, Matthew, 7.9-7.10, 20.15, 26.53 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.9. Or who is there among you, who, if his son asks him for bread, will give him a stone? 7.10. Or if he asks for a fish, who will give him a serpent? 20.15. Isn't it lawful for me to do what I want to with what I own? Or is your eye evil, because I am good?' 26.53. Or do you think that I couldn't ask my Father, and he would even now send me more than twelve legions of angels?
23. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 70.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

24. Marcus Aurelius Emperor of Rome, Meditations, 2.5 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.147 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.147. The deity, say they, is a living being, immortal, rational, perfect or intelligent in happiness, admitting nothing evil, taking providential care of the world and all that therein is, but he is not of human shape. He is, however, the artificer of the universe and, as it were, the father of all, both in general and in that particular part of him which is all-pervading, and which is called many names according to its various powers. They give the name Dia (Δία) because all things are due to (διά) him; Zeus (Ζῆνα) in so far as he is the cause of life (ζῆν) or pervades all life; the name Athena is given, because the ruling part of the divinity extends to the aether; the name Hera marks its extension to the air; he is called Hephaestus since it spreads to the creative fire; Poseidon, since it stretches to the sea; Demeter, since it reaches to the earth. Similarly men have given the deity his other titles, fastening, as best they can, on some one or other of his peculiar attributes.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acts (new testament) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 253
adam,eves lord (master),as Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 774
adiaphora/indistinguishable/neutral Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 160
advantage (sumpheron,utilitas) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 168, 176
ampliatus Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 166
andronicus Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 166
antioch Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 253
apelles Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 166
apocalypticism/apocalyptic,jewish Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 374
apostle Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 253
appropriation (oikeiōsis) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 160
aquila Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 166
aristotle Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 163
asia minor Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 166
athletics/training Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 167, 168
barnabas Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 253; Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 374; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 509
canon (scriptural),canonical Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 509
cassius dio Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 509
children Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 774
christianity/christians,early writings/literature Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 374
christianity/christians,emergence of Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 374
christianity/christians,missionaries/travelers Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 374
clement of alexandria Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 374; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 509
conflict,of jews and christians (parting of the ways) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 509
craft/craftsman (technē) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 163, 164, 165, 166
cynics/cynicism,preachers Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 289
cynics/cynicism,wandering Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 289
cynics/cynicism Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 289
cynics Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 154
cyprus Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 374
death,adam,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 774
deceit Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 774
diaspora Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 253
east,the Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 166
educated,erudite Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 81
epaenetus Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 166
epictetus Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 161
epistemology,pauls Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 137, 158, 160
epistemology,suneidēsis Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 154
epistle of barnabas,authorship Bird and Harrower (2021), The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers, 269
epistle of barnabas Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 374
eristic,connection with heresy Boulluec (2022), The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries, 146
eusebius Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 509
exousia Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 137, 154
fish Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 774
forgiveness Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 253
free will Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 289, 297
freedom,pauline Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 289, 297
freedom Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 297
freedom (eleutheria) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 85, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 166, 167, 168, 176
fruit Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 774
galatians Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 253
gentiles Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 253
gnosticism,as sophistical Boulluec (2022), The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries, 146, 147
good,appropriate actions (kathēkonta) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 137, 154, 158, 161
good,right actions (kathorthōmata) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 158
good (agathos) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 158
gospels Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 253
greek language Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 253
hadrian Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 509
hospitality Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 81
humiliores Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 81
hypocrisy Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 253
idol food Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 161, 166
impulses Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 77
interlocutor Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 297
intermediates Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 154, 161, 167
irenaeus,on heresy and sophism Boulluec (2022), The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries, 146, 147
israel,land of Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 253
jerome,de viris illustribus Bird and Harrower (2021), The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers, 269
jewish-christian relations Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 509
jewish practices/torah observance,circumcision Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 85
jewish practices/torah observance Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 77, 85, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166
judgment,god,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 774
julia Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 166
junia Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 166
law of christ Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166
law of nature/natural law,stoic politics Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 163, 164
law of nature/natural law Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 163, 164, 165
levi (new testament) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 253
levites,in josephus Keddie (2019), Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins, 183
levites,in the new testament Keddie (2019), Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins, 183
levites Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 253; Keddie (2019), Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins, 183
maria/mary Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 166
mark (gospel writer and gospel) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 253
marriage Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 166
michael Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 774
muhammad Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 253
mystery Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 774
narratives Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 253
necessity/require (anagkē,anagkazō) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 155, 158, 165
origen Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 509
panaetius generally Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 176
passions (pathē) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 168
patron Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 166
paul,determinism Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 289, 297
paul,free will Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 289, 297
paul Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 253
paul (saul) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 338, 509
paul and stoicism,relationship of Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 77
paul of tarsus Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 374
persis Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 166
peter Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 253
philo,and origen Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 374
platonism Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 137, 164
pleasure Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 289, 297
posidonius generally Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 163
preacher,wandering Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 289
preaching,cynic Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 289
preferreds (proēgmena) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 167, 168
prisca/priscilla Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 166
provincials,immigrants Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 81, 166
purity/impurity Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 253
purity Keddie (2019), Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins, 183
qumran Keddie (2019), Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins, 183
rabbis Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 338
repentance Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 774
revolt/war, under hadrian/bar kokhba Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 509
rhetoric,questions Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 297
rhetoric,rhetorical Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 338
ritual Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 509
roman,empire Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 509
rufus Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 166
salvation Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 154, 158, 159, 160, 167, 168
self-defense,pauline Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 297
serpent Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 774
slavery Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 85, 158, 159, 160, 161, 167, 168
social advancement Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 81
social decline Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 81
socially elevated Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 81
socrates Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 159, 164, 165
sophistry,heresy connected to Boulluec (2022), The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries, 146, 147
stachys Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 166
stoic(ism) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 338
synedrion Keddie (2019), Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins, 183
tarfon,r. Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 338
teachers Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 81
telos Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 154, 157, 158, 159, 168
temple (jerusalem) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 509
temple mount,jerusalem temple Keddie (2019), Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins, 183
temple ~ Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 509
tertullian,on modesty Bird and Harrower (2021), The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers, 269
thessalonika Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 338
tithes' Keddie (2019), Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins, 183
torah Keddie (2019), Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins, 183
travel Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 374
tree,fruit of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 774
tryphaena Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 166
tryphosa Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 166
two ways (tractate of) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 509
urbanus Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 166
value (axia) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 155, 157, 159, 160, 168, 176
virtue Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 77, 158, 164, 176
weapon Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 289, 297
weiss,johannes Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 289
women Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 166
zeus Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 158, 164
αἰσχροκερδής Boulluec (2022), The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries, 146, 147
καπηλεύειν Boulluec (2022), The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries, 146, 147