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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8234
New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 9.4-9.7


μὴ οὐκ ἔχομεν ἐξουσίαν φαγεῖν καὶ πεῖν;Have we no right to eat and to drink?


μὴ οὐκ ἔχομεν ἐξουσίαν ἀδελφὴν γυναῖκα περιάγειν, ὡς καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ ἀπόστολοι καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ τοῦ κυρίου καὶ Κηφᾶς;Have we noright to take along a wife who is a believer, even as the rest of theapostles, and the brothers of the Lord, and Cephas?


ἢ μόνος ἐγὼ καὶ Βαρνάβας οὐκ ἔχομεν ἐξουσίαν μὴ ἐργάζεσθαι;Or have onlyBarnabas and I no right to not work?


τίς στρατεύεται ἰδίοις ὀψωνίοις ποτέ; τίς φυτεύει ἀμπελῶνα καὶ τὸν καρπὸν αὐτοῦ οὐκ ἐσθίει; [ἢ] τίς ποιμαίνει ποίμνην καὶ ἐκ τοῦ γάλακτος τῆς ποίμνης οὐκ ἐσθίει;What soldier ever serves athis own expense? Who plants a vineyard, and doesn't eat of its fruit?Or who feeds a flock, and doesn't drink from the flock's milk?


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

33 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.16. וַיְצַו יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים עַל־הָאָדָם לֵאמֹר מִכֹּל עֵץ־הַגָּן אָכֹל תֹּאכֵל׃ 2.16. And the LORD God commanded the man, saying: ‘of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat;"
2. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 19.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.13. כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמֵת בְּנֶפֶשׁ הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר־יָמוּת וְלֹא יִתְחַטָּא אֶת־מִשְׁכַּן יְהוָה טִמֵּא וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל כִּי מֵי נִדָּה לֹא־זֹרַק עָלָיו טָמֵא יִהְיֶה עוֹד טֻמְאָתוֹ בוֹ׃ 19.13. Whosoever toucheth the dead, even the body of any man that is dead, and purifieth not himself—he hath defiled the tabernacle of the LORD—that soul shall be cut off from Israel; because the water of sprinkling was not dashed against him, he shall be unclean; his uncleanness is yet upon him."
3. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 23.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

23.1. מִזְמוֹר לְדָוִד יְהוָה רֹעִי לֹא אֶחְסָר׃ 23.1. A Psalm of David. The LORD is my shepherd; I shall not want."
4. Cicero, On Duties, 1.11-1.13, 3.11-3.12, 3.63-3.64, 3.70 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.11. Principio generi animantium omni est a natura tributum, ut se, vitam corpusque tueatur, declinet ea, quae nocitura videantur, omniaque, quae sint ad vivendum necessaria, anquirat et paret, ut pastum, ut latibula, ut alia generis eiusdem. Commune item animantium omnium est coniunctionis adpetitus procreandi causa et cura quaedam eorum, quae procreata sint; sed inter hominem et beluam hoc maxime interest, quod haec tantum, quantum sensu movetur, ad id solum, quod adest quodque praesens est, se accommodat paulum admodum sentiens praeteritum aut futurum; homo autem, quod rationis est particeps, per quam consequentia cernit, causas rerum videt earumque praegressus et quasi antecessiones non ignorat, similitudines comparat rebusque praesentibus adiungit atque annectit futuras, facile totius vitae cursum videt ad eamque degendam praeparat res necessarias. 1.12. Eademque natura vi rationis hominem conciliat homini et ad orationis et ad vitae societatem ingeneratque in primis praecipuum quendam amorem in eos, qui procreati sunt, impellitque, ut hominum coetus et celebrationes et esse et a se obiri velit ob easque causas studeat parare ea, quae suppeditent ad cultum et ad victum, nec sibi soli, sed coniugi, liberis ceterisque, quos caros habeat tuerique debeat; quae cura exsuscitat etiam animos et maiores ad rem gerendam facit. 1.13. In primisque hominis est propria veri inquisitio atque investigatio. Itaque cum sumus necessariis negotiis curisque vacui, tum avemus aliquid videre, audire, addiscere cognitionemque rerum aut occultarum aut admirabilium ad beate vivendum necessariam ducimus. Ex quo intellegitur, quod verum, simplex sincerumque sit, id esse naturae hominis aptissimum. Huic veri videndi cupiditati adiuncta est appetitio quaedam principatus, ut nemini parere animus bene informatus a natura velit nisi praecipienti aut docenti aut utilitatis causa iuste et legitime imperanti; ex quo magnitudo animi exsistit humanarumque rerum contemptio. 3.11. Quam ob rem de iudicio Panaeti dubitari non potest; rectene autem hanc tertiam partem ad exquirendum officium adiunxerit an secus, de eo fortasse disputari potest. Nam, sive honestum solum bonum est, ut Stoicis placet, sive, quod honestum est, id ita summum bonum est, quem ad modum Peripateticis vestris videtur, ut omnia ex altera parte collocata vix minimi momenti instar habeant, dubitandum non est, quin numquam possit utilitas cum honestate contendere. Itaque accepimus Socratem exsecrari solitum eos, qui primum haec natura cohaerentia opinione distraxissent. Cui quidem ita sunt Stoici assensi, ut et, quicquid honestum esset, id utile esse censerent nec utile quicquam, quod non honestum. 3.12. Quodsi is esset Panaetius, qui virtutem propterea colendam diceret, quod ea efficiens utilitatis esset, ut ii, qui res expetendas vel voluptate vel indolentia metiuntur, liceret ei dicere utilitatem aliquando cum honestate pugnare; sed cum sit is, qui id solum bonum iudicet, quod honestum sit, quae autem huic repugnent specie quadam utilitatis, eorum neque accessione meliorem vitam fieri nec decessione peiorem, non videtur debuisse eius modi deliberationem introducere, in qua, quod utile videretur, cum eo, quod honestum est, compararetur. 3.63. Hecatonem quidem Rhodium, discipulum Panaeti, video in iis libris, quos de officio scripsit Q. Tuberoni, dicere sapientis esse nihil contra mores, leges, instituta facientem habere rationem rei familiaris. Neque enim solum nobis divites esse volumus, sed liberis, propinquis, amicis maximeque rei publicae. Singulorum enim facultates et copiae divitiae sunt civitatis. Huic Scaevolae factum, de quo paulo ante dixi, placere nullo modo potest; etenim omnino tantum se negat facturum compendii sui causa, quod non liceat. Huic nec laus magna tribuenda nec gratia est. 3.64. Sed, sive et simulatio et dissimulatio dolus malus est, perpaucae res sunt, in quibus non dolus malus iste versetur, sive vir bonus est is, qui prodest, quibus potest, nocet nemini, certe istum virum bonum non facile reperimus. Numquam igitur est utile peccare, quia semper est turpe, et, quia semper est honestum virum bonum esse, semper est utile. 3.70. Nam quanti verba illa: UTI NE PROPTER TE FIDEMVE TUAM CAPTUS FRAUDATUSVE SIM! quam illa aurea: UT INTER BONOS BENE AGIER OPORTET ET SINE FRAUDATIONE! Sed, qui sint boni, et quid sit bene agi, magna quaestio est. Q. quidem Scaevola, pontifex maximus, summam vim esse dicebat in omnibus iis arbitriis, in quibus adderetur EX FIDE BONA, fideique bonae nomen existimabat manare latissime, idque versari in tutelis societatibus, fiduciis mandatis, rebus emptis venditis, conductis locatis, quibus vitae societas contineretur; in iis magni esse iudicis statuere, praesertim cum in plerisque essent iudicia contraria, quid quemque cuique praestare oporteret. 3.11.  In regard to Panaetius's real intentions, therefore, no doubt can be entertained. But whether he was or was not justified in adding this third division to the inquiry about duty may, perhaps, be a matter for debate. For whether moral goodness is the only good, as the Stoics believe, or whether, as your Peripatetics think, moral goodness is in so far the highest good that everything else gathered together into the opposing scale would have scarcely the slightest weight, it is beyond question that expediency can never conflict with moral rectitude. And so, we have heard, Socrates used to pronounce a curse upon those who first drew a conceptual distinction between things naturally inseparable. With this doctrine the Stoics are in agreement in so far as they maintain that if anything is morally right, it is expedient, and if anything is not morally right, it is not expedient. 3.12.  But if Panaetius were the sort of man to say that virtue is worth cultivating only because it is productive of advantage, as do certain philosophers who measure the desirableness of things by the standard of pleasure or of absence of pain, he might argue that expediency sometimes clashes with moral rectitude. But since he is a man who judges that the morally right is the only good, and that those things which come in conflict with it have only the appearance of expediency and cannot make life any better by their presence nor any worse by their absence, it follows that he ought not to have raised a question involving the weighing of what seems expedient against what is morally right. 3.63.  Now I observe that Hecaton of Rhodes, a pupil of Panaetius, says in his books on "Moral Duty" dedicated to Quintus Tubero that "it is a wise man's duty to take care of his private interests, at the same time doing nothing contrary to the civil customs, laws, and institutions. But that depends on our purpose in seeking prosperity; for we do not aim to be rich for ourselves alone but for our children, relatives, friends, and, above all, for our country. For the private fortunes of individuals are the wealth of the state." Hecaton could not for a moment approve of Scaevola's act, which I cited a moment ago; for he openly avows that he will abstain from doing for his own profit only what the law expressly forbids. Such a man deserves no great praise nor gratitude. 3.64.  Be that as it may, if both pretence and concealment constitute "criminal fraud," there are very few transactions into which "criminal fraud" does not enter; or, if he only is a good man who helps all he can, and harms no one, it will certainly be no easy matter for us to find the good man as thus defined. To conclude, then, it is never expedient to do wrong, because wrong is always immoral; and it is always expedient to be good, because goodness is always moral. 3.70.  For how weighty are the words: "That I be not deceived and defrauded through you and my confidence in you"! How precious are these "As between honest people there ought to be honest dealing, and no deception"! But who are "honest people," and what is "honest dealing" — these are serious questions. It was Quintus Scaevola, the pontifex maximus, who used to attach the greatest importance to all questions of arbitration to which the formula was appended "as good faith requires"; and he held that the expression "good faith" had a very extensive application, for it was employed in trusteeships and partnerships, in trusts and commissions, in buying and selling, in hiring and letting — in a word, in all the transactions on which the social relations of daily life depend; in these, he said, it required a judge of great ability to decide the extent of each individual's obligation to the other, especially when the counter-claims were admissible in most cases.
5. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.1, 2.4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. The first volume of this treatise relates to the subject of the birth and bringing up of Moses, and also of his education and of his government of his people, which he governed not merely irreproachably, but in so exceedingly praiseworthy a manner; and also of all the affairs, which took place in Egypt, and in the travels and journeyings of the nation, and of the events which happened with respect to their crossing the Red Sea and in the desert, which surpass all power of description; and, moreover, of all the labours which he conducted to a successful issue, and of the inheritances which he distributed in portions to his soldiers. But the book which we are now about to compose relates to the affairs which follow those others in due order, and bear a certain correspondence and connection with them. 2.4. It becomes a king to command what ought to be done, and to forbid what ought not to be done; but the commanding what ought to be done, and the prohibition of what ought not to be done, belongs especially to the law, so that the king is at once a living law, and the law is a just king.
6. Anon., Didache, 4.8, 8.2, 9.5, 11.3, 13.1-13.7, 15.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7. Epictetus, Discourses, 2.2.26, 3.22.39, 3.22.43, 3.22.48, 3.22.82, 3.24.67, 3.24.95, 4.1.114, 4.1.162-4.1.163, 4.7.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Epictetus, Enchiridion, 53 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Mishnah, Avot, 1.13 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.13. He [also] used to say: one who makes his name great causes his name to be destroyed; one who does not add [to his knowledge] causes [it] to cease; one who does not study [the Torah] deserves death; on who makes [unworthy] use of the crown [of learning] shall pass away."
10. Mishnah, Peah, 8.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.7. They may not give a poor person wandering from place to place less than a loaf worth a pundion at a time when four seahs [of wheat cost] one sela. If he spends the night [at a place], they must give him the cost of what he needs for the night. If he stays over Shabbat they must give him enough food for three meals. He who has the money for two meals, he may not take anything from the charity dish. And if he has enough money for fourteen meals, he may not take any support from the communal fund. The communal fund is collected by two and distributed by three people."
11. Musonius Rufus, Fragments, 8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, called to be an apostle of Jesus Christ through the willof God, and our brother Sosthenes
13. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.4, 2.1-2.12, 2.14, 3.2-3.3, 4.1-4.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. We know, brothers loved by God, that you are chosen 2.1. For you yourselves know, brothers, our visit to you wasn't in vain 2.2. but having suffered before and been shamefully treated, as you know, at Philippi, we grew bold in our God to tell you the gospel of God in much conflict. 2.3. For our exhortation is not of error, nor of uncleanness, nor in deception. 2.4. But even as we have been approved by God to be entrusted with the gospel, so we speak; not as pleasing men, but God, who tests our hearts. 2.5. For neither were we at any time found using words of flattery, as you know, nor a cloak of covetousness (God is witness) 2.6. nor seeking glory from men (neither from you nor from others), when we might have claimed authority as apostles of Christ. 2.7. But we were gentle in the midst of you, as when a nurse cherishes her own children. 2.8. Even so, affectionately longing for you, we were well pleased to impart to you, not the gospel of God only, but also our own souls, because you had become very dear to us. 2.9. For you remember, brothers, our labor and travail; for working night and day, that we might not burden any of you, we preached to you the gospel of God. 2.10. You are witnesses with God, how holy, righteously, and blamelessly we behaved ourselves toward you who believe. 2.11. As you know how we exhorted, comforted, and implored every one of you, as a father does his own children 2.12. to the end that you should walk worthily of God, who calls you into his own kingdom and glory. 2.14. For you, brothers, became imitators of the assemblies of God which are in Judea in Christ Jesus; for you also suffered the same things from your own countrymen, even as they did from the Jews; 3.2. and sent Timothy, our brother and God's servant in the gospel of Christ, to establish you, and to comfort you concerning your faith; 3.3. that no one be moved by these afflictions. For you know that we are appointed to this task. 4.1. Finally then, brothers, we beg and exhort you in the Lord Jesus, that as you received from us how you ought to walk and to please God, that you abound more and more. 4.2. For you know what charge we gave you through the Lord Jesus. 4.3. For this is the will of God: your sanctification, that you abstain from sexual immorality 4.4. that each one of you know how to possess himself of his own vessel in sanctification and honor 4.5. not in the passion of lust, even as the Gentiles who don't know God; 4.6. that no one should take advantage of and wrong a brother or sister in this matter; because the Lord is an avenger in all these things, as also we forewarned you and testified. 4.7. For God called us not for uncleanness, but in sanctification. 4.8. Therefore he who rejects doesn't reject man, but God, who has also given his Holy Spirit to you. 4.9. But concerning brotherly love, you have no need that one write to you. For you yourselves are taught by God to love one another 4.10. for indeed you do it toward all the brothers who are in all Macedonia. But we exhort you, brothers, that you abound more and more; 4.11. and that you make it your ambition to lead a quiet life, and to do your own business, and to work with your own hands, even as we charged you; 4.12. that you may walk properly toward those who are outside, and may have need of nothing. 4.13. But we don't want you to be ignorant, brothers, concerning those who have fallen asleep, so that you don't grieve like the rest, who have no hope. 4.14. For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so those who have fallen asleep in Jesus will God bring with him.
14. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 1.7, 4.3-4.5, 5.18, 6.6, 6.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. desiring to be teachers of the law, though they understand neither what they say, nor about what they strongly affirm. 4.3. forbidding marriage and commanding to abstain from foods which God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and know the truth. 4.4. For every creature of God is good, and nothing is to be rejected, if it is received with thanksgiving. 4.5. For it is sanctified through the word of God and prayer. 5.18. For the Scripture says, "You shall not muzzle the ox when it treads out the grain." And, "The laborer is worthy of his wages. 6.6. But godliness with contentment is great gain. 6.8. But having food and clothing, we will be content with that.
15. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 6.4, 6.8-6.10, 10.8, 10.18, 11.9, 13.1, 13.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

16. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 2.5, 3.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.5. Don't you remember that, when I was still with you, I told you these things? 3.9. not because we don't have the right, but to make ourselves an example to you, that you should imitate us.
17. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 2.5, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.5. Also, if anyone competes in athletics, he isn't crowned unless he has competed by the rules. 3.5. holding a form of godliness, but having denied the power thereof. Turn away from these, also.
18. New Testament, Acts, 5.34, 15.25, 15.28-15.29, 16.6-16.12, 18.3, 18.18-18.21, 18.24-18.27, 19.21-19.22, 20.2-20.6, 27.2, 28.24-28.31 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.34. But one stood up in the council, a Pharisee named Gamaliel, a teacher of the law, honored by all the people, and commanded to take the apostles out a little while. 15.25. it seemed good to us, having come to one accord, to choose out men and send them to you with our beloved Barnabas and Paul 15.28. For it seemed good to the Holy Spirit, and to us, to lay no greater burden on you than these necessary things: 15.29. that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality, from which if you keep yourselves, it will be well with you. Farewell. 16.6. When they had gone through the region of Phrygia and Galatia, they were forbidden by the Holy Spirit to speak the word in Asia. 16.7. When they had come opposite Mysia, they tried to go into Bithynia, but the Spirit didn't allow them. 16.8. Passing by Mysia, they came down to Troas. 16.9. A vision appeared to Paul in the night. There was a man of Macedonia standing, begging him, and saying, "Come over into Macedonia and help us. 16.10. When he had seen the vision, immediately we sought to go out to Macedonia, concluding that the Lord had called us to preach the gospel to them. 16.11. Setting sail therefore from Troas, we made a straight course to Samothrace, and the day following to Neapolis; 16.12. and from there to Philippi, which is a city of Macedonia, the first of the district, a Roman colony. We were staying some days in this city. 18.3. and because he practiced the same trade, he lived with them and worked, for by trade they were tent makers. 18.18. Paul, having stayed after this yet many days, took his leave of the brothers, and sailed from there for Syria, with Priscilla and Aquila with him. He shaved his head in Cenchreae, for he had a vow. 18.19. He came to Ephesus, and he left them there; but he himself entered into the synagogue, and reasoned with the Jews. 18.20. When they asked him to stay with them a longer time, he declined; 18.21. but taking his leave of them, and saying, "I must by all means keep this coming feast in Jerusalem, but I will return again to you if God wills," he set sail from Ephesus. 18.24. Now a certain Jew named Apollos, an Alexandrian by race, an eloquent man, came to Ephesus. He was mighty in the Scriptures. 18.25. This man had been instructed in the way of the Lord; and being fervent in spirit, he spoke and taught accurately the things concerning Jesus, although he knew only the baptism of John. 18.26. He began to speak boldly in the synagogue. But when Priscilla and Aquila heard him, they took him aside, and explained to him the way of God more accurately. 18.27. When he had determined to pass over into Achaia, the brothers encouraged him, and wrote to the disciples to receive him. When he had come, he helped them much, who had believed through grace; 19.21. Now after these things had ended, Paul determined in the spirit, when he had passed through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jerusalem, saying, "After I have been there, I must also see Rome. 19.22. Having sent into Macedonia two of those who ministered to him, Timothy and Erastus, he himself stayed in Asia for a while. 20.2. When he had gone through those parts, and had encouraged them with many words, he came into Greece. 20.3. When he had spent three months there, and a plot was made against him by Jews as he was about to set sail for Syria, he determined to return through Macedonia. 20.4. These accompanied him as far as Asia: Sopater of Beroea; Aristarchus and Secundus of the Thessalonians; Gaius of Derbe; Timothy; and Tychicus and Trophimus of Asia. 20.5. But these had gone ahead, and were waiting for us at Troas. 20.6. We sailed away from Philippi after the days of Unleavened Bread, and came to them at Troas in five days, where we stayed seven days. 27.2. Embarking in a ship of Adramyttium, which was about to sail to places on the coast of Asia, we put to sea; Aristarchus, a Macedonian of Thessalonica, being with us. 28.24. Some believed the things which were spoken, and some disbelieved. 28.25. When they didn't agree among themselves, they departed after Paul had spoken one word, "The Holy Spirit spoke well through Isaiah, the prophet, to our fathers 28.26. saying, 'Go to this people, and say, In hearing, you will hear, And will in no way understand. In seeing, you will see, And will in no way perceive. 28.27. For this people's heart has grown callous. Their ears are dull of hearing. Their eyes they have closed. Lest they should see with their eyes, Hear with their ears, Understand with their heart, And would turn again, And I would heal them.' 28.28. Be it known therefore to you, that the salvation of God is sent to the Gentiles. They will also hear. 28.29. When he had said these words, the Jews departed, having a great dispute among themselves. 28.30. Paul stayed two whole years in his own rented house, and received all who went in to him 28.31. preaching the Kingdom of God, and teaching the things concerning the Lord Jesus Christ with all boldness, without hinderance.
19. New Testament, Galatians, 1.1, 1.6, 2.7-2.10, 2.15, 3.19, 3.23, 4.11, 4.21, 5.5, 5.13, 5.18, 5.22, 6.2, 6.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, an apostle (not from men, neither through man, but through Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead) 1.6. I marvel that you are so quickly deserting him who called you in the grace of Christ to a different gospel; 2.7. but to the contrary, when they saw that Ihad been entrusted with the gospel for the uncircumcision, even asPeter with the gospel for the circumcision 2.8. (for he who appointedPeter to the apostleship of the circumcision appointed me also to theGentiles); 2.9. and when they perceived the grace that was given tome, James and Cephas and John, they who were reputed to be pillars,gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, that we should goto the Gentiles, and they to the circumcision. 2.10. They only askedus to remember the poor -- which very thing I was also zealous to do. 2.15. We, being Jews by nature, and not Gentile sinners 3.19. What then is the law? It was added because of transgressions,until the seed should come to whom the promise has been made. It wasordained through angels by the hand of a mediator. 3.23. But before faith came, we were kept in custodyunder the law, shut up to the faith which should afterwards berevealed. 4.11. I am afraid for you, that I might havewasted my labor for you. 4.21. Tell me, you that desire to be under the law, don't you listen to thelaw? 5.5. For we, through the Spirit,by faith wait for the hope of righteousness. 5.13. For you, brothers, were called for freedom. Only don't useyour freedom for gain to the flesh, but through love be servants to oneanother. 5.18. But if you are led by theSpirit, you are not under the law. 5.22. But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience,kindness, goodness, faithfulness 6.2. Bear one another'sburdens, and so fulfill the law of Christ. 6.6. But let him who is taught in the word share all goodthings with him who teaches.
20. New Testament, Philippians, 1.6, 1.28-1.29, 2.2-2.5, 2.13, 3.12-3.14, 4.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.6. being confident of this very thing, that he who began a good work in you will complete it until the day of Jesus Christ. 1.28. and in nothing frightened by the adversaries, which is for them a proof of destruction, but to you of salvation, and that from God. 1.29. Because it has been granted to you on behalf of Christ, not only to believe in him, but also to suffer on his behalf 2.2. make my joy full, by being like-minded, having the same love, being of one accord, of one mind; 2.3. doing nothing through rivalry or through conceit, but in humility, each counting others better than himself; 2.4. each of you not just looking to his own things, but each of you also to the things of others. 2.5. Have this in your mind, which was also in Christ Jesus 2.13. For it is God who works in you both to will and to work, for his good pleasure. 3.12. Not that I have already obtained, or am already made perfect; but I press on, if it is so that I may take hold of that for which also I was taken hold of by Christ Jesus. 3.13. Brothers, I don't regard myself as yet having taken hold, but one thing I do. Forgetting the things which are behind, and stretching forward to the things which are before 3.14. I press on toward the goal for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus. 4.15. You yourselves also know, you Philippians, that in the beginning of the gospel, when I departed from Macedonia, no assembly had fellowship with me in the matter of giving and receiving but you only.
21. New Testament, Romans, 1.5, 3.1, 3.9, 3.31, 6.1, 6.15, 6.22-6.23, 7.7, 8.24-8.25, 8.30, 9.11, 9.14, 9.16, 9.19, 9.24, 9.30, 11.2-11.8, 11.13, 14.7-14.8, 15.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. through whom we received grace and apostleship, for obedience of faith among all the nations, for his name's sake; 3.1. Then what advantage does the Jew have? Or what is the profit of circumcision? 3.9. What then? Are we better than they? No, in no way. For we previously charged both Jews and Greeks, that they are all under sin. 3.31. Do we then nullify the law through faith? May it never be! No, we establish the law. 6.1. What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? 6.15. What then? Shall we sin, because we are not under law, but under grace? May it never be! 6.22. But now, being made free from sin, and having become servants of God, you have your fruit of sanctification, and the result of eternal life. 6.23. For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord. 7.7. What shall we say then? Is the law sin? May it never be! However, I wouldn't have known sin, except through the law. For I wouldn't have known coveting, unless the law had said, "You shall not covet. 8.24. For we were saved in hope, but hope that is seen is not hope. For who hopes for that which he sees? 8.25. But if we hope for that which we don't see, we wait for it with patience. 8.30. Whom he predestined, those he also called. Whom he called, those he also justified. Whom he justified, those he also glorified. 9.11. For being not yet born, neither having done anything good or bad, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of him who calls 9.14. What shall we say then? Is there unrighteousness with God? May it never be! 9.16. So then it is not of him who wills, nor of him who runs, but of God who has mercy. 9.19. You will say then to me, "Why does he still find fault? For who withstands his will? 9.24. us, whom he also called, not from the Jews only, but also from the Gentiles? 9.30. What shall we say then? That the Gentiles, who didn't follow after righteousness, attained to righteousness, even the righteousness which is of faith; 11.2. God didn't reject his people, which he foreknew. Or don't you know what the Scripture says about Elijah? How he pleads with God against Israel: 11.3. Lord, they have killed your prophets, they have broken down your altars; and I am left alone, and they seek my life. 11.4. But how does God answer him? "I have reserved for myself seven thousand men, who have not bowed the knee to Baal. 11.5. Even so then at this present time also there is a remt according to the election of grace. 11.6. And if by grace, then it is no longer of works; otherwise grace is no longer grace. But if it is of works, it is no longer grace; otherwise work is no longer work. 11.7. What then? That which Israel seeks for, that he didn't obtain, but the elect obtained it, and the rest were hardened. 11.8. According as it is written, "God gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear, to this very day. 11.13. For I speak to you who are Gentiles. Since then as I am an apostle to Gentiles, I glorify my ministry; 14.7. For none of us lives to himself, and none dies to himself. 14.8. For if we live, we live to the Lord. Or if we die, we die to the Lord. If therefore we live or die, we are the Lord's. 15.27. Yes, it has been their good pleasure, and they are their debtors. For if the Gentiles have been made partakers of their spiritual things, they owe it to them also to serve them in fleshly things.
22. New Testament, Luke, 5.17, 5.21, 9.3-9.6, 10.4-10.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.17. It happened on one of those days, that he was teaching; and there were Pharisees and teachers of the law sitting by, who had come out of every village of Galilee, Judea, and Jerusalem. The power of the Lord was with him to heal them. 5.21. The scribes and the Pharisees began to reason, saying, "Who is this that speaks blasphemies? Who can forgive sins, but God alone? 9.3. He said to them, "Take nothing for your journey -- neither staffs, nor wallet, nor bread, nor money; neither have two coats apiece. 9.4. Into whatever house you enter, stay there, and depart from there. 9.5. As many as don't receive you, when you depart from that city, shake off even the dust from your feet for a testimony against them. 9.6. They departed, and went throughout the villages, preaching the gospel, and healing everywhere. 10.4. Carry no purse, nor wallet, nor sandals. Greet no one on the way. 10.5. Into whatever house you enter, first say, 'Peace be to this house.' 10.6. If a son of peace is there, your peace will rest on him; but if not, it will return to you. 10.7. Remain in that same house, eating and drinking the things they give, for the laborer is worthy of his wages. Don't go from house to house. 10.8. Into whatever city you enter, and they receive you, eat the things that are set before you. 10.9. Heal the sick who are therein, and tell them, 'The Kingdom of God has come near to you.' 10.10. But into whatever city you enter, and they don't receive you, go out into the streets of it and say 10.11. 'Even the dust from your city that clings to us, we wipe off against you. Nevertheless know this, that the Kingdom of God has come near to you.' 10.12. I tell you, it will be more tolerable in that day for Sodom than for that city.
23. New Testament, Mark, 1.22, 1.27, 4.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.22. They were astonished at his teaching, for he taught them as having authority, and not as the scribes. 1.27. They were all amazed, so that they questioned among themselves, saying, "What is this? A new teaching? For with authority he commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey him! 4.9. He said, "Whoever has ears to hear, let him hear.
24. New Testament, Matthew, 6.9, 7.6, 10.8-10.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.9. Pray like this: 'Our Father in heaven, may your name be kept holy. 7.6. Don't give that which is holy to the dogs, neither throw your pearls before the pigs, lest perhaps they trample them under their feet, and turn and tear you to pieces. 10.8. Heal the sick, cleanse the lepers, and cast out demons. Freely you received, so freely give. 10.9. Don't take any gold, nor silver, nor brass in your money belts. 10.10. Take no bag for your journey, neither two coats, nor shoes, nor staff: for the laborer is worthy of his food. 10.11. Into whatever city or village you enter, find out who in it is worthy; and stay there until you go on. 10.12. As you enter into the household, greet it. 10.13. If the household is worthy, let your peace come on it, but if it isn't worthy, let your peace return to you. 10.14. Whoever doesn't receive you, nor hear your words, as you go out out of that house or that city, shake off the dust from your feet. 10.15. Most assuredly I tell you, it will be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment than for that city.
25. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 4.5.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

26. Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, 4.5.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

27. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 70.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

28. Clement of Alexandria, Christ The Educator, 2.1.16.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

29. Marcus Aurelius Emperor of Rome, Meditations, 2.5, 4.23 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

30. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 2.20.9 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

31. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 2.20.9 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

32. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 4.40, 7.147, 7.160-7.161 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.40. Once indeed, when at Athens, he stopped too long in the Piraeus, discussing themes, out of friendship for Hierocles, and for this he was censured by certain persons. He was very lavish, in short another Aristippus, and he was fond of dining well, but only with those who shared his tastes. He lived openly with Theodete and Phila, the Elean courtesans, and to those who censured him he quoted the maxims of Aristippus. He was also fond of boys and very susceptible. Hence he was accused by Ariston of Chios, the Stoic, and his followers, who called him a corrupter of youth and a shameless teacher of immorality. 7.147. The deity, say they, is a living being, immortal, rational, perfect or intelligent in happiness, admitting nothing evil, taking providential care of the world and all that therein is, but he is not of human shape. He is, however, the artificer of the universe and, as it were, the father of all, both in general and in that particular part of him which is all-pervading, and which is called many names according to its various powers. They give the name Dia (Δία) because all things are due to (διά) him; Zeus (Ζῆνα) in so far as he is the cause of life (ζῆν) or pervades all life; the name Athena is given, because the ruling part of the divinity extends to the aether; the name Hera marks its extension to the air; he is called Hephaestus since it spreads to the creative fire; Poseidon, since it stretches to the sea; Demeter, since it reaches to the earth. Similarly men have given the deity his other titles, fastening, as best they can, on some one or other of his peculiar attributes. 7.160. 2. ARISTONAriston the Bald, of Chios, who was also called the Siren, declared the end of action to be a life of perfect indifference to everything which is neither virtue nor vice; recognizing no distinction whatever in things indifferent, but treating them all alike. The wise man he compared to a good actor, who, if called upon to take the part of a Thersites or of an Agamemnon, will impersonate them both becomingly. He wished to discard both Logic and Physics, saying that Physics was beyond our reach and Logic did not concern us: all that did concern us was Ethics. 7.161. Dialectical reasonings, he said, are like spiders' webs, which, though they seem to display some artistic workmanship, are yet of no use. He would not admit a plurality of virtues with Zeno, nor again with the Megarians one single virtue called by many names; but he treated virtue in accordance with the category of relative modes. Teaching this sort of philosophy, and lecturing in the Cynosarges, he acquired such influence as to be called the founder of a sect. At any rate Miltiades and Diphilus were denominated Aristoneans. He was a plausible speaker and suited the taste of the general public. Hence Timon's verse about him:One who from wily Ariston's line boasts his descent.
33. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 11 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, gods promise to Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 74
adam Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 345
adiaphora/indistinguishable/neutral Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 160
advantage (sumpheron, utilitas) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 168, 176
akiva, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 345
allegory James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 230
alms(giving) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 233
amphipolis, christian community Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 142
amphipolis, city Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 142
ampliatus Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 166
analogy (ἀναλογία), and boldness James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 230
andronicus Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 166
apelles Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 166
aphrodisias Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 345
apocalyptic(ism) (see also dualism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 337
apostle Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 233, 337, 404, 465
apostolate, (com)mission Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 465
appropriation (oikeiōsis) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 160
aquila Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 166
aramaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 345
aristotle Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 163
asia minor Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 166
athletics/training Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 167, 168
beliefs, basic and non-basic Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 93, 94
beroea, city Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 77
boldness James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 230, 242
brothers, doris Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 93
care, of god or christ for creation Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 74
christianity, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 299
clement of alexandria, assimilation of heresy to paganism Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 323
clement of rome Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 337
coherence, as criterion for belief or trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 93
corinth, redaction issues Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 63
corinth Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 337, 465
craft/craftsman (technē) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 163, 164, 165, 166
creation, hope for Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 93
cynics/cynicism, preachers Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 289
cynics/cynicism, wandering Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 289
cynics/cynicism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 289
cynics Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 154
death penalty Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 345
deification, of discourse James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 230, 242
diaspora Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 345
discipleship James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 242
dium, city Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 77
doubt Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 93, 94
east, the Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 166
educated, erudite Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 81
egnatia (via) Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 142
epaenetus Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 166
epictetus Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 161
epistemology, pauls Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 137, 158, 160
epistemology, suneidēsis Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 154
eristic, connection with heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 146
eucharist Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 233
example, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 298
exousia Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 137, 154
faithfulness, of god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 74
fear (negatively marked) Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 93, 94
figurative language, contrast with parrhesia James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 230
free will Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 289, 297, 298, 299
freedom, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 289, 297
freedom, stoicism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 299
freedom Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 297
freedom (eleutheria) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 166, 167, 168, 176
freedom (ἐλευθηρία) James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 230
gamaliel Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 151
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 465
gift of the spirit Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 74
glory, hope of Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 93
gnosticism, as sophistical Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 146, 147
gnosticism, orthodox criticism of morality of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 323
god-fearer, god-fearing Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 345
good, appropriate actions (kathēkonta) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 137, 154, 158, 161
good, right actions (kathorthōmata) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 158
good (agathos) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 158
gospel of the circumcision Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 465
hellenism, hellenistic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 337
hillel the elder Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 345
hippocrates Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 345
historical tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 404
hope Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 74, 93, 94
hospitality Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 81
humiliores Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 81
idol food Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 161, 166
idols, food offered to Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 404
imitatio christi James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 242
imitation, of christ Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 74
impulses Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 77
inclusio Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 298, 299
index of subjects, shammaite) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 345
interlocutor Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 297
intermediates Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 154, 161, 167
irenaeus, on heresy and sophism Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 146, 147
james (brother of jesus) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 465
jerusalem church Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 465
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 404
jewish-christian tradition, custom Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 233
jewish practices/torah observance Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 77, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166
job James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 230
judaea (roman province; see also yehud) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 465
julia Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 166
junia Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 166
kata lexin, as deeper sense James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 230
knowledge, divine Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 74, 93, 94
law of christ Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166
law of nature/natural law, stoic politics Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 163, 164
law of nature/natural law Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 163, 164, 165
libertinism/license Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 323
lords prayer Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 233
marcion Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 233
maria/mary Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 166
marriage Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 323; Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 166
model, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 298
neapolis Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 70
necessity/require (anagkē, anagkazō) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 155, 158, 165
obedience Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 74
oral tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 233
paganism, heresy assimilated to Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 323
panaetius generally Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 176
parable, jesus use of James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 230, 242
paraenesis Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 337
parrhesia (παρρησία), and authority James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 230, 242
parrhesia (παρρησία), in imitation of christ James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 242
parrhesia (παρρησία) James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 230
passions (pathē) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 168
patron Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 166
paul, adversaries Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 151
paul, and imitation of christ James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 242
paul, attacks against Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 151
paul, determinism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 289, 297, 298, 299
paul, free will Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 289, 297, 298, 299
paul, parrhesia of James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 230
paul (apostle) Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 70, 77, 142
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 337, 345, 404, 465
paul and stoicism, relationship of Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 77
pedagogy, of jesus James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 230, 242
pelekanidis, s. Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 142
persis Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 166
peter Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 63
peter (cephas, simon –) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 404
philippi, christian community Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 70, 142
philosophers Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 151
philosophy, positive invocation and use of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 323
platonism Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 137, 164
pleasure Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 289, 297, 298, 299
plutarch Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 337
poor, the Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 233, 345, 465
posidonius generally Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 163
prayer, and parrhesia James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 230
preacher, wandering Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 289
preaching, cynic Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 289
preaching, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 299
preferreds (proēgmena) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 167, 168
prisca/priscilla Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 166
promises of god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 74, 93, 94
proverb Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 298
provincials, immigrants Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 81, 166
pydna Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 77
pythagoras Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 337
qumran documents Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 233
relation to trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 74
reliability Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 74, 94
reliance, on god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 74
reserve James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 230
rhetoric, examples Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 298
rhetoric, questions Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 297, 298
rhetoric James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 230
risk, relation to divine-human trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 74, 93, 94
roman catholic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 465
rufus Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 166
salvation Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 154, 158, 159, 160, 167, 168
scepticism Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 93, 94
scribe (γραμματεύς) Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 151
scripture (γραφή), difficulty of James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 230
scripture (γραφή), obscurity of James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 242
self-defense, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 297
service to god or christ Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 74
shepherd, as rhetorical trope Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 298
shepherd Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 298
slavery Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 158, 159, 160, 161, 167, 168
social advancement Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 81
social decline Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 81
socially elevated Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 81
socrates Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 159, 164, 165
sophistry, heresy connected to Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 146, 147
stachys Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 166
stoic(ism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 337, 345
stoicism, and paul Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 299
stoicism, determinism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 299
stoicism, exousia Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 299
stoicism, on freedom Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 299
stoicism, orthodox borrowing from Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 323
strymon Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 142
synagogue Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 345
synoptic, tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 404
tarfon, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 345
teacher, of the law Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 151
teachers Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 81
telos Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 154, 157, 158, 159, 168
thessalia Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 77
thessalonica, christian community Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 70
three-place Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 93, 94
timothy Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 77
tora (see also pentateuch) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 345
triad, the Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 63
trust, as bottom-up attitude Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 94
tryphaena Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 166
tryphosa Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 166
two-place Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 93, 94
urbanus Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 166
value (axia) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 155, 157, 159, 160, 168, 176
virtue Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 77, 158, 164, 176
weapon Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 289, 297, 298, 299
weiss, johannes Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 289
women' Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 166
word/the word, of the lord Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 299
yehuda (yuda), r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 345
yose, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 345
zeus Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 158, 164
zimmermann, a.f. Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 63
αἰσχροκερδής Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 146, 147
καπηλεύειν Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 146, 147
πορνεία Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 323
ἀδιαφορία Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 323
ἀδιαφόρως Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 323