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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8234
New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 9.24-9.27


Οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι οἱ ἐν σταδίῳ τρέχοντες πάντες μὲν τρέχουσιν, εἷς δὲ λαμβάνει τὸ βραβεῖον; οὕτως τρέχετε ἵνα καταλάβητε.Don't youknow that those who run in a race all run, but one receives the prize?Run like that, that you may win.


πᾶς δὲ ὁ ἀγωνιζόμενος πάντα ἐγκρατεύεται, ἐκεῖνοι μὲν οὖν ἵνα φθαρτὸν στέφανον λάβωσιν, ἡμεῖς δὲ ἄφθαρτον.Every man who strives in thegames exercises self-control in all things. Now they do it to receive acorruptible crown, but we an incorruptible.


ἐγὼ τοίνυν οὕτως τρέχω ὡς οὐκ ἀδήλως, οὕτως πυκτεύω ὡς οὐκ ἀέρα δέρων·I therefore run likethat, as not uncertainly. I fight like that, as not beating the air


ἀλλὰ ὑπωπιάζω μου τὸ σῶμα καὶ δουλαγωγῶ, μή πως ἄλλοις κηρύξας αὐτὸς ἀδόκιμος γένωμαι.but I beat my body and bring it into submission, lest by anymeans, after I have preached to others, I myself should be rejected.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

35 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 25.11, 37.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.11. וְצִפִּיתָ אֹתוֹ זָהָב טָהוֹר מִבַּיִת וּמִחוּץ תְּצַפֶּנּוּ וְעָשִׂיתָ עָלָיו זֵר זָהָב סָבִיב׃ 37.2. וּבַמְּנֹרָה אַרְבָּעָה גְבִעִים מְשֻׁקָּדִים כַּפְתֹּרֶיהָ וּפְרָחֶיהָ׃ 37.2. וַיְצַפֵּהוּ זָהָב טָהוֹר מִבַּיִת וּמִחוּץ וַיַּעַשׂ לוֹ זֵר זָהָב סָבִיב׃ 25.11. And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, within and without shalt thou overlay it, and shalt make upon it a crown of gold round about." 37.2. And he overlaid it with pure gold within and without, and made a crown of gold to it round about."
2. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 19.13, 21.5-21.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.13. כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמֵת בְּנֶפֶשׁ הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר־יָמוּת וְלֹא יִתְחַטָּא אֶת־מִשְׁכַּן יְהוָה טִמֵּא וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל כִּי מֵי נִדָּה לֹא־זֹרַק עָלָיו טָמֵא יִהְיֶה עוֹד טֻמְאָתוֹ בוֹ׃ 21.5. וַיְדַבֵּר הָעָם בֵּאלֹהִים וּבְמֹשֶׁה לָמָה הֶעֱלִיתֻנוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם לָמוּת בַּמִּדְבָּר כִּי אֵין לֶחֶם וְאֵין מַיִם וְנַפְשֵׁנוּ קָצָה בַּלֶּחֶם הַקְּלֹקֵל׃ 21.6. וַיְשַׁלַּח יְהוָה בָּעָם אֵת הַנְּחָשִׁים הַשְּׂרָפִים וַיְנַשְּׁכוּ אֶת־הָעָם וַיָּמָת עַם־רָב מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃ 21.7. וַיָּבֹא הָעָם אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמְרוּ חָטָאנוּ כִּי־דִבַּרְנוּ בַיהוָה וָבָךְ הִתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־יְהוָה וְיָסֵר מֵעָלֵינוּ אֶת־הַנָּחָשׁ וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל מֹשֶׁה בְּעַד הָעָם׃ 21.8. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עֲשֵׂה לְךָ שָׂרָף וְשִׂים אֹתוֹ עַל־נֵס וְהָיָה כָּל־הַנָּשׁוּךְ וְרָאָה אֹתוֹ וָחָי׃ 21.9. וַיַּעַשׂ מֹשֶׁה נְחַשׁ נְחֹשֶׁת וַיְשִׂמֵהוּ עַל־הַנֵּס וְהָיָה אִם־נָשַׁךְ הַנָּחָשׁ אֶת־אִישׁ וְהִבִּיט אֶל־נְחַשׁ הַנְּחֹשֶׁת וָחָי׃ 19.13. Whosoever toucheth the dead, even the body of any man that is dead, and purifieth not himself—he hath defiled the tabernacle of the LORD—that soul shall be cut off from Israel; because the water of sprinkling was not dashed against him, he shall be unclean; his uncleanness is yet upon him." 21.5. And the people spoke against God, and against Moses: ‘Wherefore have ye brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness? for there is no bread, and there is no water; and our soul loatheth this light bread.’" 21.6. And the LORD sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and much people of Israel died." 21.7. And the people came to Moses, and said: ‘We have sinned, because we have spoken against the LORD, and against thee; pray unto the LORD, that He take away the serpents from us.’ And Moses prayed for the people." 21.8. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole; and it shall come to pass, that every one that is bitten, when he seeth it, shall live.’" 21.9. And Moses made a serpent of brass, and set it upon the pole; and it came to pass, that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he looked unto the serpent of brass, he lived."
3. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 54.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

54.1. רָנִּי עֲקָרָה לֹא יָלָדָה פִּצְחִי רִנָּה וְצַהֲלִי לֹא־חָלָה כִּי־רַבִּים בְּנֵי־שׁוֹמֵמָה מִבְּנֵי בְעוּלָה אָמַר יְהוָה׃ 54.1. כִּי הֶהָרִים יָמוּשׁוּ וְהַגְּבָעוֹת תְּמוּטֶנָה וְחַסְדִּי מֵאִתֵּךְ לֹא־יָמוּשׁ וּבְרִית שְׁלוֹמִי לֹא תָמוּט אָמַר מְרַחֲמֵךְ יְהוָה׃ 54.1. Sing, O barren, thou that didst not bear, Break forth into singing, and cry aloud, thou that didst not travail; For more are the children of the desolate Than the children of the married wife, saith the LORD."
4. Homer, Odyssey, 4.244-4.246 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

5. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 16.7, 16.10-16.14, 16.16, 16.34 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

16.7. He was not propitiated for the ancient giants who revolted in their might. 16.11. Even if there is only one stiff-necked person,it will be a wonder if he remains unpunished. For mercy and wrath are with the Lord;he is mighty to forgive, and he pours out wrath. 16.12. As great as his mercy, so great is also his reproof;he judges a man according to his deeds. 16.13. The sinner will not escape with his plunder,and the patience of the godly will not be frustrated. 16.14. He will make room for every act of mercy;every one will receive in accordance with his deeds.
6. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 3.1-3.3, 3.8, 8.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.1. But the souls of the righteous are in the hand of God,and no torment will ever touch them. 3.2. In the eyes of the foolish they seemed to have died,and their departure was thought to be an affliction 3.3. and their going from us to be their destruction;but they are at peace. 3.8. They will govern nations and rule over peoples,and the Lord will reign over them for ever. 8.7. And if any one loves righteousness,her labors are virtues;for she teaches self-control and prudence,justice and courage;nothing in life is more profitable for men than these.
7. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.1, 2.4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. The first volume of this treatise relates to the subject of the birth and bringing up of Moses, and also of his education and of his government of his people, which he governed not merely irreproachably, but in so exceedingly praiseworthy a manner; and also of all the affairs, which took place in Egypt, and in the travels and journeyings of the nation, and of the events which happened with respect to their crossing the Red Sea and in the desert, which surpass all power of description; and, moreover, of all the labours which he conducted to a successful issue, and of the inheritances which he distributed in portions to his soldiers. But the book which we are now about to compose relates to the affairs which follow those others in due order, and bear a certain correspondence and connection with them. 2.4. It becomes a king to command what ought to be done, and to forbid what ought not to be done; but the commanding what ought to be done, and the prohibition of what ought not to be done, belongs especially to the law, so that the king is at once a living law, and the law is a just king.
8. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 6.15 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.15. For a holy temple unto the Lord, my brethren, is the abode of our heart.
9. Clement of Rome, 2 Clement, 7.1, 14.1-14.3, 17.3, 19.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.1. Ὥστε οὖν, ἀδελφοι μου, ἀγωνισώμεθα εἰδότες, ὅτι ἐν χερσὶν ὁ ἀγὼν καὶ ὅτι εἰς τοὺς φθαρτοὺς ἀγῶνας καταπλέουσα: πολλοί, ἀλλ̓ οὐ πάντες στεφανοῦνται, εἰ μὴ οἱ πολλὰ κοπιάσαντες καὶ καλῶς ἀγωνισάμενοι. 14.1. Ὥστε, ἀδελφοί, ποιοῦντες τὸ θέλημα τοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν θεοῦ ἐσόμεθα ἐκ τῆς ἐκκλησίας τῆς πρώτης, τῆς πνευματικῆς, τῆς πρὸ ἡλίου καὶ σελήνης ἐκτισμένης. ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ποιήσωμεν τὸ θέλημα Jer. 7, 11; Mt. 21, 13 κυρίου, ἐσόμεθα ἐκ τῆς γραφῆς τῆς λεγούσης: Ἐγενήθη ὁ οἶκός μου σπήλαιον λῃστῶν. ὥστε οὖν αἱρετισώμεθα ἀπὸ τῆς ἐκκλησίας τῆς ζωῆς εἶναι, ἵνα σωθῶμεν. 14.2. οὐκ οἴομαι δὲ ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν, ὅτι Eph. 1, 23. ἐκκλησία ζῶσα σῶμά ἐστιν Χριστοῦ: λέγει γὰρ ἡ Gen 1, 27 γραφή: Ἐποίησεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν ἅνθρωπον ἅρσεν καὶ θῆλυ: τὸ ἄρσεν ἐστὶν ὁ Χριστός, τὸ θῆλυ ἡ ἐκκλησία: καὶ ἔτι e)/ti C, "and moreover" (e)/ti) S. τὰ βιβλία καὶ οἱ ἀπόστολοι τὴν ἐκκλησίαν οὐ νῦν εἶναι λέγουσιν le/gousi om. C. Some such sord is necessary to the grammar of the sentence, and is implied by S, but shether it sas le/gousi or fasi/, and its exact place in the sentence is of course uncertain. S also adds "of the prophets" after "the books." ἀλλὰ I Pet. 1, 20 ἄνωθεν. ἦν γὰρ πνευματική, ὡς καὶ ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἡμῶν, ἐφανερώθη δὲ ἐπ̓ ἐσχάτων τῶν ἡμερῶν, ἵνα ἡμᾶς σώσῃ. 14.3. ἡ ἐκκλησία δὲ πνευματικὴ οὖσα ἐφανερώθη ἐν τῇ σαρκὶ Χριστοῦ, δηλοῦσα ἡμῖν, ὅτι ἐάν τις ἡμῶν τηρήσῃ αὐτὴν ἐν τῇ σαρκὶ καὶ μὴ φθείρῃ, ἀπολήψεται αὐτὴν ἐν τῷ πνεύματι τῷ ἁγίῳ: ἡ γὰρ σὰρξ αὕτη ἀντίτυπός ἐστιν τοῦ πνεύματος: οὐδεὶς οὖν τὸ ἀντίτυπον φθείρας τὸ αὐθεντικὸν μεταλήψεται. ἄρα οὖν τοῦτο λέγει, ἀδελφοί: τηρήσατε τὴν σάρκα, ἵνα τοῦ πνεύματος μεταλάβητε. 17.3. καὶ μὴ μόνον ἄρτι δοκῶμεν πιστεύειν καὶ προσέχειν ἐν τῷ νουθετεῖσθαι ἡμᾶς ὑπὸ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων, ἀλλὰ καὶ ὅταν εἰς οἶκον ἀπαλλαγῶμεν, S adds "and have ceased from all." μνημονεύωμεν τῶν τοῦ κυρίου ἐνταλμάτων καὶ μὴ ἀντιπαρελκώμεθα ἀπὸ τῶν κοσμικῶν ἐπιθυμιῶν, ἀλλὰ πυκνότερον προσερχόμενοι πειρώμεθα προκόπτειν ἐν ταῖς ἐντολαῖς τοῦ κυρίον. ἵνα Rom. 12, 10; cf. Phil. 2, 3 πάντες τὸ αὐτὸ φρονοῦντες συνηγμένοι ὦμεν ἐπὶ Is. 66, 16 τὴν ζωήν: 19.1. Ὥστε, ἀδελφοὶ καὶ ἀδελφαί, μετὰ τὸν θεὸν τῆς ἀληθείας ἀναγινώσκω ὑμῖν ἔντευξιν εἰς τὸ προσέχειν τοῖς γεγραμμένοις, ἵνα καὶ ἑαυτοὺς σώσητε καὶ τὸν ἀναγινώσκοντα ἐν ὑμῖν. μισθὸν γὰρ αἰτῶ ὑμᾶς τὸ μετανοῆσαι ἐξ ὅλης καρδίας, σωτηρίαν ἑαυτοῖς καὶ ζωὴν διδόντας. τοῦτο γὰρ ποιήσαντες σκοπὸν πᾶσιν τοῖς νέοις θήσομεν, τοῖς βουλομένοις περὶ τὴν εὐσέβειαν καὶ τὴν χρηστότητα τοῦ θεοῦ φιλοπονεῖν.
10. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 33.15 (1st cent. CE

33.15.  But if a man, having seen how much there is that is dreadful and hateful in the world, and that everywhere are countless enemies, both public and private, with whom wantonness and deceit hold sway, Subdues his body with injurious blows, Casts round his shoulders sorry rags, in guise A slave, steals into the wide-wayed town of those Who hold debauch, meaning no harm to his neighbours — such as Odysseus meant to the suitors when he came in that guise — but on the contrary seeking if perchance he may unobtrusively do them some good — if, I say, such a man comes among you, why do you stir him up, or why do you call upon one who will appear to you to be a churlish and savage person as a speaker? For your ears have not been prepared for the reception of harsh and stubborn words; nay, as the hooves of cattle are tender when they are reared in soft, smooth country, so men's ears are dainty when reared in the midst of flattery and lying speech.
11. Epictetus, Discourses, 3.22.39, 3.22.43, 3.22.48, 3.22.82, 3.24.67, 3.24.95, 4.1.114, 4.1.162-4.1.163, 4.7.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. Epictetus, Enchiridion, 53 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13. Ignatius, To The Ephesians, 9.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9.1. But I have learned that certain persons passed through you from yonder, bringing evil doctrine; whom ye suffered not to sow seed in you, for ye stopped your ears, so that ye might not receive the seed sown by them; forasmuch as ye are stones of a temple, which were prepared beforehand for a building of God the Father, being hoisted up to the heights through the engine of Jesus Christ, which is the Cross, and using for a rope the Holy Spirit; while your faith is your windlass, and love is the way that leadeth up to God.
14. Musonius Rufus, Fragments, 8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15. New Testament, 1 Peter, 2.1-2.3, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. Putting away therefore all wickedness, all deceit, hypocrisies, envies, and all evil speaking 2.2. as newborn babes, long for the pure milk of the Word, that you may grow thereby 2.3. if indeed you have tasted that the Lord is gracious: 2.5. You also, as living stones, are built up as a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God through Jesus Christ.
16. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.24, 1.30, 2.16, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.8, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.17, 5.6, 5.9, 6.2, 6.3, 6.9, 6.12, 6.15, 6.16, 6.19, 7, 7.10, 7.23, 8, 8.1-11.1, 8.2, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 9, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 9.25, 9.26, 9.27, 10, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9, 10.10, 10.11, 10.12, 10.13, 10.14, 10.15, 10.16, 10.17, 10.18, 10.19, 10.20, 10.21, 10.22, 10.23, 10.31, 10.33, 11.1, 12.2, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 15.49, 16.8, 16.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.24. but to thosewho are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ is the power of God andthe wisdom of God.
17. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 2.1-2.12, 2.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. For you yourselves know, brothers, our visit to you wasn't in vain 2.2. but having suffered before and been shamefully treated, as you know, at Philippi, we grew bold in our God to tell you the gospel of God in much conflict. 2.3. For our exhortation is not of error, nor of uncleanness, nor in deception. 2.4. But even as we have been approved by God to be entrusted with the gospel, so we speak; not as pleasing men, but God, who tests our hearts. 2.5. For neither were we at any time found using words of flattery, as you know, nor a cloak of covetousness (God is witness) 2.6. nor seeking glory from men (neither from you nor from others), when we might have claimed authority as apostles of Christ. 2.7. But we were gentle in the midst of you, as when a nurse cherishes her own children. 2.8. Even so, affectionately longing for you, we were well pleased to impart to you, not the gospel of God only, but also our own souls, because you had become very dear to us. 2.9. For you remember, brothers, our labor and travail; for working night and day, that we might not burden any of you, we preached to you the gospel of God. 2.10. You are witnesses with God, how holy, righteously, and blamelessly we behaved ourselves toward you who believe. 2.11. As you know how we exhorted, comforted, and implored every one of you, as a father does his own children 2.12. to the end that you should walk worthily of God, who calls you into his own kingdom and glory. 2.19. For what is our hope, or joy, or crown of rejoicing? Isn't it even you, before our Lord Jesus at his coming?
18. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 2.11, 3.14, 4.4-4.6, 5.14-5.17, 6.8-6.10, 6.14-6.16, 10.1-10.7, 11.3, 11.6, 12.6, 13.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

19. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 2.5, 4.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.5. Also, if anyone competes in athletics, he isn't crowned unless he has competed by the rules. 4.7. I have fought the good fight. I have finished the course. I have kept the faith.
20. New Testament, Acts, 8.9, 8.11, 10.34 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.9. But there was a certain man, Simon by name, who had used sorcery in the city before, and amazed the people of Samaria, making himself out to be some great one 8.11. They listened to him, because for a long time he had amazed them with his sorceries. 10.34. Peter opened his mouth and said, "Truly I perceive that God doesn't show favoritism;
21. New Testament, Colossians, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

22. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.21-2.22, 5.25-5.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.21. in whom the whole building, fitted together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord; 2.22. in whom you also are built together for a habitation of God in the Spirit. 5.25. Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the assembly, and gave himself up for it; 5.26. that he might sanctify it, having cleansed it by the washing of water with the word 5.27. that he might present the assembly to himself gloriously, not having spot or wrinkle or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish.
23. New Testament, Galatians, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

24. New Testament, Hebrews, 12.1, 12.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.1. Therefore let us also, seeing we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, lay aside every weight and the sin which so easily entangles us, and let us run with patience the race that is set before us 12.11. All chastening seems for the present to be not joyous but grievous; yet afterward it yields the peaceful fruit of righteousness to those who have been exercised thereby.
25. New Testament, Philippians, 2.2-2.6, 2.16, 3.12-3.14, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.2. make my joy full, by being like-minded, having the same love, being of one accord, of one mind; 2.3. doing nothing through rivalry or through conceit, but in humility, each counting others better than himself; 2.4. each of you not just looking to his own things, but each of you also to the things of others. 2.5. Have this in your mind, which was also in Christ Jesus 2.6. who, existing in the form of God, didn't consider it robbery to be equal with God 2.16. holding up the word of life; that I may have something to boast in the day of Christ, that I didn't run in vain nor labor in vain. 3.12. Not that I have already obtained, or am already made perfect; but I press on, if it is so that I may take hold of that for which also I was taken hold of by Christ Jesus. 3.13. Brothers, I don't regard myself as yet having taken hold, but one thing I do. Forgetting the things which are behind, and stretching forward to the things which are before 3.14. I press on toward the goal for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus. 4.1. Therefore, my brothers, beloved and longed for, my joy and crown, so stand firm in the Lord, my beloved.
26. New Testament, Romans, 2.4, 2.11, 3.1, 3.9, 3.24, 3.29, 3.31, 6.1, 6.15-6.22, 7.7, 7.14-7.15, 7.19, 7.25, 8.15, 8.23, 8.29-8.30, 9.10, 9.14-9.16, 9.27, 9.30, 11.2, 11.11-11.12, 11.33 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.4. Or do you despise the riches of his goodness, forbearance, and patience, not knowing that the goodness of God leads you to repentance? 2.11. For there is no partiality with God. 3.1. Then what advantage does the Jew have? Or what is the profit of circumcision? 3.9. What then? Are we better than they? No, in no way. For we previously charged both Jews and Greeks, that they are all under sin. 3.24. being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus; 3.29. Or is God the God of Jews only? Isn't he the God of Gentiles also? Yes, of Gentiles also 3.31. Do we then nullify the law through faith? May it never be! No, we establish the law. 6.1. What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? 6.15. What then? Shall we sin, because we are not under law, but under grace? May it never be! 6.16. Don't you know that to whom you present yourselves as servants to obedience, his servants you are whom you obey; whether of sin to death, or of obedience to righteousness? 6.17. But thanks be to God, that, whereas you were bondservants of sin, you became obedient from the heart to that form of teaching whereunto you were delivered. 6.18. Being made free from sin, you became bondservants of righteousness. 6.19. I speak in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh, for as you presented your members as servants to uncleanness and to wickedness upon wickedness, even so now present your members as servants to righteousness for sanctification. 6.20. For when you were servants of sin, you were free in regard to righteousness. 6.21. What fruit then did you have at that time in the things of which you are now ashamed? For the end of those things is death. 6.22. But now, being made free from sin, and having become servants of God, you have your fruit of sanctification, and the result of eternal life. 7.7. What shall we say then? Is the law sin? May it never be! However, I wouldn't have known sin, except through the law. For I wouldn't have known coveting, unless the law had said, "You shall not covet. 7.14. For we know that the law is spiritual, but I am fleshly, sold under sin. 7.15. For I don't know what I am doing. For I don't practice what I desire to do; but what I hate, that I do. 7.19. For the good which I desire, I don't do; but the evil which I don't desire, that I practice. 7.25. I thank God through Jesus Christ, our Lord! So then with the mind, I myself serve God's law, but with the flesh, the sin's law. 8.15. For you didn't receive the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you received the Spirit of adoption, by whom we cry, "Abba! Father! 8.23. Not only so, but ourselves also, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for adoption, the redemption of our body. 8.29. For whom he foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers. 8.30. Whom he predestined, those he also called. Whom he called, those he also justified. Whom he justified, those he also glorified. 9.10. Not only so, but Rebecca also conceived by one, by our father Isaac. 9.14. What shall we say then? Is there unrighteousness with God? May it never be! 9.15. For he said to Moses, "I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion. 9.16. So then it is not of him who wills, nor of him who runs, but of God who has mercy. 9.27. Isaiah cries concerning Israel, "If the number of the children of Israel are as the sand of the sea, It is the remt who will be saved; 9.30. What shall we say then? That the Gentiles, who didn't follow after righteousness, attained to righteousness, even the righteousness which is of faith; 11.2. God didn't reject his people, which he foreknew. Or don't you know what the Scripture says about Elijah? How he pleads with God against Israel: 11.11. I ask then, did they stumble that they might fall? May it never be! But by their fall salvation has come to the Gentiles, to provoke them to jealousy. 11.12. Now if their fall is the riches of the world, and their loss the riches of the Gentiles; how much more their fullness? 11.33. Oh the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and the knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past tracing out!
27. New Testament, Luke, 5.32 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.32. I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance.
28. New Testament, Mark, 2.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.17. When Jesus heard it, he said to them, "Those who are healthy have no need for a physician, but those who are sick. I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance.
29. New Testament, Matthew, 9.13, 10.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.13. But you go and learn what this means: 'I desire mercy, and not sacrifice,' for I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance. 10.29. Aren't two sparrows sold for an assarion? Not one of them falls on the ground apart from your Father's will
30. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 70.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

31. Hermas, Visions, 2.4.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

32. Marcus Aurelius Emperor of Rome, Meditations, 2.5 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

33. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

72b. אלמלא בגדי כהונה לא נשתייר משונאיהן של ישראל שריד ופליט,רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר דבי ר"ש תנא בגדים שגורדין אותן כברייתן מכליהן ומשרדין מהן כלום מאי היא ריש לקיש אמר אלו מעשה מחט,מיתיבי בגדי כהונה אין עושין אותן מעשה מחט אלא מעשה אורג שנאמר (שמות כח, לב) מעשה אורג אמר אביי לא נצרכה אלא לבית יד שלהם כדתניא בית יד של בגדי כהונה נארגת בפני עצמה ונדבקת עם הבגד ומגעת עד פיסת היד,אמר רחבה אמר רב יהודה שלש ארונות עשה בצלאל אמצעי של עץ תשעה פנימי של זהב שמונה חיצון עשרה ומשהו,והתניא אחד עשר ומשהו לא קשיא הא כמ"ד יש בעביו טפח הא כמ"ד אין בעביו טפח ומאי משהו זיר,א"ר יוחנן שלשה זירים הן של מזבח ושל ארון ושל שלחן של מזבח זכה אהרן ונטלו של שלחן זכה דוד ונטלו של ארון עדיין מונח הוא כל הרוצה ליקח יבא ויקח שמא תאמר פחות הוא ת"ל (משלי ח, טו) בי מלכים ימלוכו,רבי יוחנן רמי כתיב זר וקרינן זיר זכה נעשית לו זיר לא זכה זרה הימנו,ר' יוחנן רמי כתיב (דברים י, א) ועשית לך ארון עץ וכתיב (שמות כה, י) ועשו ארון עצי שטים מכאן לתלמיד חכם שבני עירו מצווין לעשות לו מלאכתו,(שמות כה, יא) מבית ומחוץ תצפנו אמר רבא כל תלמיד חכם שאין תוכו כברו אינו תלמיד חכם,(אמר) אביי ואיתימא רבה בר עולא נקרא נתעב שנאמר (איוב טו, טז) אף כי נתעב ונאלח איש שותה כמים עולה,אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר' יונתן מאי דכתיב (משלי יז, טז) למה זה מחיר ביד כסיל לקנות חכמה ולב אין אוי להם לשונאיהן של תלמידי חכמים שעוסקין בתורה ואין בהן יראת שמים,מכריז ר' ינאי חבל על דלית ליה דרתא ותרעא לדרתיה עביד,אמר להו רבא לרבנן במטותא מינייכו לא תירתון תרתי גיהנם,אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי מאי דכתיב (דברים ד, מד) וזאת התורה אשר שם משה זכה נעשית לו סם חיים לא זכה נעשית לו סם מיתה והיינו דאמר רבא דאומן לה סמא דחייא דלא אומן לה סמא דמותא,אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני רבי יונתן רמי כתיב (תהלים יט, ט) פקודי ה' ישרים משמחי לב וכתיב (תהלים יח, לא) אמרת ה' צרופה זכה משמחתו לא זכה צורפתו ריש לקיש אמר מגופיה דקרא נפקא זכה צורפתו לחיים לא זכה צורפתו למיתה,(תהלים יט, י) יראת ה' טהורה עומדת לעד אמר רבי חנינא זה הלומד תורה בטהרה מאי היא נושא אשה ואחר כך לומד תורה,עדות ה' נאמנה אמר רבי חייא בר אבא נאמנה היא להעיד בלומדיה,(שמות כו, לו) מעשה רוקם (שמות כו, א) מעשה חושב אמר רבי אלעזר שרוקמין במקום שחושבין,תנא משמיה דרבי נחמיה רוקם מעשה מחט לפיכך פרצוף אחד חושב מעשה אורג לפיכך שני פרצופות,באלו נשאלין באורים ותומים כי אתא רב דימי אמר בגדים שכהן גדול משמש בהן משוח מלחמה משמש בהן שנאמר (שמות כט, כט) ובגדי הקודש אשר לאהרן יהיו לבניו אחריו למי שבא בגדולה אחריו,מתיב רב אדא בר אהבה ואמרי לה כדי יכול יהא בנו של משוח מלחמה משמש תחתיו כדרך שבנו של כהן גדול משמש תחתיו 72b. He offers a homiletic interpretation: bWere it not for the priestly vestments,which provide atonement for the Jewish people, bthere would not remain a remt[isarid/b] bor survivor from the haters of the Jewish people,a euphemism used to refer to the Jewish people themselves. Due to the atonement provided by the priestly vestments, a remt [ isarid /i] of the Jewish people does survive.,Another interpretation: bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bthe schoolof bRabbi Shimon taught:The priestly vestments are referred to as “ iseradgarments” because they are bgarments that are woven in their completed form upon the loom,as opposed to weaving the material and then cutting and sewing pieces of the material together to create the required form, bandthen just ba small part of them remains[imasridin/b] which is not completed upon the loom. bWhat isthe remt, the part that was not woven? bReish Lakish said: This is the needle-workrequired to complete the garment.,The Gemara braises an objection to thisfrom a ibaraita /i: bPriestly vestmentsshould bnot be made through needle-work butthough bwoven work, as it is stated: “Woven work”(Exodus 28:32). The Gemara answers that bAbaye said:Reish Lakish’s statement bis necessary only for,i.e., refers only to, bthe sleeves. As it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA sleevemade for the bpriestly vestments is woven separately andthen battached to the garmentby sewing, bandthe sleeve is made to breach as far as the palm of the hand.However, the main body of the garment must indeed be made exclusively though weaving.,§ The Gemara cites statements concerning other Temple vessels: bRaḥava saidthat bRav Yehuda said:The Torah states that the Ark should be made of wood with gold plating inside and out (Exodus 25:10–11). In order to achieve this bBezalel made three arks: A middle onemade bof wood,whose height was bninehandbreadths; ban inner onemade bof gold,whose height was beighthandbreadths; and an bouter oneof gold, whose height was btenhandbreadths band a bit.These arks were nested.,The Gemara asks: bBut wasn’t it taughtin a ibaraitathat the outer ark was belevenhandbreadths band a bit?The Gemara explains: bThis is not difficult: Thisstatement in the ibaraita bis in accordance with the one who saidthat bthe thicknessof the gold plating bwas one handbreadth.According to this opinion, the outer ark’s base took up one handbreadth of its height, ten handbreadths were then needed to contain the middle ark within it, and then a bit more was needed so it could also contain the Ark’s cover. bThatstatement of Rav Yehuda bis in accordance with the one who saidthat bthe thicknessof the gold plating bwas not one handbreadthbut was a plate of gold of negligible thickness. According to this opinion, the outer ark needed to be only ten handbreadths and a bit and could still contain the outer ark and have room for the cover. bAnd what isthis additional bbit?It is the ornamental bcrownon the edge of the outer ark., bRabbi Yoḥa said: Therewere bthree crownson the sacred vessels in the Temple: The crown bof the altar, and of the Ark, and of the table.The regal appearance they provided symbolized power and authority: The crown bof the altarsymbolized the crown of priesthood; bAaron was deserving and took it,and the priesthood continues exclusively through his descendants. The crown bof the tablesymbolized the abundance and blessing associated with the crown of kingship; bDavid was deserving and took itfor himself and his descendants after him. The crown bof the Arksymbolized the crown of Torah; bit is still sittingand waiting to be acquired, band anyone who wishes to takeit may bcome and takeit and be crowned with the crown of Torah. bPerhaps you will say it is inferiorto the other two crowns and that is why nobody has taken it; therefore, bthe verse statesabout the wisdom of Torah: b“Through me kings will reign”(Proverbs 8:15), indicating that the strength of the other crowns is derived from the crown of Torah, which is greater than them all.,§ The Gemara presents a number of statements based on the idea that the Ark symbolizes the Torah: bRabbi Yoḥa raised a contradiction:According to the way the word crown bis writtenin the Torah (Exodus 25:11), without vowels, it should be pronounced izar /i,meaning strange, bbutaccording to the traditional vocalization bwe readit as izeir /i,meaning crown. These two ways of understanding the word appear to contradict each other. Rabbi Yoḥa explains: The two understandings apply to two different situations: If one bis deservingby performing mitzvot, bit becomes a crown [ izeir /i] for him;but if one bis not deserving,the Torah bwill be a stranger [ izara /i] to himand he will forget his studies., bRabbi Yoḥa raised a contradiction: It is written: “And you shall make for yourself a wooden Ark”(Deuteronomy 10:1), implying that Moses alone was commanded to construct the Ark; band it is written: “And they shall make an Ark of acacia wood”(Exodus 25:10), implying that the Jewish people were all commanded to be involved in its construction. The apparent resolution to this contradiction is that although only Moses actually constructed the Ark, everyone was required to support the endeavor. So too, bfrom hereit is derived with regard bto a Torah scholar that the members of his town should perform his work for himto support him and allow him to focus on his studies, since it is also the town’s responsibility to enable him to study.,The verse states concerning the Ark: b“From within and from without you shall cover it”(Exodus 25:11). bRava said:This alludes to the idea that bany Torah scholar whose inside is not like his outside,i.e., whose outward expression of righteousness is insincere, bis notto be considered ba Torah scholar. /b, bAbaye said, and some sayit was bRabba bar Ullawho said: Not only is such a person not to be considered a Torah scholar, but he is bcalled loathsome, as it is stated: “What then of one loathsome and foul, man who drinks iniquity like water”(Job 15:16). Although he drinks the Torah like water, since he sins, his Torah is considered iniquitous and this makes him loathsome and foul., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Why is there a price in the hand of a fool to buy wisdom, as he has no heart?”(Proverbs 17:16)? This expresses the following sentiment: bWoe to them, haters of Torah scholars,a euphemism for the Torah scholars themselves, bwho immerse themselves in Torah and have no fear of Heaven.They are fools; they try to acquire the wisdom of Torah, but since they have no fear of Heaven in their hearts they lack the ability to do so., bRabbi Yannai declaredthat the situation may be expressed by the following sentiment: bPityhim bwho has no courtyard butsenselessly bmakes a gate for his courtyard.Fear of Heaven is like the courtyard, and the study of Torah is the gate that provides entrance to the courtyard. The study of Torah is purposeful only if it leads to fear of Heaven., bRava said to the Sagesin the study hall: bI beg of you, do not inherit Gehenna twice.By studying Torah without the accompanying fear of Heaven, not only are you undeserving of the World-to-Come, but even in this world you experience Gehenna, as you spend all your time in study and fail to benefit from worldly pleasure., bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “And this is the Torah which Moses put[isam/b] before the children of Israel” (Deuteronomy 4:44)? The word isamis written with the letter isinand means put; it is phonetically similar to the word isamwritten with the letter isamekh /i, meaning a drug. This use of this word therefore alludes to the following: If one bis deserving,the Torah bbecomes a potion [ isam /i] of life for him.If one bis not deserving,the Torah bbecomes a potion of death for him. And thisidea bis what Rava said: For one who is skillfulin his study of Torah and immerses himself in it with love, it is ba potion of life;but bfor one who is not skillfulin his studies, bit is a potion of death. /b, bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan raised a contradiction: It was written: “The precepts of the Lord are upright, gladdening the heart”(Psalms 19:9), but it is also written: b“The word of the Lord is refining”(Psalms 18:31), which implies that the study of Torah can be a distressing process by which a person is refined like metal smelted in a smith’s fire. He reconciles these verses as follows: For one who bis deserving,the Torah bgladdens him;for one who bis not deserving,it brefines him. Reish Lakish said:This lesson bemerges from thatsecond bverse itself:For one who bis deserving,the Torah brefines him for life;for one who bis not deserving, it refines him for death. /b,The verse states: b“Fear of the Lord is pure, it stands forever”(Psalms 19:10). bRabbi Ḥanina said: Thisis referring to bone who studies Torah in purity;for such a person the Torah will remain with him forever. bWhat is this;what does it mean to study in purity? bOnefirst bmarries a woman and afterward studies Torah.Since he is married, his heart will not be occupied with thoughts of sin, which could lead him to become impure.,In the same Psalm the verse states: b“The testimony of God is faithful”(Psalms 19:8). bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said:This alludes to the fact that the Torah bis faithful to testify about those who study itand those who do not.,The Gemara returns to its discussion concerning the sacred vessels: The verse states with regard to the covers for the Tabernacle that they are b“work of an embroiderer”(Exodus 26:36), and it also states they are b“work of a designer”(Exodus 26:31). How can both descriptions be reconciled? bRabbi Elazar said: They embroidered the place where they had designed.They first marked a design on the material in paint, and then they embroidered it.,A Sage btaught in the name of Rabbi Neḥemya:“Work of ban embroiderer”refers to bneedlework,which bthereforeproduces only bone face.The design is made with a needle passing back and forth from both sides of the curtain, and consequently an identical parallel image, or one face, is formed on both sides. “Work of ba designer”refers to bwoven work,which bthereforeproduces btwo faces.Although formed together, the two sides of the material were not identical; for example, sometimes an eagle appeared on one side while a lion was on the other side.,§ It was taught in the mishna: When dressed bin theseeight garments, the High Priest may bbe consulted forthe decision of the iUrim VeTummim /i. When Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he bsaid:The bgarments in which the High Priest servesare also worn when the bpriest anointed for war serves.This priest is appointed to recite words of encouragement to the nation before it goes out to war (see Deuteronomy 20:2). bAs it is stated: “And the sacred garments of Aaron shall be for his sons after him”(Exodus 29:29), which is taken to refer bto the one who comes after him in greatness,meaning the priest whose rank is one lower than the High Priest, i.e., the priest anointed for war., bRav Adda bar Ahava raised an objection, and some say it unattributed:It is taught in a ibaraita /i: One bmighthave thought that bthe son of the priest anointed for war serves in his place,i.e., he inherits the position, bin the same way that the son of a High Priest serves in his placeif he is fit for the job;
34. Augustine, De Diversis Quaestionibus Ad Simplicianum, 1.2, 1.2.3, 1.2.10 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

35. Gregory of Nyssa, De Vita Mosis, 1.1-1.3, 1.5-1.8, 1.10, 1.14 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abram/abraham, learner Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 282
adiaphora/indistinguishable/neutral Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 160
advantage (sumpheron, utilitas) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 168
anatrophe, of macrina Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 82
antisthenes Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 165, 309
antithesis Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 293
apostle paul Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 540
apostolic fathers, generally Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 512
appropriation (oikeiōsis) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 160
aristotle Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 163
armament, pauls Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 165
armament Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 165
athletic image Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 293
athletic metaphor, and martyrdom Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 82
athletic metaphor, biblical application Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 82
athletics/training Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 101, 167, 168
audience, captatio benevolentiae Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 43
augustine Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 540
beliar Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 284
body, bodies athletes Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 210
body Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 284
charges against, at corinth Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 210
child mortality Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 164
childhood, see also anatrophe, metaphorical Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 43
christ, and friendship Conybeare, Abused Bodies in Roman Epic (2000) 78
christ Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 293
christian, early christian christianity Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 284
christianity, prolegomena to philosophy and Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 573
cicero, exile Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 152
clement, second, date and place of composition Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 512
clement, second, sections Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 512
clement, second Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 512
colossians Papaioannou et al., Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 177; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou, Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 177
community Conybeare, Abused Bodies in Roman Epic (2000) 78
concannon, cavan Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 152
conversion Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 293
corinth, ethnicity Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 152
corinth, freedpersons Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 152
craft/craftsman (technē) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 163, 164, 165, 166
cynics/cynicism, free will Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 309
cynics/cynicism, humility of Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 309
cynics/cynicism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 50, 309
cynics Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 154
death, infant, child mortality Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 164
delphi Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 284
desire Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 164
dreams Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 284
ecclesiastical social structures Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 293
emotions, bad Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 282
ephesians Papaioannou et al., Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 177; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou, Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 177
ephesus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 50
epictetus Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 161
epicureanism, attacks against Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 50
epistemology, pauls Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 158, 160
epistemology, suneidēsis Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 154
eschatology Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 274
etymology, hebrew Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 282
exousia Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 154
forma (or formula) Conybeare, Abused Bodies in Roman Epic (2000) 78
free will, of cynic Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 309
freedom, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 309
freedom (eleutheria) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 101, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 166, 167, 168
freedpersons, in corinth Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 152
friendship, divine-human Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 140
friendship, in biography Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 43
friendship, spiritualization of Conybeare, Abused Bodies in Roman Epic (2000) 78
gentiles, judaism, interest in Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 152
god, temple of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 284
god (pauline), involvement in human affairs Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 140
godlikeness and the ordering of knowledge, in prolegomena to philosophy Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 573
godlikeness and the ordering of knowledge Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 573
good, appropriate actions (kathēkonta) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 154, 158, 161
good, right actions (kathorthōmata) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 158
good, the Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 293
good (agathos) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 158
greco-roman Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 190
grief, exile, migration Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 152
grief, of women Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 164
grief Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 82
hedonism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 50
heresy, exclusion of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 498
heresy, interior to church Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 498
heschel, avraham yoshua Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner, Interaction Between Judaism and Christianity in History, Religion, Art, and Literature (2009) 462
idol/idolatry Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 284
idol food Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 161, 166
ignorance Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 293
imago Conybeare, Abused Bodies in Roman Epic (2000) 78
imitatio Conybeare, Abused Bodies in Roman Epic (2000) 78
imitator christi Conybeare, Abused Bodies in Roman Epic (2000) 78
inspiration Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 284
interdependence, morally formative Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 140
intermediates Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 101, 154, 161, 167
israel, seer of god Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 282
jacob Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 282
jesus Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 293
jesus christ, in paul Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 284
jew/jewish, hellenistic Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 284
jew/jewish, literature/ authors Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 284
jew/jewish, relationship to christianity Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 284
jewish practices/torah observance, circumcision Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 101
jewish practices/torah observance Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166
jews Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 540
john damascene, prolegomena, use of Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 573
judaism, gentile interest in Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 152
judaizing Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 101
julius caesar Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 152
knowledge, pauline Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 140
law, god's" '151.0_284.0@law, lawful Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 284
law, lawlessness Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 284
law Papaioannou et al., Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 177; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou, Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 177
law of christ Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166
law of nature/natural law, stoic politics Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 163, 164
law of nature/natural law Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 163, 164, 165
liberum arbitrium Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 540
literature Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 284
liturgy Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 82
marcellinus Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 540
marriage Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 164
maturity Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 140
medea Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 164
metaphor Papaioannou et al., Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 177; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou, Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 177
mills, benjamin Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 152
moral formation, adaptation in Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 140
moral formation, involvement of god/gods within Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 140
moral formation, love in Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 140
moral formation, protocol of Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 140
moral formation, via imitation Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 140
moses and mosaic law Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 190
moxnes, h., necessity, pauls Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 190
names, change of Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 282
necessity/require (anagkē, anagkazō) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 155, 158, 165
neoplatonism, capacities of human reason in Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 573
odysseus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 165, 309
origen, more inclusive account of sects and heresyc Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 498
origen, strategies for linking heresy with various others Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 498
orthodoxy, purity of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 498
passion Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 50
passions (pathē) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 168
paul, apostle, stoic philosophy Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 164
paul, determinism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 309
paul, free will Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 309
paul, st Conybeare, Abused Bodies in Roman Epic (2000) 78
paul Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 274; Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 82; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 50; Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner, Interaction Between Judaism and Christianity in History, Religion, Art, and Literature (2009) 462; Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 293
paul (saul) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 284
pelagius xxvi Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 540
performance Papaioannou et al., Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 177; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou, Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 177
philo of alexandria Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 82
philosophy, assimilation of heresy to Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 498
platonism Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 164
pleasure Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 165, 309
posidonius generally Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 163
practice, and body Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 190
preaching, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 309
preaching Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 165
predestination Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 540
preferreds (proēgmena) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 167, 168
prooimion, of moses Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 43
refoundation' Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 210
remembrance, call to Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 293
resurrection Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 82
rhetoric Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 284
roman colony Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 210
romanization Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 210
salvation Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 140; Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 154, 158, 159, 160, 167, 168
saviour Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 293
self-control Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 50
self-sufficiency Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 140
self-understanding, of cynic Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 309
sex/sexuality Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 284
sin Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 293
slave/slavery, cynic as Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 309
slavery Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 101, 158, 159, 160, 161, 167, 168
socrates Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 101, 159, 164, 165
soul, resurrection Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 82
soul Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 282
spawforth, antony Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 152
spirit, characterizations as, breath (life itself) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 284
spirit, characterizations as, holy Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 284
spirit, modes of presence, indwelling Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 284
spirit, modes of presence, receiving of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 284
stoicism, determinism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 309
stoicism, freedom Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 309
stoicism, stoic philosophy, of paul Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 164
stoicism, stoic philosophy Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 164
stowers, stanley Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 164
telos Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 101, 154, 157, 158, 159, 168
temple Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 284
theology, christocentric Conybeare, Abused Bodies in Roman Epic (2000) 78
torah arks Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner, Interaction Between Judaism and Christianity in History, Religion, Art, and Literature (2009) 462
value (axia) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 155, 157, 159, 160, 168
virtue, perfection Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 43, 82
virtue Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 282; Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 158, 164
virtues, self-control Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 293
war Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 165
weapon Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 165, 309
wisdom Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 282
women, grief Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 164
zeus Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 158, 164