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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8234
New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 9.19-9.20


Ἐλεύθερος γὰρ ὢν ἐκ πάντων πᾶσιν ἐμαυτὸν ἐδούλωσα, ἵνα τοὺς πλείονας κερδήσω·For though I was free fromall, I brought myself under bondage to all, that I might gain the more.


καὶ ἐγενόμην τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις ὡς Ἰουδαῖος, ἵνα Ἰουδαίους κερδήσω· τοῖς ὑπὸ νόμον ὡς ὑπὸ νόμον, μὴ ὢν αὐτὸς ὑπὸ νόμον, ἵνα τοὺς ὑπὸ νόμον κερδήσω·To the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain Jews; to thosewho are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain those whoare under the law;


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

44 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה וְעוֹף יְעוֹפֵף עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־פְּנֵי רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 1.2. וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם׃ 1.2. Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters."
2. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 19.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.13. כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמֵת בְּנֶפֶשׁ הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר־יָמוּת וְלֹא יִתְחַטָּא אֶת־מִשְׁכַּן יְהוָה טִמֵּא וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל כִּי מֵי נִדָּה לֹא־זֹרַק עָלָיו טָמֵא יִהְיֶה עוֹד טֻמְאָתוֹ בוֹ׃ 19.13. Whosoever toucheth the dead, even the body of any man that is dead, and purifieth not himself—he hath defiled the tabernacle of the LORD—that soul shall be cut off from Israel; because the water of sprinkling was not dashed against him, he shall be unclean; his uncleanness is yet upon him."
3. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 23.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

23.1. מִזְמוֹר לְדָוִד יְהוָה רֹעִי לֹא אֶחְסָר׃ 23.1. A Psalm of David. The LORD is my shepherd; I shall not want."
4. Homer, Odyssey, 1.1 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

5. Theognis, Elegies, 214, 213 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6. Antisthenes, Fragments, 51 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

7. Antisthenes, Fragments, 51 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8. Plato, Euthydemus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

277d. perceiving the lad was going under, and wishing to give him some breathing-space lest he should shame us by losing heart, encouraged him with these words: Cleinias, do not be surprised that these arguments seem strange to you; for perhaps you do not discern what our two visitors are doing to you. They are acting just like the celebrants of the Corybantic rites, when they perform the enthronement of the person whom they are about to initiate. There, as you know, if you have been through it, they have dancing and merrymaking: so here these two
9. Antisthenes of Rhodes, Fragments, 51 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10. Septuagint, Judith, 10.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

10.5. And she gave her maid a bottle of wine and a flask of oil, and filled a bag with parched grain and a cake of dried fruit and fine bread; and she wrapped up all her vessels and gave them to her to carry.
11. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 16.2-16.3, 16.5, 16.10, 16.12-16.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

16.2. Instead of this punishment thou didst show kindness to thy people,and thou didst prepare quails to eat,a delicacy to satisfy the desire of appetite; 16.3. in order that those men, when they desired food,might lose the least remt of appetite because of the odious creatures sent to them,while thy people, after suffering want a short time,might partake of delicacies. 16.5. For when the terrible rage of wild beasts came upon thy people and they were being destroyed by the bites of writhing serpents,thy wrath did not continue to the end; 16.10. but thy sons were not conquered even by the teeth of venomous serpents,for thy mercy came to their help and healed them. 16.12. For neither herb nor poultice cured them,but it was thy word, O Lord, which heals all men. 16.13. For thou hast power over life and death;thou dost lead men down to the gates of Hades and back again. 16.14. A man in his wickedness kills another,but he cannot bring back the departed spirit,nor set free the imprisoned soul.
12. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.1, 2.4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. The first volume of this treatise relates to the subject of the birth and bringing up of Moses, and also of his education and of his government of his people, which he governed not merely irreproachably, but in so exceedingly praiseworthy a manner; and also of all the affairs, which took place in Egypt, and in the travels and journeyings of the nation, and of the events which happened with respect to their crossing the Red Sea and in the desert, which surpass all power of description; and, moreover, of all the labours which he conducted to a successful issue, and of the inheritances which he distributed in portions to his soldiers. But the book which we are now about to compose relates to the affairs which follow those others in due order, and bear a certain correspondence and connection with them. 2.4. It becomes a king to command what ought to be done, and to forbid what ought not to be done; but the commanding what ought to be done, and the prohibition of what ought not to be done, belongs especially to the law, so that the king is at once a living law, and the law is a just king.
13. Epictetus, Discourses, 1.2.8-1.2.9, 3.13.21, 3.22.3-3.22.4, 3.22.39, 3.22.43, 3.22.48, 3.22.82, 3.24.67, 3.24.95, 4.1, 4.1.114, 4.1.162-4.1.163, 4.7.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14. Epictetus, Enchiridion, 53 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 12.119-12.120 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.119. 1. The Jews also obtained honors from the kings of Asia when they became their auxiliaries; for Seleucus Nicator made them citizens in those cities which he built in Asia, and in the lower Syria, and in the metropolis itself, Antioch; and gave them privileges equal to those of the Macedonians and Greeks, who were the inhabitants, insomuch that these privileges continue to this very day:
16. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.591-2.592 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.591. He after that contrived a very shrewd trick, and pretending that the Jews who dwelt in Syria were obliged to make use of oil that was made by others than those of their own nation, he desired leave of Josephus to send oil to their borders; 2.592. o he bought four amphorae with such Tyrian money as was of the value of four Attic drachmae, and sold every half-amphora at the same price. And as Galilee was very fruitful in oil, and was peculiarly so at that time, by sending away great quantities, and having the sole privilege so to do, he gathered an immense sum of money together, which money he immediately used to the disadvantage of him who gave him that privilege;
17. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.209-2.210 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.209. 29. It will be also worth our while to see what equity our legislator would have us exercise in our intercourse with strangers; for it will thence appear that he made the best provision he possibly could, both that we should not dissolve our own constitution, nor show any envious mind towards those that would cultivate a friendship with us.
18. Josephus Flavius, Life, 75-76, 74 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.6. The following articles of non-Jews are prohibited but the prohibition does not extend to deriving benefit from them: 1. milk which a non-Jew milked without an israelite watching him, 2. their bread and oil (Rabbi and his court permitted the oil) 3. stewed and pickled things into which they are accustomed to put wine or vinegar, 4. pickled herring which had been minced, 5. brine in which there is no kalbith-fish floating, 6. helek, 7. pieces of asa foetida 8. and sal-conditum. Behold these are prohibited but the prohibition does not extend to deriving benefit from them."
20. Musonius Rufus, Fragments, 8, 11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

21. New Testament, 1 Peter, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. In like manner, wives, be in subjection to your own husbands; so that, even if any don't obey the Word, they may be won by the behavior of their wives without a word;
22. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.8, 1.9, 1.18, 1.23, 1.24, 1.30, 2.2, 2.4, 2.5, 2.16, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.14, 3.15, 4.6, 4.7, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.21, 6.12, 7, 7.1, 7.9, 7.18, 7.19, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.25, 7.29, 7.30, 7.31, 8, 8.1, 8.1-11.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 9, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24, 9.25, 9.26, 9.27, 10, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9, 10.10, 10.11, 10.12, 10.13, 10.14, 10.15, 10.16, 10.17, 10.18, 10.19, 10.20, 10.21, 10.22, 10.23, 10.23-11.1, 10.24, 10.25, 10.26, 10.27, 10.28, 10.29, 10.30, 10.31, 10.31-11.1, 10.32, 10.33, 11.1, 12, 12.2, 12.7, 12.11, 12.12, 12.13, 12.14, 12.15, 12.16, 12.17, 12.18, 12.19, 12.20, 12.21, 12.22, 12.23, 12.24, 12.25, 12.26, 12.27, 13.12, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.8, 15.20, 15.21, 15.22, 15.23, 15.24, 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.28, 15.29, 15.30, 15.31, 15.32, 15.33, 15.34, 15.35, 15.36, 15.37, 15.38, 15.39, 15.40, 15.41, 15.42, 15.43, 15.44, 15.45, 15.46, 15.47, 15.48, 15.49, 15.50, 15.51, 15.52, 15.53, 15.54, 15.55, 15.56 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. For the word of the cross isfoolishness to those who are dying, but to us who are saved it is thepower of God.
23. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.2, 1.3, 1.5, 1.6, 2, 2.1, 2.5, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.14, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13-5.11, 5.1, 5.2, 5.16, 5.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. We always give thanks to God for all of you, mentioning you in our prayers
24. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 4.1-4.3, 4.15-4.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.1. But the Spirit says expressly that in later times some will fall away from the faith, paying attention to seducing spirits and doctrines of demons 4.2. through the hypocrisy of men who speak lies, branded in their own conscience as with a hot iron; 4.3. forbidding marriage and commanding to abstain from foods which God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and know the truth. 4.15. Be diligent in these things. Give yourself wholly to them, that your progress may be revealed to all. 4.16. Pay attention to yourself, and to your teaching. Continue in these things, for in doing this you will save both yourself and those who hear you.
25. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 3.16-3.18, 4.6, 4.8-4.10, 4.17, 6.1, 6.8-6.10, 8.2, 10.1-10.2, 11.2-11.33, 12.11-12.12, 12.14-12.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

26. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 3.6-3.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.6. Now we command you, brothers, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that you withdraw yourselves from every brother who walks in rebellion, and not after the tradition which they received from us. 3.7. For you know how you ought to imitate us. For we didn't behave ourselves rebelliously among you 3.8. neither did we eat bread from anyone's hand without paying for it, but in labor and travail worked night and day, that we might not burden any of you; 3.9. not because we don't have the right, but to make ourselves an example to you, that you should imitate us. 3.10. For even when we were with you, we commanded you this: "If anyone will not work, neither let him eat. 3.11. For we hear of some who walk among you in rebellion, who don't work at all, but are busybodies. 3.12. Now those who are that way, we command and exhort in the Lord Jesus Christ, that with quietness they work, and eat their own bread. 3.13. But you, brothers, don't be weary in doing well.
27. New Testament, Acts, 6.1, 7.58, 9.29, 13.14-13.48, 15.25, 15.28-15.29, 16.2, 16.12-16.15, 17.10, 17.12, 21.21, 22.3, 22.25-22.27 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.1. Now in those days, when the number of the disciples was multiplying, there arose a grumbling of the Grecian Jews against the Hebrews because their widows were neglected in the daily service. 7.58. They threw him out of the city, and stoned him. The witnesses placed their garments at the feet of a young man named Saul. 9.29. preaching boldly in the name of the Lord. He spoke and disputed against the Grecian Jews, but they were seeking to kill him. 13.14. But they, passing through from Perga, came to Antioch of Pisidia. They went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and sat down. 13.15. After the reading of the law and the prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, saying, "Brothers, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, speak. 13.16. Paul stood up, and beckoning with his hand said, "Men of Israel, and you who fear God, listen. 13.17. The God of this people Israel chose our fathers, and exalted the people when they stayed as aliens in the land of Egypt , and with an uplifted arm, he led them out of it. 13.18. For about the time of forty years he put up with them in the wilderness. 13.19. When he had destroyed seven nations in the land of Canaan, he gave them their land for an inheritance, for about four hundred fifty years. 13.20. After these things he gave them judges until Samuel the prophet. 13.21. Afterward they asked for a king, and God gave to them Saul the son of Kish, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, for forty years. 13.22. When he had removed him, he raised up David to be their king, to whom he also testified, 'I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after my heart, who will do all my will.' 13.23. From this man's seed, God has brought salvation to Israel according to his promise 13.24. before his coming, when John had first preached the baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel. 13.25. As John was fulfilling his course, he said, 'What do you suppose that I am? I am not he. But behold, one comes after me the sandals of whose feet I am not worthy to untie.' 13.26. Brothers, children of the stock of Abraham, and those among you who fear God, the word of this salvation is sent out to you. 13.27. For those who dwell in Jerusalem, and their rulers, because they didn't know him, nor the voices of the prophets which are read every Sabbath, fulfilled them by condemning him. 13.28. Though they found no cause for death, they still asked Pilate to have him killed. 13.29. When they had fulfilled all things that were written about him, they took him down from the tree, and laid him in a tomb. 13.30. But God raised him from the dead 13.31. and he was seen for many days by those who came up with him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who are his witnesses to the people. 13.32. We bring you good news of the promise made to the fathers 13.33. that God has fulfilled the same to us, their children, in that he raised up Jesus. As it is also written in the second psalm, 'You are my Son. Today I have become your father.' 13.34. Concerning that he raised him up from the dead, now no more to return to corruption, he has spoken thus: 'I will give you the holy and sure blessings of David.' 13.35. Therefore he says also in another psalm, 'You will not allow your Holy One to see decay.' 13.36. For David, after he had in his own generation served the counsel of God, fell asleep, and was laid with his fathers, and saw decay. 13.37. But he whom God raised up saw no decay. 13.38. Be it known to you therefore, brothers, that through this man is proclaimed to you remission of sins 13.39. and by him everyone who believes is justified from all things, from which you could not be justified by the law of Moses. 13.40. Beware therefore, lest that come on you which is spoken in the prophets: 13.41. 'Behold, you scoffers, and wonder, and perish; For I work a work in your days, A work which you will in no way believe, if one declares it to you.' 13.42. So when the Jews went out of the synagogue, the Gentiles begged that these words might be preached to them the next Sabbath. 13.43. Now when the synagogue broke up, many of the Jews and of the devout proselytes followed Paul and Barnabas; who, speaking to them, urged them to continue in the grace of God. 13.44. The next Sabbath almost the whole city was gathered together to hear the word of God. 13.45. But when the Jews saw the multitudes, they were filled with jealousy, and contradicted the things which were spoken by Paul, and blasphemed. 13.46. Paul and Barnabas spoke out boldly, and said, "It was necessary that God's word should be spoken to you first. Since indeed you thrust it from you, and judge yourselves unworthy of eternal life, behold, we turn to the Gentiles. 13.47. For so has the Lord commanded us, saying, 'I have set you as a light of the Gentiles, That you should be for salvation to the uttermost parts of the earth.' 13.48. As the Gentiles heard this, they were glad, and glorified the word of God. As many as were appointed to eternal life believed. 15.25. it seemed good to us, having come to one accord, to choose out men and send them to you with our beloved Barnabas and Paul 15.28. For it seemed good to the Holy Spirit, and to us, to lay no greater burden on you than these necessary things: 15.29. that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality, from which if you keep yourselves, it will be well with you. Farewell. 16.2. The brothers who were at Lystra and Iconium gave a good testimony about him. 16.12. and from there to Philippi, which is a city of Macedonia, the first of the district, a Roman colony. We were staying some days in this city. 16.13. On the Sabbath day we went forth outside of the city by a riverside, where we supposed there was a place of prayer, and we sat down, and spoke to the women who had come together. 16.14. A certain woman named Lydia, a seller of purple, of the city of Thyatira, one who worshiped God, heard us; whose heart the Lord opened to listen to the things which were spoken by Paul. 16.15. When she and her household were baptized, she begged us, saying, "If you have judged me to be faithful to the Lord, come into my house, and stay." She urged us. 17.10. The brothers immediately sent Paul and Silas away by night to Beroea. When they arrived, they went into the Jewish synagogue. 17.12. Many of them therefore believed; also of the Greek women of honorable estate, and not a few men. 21.21. They have been informed about you, that you teach all the Jews who are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, telling them not to circumcise their children neither to walk after the customs. 22.3. I am indeed a Jew, born in Tarsus of Cilicia, but brought up in this city at the feet of Gamaliel, instructed according to the strict manner of the law of our fathers, being zealous for God, even as you all are this day. 22.25. When they had tied him up with thongs, Paul asked the centurion who stood by, "Is it lawful for you to scourge a man who is a Roman, and not found guilty? 22.26. When the centurion heard it, he went to the commanding officer and told him, "Watch what you are about to do, for this man is a Roman!
28. New Testament, Apocalypse, 3.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.20. Behold, I stand at the door and knock. If anyone hears my voice and opens the door, then I will come in to him, and will dine with him, and he with me.
29. New Testament, Philemon, 17, 16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

30. New Testament, Galatians, 1, 1.1, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.12, 1.13, 1.14, 1.15, 1.16, 1.17, 1.18, 1.19, 1.20, 1.21, 1.22, 1.23, 1.24, 1.25, 2, 2.4, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 2.19, 2.20, 2.21, 3, 3.1, 3.6, 3.19, 3.23, 3.28, 3.29, 4, 4.9, 4.19, 4.21, 4.22, 4.23, 4.24, 4.25, 4.26, 4.27, 4.28, 4.29, 4.30, 4.31, 5.1, 5.13-6.10, 5.18, 6.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

31. New Testament, Philippians, 1.18-1.19, 2.2-2.5, 3.2, 3.6, 3.8-3.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. What does it matter? Only that in every way, whether in pretense or in truth, Christ is proclaimed. I rejoice in this, yes, and will rejoice. 1.19. For I know that this will turn out to my salvation, through your supplication and the supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ 2.2. make my joy full, by being like-minded, having the same love, being of one accord, of one mind; 2.3. doing nothing through rivalry or through conceit, but in humility, each counting others better than himself; 2.4. each of you not just looking to his own things, but each of you also to the things of others. 2.5. Have this in your mind, which was also in Christ Jesus 3.2. Beware of the dogs, beware of the evil workers, beware of the false circumcision. 3.6. concerning zeal, persecuting the assembly; concerning the righteousness which is in the law, found blameless. 3.8. Yes most assuredly, and I count all things to be loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus, my Lord, for whom I suffered the loss of all things, and count them nothing but refuse, that I may gain Christ 3.9. and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own, that which is of the law, but that which is through faith in Christ, the righteousness which is from God by faith; 3.10. that I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his sufferings, becoming conformed to his death; 3.11. if by any means I may attain to the resurrection from the dead. 3.12. Not that I have already obtained, or am already made perfect; but I press on, if it is so that I may take hold of that for which also I was taken hold of by Christ Jesus.
32. New Testament, Romans, 1.16, 1.32, 2.6, 2.14-2.15, 2.26, 2.28-2.29, 3.1, 3.9, 3.29, 3.31, 4.1, 4.11-4.12, 5.12-5.21, 6.1, 6.15, 6.19-6.23, 7.7, 7.12, 8.4, 9.14, 9.30, 10.5-10.17, 15.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.16. For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God for salvation for everyone who believes; for the Jew first, and also for the Greek. 1.32. who, knowing the ordice of God, that those who practice such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but also approve of those who practice them. 2.6. who "will pay back to everyone according to their works: 2.14. (for when Gentiles who don't have the law do by nature the things of the law, these, not having the law, are a law to themselves 2.15. in that they show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience testifying with them, and their thoughts among themselves accusing or else excusing them) 2.26. If therefore the uncircumcised keep the ordices of the law, won't his uncircumcision be accounted as circumcision? 2.28. For he is not a Jew who is one outwardly, neither is that circumcision which is outward in the flesh; 2.29. but he is a Jew who is one inwardly, and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit not in the letter; whose praise is not from men, but from God. 3.1. Then what advantage does the Jew have? Or what is the profit of circumcision? 3.9. What then? Are we better than they? No, in no way. For we previously charged both Jews and Greeks, that they are all under sin. 3.29. Or is God the God of Jews only? Isn't he the God of Gentiles also? Yes, of Gentiles also 3.31. Do we then nullify the law through faith? May it never be! No, we establish the law. 4.1. What then will we say that Abraham, our forefather, has found according to the flesh? 4.11. He received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had while he was in uncircumcision, that he might be the father of all those who believe, though they be in uncircumcision, that righteousness might also be accounted to them. 4.12. The father of circumcision to those who not only are of the circumcision, but who also walk in the steps of that faith of our father Abraham, which he had in uncircumcision. 5.12. Therefore, as sin entered into the world through one man, and death through sin; and so death passed to all men, because all sinned. 5.13. For until the law, sin was in the world; but sin is not charged when there is no law. 5.14. Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those whose sins weren't like Adam's disobedience, who is a foreshadowing of him who was to come. 5.15. But the free gift isn't like the trespass. For if by the trespass of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God, and the gift by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abound to the many. 5.16. The gift is not as through one who sinned: for the judgment came by one to condemnation, but the free gift came of many trespasses to justification. 5.17. For if by the trespass of the one, death reigned through the one; so much more will those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life through the one, Jesus Christ. 5.18. So then as through one trespass, all men were condemned; even so through one act of righteousness, all men were justified to life. 5.19. For as through the one man's disobedience many were made sinners, even so through the obedience of the one will many be made righteous. 5.20. The law came in besides, that the trespass might abound; but where sin abounded, grace did abound more exceedingly; 5.21. that as sin reigned in death, even so might grace reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. 6.1. What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? 6.15. What then? Shall we sin, because we are not under law, but under grace? May it never be! 6.19. I speak in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh, for as you presented your members as servants to uncleanness and to wickedness upon wickedness, even so now present your members as servants to righteousness for sanctification. 6.20. For when you were servants of sin, you were free in regard to righteousness. 6.21. What fruit then did you have at that time in the things of which you are now ashamed? For the end of those things is death. 6.22. But now, being made free from sin, and having become servants of God, you have your fruit of sanctification, and the result of eternal life. 6.23. For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord. 7.7. What shall we say then? Is the law sin? May it never be! However, I wouldn't have known sin, except through the law. For I wouldn't have known coveting, unless the law had said, "You shall not covet. 7.12. Therefore the law indeed is holy, and the commandment holy, and righteous, and good. 8.4. that the ordice of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. 9.14. What shall we say then? Is there unrighteousness with God? May it never be! 9.30. What shall we say then? That the Gentiles, who didn't follow after righteousness, attained to righteousness, even the righteousness which is of faith; 10.5. For Moses writes about the righteousness of the law, "The one who does them will live by them. 10.6. But the righteousness which is of faith says this, "Don't say in your heart, 'Who will ascend into heaven?' (that is, to bring Christ down); 10.7. or, 'Who will descend into the abyss?' (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead.) 10.8. But what does it say? "The word is near you, in your mouth, and in your heart;" that is, the word of faith, which we preach: 10.9. that if you will confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus, and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. 10.10. For with the heart, one believes unto righteousness; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation. 10.11. For the Scripture says, "Whoever believes in him will not be put to shame. 10.12. For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; for the same Lord is Lord of all, and is rich to all who call on him. 10.13. For, "Whoever will call on the name of the Lord will be saved. 10.14. How then will they call on him in whom they have not believed? How will they believe in him whom they have not heard? How will they hear without a preacher? 10.15. And how will they preach unless they are sent? As it is written: "How beautiful are the feet of those who preach the gospel of peace, Who bring glad tidings of good things! 10.16. But they didn't all listen to the glad news. For Isaiah says, "Lord, who has believed our report? 10.17. So faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God. 15.24. whenever I journey to Spain, I will come to you. For I hope to see you on my journey, and to be helped on my way there by you, if first I may enjoy your company for a while.
33. New Testament, John, 5.46, 6.53 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.46. For if you believed Moses, you would believe me; for he wrote about me. 6.53. Jesus therefore said to them, "Most assuredly I tell you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you don't have life in yourselves.
34. New Testament, Luke, 5.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.31. Jesus answered them, "Those who are healthy have no need for a physician, but those who are sick do.
35. New Testament, Mark, 16.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

16.17. These signs will accompany those who believe: in my name they will cast out demons; they will speak with new languages;
36. New Testament, Matthew, 4.5-4.7, 13.31, 13.33, 13.45, 17.20, 18.15, 24.4, 24.14, 24.35 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.5. Then the devil took him into the holy city. He set him on the pinnacle of the temple 4.6. and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down, for it is written, 'He will give his angels charge concerning you.' and, 'On their hands they will bear you up, So that you don't dash your foot against a stone.' 4.7. Jesus said to him, "Again, it is written, 'You shall not test the Lord, your God.' 13.31. He set another parable before them, saying, "The Kingdom of Heaven is like a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and sowed in his field; 13.33. He spoke another parable to them. "The Kingdom of Heaven is like yeast, which a woman took, and hid in three measures of meal, until it was all leavened. 13.45. Again, the Kingdom of Heaven is like a man who is a merchant seeking fine pearls 17.20. He said to them, "Because of your unbelief. For most assuredly I tell you, if you have faith as a grain of mustard seed, you will tell this mountain, 'Move from here to there,' and it will move; and nothing will be impossible for you. 18.15. If your brother sins against you, go, show him his fault between you and him alone. If he listens to you, you have gained back your brother. 24.4. Jesus answered them, "Be careful that no one leads you astray. 24.14. This gospel of the kingdom will be preached in the whole world for a testimony to all the nations, and then the end will come. 24.35. Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will not pass away.
37. Plutarch, On Stoic Self-Contradictions, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

38. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 18.5-18.13, 59.16, 70.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

39. Clement of Alexandria, Christ The Educator, 2.1.16.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

40. Marcus Aurelius Emperor of Rome, Meditations, 2.5 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

41. Tertullian, On The Soul, 20 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

42. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

36b. (מלאכי ג, ט) במארה אתם נארים ואותי אתם קובעים הגוי כולו אי איכא גוי כולו אין אי לא לא,גופא אמר באלי אמר אבימי נותאה משמיה דרב פיתן ושמנן יינן ובנותיהן כולן משמונה עשר דבר הן בנותיהן מאי היא אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק גזרו על בנותיהן נידות מעריסותן,וגניבא משמיה דרב אמר כולן משום עבודת כוכבים גזרו בהן דכי אתא רב אחא בר אדא א"ר יצחק גזרו על פיתן משום שמנן מאי אולמיה דשמן מפת,אלא על פיתן ושמנן משום יינן ועל יינן משום בנותיהן ועל בנותיהן משום דבר אחר ועל דבר אחר משום ד"א,בנותיהן דאורייתא היא דכתיב (דברים ז, ג) לא תתחתן בם דאורייתא ז' אומות אבל שאר עובדי כוכבים לא ואתו אינהו וגזור אפילו דשאר עובדי כוכבים,ולר"ש בן יוחי דאמר (דברים ז, ד) כי יסיר את בנך מאחרי לרבות כל המסירות מאי איכא למימר אלא דאורייתא אישות דרך חתנות ואתו אינהו גזור אפילו דרך זנות,זנות נמי בבית דינו של שם גזרו דכתיב (בראשית לח, כד) ויאמר יהודה הוציאוה ותשרף,אלא דאורייתא עובד כוכבים הבא על בת ישראל דמשכה בתריה אבל ישראל הבא על העובדת כוכבים לא ואתו אינהו גזור אפי' ישראל הבא על העובדת כוכבים,ישראל הבא על העובדת כוכבים הלכה למשה מסיני היא דאמר מר הבועל ארמית קנאין פוגעין בו,א"ל דאורייתא בפרהסיא וכמעשה שהיה ואתו אינהו גזור אפילו בצינעא בצינעא נמי בית דינו של חשמונאי גזרו,[דכי אתא רב דימי אמר ב"ד של חשמונאי גזרו] ישראל הבא על העובדת כוכבים חייב משום נשג"א,כי אתא רבין אמר משום נשג"ז,כי גזרו בית דינו של חשמונאי ביאה אבל ייחוד לא ואתו אינהו גזור אפי' ייחוד ייחוד נמי בית דינו של דוד גזרו,דאמר רב יהודה באותה שעה גזרו על ייחוד אמרי התם ייחוד דבת ישראל אבל ייחוד דעובדת כוכבים לא ואתו אינהו גזרו אפי' אייחוד דעובדת כוכבים,ייחוד דבת ישראל דאורייתא היא דאמר ר' יוחנן משום ר"ש בן יהוצדק רמז לייחוד מן התורה מנין שנאמר (דברים יג, ז) כי יסיתך אחיך בן אמך וכי בן אם מסית בן אב אינו מסית,אלא בן מתייחד עם אמו ואין אחר מתייחד עם כל עריות שבתורה,ייחוד דאורייתא דאשת איש ואתא דוד וגזר אפי' אייחוד דפנויה ואתו תלמידי בית שמאי ובית הלל גזור אפי' אייחוד דעובדת כוכבים,מאי על ד"א משום ד"א אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק גזרו על תינוק עובד כוכבים שיטמא בזיבה שלא יהא תינוק ישראל רגיל אצלו במשכב זכור,דא"ר זירא צער גדול היה לי אצל ר' אסי ור' אסי אצל ר' יוחנן ור' יוחנן אצל ר' ינאי ור' ינאי אצל רבי נתן בן עמרם ור"נ בן עמרם אצל רבי תינוק עובד כוכבים מאימתי מטמא בזיבה ואמר לי בן יומו וכשבאתי אצל ר' חייא אמר לי בן ט' שנים ויום אחד,וכשבאתי והרציתי דברי לפני רבי אמר לי הנח דברי ואחוז דברי רבי חייא דאמר תינוק עובד כוכבים אימתי מטמא בזיבה בן תשע שנים ויום אחד 36b. It is the verse: b“You are cursed with the curse, yet you rob Me, even this whole nation”(Malachi 3:9). This teaches that bif there isthe acceptance of bthe whole nation, yes,an ordice may be instituted, but bif not, no,the ordice may not be instituted.,§ The Gemara discusses bthematter bitself: Balei saysthat bAvimi of Nota says in the name of Rav:The prohibitions with regard to gentiles’ bbread and their oil, their wine and their daughters, are all from the eighteen mattersissued in a single day in the time of the students of Shammai and Hillel. The Gemara asks: With regard to btheir daughters, what isthe decree? bRabbi Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: They decreed upon their daughtersthat they should be classified as bmenstruating women fromthe time they are in btheir cradle,i.e., they decreed that from when they are young, gentile women are always considered to be menstruating.,The Gemara presents another opinion. bAnd Geneiva says in the name of Rav:Gentiles’ bread, oil, wine, and daughters were ball decreed upon due tothe concern that Jews might participate in bidol worshipwith gentiles as a result of intermingling with them. bAs, when Rav Aḥa bar Adda camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said that bRabbi Yitzḥak says: They decreeda prohibition bupon their bread due to their oil.The Gemara asks: In bwhatway bis theprohibition with regard to boil stronger thanthe prohibition with regard to bbread?That is, why does the primary concern relate to the oil of gentiles rather than their bread?,The Gemara offers a different interpretation: bRather,they issued a decree prohibiting btheir bread and their oil due to their wine. Andthey issued the decree prohibiting btheir wine due tothe fact that this leads to familiarity, and Jews will come to marry btheir daughters. Andthey issued a decree prohibiting btheir daughters due to something else,idolatry. bAndthey further issued a decree bon something else due to something else,which will be explained by the Gemara.,It was stated that the prohibition against marrying the daughters of gentiles was decreed on account of idolatry. The Gemara raises an objection: But the prohibition against marrying btheir daughters isprescribed bby Torah law, as it is written: “Neither shall you make marriages with them”(Deuteronomy 7:3). The Gemara explains: bBy Torah lawintermarriage is prohibited only with the bsevenCanaanite bnations, butintermarriage with bthe other nationsof the world is bnotprohibited, bandthe students of Shammai and Hillel bcame and decreedthat intermarriage is prohibited bevenwith bthe other nations. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd according tothe opinion of bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai, who saysthat the subsequent verse: b“For he will turn away your son from following Me”(Deuteronomy 7:4) serves bto include all who turn awayone’s son from God, i.e., all gentiles, bwhat is there to say? Rather, by Torah lawonly bsexual relations by way of marriageare prohibited, band they cameand bdecreedthat sexual relations are prohibited beven by way of licentiousness. /b,The Gemara raises an objection: bLicentioussexual intercourse was balsoprohibited earlier, as bthey decreeda prohibition in this regard bin the court of Shem, as it is written:“It was told to Judah, saying: Tamar your daughter-in-law has played the harlot; and moreover, behold, she is with child by harlotry. bAnd Judah said: Bring her forth, and let her be burned”(Genesis 38:24). This proves that the prohibition against licentious intercourse with a gentile was in force long before the time of the students of Shammai and Hillel.,The Gemara explains: bRather,the prohibition prescribed bby Torah lawapplies to the case of ba gentile who engaged in intercourse with a Jewish woman, as she is drawn after himtoward idolatry, bbutthe case of ba Jew who engaged in intercourse with a gentile womanis bnotincluded in the prohibition by Torah law. bAndthe students of Shammai and Hillel bcameand bdecreedthat the prohibition applies bevento ba Jew who engaged in intercourse with a gentile woman. /b,The Gemara rejects this: The prohibition concerning ba Jew who engaged in intercourse with a gentile woman is a ihalakha /itransmitted bto Moses from Sinai,not a rabbinic ordice. bAs the Master said:With regard to bone who engages in intercourse with an Aramean woman, zealots may attack him,as Pinehas did to Zimri in the wilderness (see Numbers 25:6–8)., bHe said to him: By Torah lawintercourse with a gentile is prohibited bin public, andonly in situations blike the incident that occurred,as described in Numbers, chapter 25. bAndthe students of Shammai and Hillel bcameand bdecreedthat the prohibition applies beven in private.The Gemara raises another difficulty: This was balsoprohibited bin private,as bthe court of the Hasmoneans decreedthat it is prohibited., bAs when Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he bsaid: The court of the Hasmoneans decreedthat ba Jew who engaged in intercourse with a gentile woman bearsliability bfortransgressing four prohibitions, represented by the mnemonic: iNun /i, ishin /i, igimmel /i, ialef /i.These letters stands for: Menstruating woman [ inidda /i], maidservant [ ishifḥa /i], gentile [ igoya /i], and married woman [ ieshet ish /i]. By rabbinic law, a man who engages in intercourse with a gentile woman is considered to have violated the prohibitions involved in having intercourse with all four of these women.,And bwhen Ravin camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he bsaid:He bears liability bforfour prohibitions represented by the mnemonic: iNun /i, ishin /i, igimmel /i, izayin /i,which stands for: Menstruating woman [ inidda /i], maidservant [ ishifḥa /i], gentile [ igoya /i], and prostitute [ izona /i]. In any case, it is apparent that this decree was in force before the time of the students of Shammai and Hillel.,The Gemara answers: bWhen the court of the Hasmoneans decreed,they prohibited only bsexual intercourse, butwith regard to bseclusionwith a gentile woman, bno,they did not prohibit that. bAndthe students of Shammai and Hillel bcameand bdecreedthat beven seclusionwith a gentile woman is prohibited. The Gemara raises an objection: bSeclusionwas balsoprohibited earlier, as bthe court ofKing bDavid decreedthat with regard to this matter., bAs Rav Yehuda says: At that time,after the incident involving Amnon and Tamar (see II Samuel 13:1–19), bthey decreed with regard to seclusion.The Sages bsaidin response to the objection: bThere,in David’s court, bseclusion with a Jewish womanwas prohibited, bbut seclusion with a gentile womanwas bnotprohibited. bAndthe students of Shammai and Hillel bcameand bdecreeda prohibition beven with regard to seclusion with a gentile woman. /b,The Gemara raises yet another difficulty: bSeclusion with a Jewish woman isprohibited bby Torah law, as Rabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak: Where is there an allusion in the Torah tothe prohibition against bseclusion? As it is stated: “If your brother, the son of your mother, entices you”(Deuteronomy 13:7). bAnd does onlya half brother who is bthe son of a mother enticeone to sin, whereas bthe son of a father does not entice? /b, bRather,there is a greater concern that a maternal half brother might entice one to sin, as ba son secludes himself with his mother, and no other may seclude himself with anyof bthose with whom relations are forbidden by the Torah.Since an individual and his maternal half brother both seclude themselves with their shared mother, they are frequently together in private, and this facilitates enticement. In any case, it is clear that the prohibition against seclusion with a Jewish woman preceded King David.,The Gemara explains: The prohibition against bseclusionprescribed bby Torah lawapplies specifically to ba married woman, and David came and decreeda prohibition beven with regard to seclusion with an unmarried woman. Andlater bthe students of Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel cameand bdecreed even with regard to seclusion with a gentile woman. /b,§ It was stated above that they issued a decree prohibiting the daughters of gentiles due to something else, idolatry. And they further issued a decree on something else due to something else. The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of: And they further issued a decree bon something else due to something else? Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: They decreed upona male bgentile child that he imparts ritual impurity asthough he were a Jew who experienced a gonorrhea-like bdischarge [ iziva /i],so bthat a Jewish child will not become familiar with him,leading bto homosexual intercourse.The Sages employed a euphemism when referring to this decree., bAs Rabbi Zeira says: I had great trouble with Rabbi Asiwhen I asked him the following question, bandlikewise bRabbi Asiexperienced trouble bwith Rabbi Yoḥawhen he posed it to him. bAnd Rabbi Yoḥahad trouble bwith Rabbi Yannai, and Rabbi Yannaihad trouble bwith Rabbi Natan ben Amram, and Rabbi Natan ben Amramhad trouble bwith RabbiYehuda HaNasi. The inquiry was as follows: With regard to a male bgentile child, from when,i.e., from what age, does he bimpart ritual impurity asone who experiences iziva /i? AndRabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to me:From when he is bone day old. And when I came to Rabbi Ḥiyya, he said to me:From when he is bnine years and one day old. /b, bAnd when I cameback band relayedRabbi Ḥiyya’s bstatement before RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bhe said to me: Discard my statement, and grasp the statement of Rabbi Ḥiyya, who says:From bwhendoes ba gentile child impart ritual impurity asone who experiences iziva /i?From when he is bnine years and one day old. /b
43. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 4.40, 7.160-7.161 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.40. Once indeed, when at Athens, he stopped too long in the Piraeus, discussing themes, out of friendship for Hierocles, and for this he was censured by certain persons. He was very lavish, in short another Aristippus, and he was fond of dining well, but only with those who shared his tastes. He lived openly with Theodete and Phila, the Elean courtesans, and to those who censured him he quoted the maxims of Aristippus. He was also fond of boys and very susceptible. Hence he was accused by Ariston of Chios, the Stoic, and his followers, who called him a corrupter of youth and a shameless teacher of immorality. 7.160. 2. ARISTONAriston the Bald, of Chios, who was also called the Siren, declared the end of action to be a life of perfect indifference to everything which is neither virtue nor vice; recognizing no distinction whatever in things indifferent, but treating them all alike. The wise man he compared to a good actor, who, if called upon to take the part of a Thersites or of an Agamemnon, will impersonate them both becomingly. He wished to discard both Logic and Physics, saying that Physics was beyond our reach and Logic did not concern us: all that did concern us was Ethics. 7.161. Dialectical reasonings, he said, are like spiders' webs, which, though they seem to display some artistic workmanship, are yet of no use. He would not admit a plurality of virtues with Zeno, nor again with the Megarians one single virtue called by many names; but he treated virtue in accordance with the category of relative modes. Teaching this sort of philosophy, and lecturing in the Cynosarges, he acquired such influence as to be called the founder of a sect. At any rate Miltiades and Diphilus were denominated Aristoneans. He was a plausible speaker and suited the taste of the general public. Hence Timon's verse about him:One who from wily Ariston's line boasts his descent.
44. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 107

107. are bound by the rules of purity, lest they should touch anything which is unlawful. It was not without reason that the original founders of the city built it in due proportions, for they possessed clear insight with regard to what was required. For the country is extensive and beautiful. Some parts of it are level, especially the districts which belong to Samaria, as it is called, and which border on the land of the Idumeans, other parts are mountainous, especially (those which are contiguous to the land of Judea). The people therefore are bound to devote themselves to agriculture and the cultivation of the soil that by this means they may have a plentiful supply of crops. In this way


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 363
adiaphora/indistinguishable/neutral Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 160
advantage (sumpheron, utilitas) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 168, 182
alexandria Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 322
allegory/allegorization Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 145
anglicans Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 500
antisthenes Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 145
antithesis Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 296
anxiety, of christians Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 359
anxiety, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 359
apocalypse of peter Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 772
apocriticus (macarius) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 771, 772
apocryphal Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 197
apostle, paul as Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 391
apostles, jewish context of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 500
apostleship, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 200, 296
appropriation (oikeiōsis) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 160, 182
archons (of matter) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 51
aristotle Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 163
armament Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 145
athens Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 197
athletics/training Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 57, 167, 168
boundary Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 363, 379, 380
bravery Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 145
cato Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 391
chanting Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 500
child(ren) Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 145
christian Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 359
christianity, convert Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 359
christianity, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 200, 270, 299, 359
christianity, philosophy Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 359
christology, christological Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 322
cicero, exile Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 152
circumcision Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 363, 380
clement of alexandria, assimilation of heresy to paganism Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 323
commandment Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 379
concannon, cavan Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 152
consolation Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 270
conversion Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 200, 359
converts as pauls, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 380
corinth, ethnicity Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 152
corinth, freedpersons Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 152
cosmos Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 363
craft/craftsman (technē) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 57, 163, 164, 165, 166
creation Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 379, 380
cynics/cynicism, free will Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 306, 307
cynics/cynicism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 197, 306, 307
cynics Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 154
deeds Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 200
desires Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 110
diaspora Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 322
distress (thlipsis), christian Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 359
distress (thlipsis), conversion Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 359
distress (thlipsis), pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 359
distress (thlipsis), thessalonians Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 359
duplicity Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 145
early modern period Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 500
epictetus Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 57, 161
epistemology, pauls Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 150, 158, 160, 182
epistemology, suneidēsis Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 154
eschatology, pagan critiques of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 772
eschatology, perspective Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 270
euripides Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 145
example, philosopher as Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 391
exousia Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 150, 154
faith Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 363
father, paul as Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 392
foreknowledge (prògnvsiw), anticipate Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 51
free/freedom (ἐλεύθερος/ἐλευθερία, liber/libertas), paul on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 105
free will, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 306, 307
free will, stoicism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 306
free will Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 296, 299
freedom, of speech Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 200
freedom, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 296, 306, 307, 391
freedom, stoicism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 299
freedom (eleutheria) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 150, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 166, 167, 168, 182
freedpersons, in corinth Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 152
friendship, divine-human Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 137
gentiles, judaism, interest in Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 152
gentleness Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 391, 392
glory, of god Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 380
gnosticism, orthodox criticism of morality of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 323
god (pauline), involvement in human affairs Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 137
golden age Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 500
good, appropriate actions (kathēkonta) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 154, 158, 161
good, right actions (kathorthōmata) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 158
good (agathos) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 158
gospels Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 203
graeco-roman (law/custom) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 322
graeco-roman piety Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 128, 172, 182
greco-roman Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 190
greek, language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 322
grief, exile, migration Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 152
grief Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 270
hardships, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 359
hardships Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 200, 270
hebrew, poetry Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 500
hellenism, hellenistic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 322
heracles/hercules Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 197
heresy, heretics, heretical Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 51
holiness Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 380
holy spirit Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 380; Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 51
hortatory Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 398
house, of israel Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 500
household, divine Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 306
identity, jewish Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 189
idol food Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 161, 166
idols Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 307
incarnation Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 51
inclusio Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 299
interdependence, morally formative Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 137
intermediates Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 154, 161, 167
israel, israelites Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 500; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 110
jerusalem Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 197
jerusalem church Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 322
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 322
jesus christ Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 51
jesus in manichaeism Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 51
jew Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 363, 379
jewish practices/torah observance Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 108, 128, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 172
jews, jewish, judaism Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 51
judaism, gentile interest in Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 152
judaizing Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 108, 182
julius caesar Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 152
knowledge, pauline Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 131, 137
laelius Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 391
law, mosaic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 500
law of christ Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166
law of nature/natural law, stoic politics Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 57, 163, 164
law of nature/natural law Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 163, 164, 165
letter, paraenetic Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 398
letter, pastoral care Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 398
letter, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 197
libertinism/license Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 323
liturgical, reform Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 500
macarius, apocriticus Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 771, 772
macedonia Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 322
manual labor, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 307
manual labor Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 200, 391, 392
marriage Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 323
matter (ïlh) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 203
maturity Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 137
midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 322
mills, benjamin Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 152
missionary, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 380
mix, mixture, composed, composition, compound, (un-)compounded, fusion, merger, mingle, (inter)mingling Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 51, 203
monica (mother of augustine), monotheism, pagan critiques of judaeo-christian concept of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 772
moral formation, adaptation in Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 131, 137
moral formation, frank criticism in Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 131
moral formation, involvement of god/gods within Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 137
moral formation, love in Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 137
moral formation, protocol of Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 131, 137
moral formation, via meals Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 131, 137
moses (mosaic) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 105
moses and mosaic law Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 190
moxnes, h., necessity, pauls Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 190
music, ancient Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 500
nanos, mark Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 152
necessity/require (anagkē, anagkazō) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 155, 158, 165
neither/nothing (oudeteros/ouden) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 172
nero Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 197
new testament, unknown opponent in macarius apocriticus on Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 771, 772
non-jew Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 363, 379
norden, eduard Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 145
nurse Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 391, 392, 398
odysseus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 145
pagan/classical world, monotheism, critiques of judaeo-christian concept of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 772
pagan/classical world, unknown opponent in macarius apocriticus Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 771, 772
paganism, heresy assimilated to Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 323
paraclete, intercessor Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 51
paradigm Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 200
passions (pathē) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 57, 168, 172
pastoral, method Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 200
paul, apostle, travels Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 86
paul, as pastor Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 197, 200, 380, 391, 392, 398
paul, attitude of to the law Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 152
paul, determinism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 296, 299, 306, 307
paul, free will Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 296, 299, 306, 307
paul, gospel of Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 359
paul, missionary activity Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 189
paul, on freedom (ἐλευθερία) from the mosaic law Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 105
paul, on singing Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 500
paul, on slavery Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 105
paul Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 105; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 110
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 322
paul pharisee Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 322
pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 380, 391, 392, 398
pauline epistles, pagan critiques of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 771, 772
persuasion, means of Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 270
persuasion Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 197
philippi (macedonia) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 322
philosophy, positive invocation and use of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 323
plainchant Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 500
platonism Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 164
pleasure Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 145, 197, 200, 270, 296, 299, 306, 307, 359, 380, 391, 392, 398
poetry, hebrew Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 500
poetry Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 500
polyphony Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 500
posidonius generally Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 163
practice, and body Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 190
preaching, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 299, 306, 307, 359, 380, 392
preaching Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 391
preferreds (proēgmena) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 167, 168, 182
priests, anglican Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 500
psalms Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 500
purity Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 500
pythagoras Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 145
pythagoreanism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 145
reformation Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 500
regulations, ceremonial Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 379
resurrection, hope in Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 380
revolt/war, under trajan Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 322
rhetoric, questions Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 296
roads Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 86
roll, israel Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 86
roman, empire Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 322
salvation Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 137; Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 154, 158, 159, 160, 167, 168
sanctification Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 380
scriptures, bible Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 51
self-sufficiency Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 137
self-support Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 200
self-understanding, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 296, 391
seneca Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 197, 270
servant, of solomon Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 500
shepherd Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 306
singing, monophonic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 500
singing, of psalms Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 500
slave/slavery, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 307
slave Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 379, 380
slavery Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 158, 159, 160, 161, 167, 168, 182
slavery (δουλεία), paul on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 105
socrates Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 57, 159, 164, 165
solomon Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 500
sophocles Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 145
space v Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 380
spawforth, antony Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 152
stoicism, and paul Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 197, 299
stoicism, determinism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 299, 306, 307
stoicism, exousia Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 299
stoicism, freedom Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 296, 306
stoicism, oikonomia Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 306
stoicism, on freedom Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 296, 299
stoicism, orthodox borrowing from Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 323
stoicism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 197, 296
stowers, stanley' Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 152
supersessionism Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 500
synagogue (συναγωγή) Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 500
tarsus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 197
telos Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 154, 157, 158, 159, 168
temple Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 306
tertullian Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 197
thessalonika Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 322
timothy Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 270, 359, 398
torah Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 379
traditions, musical Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 500
trajan Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 322
ulysses Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 197
unnik, willem c. van Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 197
value (axia) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 155, 157, 159, 160, 168, 182
versatility Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 145
virtue Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 270; Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 57, 158, 164
virtues Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 51
virtues and vices Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 51
war Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 145
weakness, of corinthian believers Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 131, 137
weakness, of epicurean students Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 131
weapon Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 145, 197, 200, 270, 296, 299, 306, 307
wilderness passim, place Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 110
women Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 145
word/the word, divine vs. human Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 200
word/the word, of the lord Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 299
words and deeds Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 200, 391
zeal (for the law) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 322
zealot, zealots Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 322
zeus Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 158, 164
πορνεία Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 323
ἀδιαφορία Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 323
ἀδιαφόρως Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 323