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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8234
New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 8.8


βρῶμα δὲ ἡμᾶς οὐ παραστήσει τῷ θεῷ· οὔτε ἐὰν μὴ φάγωμεν, ὑστερούμεθα, οὔτε ἐὰν φάγωμεν, περισσεύομεν.But food will not commend us to God. Forneither, if we don't eat, are we the worse; nor, if we eat, are we thebetter.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

44 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 12.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.8. לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר אֲנַחְנוּ עֹשִׂים פֹּה הַיּוֹם אִישׁ כָּל־הַיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינָיו׃ 12.8. Ye shall not do after all that we do here this day, every man whatsoever is right in his own eyes;"
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 32, 15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 6.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.6. כִּי חֶסֶד חָפַצְתִּי וְלֹא־זָבַח וְדַעַת אֱלֹהִים מֵעֹלוֹת׃ 6.6. For I desire mercy, and not sacrifice, And the knowledge of God rather than burnt-offerings."
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.14. לֹא־תְקַלֵּל חֵרֵשׁ וְלִפְנֵי עִוֵּר לֹא תִתֵּן מִכְשֹׁל וְיָרֵאתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.14. Thou shalt not curse the deaf, nor put a stumbling-block before the blind, but thou shalt fear thy God: I am the LORD."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 24.1, 50.10-50.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.1. לְדָוִד מִזְמוֹר לַיהוָה הָאָרֶץ וּמְלוֹאָהּ תֵּבֵל וְיֹשְׁבֵי בָהּ׃ 24.1. מִי הוּא זֶה מֶלֶךְ הַכָּבוֹד יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת הוּא מֶלֶךְ הַכָּבוֹד סֶלָה׃ 50.11. יָדַעְתִּי כָּל־עוֹף הָרִים וְזִיז שָׂדַי עִמָּדִי׃ 50.12. אִם־אֶרְעַב לֹא־אֹמַר לָךְ כִּי־לִי תֵבֵל וּמְלֹאָהּ׃ 50.13. הַאוֹכַל בְּשַׂר אַבִּירִים וְדַם עַתּוּדִים אֶשְׁתֶּה׃ 50.14. זְבַח לֵאלֹהִים תּוֹדָה וְשַׁלֵּם לְעֶלְיוֹן נְדָרֶיךָ׃ 24.1. A Psalm of David. The earth is the LORD’S, and the fulness thereof; the world, and they that dwell therein." 50.10. For every beast of the forest is Mine, and the cattle upon a thousand hills." 50.11. I know all the fowls of the mountains; and the wild beasts of the field are Mine." 50.12. If I were hungry, I would not tell thee; for the world is Mine, and the fulness thereof." 50.13. Do I eat the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of goats?" 50.14. offer unto God the sacrifice of thanksgiving; and pay thy vows unto the Most High;"
7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 15.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

15.22. וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל הַחֵפֶץ לַיהוָה בְּעֹלוֹת וּזְבָחִים כִּשְׁמֹעַ בְּקוֹל יְהוָה הִנֵּה שְׁמֹעַ מִזֶּבַח טוֹב לְהַקְשִׁיב מֵחֵלֶב אֵילִים׃ 15.22. And Shemu᾽el said, Has the Lord as great delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of the Lord? Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, and to hearken than the fat of rams."
8. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.10-1.17 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.11. לָמָּה־לִּי רֹב־זִבְחֵיכֶם יֹאמַר יְהוָה שָׂבַעְתִּי עֹלוֹת אֵילִים וְחֵלֶב מְרִיאִים וְדַם פָּרִים וּכְבָשִׂים וְעַתּוּדִים לֹא חָפָצְתִּי׃ 1.12. כִּי תָבֹאוּ לֵרָאוֹת פָּנָי מִי־בִקֵּשׁ זֹאת מִיֶּדְכֶם רְמֹס חֲצֵרָי׃ 1.13. לֹא תוֹסִיפוּ הָבִיא מִנְחַת־שָׁוְא קְטֹרֶת תּוֹעֵבָה הִיא לִי חֹדֶשׁ וְשַׁבָּת קְרֹא מִקְרָא לֹא־אוּכַל אָוֶן וַעֲצָרָה׃ 1.14. חָדְשֵׁיכֶם וּמוֹעֲדֵיכֶם שָׂנְאָה נַפְשִׁי הָיוּ עָלַי לָטֹרַח נִלְאֵיתִי נְשֹׂא׃ 1.15. וּבְפָרִשְׂכֶם כַּפֵּיכֶם אַעְלִים עֵינַי מִכֶּם גַּם כִּי־תַרְבּוּ תְפִלָּה אֵינֶנִּי שֹׁמֵעַ יְדֵיכֶם דָּמִים מָלֵאוּ׃ 1.16. רַחֲצוּ הִזַּכּוּ הָסִירוּ רֹעַ מַעַלְלֵיכֶם מִנֶּגֶד עֵינָי חִדְלוּ הָרֵעַ׃ 1.17. לִמְדוּ הֵיטֵב דִּרְשׁוּ מִשְׁפָּט אַשְּׁרוּ חָמוֹץ שִׁפְטוּ יָתוֹם רִיבוּ אַלְמָנָה׃ 1.10. Hear the word of the LORD, Ye rulers of Sodom; Give ear unto the law of our God, Ye people of Gomorrah." 1.11. To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices unto Me? Saith the LORD; I am full of the burnt-offerings of rams, And the fat of fed beasts; And I delight not in the blood of bullocks, or of lambs, or of he-goats." 1.12. When ye come to appear before Me, Who hath required this at your hand, To trample My courts?" 1.13. Bring no more vain oblations; It is an offering of abomination unto Me; New moon and sabbath, the holding of convocations— I cannot endure iniquity along with the solemn assembly." 1.14. Your new moons and your appointed seasons My soul hateth; They are a burden unto Me; I am weary to bear them." 1.15. And when ye spread forth your hands, I will hide Mine eyes from you; Yea, when ye make many prayers, I will not hear; Your hands are full of blood." 1.16. Wash you, make you clean, Put away the evil of your doings From before Mine eyes, Cease to do evil;" 1.17. Learn to do well; Seek justice, relieve the oppressed, Judge the fatherless, plead for the widow."
9. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 7.21-7.26 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.21. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עֹלוֹתֵיכֶם סְפוּ עַל־זִבְחֵיכֶם וְאִכְלוּ בָשָׂר׃ 7.22. כִּי לֹא־דִבַּרְתִּי אֶת־אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם וְלֹא צִוִּיתִים בְּיוֹם הוציא [הוֹצִיאִי] אוֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם עַל־דִּבְרֵי עוֹלָה וָזָבַח׃ 7.23. כִּי אִם־אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה צִוִּיתִי אוֹתָם לֵאמֹר שִׁמְעוּ בְקוֹלִי וְהָיִיתִי לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ־לִי לְעָם וַהֲלַכְתֶּם בְּכָל־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר אֲצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם לְמַעַן יִיטַב לָכֶם׃ 7.24. וְלֹא שָׁמְעוּ וְלֹא־הִטּוּ אֶת־אָזְנָם וַיֵּלְכוּ בְּמֹעֵצוֹת בִּשְׁרִרוּת לִבָּם הָרָע וַיִּהְיוּ לְאָחוֹר וְלֹא לְפָנִים׃ 7.25. לְמִן־הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר יָצְאוּ אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה וָאֶשְׁלַח אֲלֵיכֶם אֶת־כָּל־עֲבָדַי הַנְּבִיאִים יוֹם הַשְׁכֵּם וְשָׁלֹחַ׃ 7.26. וְלוֹא שָׁמְעוּ אֵלַי וְלֹא הִטּוּ אֶת־אָזְנָם וַיַּקְשׁוּ אֶת־עָרְפָּם הֵרֵעוּ מֵאֲבוֹתָם׃ 7.21. Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: Add your burnt-offerings unto your sacrifices, and eat ye flesh." 7.22. For I spoke not unto your fathers, nor commanded them in the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt, concerning burnt-offerings or sacrifices;" 7.23. but this thing I commanded them, saying: ‘Hearken unto My voice, and I will be your God, and ye shall be My people; and walk ye in all the way that I command you, that it may be well with you.’" 7.24. But they hearkened not, nor inclined their ear, but walked in their own counsels, even in the stubbornness of their evil heart, and went backward and not forward," 7.25. even since the day that your fathers came forth out of the land of Egypt unto this day; and though I have sent unto you all My servants the prophets, sending them daily betimes and often," 7.26. yet they hearkened not unto Me, nor inclined their ear, but made their neck stiff; they did worse than their fathers."
10. Anon., Jubilees, 15.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

15.26. This law is for all the generations for ever
11. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 4.14, 4.24 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4.14. praesentis autem mali sapientis adfectio nulla est, stultorum stultorum Dav. stulta autem aegritudo est, eaque eaque Ba. ea qua X (ea qu e M 1 ) adficiuntur in malis opinatis animosque demittunt et contrahunt rationi non obtemperantes. itaque haec prima definitio difin. V est, ut aegritudo sit animi adversante ratione contractio. itaque ... 6 contractio Non. 93, 1 sic quattuor perturbationes sunt, tres constantiae, quoniam cf. Aug. civ. 14, 8 aegritudini nulla constantia opponitur. Sed omnes perturbationes iudicio censent fieri et St. fr. 3, 380 et 393 opinione. itaque eas definiunt pressius, ut intellegatur, non modo quam vitiosae, vitiose GKR sed etiam quam in nostra sint potestate. est ergo ergo igitur H s aegritudo aegritudo om. G 1 add. 1 et 2 opinio recens mali praesentis, in quo demitti contrahique animo rectum esse videatur, laetitia opinio recens boni praesentis, in quo ecferri ecferri haec ferri VK c (eff. K 2 ) rectum esse videatur, laetitia...15 videatur om. G 1, add. G 2 in mg. inf. ( lemmata laetitia metus adscr. 1 cf. praef. ) metus opinio impendentis mali, quod intolerabile intollerabile V esse videatur, libido lubido K, in lib. corr. G 1 (libido etiam in mg. ) R 1 opinio venturi boni, quod sit ex usu iam praesens esse atque adesse. 4.24. intellegatur igitur perturbationem iactantibus se opinionibus inconstanter et turbide in motu in motu immotus GRV (s del. rec ) H immot os K ( ss. c ) esse semper; cum autem hic fervor concitatioque animi inveteraverit et tamquam in venis medullisque insederit, tum existet existit X (exs. G) existet Küh. ( de fut. cf. p. 378, 14 comm. ad 1, 29 Sen. epist. 85, 9 al. ) inveteravit ... insedit ... existit Sey. et morbus et aegrotatio et offensiones eae, quae sunt eis morbis aegrotationibusque contrariae. Haec, quae dico, cogitatione inter se differunt, re quidem copulata sunt, eaque eaque GRV (eaq K 1 sed; add. 2 ) oriuntur ex libidine et ex laetitia. nam cum est concupita pecunia nec adhibita continuo ratio quasi quaedam Socratica medicina, quae sanaret sanet Bentl. permanet K 1 eam cupiditatem, permanat in venas et inhaeret in visceribus illud malum, existitque existit (exs. KR) qui m. X (que V rec s ) morbus et aegrotatio, quae evelli evelli Wopkens avelli inveterata non possunt, eique morbo nomen est avaritia;
12. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 5.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.2. ordered the guards to seize each and every Hebrew and to compel them to eat pork and food sacrificed to idols.
13. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 154-157, 151 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

151. for this is that disposition which attaches itself to the soul in such a manner as to be difficult to shake off, hindering it from proceeding swiftly on its progress towards virtue. This, too, when we leave Egypt, that is to say, the whole of the district connected with the body, being anxious to unlearn our subjection to the passions, in accordance with the language and precepts of the prophet Moses, follows us close, checking and impeding our zeal in the departure, and out of envy causing delay to the rapidity of setting forth;
14. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 4.126-4.131 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4.126. The lawgiver blames some persons of his time as gluttons, and as believing that the mere indulgence of luxury is the happiest of all possible conditions, not being content to live in this manner only in cities in which there were abundant supplies and stores of all kinds of necessary things, but carrying their effeminacy even into pathless and untrodden deserts, and choosing in them also to have markets for fish and meat, and all things which can contribute to an easy life: 4.127. then, when a scarcity arose, they assembled together and raised an outcry, and looked miserable, and with shameless audacity impeached their ruler, and did not desist from creating disturbances till they obtained what they desired; and they obtained it to their destruction, for two reasons: first of all, that it might be shown that all things are possible to God, who can find a way in the most difficult and apparently hopeless circumstances; and secondly, that punishment might fall on those who were intemperate in their gluttonous appetites, and obstinate resisters of holiness. 4.128. For a vast cloud being Raised{28}{#ex 16:13.} out of the sea showered down quails about the time of sunrise, and the camp and all the district around it for a day's journey for a well-girt active man was overshadowed all about with the Birds.{29}{#nu 11:31.} And the height of the flight of the birds was distant from the ground a height of about two cubits, in order that they might be easily caught. 4.129. It would have been natural therefore for them, being amazed at the marvellous nature of the prodigy which they beheld, to be satisfied with the sight, and being filled with piety to nourish their souls on that, and to abstain from eating flesh; but these men, on the contrary, stirred up their desires even more than before, and pursued these birds as the greatest good imaginable, and catching hold of them with both their hands filled their bosoms; then, having stored them up in their tents, they sallied forth to catch others, for immoderate covetousness has no limit. And when they had collected every description of food they devoured it insatiably, being about, vain-minded generation that they were, to perish by their own fulness; 4.130. and indeed at no distant time they did perish by the purging of their bile, {30}{#nu 11:20.} so that the place itself derived its name from the calamity which fell upon them, for it was called the graves of their lust, {31}{see #Nu 11:34: "And he called the name of that place Kibroth-hattaavah, because there they buried the people that lusted."} than which there is not in the soul, as the scripture teaches, us, any greater evil. 4.131. For which reason Moses says with great beauty in his recommendations, "Let not every man do that which seemeth good to his own Eyes,"{32}{#de 11:8.} which is equivalent to saying, let not any one gratify his own desire, but let each person seek to please God, and the world, and nature, and wise men, repudiating self-love, if he would become a good and virtuous man.XXV.
15. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 7, 10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16. Anon., Didache, 6.3, 13.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. Epictetus, Discourses, 1.18.1-1.18.2, 2.2.26, 3.22.39, 3.22.43, 3.22.48 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. For the word of the cross isfoolishness to those who are dying, but to us who are saved it is thepower of God.
19. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 4.4-4.5, 5.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.4. For every creature of God is good, and nothing is to be rejected, if it is received with thanksgiving. 4.5. For it is sanctified through the word of God and prayer. 5.18. For the Scripture says, "You shall not muzzle the ox when it treads out the grain." And, "The laborer is worthy of his wages.
20. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.12, 2.15, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

21. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.5. Also, if anyone competes in athletics, he isn't crowned unless he has competed by the rules.
22. New Testament, Acts, 10.9-10.16, 10.28, 15.20, 15.29, 21.25 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10.9. Now on the next day as they were on their journey, and got close to the city, Peter went up on the housetop to pray at about noon. 10.10. He became hungry and desired to eat, but while they were preparing, he fell into a trance. 10.11. He saw heaven opened and a certain container descending to him, like a great sheet let down by four corners on the earth 10.12. in which were all kinds of four-footed animals of the earth, wild animals, reptiles, and birds of the sky. 10.13. A voice came to him, "Rise, Peter, kill and eat! 10.14. But Peter said, "Not so, Lord; for I have never eaten anything that is common or unclean. 10.15. A voice came to him again the second time, "What God has cleansed, you must not make unholy. 10.16. This was done three times, and immediately the vessel was received up into heaven. 10.28. He said to them, "You yourselves know how it is an unlawful thing for a man who is a Jew to join himself or come to one of another nation, but God has shown me that I shouldn't call any man unholy or unclean. 15.20. but that we write to them that they abstain from the pollution of idols, from sexual immorality, from what is strangled, and from blood. 15.29. that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality, from which if you keep yourselves, it will be well with you. Farewell. 21.25. But concerning the Gentiles who believe, we have written our decision that they should observe no such thing, except that they should keep themselves from food offered to idols, from blood, from strangled things, and from sexual immorality.
23. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.2, 2.10, 2.14, 2.20, 2.24, 16.1-16.17, 19.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.2. I know your works, and your toil and perseverance, and that you can't tolerate evil men, and have tested those who call themselves apostles, and they are not, and found them false. 2.10. Don't be afraid of the things which you are about to suffer. Behold, the devil is about to throw some of you into prison, that you may be tested; and you will have oppression for ten days. Be faithful to death, and I will give you the crown of life. 2.14. But I have a few things against you, because you have there some who hold the teaching of Balaam, who taught Balak to throw a stumbling block before the children of Israel , to eat things sacrificed to idols, and to commit sexual immorality. 2.20. But I have this against you, that you tolerate your woman, Jezebel, who calls herself a prophetess. She teaches and seduces my servants to commit sexual immorality, and to eat things sacrificed to idols. 2.24. But to you I say, to the rest who are in Thyatira, as many as don't have this teaching, who don't know what some call 'the deep things of Satan,' to you I say, I am not putting any other burden on you. 16.1. I heard a loud voice out of the temple, saying to the seven angels, "Go and pour out the seven bowls of the wrath of God on the earth! 16.2. The first went, and poured out his bowl into the earth, and it became a harmful and evil sore on the men who had the mark of the beast, and who worshiped his image. 16.3. The second angel poured out his bowl into the sea, and it became blood as of a dead man. Every living thing in the sea died. 16.4. The third poured out his bowl into the rivers and springs of water, and it became blood. 16.5. I heard the angel of the waters saying, "You are righteous, who are and who were, you Holy One, because you judged this way. 16.6. For they poured out the blood of the saints and the prophets, and you have given them blood to drink. They deserve this. 16.7. I heard the altar saying, "Yes, Lord God, the Almighty, true and righteous are your judgments. 16.8. The fourth poured out his bowl on the sun, and it was given to him to scorch men with fire. 16.9. People were scorched with great heat, and people blasphemed the name of God who has the power over these plagues. They didn't repent and give him glory. 16.10. The fifth poured out his bowl on the throne of the beast, and his kingdom was darkened. They gnawed their tongues because of the pain 16.11. and they blasphemed the God of heaven because of their pains and their sores. They didn't repent of their works. 16.12. The sixth poured out his bowl on the great river, the Euphrates. Its water was dried up, that the way might be made ready for the kings that come from the sunrise. 16.13. I saw coming out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet, three unclean spirits, something like frogs; 16.14. for they are spirits of demons, performing signs; which go forth to the kings of the whole inhabited earth, to gather them together for the war of that great day of God, the Almighty. 16.15. Behold, I come like a thief. Blessed is he who watches, and keeps his clothes, so that he doesn't walk naked, and they see his shame. 16.16. He gathered them together into the place which is called in Hebrew, Megiddo. 16.17. The seventh poured out his bowl into the air. A loud voice came forth out of the temple of heaven, from the throne, saying, "It is done! 19.2. for true and righteous are his judgments. For he has judged the great prostitute, her who corrupted the earth with her sexual immorality, and he has avenged the blood of his servants at her hand.
24. New Testament, Galatians, 6.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.6. But let him who is taught in the word share all goodthings with him who teaches.
25. New Testament, Hebrews, 10.5-10.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.5. Therefore when he comes into the world, he says, "Sacrifice and offering you didn't desire, But a body did you prepare for me; 10.6. In whole burnt offerings and sacrifices for sin you had no pleasure. 10.7. Then I said, 'Behold, I have come (In the scroll of the book it is written of me) To do your will, God.' 10.8. Previously saying, "Sacrifices and offerings and whole burnt offerings and sacrifices for sin you didn't desire, neither had pleasure in them" (those which are offered according to the law) 10.9. then he has said, "Behold, I have come to do your will." He takes away the first, that he may establish the second 10.10. by which will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all.
26. New Testament, Romans, 2.12, 2.15, 9.1, 14.3, 14.14, 14.17, 14.20, 14.23, 15.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.12. For as many as have sinned without law will also perish without the law. As many as have sinned under the law will be judged by the law. 2.15. in that they show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience testifying with them, and their thoughts among themselves accusing or else excusing them) 9.1. I tell the truth in Christ. I am not lying, my conscience testifying with me in the Holy Spirit 14.3. Don't let him who eats despise him who doesn't eat. Don't let him who doesn't eat judge him who eats, for God has received him. 14.14. I know, and am persuaded in the Lord Jesus, that nothing is unclean of itself; except that to him who considers anything to be unclean, to him it is unclean. 14.17. for the Kingdom of God is not eating and drinking, but righteousness, peace, and joy in the Holy Spirit. 14.20. Don't overthrow God's work for food's sake. All things indeed are clean, however it is evil for that man who creates a stumbling block by eating. 14.23. But he who doubts is condemned if he eats, because it isn't of faith; and whatever is not of faith is sin. 15.27. Yes, it has been their good pleasure, and they are their debtors. For if the Gentiles have been made partakers of their spiritual things, they owe it to them also to serve them in fleshly things.
27. New Testament, Luke, 10.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.7. Remain in that same house, eating and drinking the things they give, for the laborer is worthy of his wages. Don't go from house to house.
28. New Testament, Matthew, 9.13, 10.10, 12.7, 15.11, 15.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.13. But you go and learn what this means: 'I desire mercy, and not sacrifice,' for I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance. 10.10. Take no bag for your journey, neither two coats, nor shoes, nor staff: for the laborer is worthy of his food. 12.7. But if you had known what this means, 'I desire mercy, and not sacrifice,' you would not have condemned the guiltless. 15.11. That which enters into the mouth doesn't defile the man; but that which proceeds out of the mouth, this defiles the man. 15.17. Don't you understand that whatever goes into the mouth passes into the belly, and then out of the body?
29. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 4.5.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

30. Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, 4.5.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

31. Alcinous, Handbook of Platonism, 1.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

32. Anon., Acts of Thomas, 51, 50 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

50. And he began to say: Come, O perfect compassion, Come O communion of the male, Come, she that knoweth the mysteries of him that is chosen, Come, she that hath part in all the combats of the noble champion (athlete), Come, the silence that revealeth the great things of the whole greatness, Come, she that manifesteth the hidden things and maketh the unspeakable things plain, the holy dove that beareth the twin young, Come, the hidden mother, Come, she that is manifest in her deeds and giveth joy and rest unto them that are joined unto her: Come and communicate with us in this eucharist which we celebrate in thy name and in the love-feast wherein we are gathered together at thy calling. (Syr. has other clauses and not few variants.) And having so said he marked out the cross upon the bread, and brake it, and began to distribute it. And first he gave unto the woman, saying: This shall be unto thee for remission of sins and eternal transgressions (Syr. and for the everlasting resurrection). And after her he gave unto all the others also which had received the seal (Syr. and said to them: Let this eucharist be unto you for life and rest, and not for judgement and vengeance. And they said, Amen. Cf. 29 fin.). The Sixth Act: of the youth that murdered the Woman.
33. Hippolytus, Apostolic Tradition, 35 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

34. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 40-41, 20 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Justin: Moreover, you were commanded to abstain from certain kinds of food, in order that you might keep God before your eyes while you ate and drank, seeing that you were prone and very ready to depart from His knowledge, as Moses also affirms: 'The people ate and drank, and rose up to play.' Exodus 32:6 And again: 'Jacob ate, and was satisfied, and grew fat; and he who was beloved kicked: he grew fat, he grew thick, he was enlarged, and he forsook God who had made him.' Deuteronomy 32:15 For it was told you by Moses in the book of Genesis, that God granted to Noah, being a just man, to eat of every animal, but not of flesh with the blood, which is dead. And as he was ready to say, as the green herbs, I anticipated him: Why do you not receive this statement, 'as the green herbs,' in the sense in which it was given by God, to wit, that just as God has granted the herbs for sustece to man, even so has He given the animals for the diet of flesh? But, you say, a distinction was laid down thereafter to Noah, because we do not eat certain herbs. As you interpret it, the thing is incredible. And first I shall not occupy myself with this, though able to say and to hold that every vegetable is food, and fit to be eaten. But although we discriminate between green herbs, not eating all, we refrain from eating some, not because they are common or unclean, but because they are bitter, or deadly, or thorny. But we lay hands on and take of all herbs which are sweet, very nourishing and good, whether they are marine or land plants. Thus also God by the mouth of Moses commanded you to abstain from unclean and improper and violent animals: when, moreover, though you were eating manna in the desert, and were seeing all those wondrous acts wrought for you by God, you made and worshipped the golden calf. Hence he cries continually, and justly, 'They are foolish children, in whom is no faith.' Deuteronomy 32:6, 20
35. Marcus Aurelius Emperor of Rome, Meditations, 4.23 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

36. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 2.20.9, 10.96 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

37. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 2.20.9, 10.96 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

38. Cyprian, The Lapsed, 16-17, 2, 25, 15 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

39. Cyprian, On The Lord'S Prayer, 18 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

40. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.110-7.114, 7.122, 7.147 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.110. And in things intermediate also there are duties; as that boys should obey the attendants who have charge of them.According to the Stoics there is an eight-fold division of the soul: the five senses, the faculty of speech, the intellectual faculty, which is the mind itself, and the generative faculty, being all parts of the soul. Now from falsehood there results perversion, which extends to the mind; and from this perversion arise many passions or emotions, which are causes of instability. Passion, or emotion, is defined by Zeno as an irrational and unnatural movement in the soul, or again as impulse in excess.The main, or most universal, emotions, according to Hecato in his treatise On the Passions, book ii., and Zeno in his treatise with the same title, constitute four great classes, grief, fear, desire or craving, pleasure. 7.111. They hold the emotions to be judgements, as is stated by Chrysippus in his treatise On the Passions: avarice being a supposition that money is a good, while the case is similar with drunkenness and profligacy and all the other emotions.And grief or pain they hold to be an irrational mental contraction. Its species are pity, envy, jealousy, rivalry, heaviness, annoyance, distress, anguish, distraction. Pity is grief felt at undeserved suffering; envy, grief at others' prosperity; jealousy, grief at the possession by another of that which one desires for oneself; rivalry, pain at the possession by another of what one has oneself. 7.112. Heaviness or vexation is grief which weighs us down, annoyance that which coops us up and straitens us for want of room, distress a pain brought on by anxious thought that lasts and increases, anguish painful grief, distraction irrational grief, rasping and hindering us from viewing the situation as a whole.Fear is an expectation of evil. Under fear are ranged the following emotions: terror, nervous shrinking, shame, consternation, panic, mental agony. Terror is a fear which produces fright; shame is fear of disgrace; nervous shrinking is a fear that one will have to act; consternation is fear due to a presentation of some unusual occurrence; 7.113. panic is fear with pressure exercised by sound; mental agony is fear felt when some issue is still in suspense.Desire or craving is irrational appetency, and under it are ranged the following states: want, hatred, contentiousness, anger, love, wrath, resentment. Want, then, is a craving when it is baulked and, as it were, cut off from its object, but kept at full stretch and attracted towards it in vain. Hatred is a growing and lasting desire or craving that it should go ill with somebody. Contentiousness is a craving or desire connected with partisanship; anger a craving or desire to punish one who is thought to have done you an undeserved injury. The passion of love is a craving from which good men are free; for it is an effort to win affection due to the visible presence of beauty. 7.114. Wrath is anger which has long rankled and has become malicious, waiting for its opportunity, as is illustrated by the lines:Even though for the one day he swallow his anger, yet doth he still keep his displeasure thereafter in his heart, till he accomplish it.Resentment is anger in an early stage.Pleasure is an irrational elation at the accruing of what seems to be choiceworthy; and under it are ranged ravishment, malevolent joy, delight, transport. Ravishment is pleasure which charms the ear. Malevolent joy is pleasure at another's ills. Delight is the mind's propulsion to weakness, its name in Greek (τέρψις) being akin to τρέψις or turning. To be in transports of delight is the melting away of virtue. 7.122. though indeed there is also a second form of slavery consisting in subordination, and a third which implies possession of the slave as well as his subordination; the correlative of such servitude being lordship; and this too is evil. Moreover, according to them not only are the wise free, they are also kings; kingship being irresponsible rule, which none but the wise can maintain: so Chrysippus in his treatise vindicating Zeno's use of terminology. For he holds that knowledge of good and evil is a necessary attribute of the ruler, and that no bad man is acquainted with this science. Similarly the wise and good alone are fit to be magistrates, judges, or orators, whereas among the bad there is not one so qualified. 7.147. The deity, say they, is a living being, immortal, rational, perfect or intelligent in happiness, admitting nothing evil, taking providential care of the world and all that therein is, but he is not of human shape. He is, however, the artificer of the universe and, as it were, the father of all, both in general and in that particular part of him which is all-pervading, and which is called many names according to its various powers. They give the name Dia (Δία) because all things are due to (διά) him; Zeus (Ζῆνα) in so far as he is the cause of life (ζῆν) or pervades all life; the name Athena is given, because the ruling part of the divinity extends to the aether; the name Hera marks its extension to the air; he is called Hephaestus since it spreads to the creative fire; Poseidon, since it stretches to the sea; Demeter, since it reaches to the earth. Similarly men have given the deity his other titles, fastening, as best they can, on some one or other of his peculiar attributes.
41. Origen, Commentary On Matthew, 10.25 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.25. After this the word says, And when even had come, His disciples came to Him, saying, The place is desert and the time is already past; send, therefore, the multitudes away, that they may go into the villages and buy themselves food. Matthew 14:15 And first observe that when about to give to the disciples the loaves of blessing, that they might set them before the multitudes, He healed the sick, in order that, having been restored to health, they might participate in the loaves of blessing; for while they are yet sickly, they are not able to receive the loaves of the blessing of Jesus. But if any one, when he ought to listen to the precept, But let each prove himself, and so let him eat of the bread, etc., 1 Corinthians 11:28 does not obey these words, but in haphazard fashion participates in the bread of the Lord and His cup, he becomes weak or sickly, or even - if I may use the expression - on account of being stupefied by the power of the bread, asleep.
42. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 151-152, 170, 172, 234, 130

130. matters as these) he began his reply as follows: 'You observe,' he said, 'what an effect our modes of life and our associations produce upon us; by associating with the bad, men catch their depravities and become miserable throughout their life; but if they live with the wise and prudent, they find
43. Pseudo-Tertullian, Martyrdom of Perpetua And Felicitas, 6

44. Stobaeus, Eclogues, 2.7.10



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
4 maccabees, on the rationality and truth of torah Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 286
adam Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 221
admirers, double loyalties of Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146
adultery Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 143
advantage (sumpheron, utilitas) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 169, 183
agency, all things McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 155
alcinous Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 90
allegory, allegorical interpretation, letter of aristeas Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 47
allegory, allegorical interpretation Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 47
altar Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 143
apocalyptic literature and thought Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 65
apostle Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 404, 593
apostolic council Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146
apostolic decree Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146
appropriation (oikeiōsis) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 152, 153, 183
archytas, on the rationality and truth of torah Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 286
arena Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 65
argumentum ad hominem Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 295
aristeas, letter of, allegorical interpretation Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 47
aristeas, letter of, cult maintained Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 47
aristeas, letter of, ethical allegory Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 47
aristeas, letter of, food laws Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 47
aristeas, letter of, mediating position Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 47
aristeas, letter of, universal outlook Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 47
aristeas, letter of Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 47
benefactors Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146
birth Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 221
body inherent defilement of Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 221
celsus Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 51
christianity, early, feasting practices König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 127
christianity, early, relationship between early christian and jewish feasting and feasting literature König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 127
christianity, food Penniman, Raised on Christian Milk: Food and the Formation of the Soul in Early Christianity (2017) 4
churches/tradition of paul pauline Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 593
coercion Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 65
community, borders of Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 143
conscience Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 295
corinth Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 109
corinthian assembly, correspondence Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 51, 52
creation and ownership, through christ McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 155
creation and ownership McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 155
cynics Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 154
deity, deities Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 51, 52
demons McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 155
desires Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 109
didaskalikos (alcinous) Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 90
dining Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 51, 52
discernment Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 143
disputes, schools (of shammai and hillel) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 593
divinizing, human nature Penniman, Raised on Christian Milk: Food and the Formation of the Soul in Early Christianity (2017) 4
divinizing, material Penniman, Raised on Christian Milk: Food and the Formation of the Soul in Early Christianity (2017) 4
divinizing, symbolic Penniman, Raised on Christian Milk: Food and the Formation of the Soul in Early Christianity (2017) 4
eleazar, jewish high priest Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 47
encratism Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 221
epicureans, epicureanism Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 52
epistemology, pauls Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 137, 183
epistemology, suneidēsis Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 152, 153, 154
eschatology, as colonial mimicry Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 65
eucharist, of bread and water McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 221
eucharist Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 143, 221
example, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 298
exousia Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 137, 151, 152, 153, 154
family Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 51
feuerbach, ludwig Penniman, Raised on Christian Milk: Food and the Formation of the Soul in Early Christianity (2017) 4
food, impurity of offered to idols Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 221
food (dietary) laws, kashrut Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 593
formation, intellectual Penniman, Raised on Christian Milk: Food and the Formation of the Soul in Early Christianity (2017) 4
free will Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 295, 298
freedom, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 295
freedom (eleutheria) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 153, 154, 183
friendship, of god Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 295
galen., on intellectual independence Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 90
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 593
gluttons, gluttony Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 109
god of Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 51, 52
good, appropriate actions (kathēkonta) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 137, 151, 154
good (agathos) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 169, 183
graeco-roman piety Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 125, 151, 152, 153, 183
hillel, school of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 593
historical tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 404
identity, formation of Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 65
identity construction Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 51, 52
idol food Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 126
idolatry Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 51, 52; Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146
idols, food offered to Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 404, 593
idols, food sacrificed to' McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 155
imperialism roman, x Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 65
inclusio Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 295, 298
intellectual independence, galen and medical discourse on Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 90
intellectual independence, in christianity Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 90
intellectual independence, paul versus valentinians on Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 90
intellectual independence Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 90
intention Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 221
intermediates Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 151, 154, 169
irenaeus, on heresy and paganism Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 130
israel, israelites Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 109
jerusalem, agreement at Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146
jesus McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 221
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 404
jesus on the irrationality of the law Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 286
jewish practices/torah observance Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 125, 151, 183
judaism in egypt, jewish responses to hellenistic culture Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 47
judaism in egypt Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 47
judaizing Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 151, 183
judgment (divine) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 52
knowledge, pauline Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 126, 129, 132
lords prayer Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 593
lucretius Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 52
market Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 593
marriage Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 221
marriage (see also divorce) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 593
meals, communal, purity requirements for Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 143
meat McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 221
medicine and medical discourse, intellectual independence and Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 90
mimicry Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 65
model, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 298
moral formation, adaptation in Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 129, 132
moral formation, frank criticism in Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 132
moral formation, protocol of Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 129, 132
moral formation, via meals Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 126, 129
moses Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 109
murder Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 143
noahide commandments Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146
offerings Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 51, 52
original sin Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 221
paganism, heresy assimilated to Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 130
passions (pathē) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 169
paul, 1 corinthians McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 221
paul, apostle, milk Penniman, Raised on Christian Milk: Food and the Formation of the Soul in Early Christianity (2017) 4
paul, apostle Penniman, Raised on Christian Milk: Food and the Formation of the Soul in Early Christianity (2017) 4
paul, determinism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 295, 298
paul, free will Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 295, 298
paul, on idolatry Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 51, 52
paul, on intellectual independence Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 90
paul Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 51, 52; König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 127; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 109
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 404, 593
paul of tarsus Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 65
peter (cephas, simon –) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 404
philo, on the torah as rational Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 286
platonism Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 137
pleasure Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 295, 298
porneia (zenut, unchastity) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 593
prayer Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 143
preferreds (proēgmena) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 151, 183
proverb Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 298
purity requirement for Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 221
revelation, book of Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 65
rhetoric, examples Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 298
rhetoric, questions Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 298
ritual Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 51, 52
roman emperor, x Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 65
roman empire culture of spectacle of Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 65
sacred and profane Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 143
sacrifice and sacrificial feasting, christian attitudes to sacrificial meat König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 127
salvation Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 153, 154, 169
satan Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 143
sectarianism Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 65
septuagint Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 109
sexual relations proper place, time, and frequency Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 221
shammai, school Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 593
shepherd, as rhetorical trope Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 298
shepherd Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 298
slavery Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 153, 183
specific christian intellectuals, intellectual independence in Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 90
stoicism, adiaphora Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 295
stoicism, exousia Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 295
stoicism, on freedom Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 295
stoicism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 295
stoics, and divine law theory Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 286
strong McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 221
synagogue, gentile participation in Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146
synoptic, tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 404
telos Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 153, 154
theissen, gerd McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 221
thought, imitative model Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 296
valentinus and valentinians Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 90
value (axia) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 152, 183
vengeance Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 65
vice Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 169
virtue Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 109; Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 169
weak McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 221
weakness, of corinthian believers Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 126, 129, 132
weakness, of epicurean students Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 132
weapon Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 295, 298
wilderness passim, place Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 109
wisdom (concept) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 51, 52
εἰδωλόθυτον Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 130
πορνεία Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 130