Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8234
New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 8.5


καὶ γὰρ εἴπερ εἰσὶν λεγόμενοι θεοὶ εἴτε ἐν οὐρανῷ εἴτε ἐπὶ γῆς, ὥσπερ εἰσὶν θεοὶ πολλοὶ καὶ κύριοι πολλοίFor though there are things that are called "gods,"whether in the heavens or on earth; as there are many "gods" and many"lords;


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

59 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.4, 6.16, 12.8, 32.8, 32.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.4. שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד׃ 6.16. לֹא תְנַסּוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר נִסִּיתֶם בַּמַּסָּה׃ 12.8. לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר אֲנַחְנוּ עֹשִׂים פֹּה הַיּוֹם אִישׁ כָּל־הַיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינָיו׃ 32.8. בְּהַנְחֵל עֶלְיוֹן גּוֹיִם בְּהַפְרִידוֹ בְּנֵי אָדָם יַצֵּב גְּבֻלֹת עַמִּים לְמִסְפַּר בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 32.17. יִזְבְּחוּ לַשֵּׁדִים לֹא אֱלֹהַ אֱלֹהִים לֹא יְדָעוּם חֲדָשִׁים מִקָּרֹב בָּאוּ לֹא שְׂעָרוּם אֲבֹתֵיכֶם׃ 6.4. HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE." 6.16. Ye shall not try the LORD your God, as ye tried Him in Massah." 12.8. Ye shall not do after all that we do here this day, every man whatsoever is right in his own eyes;" 32.8. When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the children of men, He set the borders of the peoples according to the number of the children of Israel." 32.17. They sacrificed unto demons, no-gods, Gods that they knew not, New gods that came up of late, Which your fathers dreaded not."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 22.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

22.27. אֱלֹהִים לֹא תְקַלֵּל וְנָשִׂיא בְעַמְּךָ לֹא תָאֹר׃ 22.27. Thou shalt not revile God, nor curse a ruler of thy people."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.1, 6.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.1. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃ 6.2. וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃ 6.2. מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃ 1.1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." 6.2. that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose."
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.14. לֹא־תְקַלֵּל חֵרֵשׁ וְלִפְנֵי עִוֵּר לֹא תִתֵּן מִכְשֹׁל וְיָרֵאתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.14. Thou shalt not curse the deaf, nor put a stumbling-block before the blind, but thou shalt fear thy God: I am the LORD."
5. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 1.2, 2.6-2.11, 3.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. לָדַעַת חָכְמָה וּמוּסָר לְהָבִין אִמְרֵי בִינָה׃ 1.2. חָכְמוֹת בַּחוּץ תָּרֹנָּה בָּרְחֹבוֹת תִּתֵּן קוֹלָהּ׃ 2.6. כִּי־יְהוָה יִתֵּן חָכְמָה מִפִּיו דַּעַת וּתְבוּנָה׃ 2.7. וצפן [יִצְפֹּן] לַיְשָׁרִים תּוּשִׁיָּה מָגֵן לְהֹלְכֵי תֹם׃ 2.8. לִנְצֹר אָרְחוֹת מִשְׁפָּט וְדֶרֶךְ חסידו [חֲסִידָיו] יִשְׁמֹר׃ 2.9. אָז תָּבִין צֶדֶק וּמִשְׁפָּט וּמֵישָׁרִים כָּל־מַעְגַּל־טוֹב׃ 2.11. מְזִמָּה תִּשְׁמֹר עָלֶיךָ תְּבוּנָה תִנְצְרֶכָּה׃ 3.18. עֵץ־חַיִּים הִיא לַמַּחֲזִיקִים בָּהּ וְתֹמְכֶיהָ מְאֻשָּׁר׃ 1.2. To know wisdom and instruction; To comprehend the words of understanding;" 2.6. For the LORD giveth wisdom, Out of His mouth cometh knowledge and discernment;" 2.7. He layeth up sound wisdom for the upright, He is a shield to them that walk in integrity;" 2.8. That He may guard the paths of justice, And preserve the way of His godly ones. ." 2.9. Then shalt thou understand righteousness and justice, And equity, yea, every good path." 2.10. For wisdom shall enter into thy heart, And knowledge shall be pleasant unto thy soul;" 2.11. Discretion shall watch over thee, Discernment shall guard thee;" 3.18. She is a tree of life to them that lay hold upon her, And happy is every one that holdest her fast."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 2.7-2.8, 89.26-89.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.7. אֲסַפְּרָה אֶל חֹק יְהוָה אָמַר אֵלַי בְּנִי אַתָּה אֲנִי הַיּוֹם יְלִדְתִּיךָ׃ 2.8. שְׁאַל מִמֶּנִּי וְאֶתְּנָה גוֹיִם נַחֲלָתֶךָ וַאֲחֻזָּתְךָ אַפְסֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 89.26. וְשַׂמְתִּי בַיָּם יָדוֹ וּבַנְּהָרוֹת יְמִינוֹ׃ 89.27. הוּא יִקְרָאֵנִי אָבִי אָתָּה אֵלִי וְצוּר יְשׁוּעָתִי׃ 2.7. I will tell of the decree: The LORD said unto me: 'Thou art My son, this day have I begotten thee." 2.8. Ask of Me, and I will give the nations for thine inheritance, and the ends of the earth for thy possession." 89.26. I will set his hand also on the sea, And his right hand on the rivers." 89.27. He shall call unto Me: Thou art my Father, My God, and the rock of my salvation. ."
7. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 19.18 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

19.18. וְנָתְנוּ אֶת־אֱלֹהֵיהֶם בָּאֵשׁ כִּי לֹא אֱלֹהִים הֵמָּה כִּי אִם־מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי־אָדָם עֵץ וָאֶבֶן וַיְאַבְּדוּם׃ 19.18. and have cast their gods into the fire; for they were no gods, but the work of men’s hands, wood and stone; therefore they have destroyed them."
8. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 41-48, 40 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 5.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.7. אֵי לָזֹאת אסלוח־[אֶסְלַח־] לָךְ בָּנַיִךְ עֲזָבוּנִי וַיִּשָּׁבְעוּ בְּלֹא אֱלֹהִים וָאַשְׂבִּעַ אוֹתָם וַיִּנְאָפוּ וּבֵית זוֹנָה יִתְגֹּדָדוּ׃ 5.7. Wherefore should I pardon thee? The children have forsaken Me, And sworn by no-gods; And when I had fed them to the full, they committed adultery, And assembled themselves in troops at the harlots’houses."
10. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 34.23 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

34.23. וַהֲקִמֹתִי עֲלֵיהֶם רֹעֶה אֶחָד וְרָעָה אֶתְהֶן אֵת עַבְדִּי דָוִיד הוּא יִרְעֶה אֹתָם וְהוּא־יִהְיֶה לָהֶן לְרֹעֶה׃ 34.23. And I will set up one shepherd over them, and he shall feed them, even My servant David; he shall feed them, and he shall be their shepherd."
11. Anon., 1 Enoch, 19.2, 48.2-48.3, 62.7 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

19.2. which they shall be judged till they are made an end of. And the women also of the angels who 48.2. And at that hour that Son of Man was named In the presence of the Lord of Spirits, And his name before the Head of Days. 48.3. Yea, before the sun and the signs were created, Before the stars of the heaven were made, His name was named before the Lord of Spirits. 62.7. For from the beginning the Son of Man was hidden, And the Most High preserved him in the presence of His might, And revealed him to the elect.
12. Anon., Jubilees, 1.11, 15.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.11. and this witness shall be heard for a witness against them. brFor they will forget all My commandments, (even) all that I command them, and they will walk after the Gentiles 15.26. This law is for all the generations for ever
13. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 2.18, 5.5, 7.17, 13.1, 14.12, 15.2-15.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.18. for if the righteous man is Gods son, he will help him,and will deliver him from the hand of his adversaries. 5.5. Why has he been numbered among the sons of God?And why is his lot among the saints? 7.17. For it is he who gave me unerring knowledge of what exists,to know the structure of the world and the activity of the elements; 13.1. For all men who were ignorant of God were foolish by nature;and they were unable from the good things that are seen to know him who exists,nor did they recognize the craftsman while paying heed to his works; 14.12. For the idea of making idols was the beginning of fornication,and the invention of them was the corruption of life 15.2. For even if we sin we are thine, knowing thy power;but we will not sin, because we know that we are accounted thine. 15.3. For to know thee is complete righteousness,and to know thy power is the root of immortality.
14. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 9, 8 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

8. First of all, therefore, the husbandman is not anxious to plant or to sow anything that is unproductive, but only all such things as are worth cultivation, and as bear fruit, which will bring a yearly produce to their master man. For nature has pointed him out as the master of all trees and animals, and all other things whatever which are perishable;
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 127, 125 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

125. Because God was the cause, not the instrument; and what was born was created indeed through the agency of some instrument, but was by all means called into existence by the great first cause; for many things must co-operate in the origination of anything; by whom, from what, by means of what, and why? Now he by whom a thing originates is the cause; that from which a thing is made is the material; that by means of which it was made is the instrument; and why, is the object. 125. And it would be a less grievous evil if this hatred were displayed without disguise; for it is easiest to guard against what is plainly seen. But at present it is with difficulty suspected, and difficult of detection, being concealed by cunning and wicked arts, and at times it assumes the contrary appearance of love and affection, by means of its trickery and deceit.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 98, 97 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

97. Therefore he exhorts him who is able to run swiftly to strain onwards, without stopping to take breath, to the highest word of God, which is the fountain of wisdom, in order that by drinking of that stream he may find everlasting life instead of death. But he urges him who is not so swift of foot to flee for refuge to the creative power which Moses calls God, since it is by that power that all things were made and arranged; for to him who comprehends that everything has been created, that comprehension alone, and the knowledge of the Creator, is a great acquisition of good, which immediately persuades the creature to love him who created it.
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 154-157, 151 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

151. for this is that disposition which attaches itself to the soul in such a manner as to be difficult to shake off, hindering it from proceeding swiftly on its progress towards virtue. This, too, when we leave Egypt, that is to say, the whole of the district connected with the body, being anxious to unlearn our subjection to the passions, in accordance with the language and precepts of the prophet Moses, follows us close, checking and impeding our zeal in the departure, and out of envy causing delay to the rapidity of setting forth;
18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 9-10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. In reference to which it is said of Moses, "That no one is said to know of his Tomb;" for who could be competent to perceive the migration of a perfect soul to the living God? Nor do I even believe that the soul itself while awaiting this event was conscious of its own improvement, inasmuch as it was at that time becoming gradually divine; for God, in the case of those persons whom he is about to benefit, does not take him who is to receive the advantage into his counsels, but is accustomed rather to pour his benefits ungrudgingly upon him without his having any previous anticipation of them. This is something like the meaning of God's adding the creation of what is good to the perfect mind. But the good is holiness, the name of which is Abel. IV.
19. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 2.189 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.189. for when," the scripture say, "the high priest goes into the Holy of Holies he will not be a Man." What then will he be if he is not a man? Will he be a God? I would not venture to say that (for the chief prophet, Moses, did receive the inheritance of this name while he was still in Egypt, being called "the god of Pharaoh;") nor again is he man, but he touches both these extremities as if he touched both the feet and the head. XXIX.
20. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.53, 4.126-4.131 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.53. Moreover, he also enjoins his people that, after they have given the proselytes an equal share in all their laws, and privileges, and immunities, on their forsaking the pride of their fathers and forefathers, they must not give a license to their jealous language and unbridled tongues, blaspheming those beings whom the other body looks upon as gods, lest the proselytes should be exasperated at such treatment, and in return utter impious language against the true and holy God; for from ignorance of the difference between them, and by reason of their having from their infancy learnt to look upon what was false as if it had been true, and having been bred up with it, they would be likely to err. 4.126. The lawgiver blames some persons of his time as gluttons, and as believing that the mere indulgence of luxury is the happiest of all possible conditions, not being content to live in this manner only in cities in which there were abundant supplies and stores of all kinds of necessary things, but carrying their effeminacy even into pathless and untrodden deserts, and choosing in them also to have markets for fish and meat, and all things which can contribute to an easy life: 4.127. then, when a scarcity arose, they assembled together and raised an outcry, and looked miserable, and with shameless audacity impeached their ruler, and did not desist from creating disturbances till they obtained what they desired; and they obtained it to their destruction, for two reasons: first of all, that it might be shown that all things are possible to God, who can find a way in the most difficult and apparently hopeless circumstances; and secondly, that punishment might fall on those who were intemperate in their gluttonous appetites, and obstinate resisters of holiness. 4.128. For a vast cloud being Raised{28}{#ex 16:13.} out of the sea showered down quails about the time of sunrise, and the camp and all the district around it for a day's journey for a well-girt active man was overshadowed all about with the Birds.{29}{#nu 11:31.} And the height of the flight of the birds was distant from the ground a height of about two cubits, in order that they might be easily caught. 4.129. It would have been natural therefore for them, being amazed at the marvellous nature of the prodigy which they beheld, to be satisfied with the sight, and being filled with piety to nourish their souls on that, and to abstain from eating flesh; but these men, on the contrary, stirred up their desires even more than before, and pursued these birds as the greatest good imaginable, and catching hold of them with both their hands filled their bosoms; then, having stored them up in their tents, they sallied forth to catch others, for immoderate covetousness has no limit. And when they had collected every description of food they devoured it insatiably, being about, vain-minded generation that they were, to perish by their own fulness; 4.130. and indeed at no distant time they did perish by the purging of their bile, {30}{#nu 11:20.} so that the place itself derived its name from the calamity which fell upon them, for it was called the graves of their lust, {31}{see #Nu 11:34: "And he called the name of that place Kibroth-hattaavah, because there they buried the people that lusted."} than which there is not in the soul, as the scripture teaches, us, any greater evil. 4.131. For which reason Moses says with great beauty in his recommendations, "Let not every man do that which seemeth good to his own Eyes,"{32}{#de 11:8.} which is equivalent to saying, let not any one gratify his own desire, but let each person seek to please God, and the world, and nature, and wise men, repudiating self-love, if he would become a good and virtuous man.XXV.
21. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.158 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.158. What more shall I say? Has he not also enjoyed an even greater communion with the Father and Creator of the universe, being thought unworthy of being called by the same appellation? For he also was called the god and king of the whole nation, and he is said to have entered into the darkness where God was; that is to say, into the invisible, and shapeless, and incorporeal world, the essence, which is the model of all existing things, where he beheld things invisible to mortal nature; for, having brought himself and his own life into the middle, as an excellently wrought picture, he established himself as a most beautiful and Godlike work, to be a model for all those who were inclined to imitate him.
22. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 3.159 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 1.6, 4.8 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

24. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 7, 10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Anon., Didache, 13.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. Epictetus, Discourses, 3.22.39, 3.22.43, 3.22.48, 3.24.67-3.24.70, 4.1.81-4.1.82 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.3, 2.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who according to his great mercy became our father again to a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead 2.19. For it is commendable if someone endures pain, suffering unjustly, because of conscience toward God.
28. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.3, 1.11, 1.18, 1.19, 1.21, 1.23, 1.24, 2.1, 2.4, 2.6, 2.6-3.4, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 3.2, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.22, 4.4, 4.10, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 6.5, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 6.19, 6.20, 8, 8.1, 8.1-11.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 9, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24, 9.25, 9.26, 9.27, 10, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9, 10.10, 10.11, 10.12, 10.13, 10.14, 10.15, 10.16, 10.17, 10.18, 10.19, 10.20, 10.21, 10.22, 10.23, 10.23-11.1, 10.24, 10.25, 10.26, 10.27, 10.28, 10.29, 10.30, 10.31, 10.31-11.1, 10.32, 10.33, 11.11, 11.12, 11.17, 11.18, 11.19, 11.20, 11.21, 11.22, 11.23, 11.24, 11.25, 11.26, 11.27, 11.28, 11.29, 11.30, 11.31, 11.32, 11.33, 11.34, 12, 12.1, 12.2, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8, 12.9, 12.10, 12.11, 12.12, 12.13, 12.14, 12.15, 12.16, 12.17, 12.18, 12.19, 12.20, 12.21, 12.22, 12.23, 12.24, 12.25, 12.26, 12.27, 12.28, 12.29, 12.30, 12.31, 13, 13.2, 14, 14.2, 14.6, 14.13, 14.14, 14.15, 14.16, 14.17, 15.1, 15.2, 15.9, 15.20, 15.21, 15.22, 15.23, 15.24, 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.28, 15.45, 15.46, 15.47 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.11. For it has been reported to me concerning you, mybrothers, by those who are from Chloe's household, that there arecontentions among you.
29. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.1, 1.3, 1.9-1.10, 3.11, 3.13, 4.3-4.8, 4.13-4.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, Silvanus, and Timothy, to the assembly of the Thessalonians in God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 1.3. remembering without ceasing your work of faith and labor of love and patience of hope in our Lord Jesus Christ, before our God and Father. 1.9. For they themselves report concerning us what kind of a reception we had from you; and how you turned to God from idols, to serve a living and true God 1.10. and to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead -- Jesus, who delivers us from the wrath to come. 3.11. Now may our God and Father himself, and our Lord Jesus Christ, direct our way to you; 3.13. to the end he may establish your hearts blameless in holiness before our God and Father, at the coming of our Lord Jesus with all his saints. 4.3. For this is the will of God: your sanctification, that you abstain from sexual immorality 4.4. that each one of you know how to possess himself of his own vessel in sanctification and honor 4.5. not in the passion of lust, even as the Gentiles who don't know God; 4.6. that no one should take advantage of and wrong a brother or sister in this matter; because the Lord is an avenger in all these things, as also we forewarned you and testified. 4.7. For God called us not for uncleanness, but in sanctification. 4.8. Therefore he who rejects doesn't reject man, but God, who has also given his Holy Spirit to you. 4.13. But we don't want you to be ignorant, brothers, concerning those who have fallen asleep, so that you don't grieve like the rest, who have no hope. 4.14. For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so those who have fallen asleep in Jesus will God bring with him. 4.15. For this we tell you by the word of the Lord, that we who are alive, who are left to the coming of the Lord, will in no way precede those who have fallen asleep. 4.16. For the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with God's trumpet. The dead in Christ will rise first 4.17. then we who are alive, who are left, will be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air. So we will be with the Lord forever. 4.18. Therefore comfort one another with these words.
30. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 1.17, 2.5, 5.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.17. Now to the King eternal, immortal, invisible, to God who alone is wise, be honor and glory forever and ever. Amen. 2.5. For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus 5.18. For the Scripture says, "You shall not muzzle the ox when it treads out the grain." And, "The laborer is worthy of his wages.
31. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.2-1.3, 1.12, 2.15, 3.3, 4.3-4.4, 5.9-5.10, 6.16, 11.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

32. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 1.1-1.2, 2.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, Silvanus, and Timothy, to the assembly of the Thessalonians in God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ: 2.16. Now our Lord Jesus Christ himself, and God our Father, who loved us and gave us eternal comfort and good hope through grace
33. New Testament, Acts, 7.54-7.60, 10.9-10.16, 10.28, 15.20, 15.29, 17.23-17.31, 18.24-18.28 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.54. Now when they heard these things, they were cut to the heart, and they gnashed at him with their teeth. 7.55. But he, being full of the Holy Spirit, looked up steadfastly into heaven, and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right hand of God 7.56. and said, "Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of Man standing on the right hand of God! 7.57. But they cried out with a loud voice, and stopped their ears, and rushed at him with one accord. 7.58. They threw him out of the city, and stoned him. The witnesses placed their garments at the feet of a young man named Saul. 7.59. They stoned Stephen as he called out, saying, "Lord Jesus, receive my Spirit! 7.60. He kneeled down, and cried with a loud voice, "Lord, don't hold this sin against them!" When he had said this, he fell asleep. 10.9. Now on the next day as they were on their journey, and got close to the city, Peter went up on the housetop to pray at about noon. 10.10. He became hungry and desired to eat, but while they were preparing, he fell into a trance. 10.11. He saw heaven opened and a certain container descending to him, like a great sheet let down by four corners on the earth 10.12. in which were all kinds of four-footed animals of the earth, wild animals, reptiles, and birds of the sky. 10.13. A voice came to him, "Rise, Peter, kill and eat! 10.14. But Peter said, "Not so, Lord; for I have never eaten anything that is common or unclean. 10.15. A voice came to him again the second time, "What God has cleansed, you must not make unholy. 10.16. This was done three times, and immediately the vessel was received up into heaven. 10.28. He said to them, "You yourselves know how it is an unlawful thing for a man who is a Jew to join himself or come to one of another nation, but God has shown me that I shouldn't call any man unholy or unclean. 15.20. but that we write to them that they abstain from the pollution of idols, from sexual immorality, from what is strangled, and from blood. 15.29. that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality, from which if you keep yourselves, it will be well with you. Farewell. 17.23. For as I passed along, and observed the objects of your worship, I found also an altar with this inscription: 'TO AN UNKNOWN GOD.' What therefore you worship in ignorance, this I announce to you. 17.24. The God who made the world and all things in it, he, being Lord of heaven and earth, dwells not in temples made with hands 17.25. neither is he served by men's hands, as though he needed anything, seeing he himself gives to all life and breath, and all things. 17.26. He made from one blood every nation of men to dwell on all the surface of the earth, having determined appointed seasons, and the bounds of their habitation 17.27. that they should seek the Lord, if perhaps they might reach out for him and find him, though he is not far from each one of us. 17.28. 'For in him we live, and move, and have our being.' As some of your own poets have said, 'For we are also his offspring.' 17.29. Being then the offspring of God, we ought not to think that the Divine Nature is like gold, or silver, or stone, engraved by art and device of man. 17.30. The times of ignorance therefore God overlooked. But now he commands that all men everywhere should repent 17.31. because he has appointed a day in which he will judge the world in righteousness by the man whom he has ordained; whereof he has given assurance to all men, in that he has raised him from the dead. 18.24. Now a certain Jew named Apollos, an Alexandrian by race, an eloquent man, came to Ephesus. He was mighty in the Scriptures. 18.25. This man had been instructed in the way of the Lord; and being fervent in spirit, he spoke and taught accurately the things concerning Jesus, although he knew only the baptism of John. 18.26. He began to speak boldly in the synagogue. But when Priscilla and Aquila heard him, they took him aside, and explained to him the way of God more accurately. 18.27. When he had determined to pass over into Achaia, the brothers encouraged him, and wrote to the disciples to receive him. When he had come, he helped them much, who had believed through grace; 18.28. for he powerfully refuted the Jews, publicly showing by the Scriptures that Jesus was the Christ.
34. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.2, 2.14-2.16, 2.20-2.25, 16.1-16.17, 19.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.2. I know your works, and your toil and perseverance, and that you can't tolerate evil men, and have tested those who call themselves apostles, and they are not, and found them false. 2.14. But I have a few things against you, because you have there some who hold the teaching of Balaam, who taught Balak to throw a stumbling block before the children of Israel , to eat things sacrificed to idols, and to commit sexual immorality. 2.15. So you also have some who hold to the teaching of the Nicolaitans in the same way. 2.16. Repent therefore, or else I am coming to you quickly, and I will make war against them with the sword of my mouth. 2.20. But I have this against you, that you tolerate your woman, Jezebel, who calls herself a prophetess. She teaches and seduces my servants to commit sexual immorality, and to eat things sacrificed to idols. 2.21. I gave her time to repent, but she refuses to repent of her sexual immorality. 2.22. Behold, I will throw her into a bed, and those who commit adultery with her into great oppression, unless they repent of her works. 2.23. I will kill her children with Death, and all the assemblies will know that I am he who searches the minds and hearts. I will give to each one of you according to your deeds. 2.24. But to you I say, to the rest who are in Thyatira, as many as don't have this teaching, who don't know what some call 'the deep things of Satan,' to you I say, I am not putting any other burden on you. 2.25. Nevertheless that which you have, hold firmly until I come. 16.1. I heard a loud voice out of the temple, saying to the seven angels, "Go and pour out the seven bowls of the wrath of God on the earth! 16.2. The first went, and poured out his bowl into the earth, and it became a harmful and evil sore on the men who had the mark of the beast, and who worshiped his image. 16.3. The second angel poured out his bowl into the sea, and it became blood as of a dead man. Every living thing in the sea died. 16.4. The third poured out his bowl into the rivers and springs of water, and it became blood. 16.5. I heard the angel of the waters saying, "You are righteous, who are and who were, you Holy One, because you judged this way. 16.6. For they poured out the blood of the saints and the prophets, and you have given them blood to drink. They deserve this. 16.7. I heard the altar saying, "Yes, Lord God, the Almighty, true and righteous are your judgments. 16.8. The fourth poured out his bowl on the sun, and it was given to him to scorch men with fire. 16.9. People were scorched with great heat, and people blasphemed the name of God who has the power over these plagues. They didn't repent and give him glory. 16.10. The fifth poured out his bowl on the throne of the beast, and his kingdom was darkened. They gnawed their tongues because of the pain 16.11. and they blasphemed the God of heaven because of their pains and their sores. They didn't repent of their works. 16.12. The sixth poured out his bowl on the great river, the Euphrates. Its water was dried up, that the way might be made ready for the kings that come from the sunrise. 16.13. I saw coming out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet, three unclean spirits, something like frogs; 16.14. for they are spirits of demons, performing signs; which go forth to the kings of the whole inhabited earth, to gather them together for the war of that great day of God, the Almighty. 16.15. Behold, I come like a thief. Blessed is he who watches, and keeps his clothes, so that he doesn't walk naked, and they see his shame. 16.16. He gathered them together into the place which is called in Hebrew, Megiddo. 16.17. The seventh poured out his bowl into the air. A loud voice came forth out of the temple of heaven, from the throne, saying, "It is done! 19.2. for true and righteous are his judgments. For he has judged the great prostitute, her who corrupted the earth with her sexual immorality, and he has avenged the blood of his servants at her hand.
35. New Testament, James, 1.14-1.15, 2.19-2.20, 4.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.14. But each one is tempted, when he is drawn away by his own lust, and enticed. 1.15. Then the lust, when it has conceived, bears sin; and the sin, when it is full grown, brings forth death. 2.19. You believe that God is one. You do well. The demons also believe, and shudder. 2.20. But do you want to know, vain man, that faith apart from works is dead? 4.12. Only one is the lawgiver, who is able to save and to destroy. But who are you to judge another?
36. New Testament, Jude, 3, 25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

37. New Testament, Philemon, 3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

38. New Testament, Colossians, 1.3, 1.15-1.20, 3.16-3.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. We give thanks to God the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, praying always for you 1.15. who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. 1.16. For by him were all things created, in the heavens and on the earth, things visible and things invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers; all things have been created through him, and for him. 1.17. He is before all things, and in him all things are held together. 1.18. He is the head of the body, the assembly, who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence. 1.19. For all the fullness was pleased to dwell in him; 1.20. and through him to reconcile all things to himself, having made peace through the blood of his cross. Through him, I say, whether things on the earth, or things in the heavens. 3.16. Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly; in all wisdom teaching and admonishing one another with psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your heart to the Lord. 3.17. Whatever you do, in word or in deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father, through him.
39. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.2-1.3, 1.17, 2.1-2.3, 2.8, 2.10, 2.15-2.16, 2.18, 3.10, 3.14-3.15, 4.1-4.16, 4.22, 4.25, 5.1-5.10, 5.14, 5.19-5.20, 6.12, 6.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 1.3. Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ; 1.17. that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give to you a spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of him; 2.1. You were made alive when you were dead in transgressions and sins 2.2. in which you once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the powers of the air, the spirit who now works in the sons of disobedience; 2.3. among whom we also all once lived in the lust of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest. 2.8. for by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God 2.10. For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared before that we would walk in them. 2.15. having abolished in the flesh the hostility, the law of commandments contained in ordices, that he might create in himself one new man of the two, making peace; 2.16. and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, having killed the hostility thereby. 2.18. For through him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father. 3.10. to the intent that now through the assembly the manifold wisdom of God might be made known to the principalities and the powers in the heavenly places 3.14. For this cause, I bow my knees to the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ 3.15. from whom every family in heaven and on earth is named 4.1. I therefore, the prisoner in the Lord, beg you to walk worthily of the calling with which you were called 4.2. with all lowliness and humility, with longsuffering, bearing with one another in love; 4.3. being eager to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace. 4.4. There is one body, and one Spirit, even as you also were called in one hope of your calling; 4.5. one Lord, one faith, one baptism 4.6. one God and Father of all, who is over all, and through all, and in us all. 4.7. But to each one of us was the grace given according to the measure of the gift of Christ. 4.8. Therefore he says, "When he ascended on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts to men. 4.9. Now this, "He ascended," what is it but that he also first descended into the lower parts of the earth? 4.10. He who descended is the one who also ascended far above all the heavens, that he might fill all things. 4.11. He gave some to be apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, shepherds and teachers; 4.12. for the perfecting of the saints, to the work of serving, to the building up of the body of Christ; 4.13. until we all attain to the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to a full grown man, to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ; 4.14. that we may no longer be children, tossed back and forth and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the trickery of men, in craftiness, after the wiles of error; 4.15. but speaking truth in love, we may grow up in all things into him, who is the head, Christ; 4.16. from whom all the body, being fitted and knit together through that which every joint supplies, according to the working in measure of each individual part, makes the body increase to the building up of itself in love. 4.22. that you put away, as concerning your former way of life, the old man, that grows corrupt after the lusts of deceit; 4.25. Therefore, putting away falsehood, speak truth each one with his neighbor. For we are members one of another. 5.1. Be therefore imitators of God, as beloved children. 5.2. Walk in love, even as Christ also loved you, and gave himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling fragrance. 5.3. But sexual immorality, and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not even be mentioned among you, as becomes saints; 5.4. nor filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, which are not appropriate; but rather giving of thanks. 5.5. Know this for sure, that no sexually immoral person, nor unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, has any inheritance in the Kingdom of Christ and God. 5.6. Let no one deceive you with empty words. For because of these things, the wrath of God comes on the sons of disobedience. 5.7. Therefore don't be partakers with them. 5.8. For you were once darkness, but are now light in the Lord. Walk as children of light 5.9. for the fruit of the Spirit is in all goodness and righteousness and truth 5.10. proving what is well-pleasing to the Lord. 5.14. Therefore he says, "Awake, you who sleep, and arise from the dead, and Christ will shine on you. 5.19. speaking to one another in psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs; singing, and singing praises in your heart to the Lord; 5.20. giving thanks always concerning all things in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, to God, even the Father; 6.12. For our wrestling is not against flesh and blood, but against the principalities, against the powers, against the world's rulers of the darkness of this age, and against the spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places. 6.23. Peace be to the brothers, and love with faith, from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
40. New Testament, Galatians, 1.3, 1.6, 1.13, 1.23, 2.20, 3.16-3.20, 3.22-3.29, 4.3-4.9, 5.1, 5.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. Grace to you and peace from God the Father, and our Lord Jesus Christ 1.6. I marvel that you are so quickly deserting him who called you in the grace of Christ to a different gospel; 1.13. For you have heard of my way ofliving in time past in the Jews' religion, how that beyond measure Ipersecuted the assembly of God, and ravaged it. 1.23. but they only heard: "He who once persecuted us nowpreaches the faith that he once tried to destroy. 2.20. I have been crucified with Christ, andit is no longer I that live, but Christ living in me. That life which Inow live in the flesh, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me,and gave himself up for me. 3.16. Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and tohis seed. He doesn't say, "To seeds," as of many, but as of one, "Toyour seed," which is Christ. 3.17. Now I say this. A covetconfirmed beforehand by God in Christ, the law, which came four hundredand thirty years after, does not annul, so as to make the promise of noeffect. 3.18. For if the inheritance is of the law, it is no more ofpromise; but God has granted it to Abraham by promise. 3.19. What then is the law? It was added because of transgressions,until the seed should come to whom the promise has been made. It wasordained through angels by the hand of a mediator. 3.20. Now amediator is not between one, but God is one. 3.22. But the Scriptures shut up all things undersin, that the promise by faith in Jesus Christ might be given to thosewho believe. 3.23. But before faith came, we were kept in custodyunder the law, shut up to the faith which should afterwards berevealed. 3.24. So that the law has become our tutor to bring us toChrist, that we might be justified by faith. 3.25. But now that faithis come, we are no longer under a tutor. 3.26. For you are all sons ofGod, through faith in Christ Jesus. 3.27. For as many of you as werebaptized into Christ have put on Christ. 3.28. There is neither Jewnor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither malenor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. 3.29. If you are Christ's, then you are Abraham's seed and heirs according to promise. 4.3. So we also, when we were children, were held in bondage under theelements of the world. 4.4. But when the fullness of the time came,God sent out his Son, born to a woman, born under the law 4.5. thathe might redeem those who were under the law, that we might receive theadoption of sons. 4.6. And because you are sons, God sent out theSpirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, "Abba, Father! 4.7. Soyou are no longer a bondservant, but a son; and if a son, then an heirof God through Christ. 4.8. However at that time, not knowing God, youwere in bondage to those who by nature are not gods. 4.9. But now thatyou have come to know God, or rather to be known by God, why do youturn back again to the weak and miserable elements, to which you desireto be in bondage all over again? 5.1. Stand firm therefore in the liberty by which Christ has madeus free, and don't be entangled again with a yoke of bondage. 5.13. For you, brothers, were called for freedom. Only don't useyour freedom for gain to the flesh, but through love be servants to oneanother.
41. New Testament, Hebrews, 5.12-5.14, 10.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.12. For when by reason of the time you ought to be teachers, you again need to have someone teach you the rudiments of the first principles of the oracles of God. You have come to need milk, and not solid food. 5.13. For everyone who lives on milk is not experienced in the word of righteousness, for he is a baby. 5.14. But solid food is for those who are full grown, who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern good and evil. 10.12. but he, when he had offered one sacrifice for sins for ever, sat down on the right hand of God;
42. New Testament, Philippians, 1.2, 2.10, 4.12-4.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. Grace to you, and peace from God, our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ. 2.10. that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those in heaven, those on earth, and those under the earth 4.12. I know how to be humbled, and I know also how to abound. In everything and in all things I have learned the secret both to be filled and to be hungry, both to abound and to be in need. 4.13. I can do all things through Christ, who strengthens me.
43. New Testament, Romans, 1.3-1.4, 1.7, 1.18-1.32, 2.12, 2.15, 3.8, 3.29-3.30, 6.1-6.23, 8.2-8.14, 8.19, 8.31-8.39, 9.1, 9.24-9.26, 11.36, 12.4-12.5, 15.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh 1.4. who was declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord 1.7. to all who are in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 1.18. For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness 1.19. because that which is known of God is revealed in them, for God revealed it to them. 1.20. For the invisible things of him since the creation of the world are clearly seen, being perceived through the things that are made, even his everlasting power and divinity; that they may be without excuse. 1.21. Because, knowing God, they didn't glorify him as God, neither gave thanks, but became vain in their reasoning, and their senseless heart was darkened. 1.22. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools 1.23. and traded the glory of the incorruptible God for the likeness of an image of corruptible man, and of birds, and four-footed animals, and creeping things. 1.24. Therefore God also gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to uncleanness, that their bodies should be dishonored among themselves 1.25. who exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen. 1.26. For this reason, God gave them up to vile passions. For their women changed the natural function into that which is against nature. 1.27. Likewise also the men, leaving the natural function of the woman, burned in their lust toward one another, men doing what is inappropriate with men, and receiving in themselves the due penalty of their error. 1.28. Even as they refused to have God in their knowledge, God gave them up to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not fitting; 1.29. being filled with all unrighteousness, sexual immorality, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, evil habits, secret slanderers 1.30. backbiters, hateful to God, insolent, haughty, boastful, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents 1.31. without understanding, covet-breakers, without natural affection, unforgiving, unmerciful; 1.32. who, knowing the ordice of God, that those who practice such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but also approve of those who practice them. 2.12. For as many as have sinned without law will also perish without the law. As many as have sinned under the law will be judged by the law. 2.15. in that they show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience testifying with them, and their thoughts among themselves accusing or else excusing them) 3.8. Why not (as we are slanderously reported, and as some affirm that we say), "Let us do evil, that good may come?" Those who say so are justly condemned. 3.29. Or is God the God of Jews only? Isn't he the God of Gentiles also? Yes, of Gentiles also 3.30. since indeed there is one God who will justify the circumcised by faith, and the uncircumcised through faith. 6.1. What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? 6.2. May it never be! We who died to sin, how could we live in it any longer? 6.3. Or don't you know that all we who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? 6.4. We were buried therefore with him through baptism to death, that just like Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we also might walk in newness of life. 6.5. For if we have become united with him in the likeness of his death, we will also be part of his resurrection; 6.6. knowing this, that our old man was crucified with him, that the body of sin might be done away with, so that we would no longer be in bondage to sin. 6.7. For he who has died has been freed from sin. 6.8. But if we died with Christ, we believe that we will also live with him; 6.9. knowing that Christ, being raised from the dead, dies no more. Death no more has dominion over him! 6.10. For the death that he died, he died to sin one time; but the life that he lives, he lives to God. 6.11. Thus also consider yourselves also to be dead to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus our Lord. 6.12. Therefore don't let sin reign in your mortal body, that you should obey it in its lusts. 6.13. Neither present your members to sin as instruments of unrighteousness, but present yourselves to God, as alive from the dead, and your members as instruments of righteousness to God. 6.14. For sin will not have dominion over you. For you are not under law, but under grace. 6.15. What then? Shall we sin, because we are not under law, but under grace? May it never be! 6.16. Don't you know that to whom you present yourselves as servants to obedience, his servants you are whom you obey; whether of sin to death, or of obedience to righteousness? 6.17. But thanks be to God, that, whereas you were bondservants of sin, you became obedient from the heart to that form of teaching whereunto you were delivered. 6.18. Being made free from sin, you became bondservants of righteousness. 6.19. I speak in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh, for as you presented your members as servants to uncleanness and to wickedness upon wickedness, even so now present your members as servants to righteousness for sanctification. 6.20. For when you were servants of sin, you were free in regard to righteousness. 6.21. What fruit then did you have at that time in the things of which you are now ashamed? For the end of those things is death. 6.22. But now, being made free from sin, and having become servants of God, you have your fruit of sanctification, and the result of eternal life. 6.23. For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord. 8.2. For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus made me free from the law of sin and of death. 8.3. For what the law couldn't do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God did, sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh; 8.4. that the ordice of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. 8.5. For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit, the things of the Spirit. 8.6. For the mind of the flesh is death, but the mind of the Spirit is life and peace; 8.7. because the mind of the flesh is hostile towards God; for it is not subject to God's law, neither indeed can it be. 8.8. Those who are in the flesh can't please God. 8.9. But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if it is so that the Spirit of God dwells in you. But if any man doesn't have the Spirit of Christ, he is not his. 8.10. If Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the spirit is alive because of righteousness. 8.11. But if the Spirit of him who raised up Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised up Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit who dwells in you. 8.12. So then, brothers, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live after the flesh. 8.13. For if you live after the flesh, you must die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live. 8.14. For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, these are children of God. 8.19. For the creation waits with eager expectation for the sons of God to be revealed. 8.31. What then shall we say about these things? If God is for us, who can be against us? 8.32. He who didn't spare his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how would he not also with him freely give us all things? 8.33. Who could bring a charge against God's elect? It is God who justifies. 8.34. Who is he who condemns? It is Christ who died, yes rather, who was raised from the dead, who is at the right hand of God, who also makes intercession for us. 8.35. Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Could oppression, or anguish, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword? 8.36. Even as it is written, "For your sake we are killed all day long. We were accounted as sheep for the slaughter. 8.37. No, in all these things, we are more than conquerors through him who loved us. 8.38. For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor things present, nor things to come, nor powers 8.39. nor height, nor depth, nor any other created thing, will be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord. 9.1. I tell the truth in Christ. I am not lying, my conscience testifying with me in the Holy Spirit 9.24. us, whom he also called, not from the Jews only, but also from the Gentiles? 9.25. As he says also in Hosea, "I will call them 'my people,' which were not my people; And her 'beloved,' who was not beloved. 9.26. It will be that in the place where it was said to them, 'You are not my people,' There they will be called 'sons of the living God.' 11.36. For of him, and through him, and to him, are all things. To him be the glory for ever! Amen. 12.4. For even as we have many members in one body, and all the members don't have the same function 12.5. so we, who are many, are one body in Christ, and individually members one of another. 15.6. that with one accord you may with one mouth glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.
44. New Testament, John, 1.1-1.2, 5.18, 5.44, 8.41, 8.58-8.59, 9.22, 10.16, 10.30, 10.38, 12.42, 14.9-14.11, 14.20, 16.32, 17.3, 17.11, 17.20-17.23, 20.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 1.2. The same was in the beginning with God. 5.18. For this cause therefore the Jews sought all the more to kill him, because he not only broke the Sabbath, but also called God his own Father, making himself equal with God. 5.44. How can you believe, who receive glory from one another, and you don't seek the glory that comes from the only God? 8.41. You do the works of your father."They said to him, "We were not born of sexual immorality. We have one Father, God. 8.58. Jesus said to them, "Most assuredly, I tell you, before Abraham came into existence, I AM. 8.59. Therefore they took up stones to throw at him, but Jesus was hidden, and went out of the temple, having gone through the midst of them, and so passed by. 9.22. His parents said these things because they feared the Jews; for the Jews had already agreed that if any man would confess him as Christ, he would be put out of the synagogue. 10.16. I have other sheep, which are not of this fold. I must bring them also, and they will hear my voice. They will become one flock with one shepherd. 10.30. I and the Father are one. 10.38. But if I do them, though you don't believe me, believe the works; that you may know and believe that the Father is in me, and I in the Father. 12.42. Nevertheless even of the rulers many believed in him, but because of the Pharisees they didn't confess it, so that they wouldn't be put out of the synagogue 14.9. Jesus said to him, "Have I been with you such a long time, and do you not know me, Philip? He who has seen me has seen the Father. How do you say, 'Show us the Father?' 14.10. Don't you believe that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? The words that I tell you, I speak not from myself; but the Father who lives in me does his works. 14.11. Believe me that I am in the Father, and the Father in me; or else believe me for the very works' sake. 14.20. In that day you will know that I am in my Father, and you in me, and I in you. 16.32. Behold, the time is coming, yes, and has now come, that you will be scattered, everyone to his own place, and you will leave me alone. Yet I am not alone, because the Father is with me. 17.3. This is eternal life, that they should know you, the only true God, and him whom you sent, Jesus Christ. 17.11. I am no more in the world, but these are in the world, and I am coming to you. Holy Father, keep them through your name which you have given me, that they may be one, even as we are. 17.20. Not for these only do I pray, but for those also who believe in me through their word 17.21. that they may all be one; even as you, Father, are in me, and I in you, that they also may be one in us; that the world may believe that you sent me. 17.22. The glory which you have given me, I have given to them; that they may be one, even as we are one; 17.23. I in them, and you in me, that they may be perfected into one; that the world may know that you sent me, and loved them, even as you loved me. 20.28. Thomas answered him, "My Lord and my God!
45. New Testament, Luke, 10.7, 10.25-10.38, 22.17-22.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.7. Remain in that same house, eating and drinking the things they give, for the laborer is worthy of his wages. Don't go from house to house. 10.25. Behold, a certain lawyer stood up and tested him, saying, "Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life? 10.26. He said to him, "What is written in the law? How do you read it? 10.27. He answered, "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength, and with all your mind; and your neighbor as yourself. 10.28. He said to him, "You have answered correctly. Do this, and you will live. 10.29. But he, desiring to justify himself, asked Jesus, "Who is my neighbor? 10.30. Jesus answered, "A certain man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and he fell among robbers, who both stripped him and beat him, and departed, leaving him half dead. 10.31. By chance a certain priest was going down that way. When he saw him, he passed by on the other side. 10.32. In the same way a Levite also, when he came to the place, and saw him, passed by on the other side. 10.33. But a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came where he was. When he saw him, he was moved with compassion 10.34. came to him, and bound up his wounds, pouring on oil and wine. He set him on his own animal, and brought him to an inn, and took care of him. 10.35. On the next day, when he departed, he took out two denarii, and gave them to the host, and said to him, 'Take care of him. Whatever you spend beyond that, I will repay you when I return.' 10.36. Now which of these three do you think seemed to be a neighbor to him who fell among the robbers? 10.37. He said, "He who showed mercy on him."Then Jesus said to him, "Go and do likewise. 10.38. It happened as they went on their way, he entered into a certain village, and a certain woman named Martha received him into her house. 22.17. He received a cup, and when he had given thanks, he said, "Take this, and share it among yourselves 22.18. for I tell you, I will not drink at all again from the fruit of the vine, until the Kingdom of God comes. 22.19. He took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and gave to them, saying, "This is my body which is given for you. Do this in memory of me. 22.20. Likewise, he took the cup after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood, which is poured out for you.
46. New Testament, Mark, 14.22-14.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.22. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had blessed, he broke it, and gave to them, and said, "Take, eat. This is my body. 14.23. He took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave to them. They all drank of it. 14.24. He said to them, "This is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many. 14.25. Most assuredly I tell you, I will no more drink of the fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it anew in the Kingdom of God.
47. New Testament, Matthew, 4.7, 10.10, 19.17, 23.8-23.10, 26.26-26.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.7. Jesus said to him, "Again, it is written, 'You shall not test the Lord, your God.' 10.10. Take no bag for your journey, neither two coats, nor shoes, nor staff: for the laborer is worthy of his food. 19.17. He said to him, "Why do you call me good? No one is good but one, that is, God. But if you want to enter into life, keep the commandments. 23.8. But don't you be called 'Rabbi,' for one is your teacher, the Christ, and all of you are brothers. 23.9. Call no man on the earth your father, for one is your Father, he who is in heaven. 23.10. Neither be called masters, for one is your master, the Christ. 26.26. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, gave thanks for it, and broke it. He gave to the disciples, and said, "Take, eat; this is my body. 26.27. He took the cup, gave thanks, and gave to them, saying, "All of you drink it 26.28. for this is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many for the remission of sins. 26.29. But I tell you that I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on, until that day when I drink it anew with you in my Father's kingdom.
48. Aristides of Athens, Apology, 2, 16 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

49. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 2.114.3-2.114.6 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

50. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.8, 2.26.1, 3.11.9 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.8. Archelaus was by birth an Athenian, and son of Apollodorus. This person, similarly with Anaxagoras, asserted the mixture of matter, and enunciated his first principles in the same manner. This philosopher, however, held that there is inherent immediately in mind a certain mixture; and that the originating principle of motion is the mutual separation of heat and cold, and that the heat is moved, and that the cold remains at rest. And that the water, being dissolved, flows towards the centre, where the scorched air and earth are produced, of which the one is borne upwards and the other remains beneath. And that the earth is at rest, and that on this account it came into existence; and that it lies in the centre, being no part, so to speak, of the universe, delivered from the conflagration; and that from this, first in a state of ignition, is the nature of the stars, of which indeed the largest is the sun, and next to this the moon; and of the rest some less, but some greater. And he says that the heaven was inclined at an angle, and so that the sun diffused light over the earth, and made the atmosphere transparent, and the ground dry; for that at first it was a sea, inasmuch as it is lofty at the horizon and hollow in the middle. And he adduces, as an indication of the hollowness, that the sun does not rise and set to all at the same time, which ought to happen if the earth was even. And with regard to animals, he affirms that the earth, being originally fire in its lower part, where the heat and cold were intermingled, both the rest of animals made their appearance, numerous and dissimilar, all having the same food, being nourished from mud; and their existence was of short duration, but afterwards also generation from one another arose unto them; and men were separated from the rest (of the animal creation), and they appointed rulers, and laws, and arts, and cities, and the rest. And he asserts that mind is innate in all animals alike; for that each, according to the difference of their physical constitution, employed (mind), at one time slower, at another faster. Natural philosophy, then, continued from Thales until Archelaus. Socrates was the hearer of this (latter philosopher). There are, however, also very many others, introducing various opinions respecting both the divinity and the nature of the universe; and if we were disposed to adduce all the opinions of these, it would be necessary to compose a vast quantity of books. But, reminding the reader of those whom we especially ought - who are deserving of mention from their fame, and from being, so to speak, the leaders to those who have subsequently framed systems of philosophy, and from their supplying them with a starting-point towards such undertakings - let us hasten on our investigations towards what remains for consideration.
51. Justin, First Apology, 63, 60 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

60. And the physiological discussion concerning the Son of God in the Tim us of Plato, where he says, He placed him crosswise in the universe, he borrowed in like manner from Moses; for in the writings of Moses it is related how at that time, when the Israelites went out of Egypt and were in the wilderness, they fell in with poisonous beasts, both vipers and asps, and every kind of serpent, which slew the people; and that Moses, by the inspiration and influence of God, took brass, and made it into the figure of a cross, and set it in the holy tabernacle, and said to the people, If you look to this figure, and believe, you shall be saved thereby. Numbers 21:8 And when this was done, it is recorded that the serpents died, and it is handed down that the people thus escaped death. Which things Plato reading, and not accurately understanding, and not apprehending that it was the figure of the cross, but taking it to be a placing crosswise, he said that the power next to the first God was placed crosswise in the universe. And as to his speaking of a third, he did this because he read, as we said above, that which was spoken by Moses, that the Spirit of God moved over the waters. For he gives the second place to the Logos which is with God, who he said was placed crosswise in the universe; and the third place to the Spirit who was said to be borne upon the water, saying, And the third around the third. And hear how the Spirit of prophecy signified through Moses that there should be a conflagration. He spoke thus: Everlasting fire shall descend, and shall devour to the pit beneath. Deuteronomy 32:22 It is not, then, that we hold the same opinions as others, but that all speak in imitation of ours. Among us these things can be heard and learned from persons who do not even know the forms of the letters, who are uneducated and barbarous in speech, though wise and believing in mind; some, indeed, even maimed and deprived of eyesight; so that you may understand that these things are not the effect of human wisdom, but are uttered by the power of God.
52. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 35, 40-41, 20 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Justin: Moreover, you were commanded to abstain from certain kinds of food, in order that you might keep God before your eyes while you ate and drank, seeing that you were prone and very ready to depart from His knowledge, as Moses also affirms: 'The people ate and drank, and rose up to play.' Exodus 32:6 And again: 'Jacob ate, and was satisfied, and grew fat; and he who was beloved kicked: he grew fat, he grew thick, he was enlarged, and he forsook God who had made him.' Deuteronomy 32:15 For it was told you by Moses in the book of Genesis, that God granted to Noah, being a just man, to eat of every animal, but not of flesh with the blood, which is dead. And as he was ready to say, as the green herbs, I anticipated him: Why do you not receive this statement, 'as the green herbs,' in the sense in which it was given by God, to wit, that just as God has granted the herbs for sustece to man, even so has He given the animals for the diet of flesh? But, you say, a distinction was laid down thereafter to Noah, because we do not eat certain herbs. As you interpret it, the thing is incredible. And first I shall not occupy myself with this, though able to say and to hold that every vegetable is food, and fit to be eaten. But although we discriminate between green herbs, not eating all, we refrain from eating some, not because they are common or unclean, but because they are bitter, or deadly, or thorny. But we lay hands on and take of all herbs which are sweet, very nourishing and good, whether they are marine or land plants. Thus also God by the mouth of Moses commanded you to abstain from unclean and improper and violent animals: when, moreover, though you were eating manna in the desert, and were seeing all those wondrous acts wrought for you by God, you made and worshipped the golden calf. Hence he cries continually, and justly, 'They are foolish children, in whom is no faith.' Deuteronomy 32:6, 20
53. Tertullian, On Idolatry, 16 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

16. Touching the ceremonies, however, of private and social solemnities - as those of the white toga, of espousals, of nuptials, of name-givings - I should think no danger need be guarded against from the breath of the idolatry which is mixed up with them. For the causes are to be considered to which the ceremony is due. Those above-named I take to be clean in themselves, because neither manly garb, nor the marital ring or union, descends from honours done to any idol. In short, I find no dress cursed by God, except a woman's dress on a man: for cursed, says He, is every man who clothes himself in woman's attire. The toga, however, is a dress of manly name as well as of manly use. God no more prohibits nuptials to be celebrated than a name to be given. But there are sacrifices appropriated to these occasions. Let me be invited, and let not the title of the ceremony be assistance at a sacrifice, and the discharge of my good offices is at the service of my friends. Would that it were at their service indeed, and that we could escape seeing what is unlawful for us to do. But since the evil one has so surrounded the world with idolatry, it will be lawful for us to be present at some ceremonies which see us doing service to a man, not to an idol. Clearly, if invited unto priestly function and sacrifice, I will not go, for that is service peculiar to an idol; but neither will I furnish advice, or expense, or any other good office in a matter of that kind. If it is on account of the sacrifice that I be invited, and stand by, I shall be partaker of idolatry; if any other cause conjoins me to the sacrificer, I shall be merely a spectator of the sacrifice.
54. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.116, 7.122 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.116. Also they say that there are three emotional states which are good, namely, joy, caution, and wishing. Joy, the counterpart of pleasure, is rational elation; caution, the counterpart of fear, rational avoidance; for though the wise man will never feel fear, he will yet use caution. And they make wishing the counterpart of desire (or craving), inasmuch as it is rational appetency. And accordingly, as under the primary passions are classed certain others subordinate to them, so too is it with the primary eupathies or good emotional states. Thus under wishing they bring well-wishing or benevolence, friendliness, respect, affection; under caution, reverence and modesty; under joy, delight, mirth, cheerfulness. 7.122. though indeed there is also a second form of slavery consisting in subordination, and a third which implies possession of the slave as well as his subordination; the correlative of such servitude being lordship; and this too is evil. Moreover, according to them not only are the wise free, they are also kings; kingship being irresponsible rule, which none but the wise can maintain: so Chrysippus in his treatise vindicating Zeno's use of terminology. For he holds that knowledge of good and evil is a necessary attribute of the ruler, and that no bad man is acquainted with this science. Similarly the wise and good alone are fit to be magistrates, judges, or orators, whereas among the bad there is not one so qualified.
55. Origen, Against Celsus, 5.2-5.6 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.2. We have now, then, to refute that statement of his which runs as follows: O Jews and Christians, no God or son of a God either came or will come down (to earth). But if you mean that certain angels did so, then what do you call them? Are they gods, or some other race of beings? Some other race of beings (doubtless), and in all probability demons. Now as Celsus here is guilty of repeating himself (for in the preceding pages such assertions have been frequently advanced by him), it is unnecessary to discuss the matter at greater length, seeing what we have already said upon this point may suffice. We shall mention, however, a few considerations out of a greater number, such as we deem in harmony with our former arguments, but which have not altogether the same bearing as they, and by which we shall show that in asserting generally that no God, or son of God, ever descended (among men), he overturns not only the opinions entertained by the majority of mankind regarding the manifestation of Deity, but also what was formerly admitted by himself. For if the general statement, that no God or son of God has come down or will come down, be truly maintained by Celsus, it is manifest that we have here overthrown the belief in the existence of gods upon the earth who had descended from heaven either to predict the future to mankind or to heal them by means of divine responses; and neither the Pythian Apollo, nor Æsculapius, nor any other among those supposed to have done so, would be a god descended from heaven. He might, indeed, either be a god who had obtained as his lot (the obligation) to dwell on earth for ever, and be thus a fugitive, as it were, from the abode of the gods, or he might be one who had no power to share in the society of the gods in heaven; or else Apollo, and Æsculapius, and those others who are believed to perform acts on earth, would not be gods, but only certain demons, much inferior to those wise men among mankind, who on account of their virtue ascend to the vault of heaven. 5.3. But observe how, in his desire to subvert our opinions, he who never acknowledged himself throughout his whole treatise to be an Epicurean, is convicted of being a deserter to that sect. And now is the time for you, (reader), who peruse the works of Celsus, and give your assent to what has been advanced, either to overturn the belief in a God who visits the human race, and exercises a providence over each individual man, or to grant this, and prove the falsity of the assertions of Celsus. If you, then, wholly annihilate providence, you will falsify those assertions of his in which he grants the existence of God and a providence, in order that you may maintain the truth of your own position; but if, on the other hand, you still admit the existence of providence, because you do not assent to the dictum of Celsus, that neither has a God nor the son of a God come down nor is to come down to mankind, why not rather carefully ascertain from the statements made regarding Jesus, and the prophecies uttered concerning Him, who it is that we are to consider as having come down to the human race as God, and the Son of God?- whether that Jesus who said and ministered so much, or those who under pretence of oracles and divinations, do not reform the morals of their worshippers, but who have besides apostatized from the pure and holy worship and honour due to the Maker of all things, and who tear away the souls of those who give heed to them from the one only visible and true God, under a pretence of paying honour to a multitude of deities? 5.4. But since he says, in the next place, as if the Jews or Christians had answered regarding those who come down to visit the human race, that they were angels: But if you say that they are angels, what do you call them? he continues, Are they gods, or some other race of beings? and then again introduces us as if answering, Some other race of beings, and probably demons,- let us proceed to notice these remarks. For we indeed acknowledge that angels are ministering spirits, and we say that they are sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation; and that they ascend, bearing the supplications of men, to the purest of the heavenly places in the universe, or even to supercelestial regions purer still; and that they come down from these, conveying to each one, according to his deserts, something enjoined by God to be conferred by them upon those who are to be the recipients of His benefits. Having thus learned to call these beings angels from their employments, we find that because they are divine they are sometimes termed god in the sacred Scriptures, but not so that we are commanded to honour and worship in place of God those who minister to us, and bear to us His blessings. For every prayer, and supplication, and intercession, and thanksgiving, is to be sent up to the Supreme God through the High Priest, who is above all the angels, the living Word and God. And to the Word Himself shall we also pray and make intercessions, and offer thanksgivings and supplications to Him, if we have the capacity of distinguishing between the proper use and abuse of prayer. 5.5. For to invoke angels without having obtained a knowledge of their nature greater than is possessed by men, would be contrary to reason. But, conformably to our hypothesis, let this knowledge of them, which is something wonderful and mysterious, be obtained. Then this knowledge, making known to us their nature, and the offices to which they are severally appointed, will not permit us to pray with confidence to any other than to the Supreme God, who is sufficient for all things, and that through our Saviour the Son of God, who is the Word, and Wisdom, and Truth, and everything else which the writings of God's prophets and the apostles of Jesus entitle Him. And it is enough to secure that the holy angels of God be propitious to us, and that they do all things on our behalf, that our disposition of mind towards God should imitate as far as it is within the power of human nature the example of these holy angels, who again follow the example of their God; and that the conceptions which we entertain of His Son, the Word, so far as attainable by us, should not be opposed to the clearer conceptions of Him which the holy angels possess, but should daily approach these in clearness and distinctness. But because Celsus has not read our holy Scriptures, he gives himself an answer as if it came from us, saying that we assert that the angels who come down from heaven to confer benefits on mankind are a different race from the gods, and adds that in all probability they would be called demons by us: not observing that the name demons is not a term of indifferent meaning like that of men, among whom some are good and some bad, nor yet a term of excellence like that of the gods, which is applied not to wicked demons, or to statues, or to animals, but (by those who know divine things) to what is truly divine and blessed; whereas the term demons is always applied to those wicked powers, freed from the encumbrance of a grosser body, who lead men astray, and fill them with distractions and drag them down from God and supercelestial thoughts to things here below. 5.6. He next proceeds to make the following statement about the Jews:- The first point relating to the Jews which is fitted to excite wonder, is that they should worship the heaven and the angels who dwell therein, and yet pass by and neglect its most venerable and powerful parts, as the sun, the moon, and the other heavenly bodies, both fixed stars and planets, as if it were possible that 'the whole' could be God, and yet its parts not divine; or (as if it were reasonable) to treat with the greatest respect those who are said to appear to such as are in darkness somewhere, blinded by some crooked sorcery, or dreaming dreams through the influence of shadowy spectres, while those who prophesy so clearly and strikingly to all men, by means of whom rain, and heat, and clouds, and thunder (to which they offer worship), and lightnings, and fruits, and all kinds of productiveness, are brought about - by means of whom God is revealed to them - the most prominent heralds among those beings that are above - those that are truly heavenly angels - are to be regarded as of no account! In making these statements, Celsus appears to have fallen into confusion, and to have penned them from false ideas of things which he did not understand; for it is patent to all who investigate the practices of the Jews, and compare them with those of the Christians, that the Jews who follow the law, which, speaking in the person of God, says, You shall have no other gods before Me: you shall not make unto you an image, nor a likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the waters under the earth; you shall not bow down to them, nor serve them, worship nothing else than the Supreme God, who made the heavens, and all things besides. Now it is evident that those who live according to the law, and worship the Maker of heaven, will not worship the heaven at the same time with God. Moreover, no one who obeys the law of Moses will bow down to the angels who are in heaven; and, in like manner, as they do not bow down to sun, moon, and stars, the host of heaven, they refrain from doing obeisance to heaven and its angels, obeying the law which declares: Lest you lift up your eyes to heaven, and when you see the sun, and the moon, and the stars, even all the host of heaven, should be driven to worship them, and serve them, which the Lord your God has divided unto all nations.
56. Augustine, The City of God, 9.23 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

9.23. If the Platonists prefer to call these angels gods rather than demons, and to reckon them with those whom Plato, their founder and master, maintains were created by the supreme God, they are welcome to do so, for I will not spend strength in fighting about words. For if they say that these beings are immortal, and yet created by the supreme God, blessed but by cleaving to their Creator and not by their own power, they say what we say, whatever name they call these beings by. And that this is the opinion either of all or the best of the Platonists can be ascertained by their writings. And regarding the name itself, if they see fit to call such blessed and immortal creatures gods, this need not give rise to any serious discussion between us, since in our own Scriptures we read, The God of gods, the Lord has spoken; and again, Confess to the God of gods; and again, He is a great King above all gods. And where it is said, He is to be feared above all gods, the reason is immediately added, for it follows, for all the gods of the nations are idols, but the Lord made the heavens. He said, above all gods, but added, of the nations; that is to say, above all those whom the nations count gods, in other words, demons. By them He is to be feared with that terror in which they cried to the Lord, Have You come to destroy us? But where it is said, the God of gods, it cannot be understood as the god of the demons; and far be it from us to say that great King above all gods means great King above all demons. But the same Scripture also calls men who belong to God's people gods: I have said, You are gods, and all of you children of the Most High. Accordingly, when God is styled God of gods, this may be understood of these gods; and so, too, when He is styled a great King above all gods. Nevertheless, some one may say, if men are called gods because they belong to God's people, whom He addresses by means of men and angels, are not the immortals, who already enjoy that felicity which men seek to attain by worshipping God, much more worthy of the title? And what shall we reply to this, if not that it is not without reason that in holy Scripture men are more expressly styled gods than those immortal and blessed spirits to whom we hope to be equal in the resurrection, because there was a fear that the weakness of unbelief, being overcome with the excellence of these beings, might presume to constitute some of them a god? In the case of men this was a result that need not be guarded against. Besides, it was right that the men belonging to God's people should be more expressly called gods, to assure and certify them that He who is called God of gods is their God; because, although those immortal and blessed spirits who dwell in the heavens are called gods, yet they are not called gods of gods, that is to say, gods of the men who constitute God's people, and to whom it is said, I have said, You are gods, and all of you the children of the Most High. Hence the saying of the apostle, Though there be that are called gods, whether in heaven or in earth, as there be gods many and lords many, but to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in Him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by Him. 1 Corinthians 8:5-6 We need not, therefore, laboriously contend about the name, since the reality is so obvious as to admit of no shadow of doubt. That which we say, that the angels who are sent to announce the will of God to men belong to the order of blessed immortals, does not satisfy the Platonists, because they believe that this ministry is discharged, not by those whom they call gods, in other words, not by blessed immortals, but by demons, whom they dare not affirm to be blessed, but only immortal, or if they do rank them among the blessed immortals, yet only as good demons, and not as gods who dwell in the heaven of heavens remote from all human contact. But, though it may seem mere wrangling about a name, yet the name of demon is so detestable that we cannot bear in any sense to apply it to the holy angels. Now, therefore, let us close this book in the assurance that, whatever we call these immortal and blessed spirits, who yet are only creatures, they do not act as mediators to introduce to everlasting felicity miserable mortals, from whom they are severed by a twofold distinction. And those others who are mediators, in so far as they have immortality in common with their superiors, and misery in common with their inferiors (for they are justly miserable in punishment of their wickedness), cannot bestow upon us, but rather grudge that we should possess, the blessedness from which they themselves are excluded. And so the friends of the demons have nothing considerable to allege why we should rather worship them as our helpers than avoid them as traitors to our interests. As for those spirits who are good, and who are therefore not only immortal but also blessed, and to whom they suppose we should give the title of gods, and offer worship and sacrifices for the sake of inheriting a future life, we shall, by God's help, endeavor in the following book to show that these spirits, call them by what name, and ascribe to them what nature you will, desire that religious worship be paid to God alone, by whom they were created, and by whose communications of Himself to them they are blessed.
57. Justinian, Digest, 50.2.3.3 (5th cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

58. Anon., Epistle To Diognetus, 1.1

59. Pseudo-Tertullian, Martyrdom of Perpetua And Felicitas, 6



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19
adam Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 186
adiaphora/indistinguishable/neutral Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 196, 203
admirers,double loyalties of Zetterholm (2003), The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity. 146
advantage (sumpheron,utilitas) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 170
agency,all things McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 158
alcinous Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 90
alexandria Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 52
angel Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 52, 298
angels Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 597
angels of the nations Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 52
aniconism Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 52
apocalyptic literature and thought Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 65
apostle Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 404
apostolic council Zetterholm (2003), The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity. 146, 147
apostolic decree Zetterholm (2003), The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity. 146, 147
appropriation (oikeiōsis) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 152, 153, 181
aramaic Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 26
archon Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131
arena Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 65
baptism Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19, 136; deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 197
beloved (title for christ) Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 597
benefactors Zetterholm (2003), The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity. 146
boer,m. de Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 233
brenk,f. Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 233
celsus Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 51
censure Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 294
christ,as son McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 158
christ,see also jesus Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131, 186
christianity,early,feasting practices König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 127
christianity,early,relationship between early christian and jewish feasting and feasting literature König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 127
christology,adam/image- Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 186
chrysippus Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 233
church,as one body in christ deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 195, 197
church Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 136; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 597
coercion Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 65
conversion,according to paul Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 384
conversion Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 384
cook-shops McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 223
corinth Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 109
corinthian assembly,correspondence Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 50, 51
corinthians Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131, 186
cosmic deity Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 298
creation,creator Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 597
creation and ownership,through christ McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 158
creator,creation Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19, 27, 52
crucifixion Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131, 186
cult,official Zetterholm (2003), The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity. 147
cult Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 25, 52, 298
cynics Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 154
daemon,demon Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 52, 298
deity,deities Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 50, 51
deity,temples to Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 50
demons,as gentile gods Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 92
demons McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 158, 162
desires Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 109
devil Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 186
devotion Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19, 25
didaskalikos (alcinous) Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 90
dining Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 50, 51
divine name Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 26, 298
early high christology Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 298
education,stoicism Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 294
egypt,egyptian Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 26
ekklesia Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 26
elements of the world Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 92
elohim\u2003 Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 52
emperor cult,emperor worship Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 298
ennoia Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131, 186
ephesians,letter to the Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 597
epistemology,pauls Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 136, 145, 181
epistemology,stoic Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 145
epistemology,suneidēsis Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 145, 152, 153, 154, 181
eschatology, as colonial mimicry Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 65
eucharist,of bread and water McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 223
eucharist Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 221
exousia Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 151, 152, 153, 154
experience/experiential Jeong (2023), Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation. 183
experience (ἐµπειρία) James (2021), Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation, 58
faith Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 136; deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 197
family Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 50, 51
father Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 27, 136, 298
free will Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 294
freedom,pauline Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 294
freedom (eleutheria) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 145, 153, 154, 181
friendship,divine-human Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 138
galen.,on intellectual independence Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 90
gentile gods Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 52
gentiles Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 52
glory Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 136, 298
gluttons,gluttony Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 109
gnosis,knowledge Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131, 186
gnosis (knowledge) in paul Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 92
god,identification of deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 197
god,uniqueness of Stanton (2021), Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace, 210
god,unity of Stanton (2021), Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace, 210
god-fearers,double loyalties of Zetterholm (2003), The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity. 147
god (pauline),involvement in human affairs Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 138
god of Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 50, 51
good,appropriate actions (kathēkonta) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 131, 151, 154
good (agathos) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 196, 203
grace,as gods beneficence deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 254
grace,response to deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 254
graeco-roman piety Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 131, 151, 152, 153, 181
greece,greek Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 26, 27, 52, 136
heaven Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19, 52
hebrew Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 26, 52
hekhalot Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 597
hellenistic judaism Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 27; Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 186
historical tradition Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 404
honor and dishonor deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 254
human being,creation of,adams creation Dunderberg (2008), Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus. 221
ialdabaoth Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 186
iconography Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 52
identity,formation of Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 65
identity construction Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 50, 51
idol,idolatry Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 52, 136
idol food Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 126; Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 131
idolatry Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 50, 51; Zetterholm (2003), The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity. 146, 147
idols,as demons McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 158
idols,as mediators McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 158
idols,food offered to Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 404
idols,food sacrificed to McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 153, 158
idols Dunderberg (2008), Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus. 221; Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 384
immorality Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 384
imperialism roman,x Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 65
inheritance deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 254
intellectual independence,,galen and medical discourse on Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 90
intellectual independence,,in christianity Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 90
intellectual independence,,paul versus valentinians on Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 90
intellectual independence Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 90
interdependence,morally formative Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 138
intermediates Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 151, 154
irenaeus,on heresy and paganism Boulluec (2022), The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries, 130
israel,israelites Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 109
israel deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 212
jerusalem,agreement at Zetterholm (2003), The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity. 146, 147
jesus,as lord Pierce et al. (2022), Gospel Reading and Reception in Early Christian Literature, 24
jesus,last supper of Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 221
jesus,philo Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131
jesus,return of deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 254
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 404
jewish-christian Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 186
jewish practices/torah observance Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 136, 151, 203
jews,in god-congested roman environment Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 28
jews Stanton (2021), Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace, 210
judaizing Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 151
judea Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 25
judgment deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 254
kinglessness Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 186
knowledge,pauline Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 126, 138
knowledge Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131
kurios,kyrios Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 25, 26, 298
law,laws Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 136
life,tree of Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131
life Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131
life after death,in stoicism Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 233
logos Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19
lord Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19, 26, 27, 52, 136, 298
man (anthropos) barbelo,man and son of man Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 186
markos Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 597
maturity Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 138
meat McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 223
mediation McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 158, 162
medicine and medical discourse,intellectual independence and Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 90
melchizedek Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19
messiah Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19
messianism,messianic Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19, 25, 298
metaphor Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 221
metaphysics Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 27
mimicry Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 65
missionary,preaching Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 384
monotheism Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 27, 136
moral formation,adaptation in Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 138
moral formation,involvement of god/gods within Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 138
moral formation,love in Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 138
moral formation,protocol of Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 138
moral formation,via meals Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 126, 138
moses Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 52, 298; Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 109
mutation Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19
mystery Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 597
name of god McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 162
names (ὀνόµατα),effective James (2021), Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation, 58
names (ὀνόµατα),proper James (2021), Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation, 58
names (ὀνόµατα),standard of correctness of James (2021), Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation, 58
nature/nature Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 196
neither/nothing (oudeteros/ouden) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 136
new person deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 254
new religionsgeschichtliche schule Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19, 25, 26, 27
new testament Stanton (2021), Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace, 210
noahide commandments Zetterholm (2003), The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity. 146
offerings Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 50, 51
old person deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 254
pagan,paganism Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 25, 26, 136, 298
paganism,heresy assimilated to Boulluec (2022), The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries, 130
parables,good samaritan Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 184
passions deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 254
passions (pathē) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 170
paul,1 corinthians McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 223
paul,as pastor Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 384
paul,determinism Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 294
paul,free will Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 294
paul,his demonology Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 92
paul,on idolatry Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 50, 51
paul,on intellectual independence Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 90
paul,pauline,paulinism Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19, 25, 26, 27, 52, 136, 298
paul Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 50, 51; Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 221; König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 127; McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 223; Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131, 186; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 597; Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 109
paul (saul) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 404
paul of tarsus Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 65
peter (cephas,simon –) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 404
philosophy Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 27
pleasure Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 294, 384
plutarch Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 233
preaching,pauline Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 384
preferreds (proēgmena) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 151, 203
prepositional metaphysics Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 27
priest,priesthood Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 298
prophets,hebrew deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 212
psychic adam/eve/body,class Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131
purification/purity Jeong (2023), Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation. 183
qumran Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19
resurrection Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 136
revelation,book of Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 65
ritual Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 50, 51; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19, 136, 298
ritual purity,maintained beyond the temple Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 221
roman emperor,x Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 65
roman empire culture of spectacle of Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 65
roman imperial ideology deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 212
rome,roman Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 25, 298
rulers Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131
sacrifice,symbolism of Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 221
sacrifice Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 52, 298
sacrifice and sacrificial feasting,christian attitudes to sacrificial meat König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 127
salvation/soteriology Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131, 186
salvation Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 138; Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 153, 154, 196, 203; deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 254
satan Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 92
schrage,w. Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 233
second temple Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19
sectarianism Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 65
self-sufficiency Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 138
septuagint Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 52; Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 109
sethians,sethianism Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131, 186
shema Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 171
shema\u2003 Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 26
shemanan Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 184
shiur koma Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 597
sign James (2021), Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation, 58
slavery Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 153, 170, 181
son of god deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 212
song of moses McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 162
sonship Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 27
sophia,see also prunicus,wisdom,zoe Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131, 186
sorabji,r.,in stoicism Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 233
specific christian intellectuals,intellectual independence in Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 90
spirit,divine Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 186
spiritual,class Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131
spiritual gifts,form and content of Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 153
spiritualization Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 221
statue Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 52
stoicism,exousia Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 294
stoicism,on freedom Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 294
strong McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 223
synagogue,gentile participation in Zetterholm (2003), The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity. 146
synoptic,tradition Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 404
telos Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 153, 154
temple' McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 162
temple Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 136
testaments of the twelve patriarchs Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 171
tetragrammaton James (2021), Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation, 58; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 26
theissen,gerd McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 223
theriomorphism Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 186
transformation deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 254
translation Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 26, 52
tyrant Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 294
unity deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 195, 197
valentinus and valentinians Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 90
value (axia) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 152, 170, 196
vengeance Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 65
vice Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 170
virtue Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 109
weak McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 223
weakness,of corinthian believers Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 126, 138
weapon Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 294
wilderness passim,place Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 109
wisdom,concept Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131, 186
wisdom,jewish Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131
wisdom Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19
wisdom (concept) Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 50, 51
wisdom (σοφία),of the martyrs James (2021), Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation, 58
world in paul,its elements Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 92
worship Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 25, 136; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 597
wrath,of god deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 254
wright,n.t. Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 168, 184
yahweh,yhwh Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 26, 52
yhwh/yahweh Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 186
youth,description of angel Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 597
εἰδωλόθυτον Boulluec (2022), The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries, 130
πορνεία Boulluec (2022), The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries, 130