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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8234
New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 8.4-8.6


Περὶ τῆς βρώσεως οὖν τῶν εἰδωλοθύτων οἴδαμεν ὅτι οὐδὲν εἴδωλον ἐν κόσμῳ, καὶ ὅτι οὐδεὶς θεὸς εἰ μὴ εἷς.Therefore concerning the eating of things sacrificed to idols, we knowthat no idol is anything in the world, and that there is no other Godbut one.


καὶ γὰρ εἴπερ εἰσὶν λεγόμενοι θεοὶ εἴτε ἐν οὐρανῷ εἴτε ἐπὶ γῆς, ὥσπερ εἰσὶν θεοὶ πολλοὶ καὶ κύριοι πολλοίFor though there are things that are called "gods,"whether in the heavens or on earth; as there are many "gods" and many"lords;


[ἀλλʼ] ἡμῖν εἷς θεὸς ὁ πατήρ, ἐξ οὗ τὰ πάντα καὶ ἡμεῖς εἰς αὐτόν, καὶ εἷς κύριος Ἰησοῦς Χριστός, διʼ οὗ τὰ πάντα καὶ ἡμεῖς διʼ αὐτοῦ. Ἀλλʼ οὐκ ἐν πᾶσιν ἡ γνῶσις·yet to us there is one God, the Father, of whom are allthings, and we for him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom areall things, and we live through him.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

57 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.28, 6.4, 6.16, 12.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.28. וַעֲבַדְתֶּם־שָׁם אֱלֹהִים מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי אָדָם עֵץ וָאֶבֶן אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִרְאוּן וְלֹא יִשְׁמְעוּן וְלֹא יֹאכְלוּן וְלֹא יְרִיחֻן׃ 6.4. שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד׃ 6.16. לֹא תְנַסּוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר נִסִּיתֶם בַּמַּסָּה׃ 12.8. לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר אֲנַחְנוּ עֹשִׂים פֹּה הַיּוֹם אִישׁ כָּל־הַיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינָיו׃ 4.28. And there ye shall serve gods, the work of men’s hands, wood and stone, which neither see, nor hear, nor eat, nor smell." 6.4. HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE." 6.16. Ye shall not try the LORD your God, as ye tried Him in Massah." 12.8. Ye shall not do after all that we do here this day, every man whatsoever is right in his own eyes;"
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.14. לֹא־תְקַלֵּל חֵרֵשׁ וְלִפְנֵי עִוֵּר לֹא תִתֵּן מִכְשֹׁל וְיָרֵאתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.14. Thou shalt not curse the deaf, nor put a stumbling-block before the blind, but thou shalt fear thy God: I am the LORD."
3. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 1.2, 2.6-2.11, 3.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. לָדַעַת חָכְמָה וּמוּסָר לְהָבִין אִמְרֵי בִינָה׃ 1.2. חָכְמוֹת בַּחוּץ תָּרֹנָּה בָּרְחֹבוֹת תִּתֵּן קוֹלָהּ׃ 2.6. כִּי־יְהוָה יִתֵּן חָכְמָה מִפִּיו דַּעַת וּתְבוּנָה׃ 2.7. וצפן [יִצְפֹּן] לַיְשָׁרִים תּוּשִׁיָּה מָגֵן לְהֹלְכֵי תֹם׃ 2.8. לִנְצֹר אָרְחוֹת מִשְׁפָּט וְדֶרֶךְ חסידו [חֲסִידָיו] יִשְׁמֹר׃ 2.9. אָז תָּבִין צֶדֶק וּמִשְׁפָּט וּמֵישָׁרִים כָּל־מַעְגַּל־טוֹב׃ 2.11. מְזִמָּה תִּשְׁמֹר עָלֶיךָ תְּבוּנָה תִנְצְרֶכָּה׃ 3.18. עֵץ־חַיִּים הִיא לַמַּחֲזִיקִים בָּהּ וְתֹמְכֶיהָ מְאֻשָּׁר׃ 1.2. To know wisdom and instruction; To comprehend the words of understanding;" 2.6. For the LORD giveth wisdom, Out of His mouth cometh knowledge and discernment;" 2.7. He layeth up sound wisdom for the upright, He is a shield to them that walk in integrity;" 2.8. That He may guard the paths of justice, And preserve the way of His godly ones. ." 2.9. Then shalt thou understand righteousness and justice, And equity, yea, every good path." 2.10. For wisdom shall enter into thy heart, And knowledge shall be pleasant unto thy soul;" 2.11. Discretion shall watch over thee, Discernment shall guard thee;" 3.18. She is a tree of life to them that lay hold upon her, And happy is every one that holdest her fast."
4. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 24.1, 115.5, 135.15-135.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.1. לְדָוִד מִזְמוֹר לַיהוָה הָאָרֶץ וּמְלוֹאָהּ תֵּבֵל וְיֹשְׁבֵי בָהּ׃ 24.1. מִי הוּא זֶה מֶלֶךְ הַכָּבוֹד יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת הוּא מֶלֶךְ הַכָּבוֹד סֶלָה׃ 115.5. פֶּה־לָהֶם וְלֹא יְדַבֵּרוּ עֵינַיִם לָהֶם וְלֹא יִרְאוּ׃ 135.15. עֲצַבֵּי הַגּוֹיִם כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי אָדָם׃ 135.16. פֶּה־לָהֶם וְלֹא יְדַבֵּרוּ עֵינַיִם לָהֶם וְלֹא יִרְאוּ׃ 135.17. אָזְנַיִם לָהֶם וְלֹא יַאֲזִינוּ אַף אֵין־יֶשׁ־רוּחַ בְּפִיהֶם׃ 135.18. כְּמוֹהֶם יִהְיוּ עֹשֵׂיהֶם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־בֹּטֵחַ בָּהֶם׃ 24.1. A Psalm of David. The earth is the LORD’S, and the fulness thereof; the world, and they that dwell therein." 115.5. They have mouths, but they speak not; Eyes have they, but they see not;" 135.15. The idols of the nations are silver and gold, The work of men's hands." 135.16. They have mouths, but they speak not; Eyes have they, but they see not;" 135.17. They have ears, but they hear not; Neither is there any breath in their mouths." 135.18. They that make them shall be like unto them; Yea, every one that trusteth in them."
5. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 46.7, 66.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

46.7. יִשָּׂאֻהוּ עַל־כָּתֵף יִסְבְּלֻהוּ וְיַנִּיחֻהוּ תַחְתָּיו וְיַעֲמֹד מִמְּקוֹמוֹ לֹא יָמִישׁ אַף־יִצְעַק אֵלָיו וְלֹא יַעֲנֶה מִצָּרָתוֹ לֹא יוֹשִׁיעֶנּוּ׃ 66.3. שׁוֹחֵט הַשּׁוֹר מַכֵּה־אִישׁ זוֹבֵחַ הַשֶּׂה עֹרֵף כֶּלֶב מַעֲלֵה מִנְחָה דַּם־חֲזִיר מַזְכִּיר לְבֹנָה מְבָרֵךְ אָוֶן גַּם־הֵמָּה בָּחֲרוּ בְּדַרְכֵיהֶם וּבְשִׁקּוּצֵיהֶם נַפְשָׁם חָפֵצָה׃ 46.7. He is borne upon the shoulder, he is carried, and set in his place, and he standeth, from his place he doth not remove; yea, though one cry unto him, he cannot answer, nor save him out of his trouble." 66.3. He that killeth an ox is as if he slew a man; he that sacrificeth a lamb, as if he broke a dog’s neck; He that offereth a meal-offering, as if he offered swine’s blood; he that maketh a memorial-offering of frankincense, as if he blessed an idol; according as they have chosen their own ways, and their soul delighteth in their abominations;"
6. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 10.5, 10.8, 10.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.5. כְּתֹמֶר מִקְשָׁה הֵמָּה וְלֹא יְדַבֵּרוּ נָשׂוֹא יִנָּשׂוּא כִּי לֹא יִצְעָדוּ אַל־תִּירְאוּ מֵהֶם כִּי־לֹא יָרֵעוּ וְגַם־הֵיטֵיב אֵין אוֹתָם׃ 10.8. וּבְאַחַת יִבְעֲרוּ וְיִכְסָלוּ מוּסַר הֲבָלִים עֵץ הוּא׃ 10.14. נִבְעַר כָּל־אָדָם מִדַּעַת הֹבִישׁ כָּל־צוֹרֵף מִפָּסֶל כִּי שֶׁקֶר נִסְכּוֹ וְלֹא־רוּחַ בָּם׃ 10.5. They are like a pillar in a garden of cucumbers, and speak not; They must needs be borne, because they cannot go. Be not afraid of them, for they cannot do evil, Neither is it in them to do good." 10.8. But they are altogether brutish and foolish: The vanities by which they are instructed are but a stock;" 10.14. Every man is proved to be brutish, without knowledge, Every goldsmith is put to shame by the graven image, His molten image is falsehood, and there is no breath in them."
7. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 34.23 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

34.23. וַהֲקִמֹתִי עֲלֵיהֶם רֹעֶה אֶחָד וְרָעָה אֶתְהֶן אֵת עַבְדִּי דָוִיד הוּא יִרְעֶה אֹתָם וְהוּא־יִהְיֶה לָהֶן לְרֹעֶה׃ 34.23. And I will set up one shepherd over them, and he shall feed them, even My servant David; he shall feed them, and he shall be their shepherd."
8. Anon., 1 Enoch, 8.2, 9.1, 9.9-9.10, 48.2-48.3, 62.7, 94.6-94.10, 95.4-95.7, 96.4-96.8, 97.3-97.10, 98.2, 99.2, 99.7-99.9, 99.11-99.16, 100.7-100.9, 102.9, 103.5-103.8, 104.7-104.9 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

8.2. colouring tinctures. And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they 9.1. And then Michael, Uriel, Raphael, and Gabriel looked down from heaven and saw much blood being 9.1. borne giants, and the whole earth has thereby been filled with blood and unrighteousness. And now, behold, the souls of those who have died are crying and making their suit to the gates of heaven, and their lamentations have ascended: and cannot cease because of the lawless deeds which are 9.9. women, and have defiled themselves, and revealed to them all kinds of sins. And the women have 48.2. And at that hour that Son of Man was named In the presence of the Lord of Spirits, And his name before the Head of Days. 48.3. Yea, before the sun and the signs were created, Before the stars of the heaven were made, His name was named before the Lord of Spirits. 62.7. For from the beginning the Son of Man was hidden, And the Most High preserved him in the presence of His might, And revealed him to the elect. 94.6. Woe to those who build unrighteousness and oppression And lay deceit as a foundation; For they shall be suddenly overthrown, And they shall have no peace. 94.7. Woe to those who build their houses with sin; For from all their foundations shall they be overthrown, And by the sword shall they fall. [And those who acquire gold and silver in judgement suddenly shall perish.] 94.8. Woe to you, ye rich, for ye have trusted in your riches, And from your riches shall ye depart, Because ye have not remembered the Most High in the days of your riches. 94.9. Ye have committed blasphemy and unrighteousness, And have become ready for the day of slaughter, And the day of darkness and the day of the great judgement. 95.4. Woe to you who fulminate anathemas which cannot be reversed: Healing shall therefore be far from you because of your sins. 95.5. Woe to you who requite your neighbour with evil; For ye shall be requited according to your works. 95.6. Woe to you, lying witnesses, And to those who weigh out injustice, For suddenly shall ye perish. 95.7. Woe to you, sinners, for ye persecute the righteous; For ye shall be delivered up and persecuted because of injustice, And heavy shall its yoke be upon you. 96.4. Woe unto you, ye sinners, for your riches make you appear like the righteous, But your hearts convict you of being sinners, And this fact shall be a testimony against you for a memorial of (your) evil deeds. 96.5. Woe to you who devour the finest of the wheat, And drink wine in large bowls, And tread under foot the lowly with your might. 96.6. Woe to you who drink water from every fountain, For suddenly shall ye be consumed and wither away, Because ye have forsaken the fountain of life. 96.7. Woe to you who work unrighteousness And deceit and blasphemy: It shall be a memorial against you for evil. 96.8. Woe to you, ye mighty, Who with might oppress the righteous; For the day of your destruction is coming.In those days many and good days shall come to the righteous-in the day of your judgement. 97.3. What will ye do, ye sinners, And whither will ye flee on that day of judgement, When ye hear the voice of the prayer of the righteou 97.4. Yea, ye shall fare like unto them, Against whom this word shall be a testimony: ' Ye have been companions of sinners. 97.5. And in those days the prayer of the righteous shall reach unto the Lord, And for you the days of your judgement shall come. 97.6. And all the words of your unrighteousness shall be read out before the Great Holy One, And your faces shall be covered with shame, And He will reject every work which is grounded on unrighteousness. 97.7. Woe to you, ye sinners, who live on the mid ocean and on the dry land, Whose remembrance is evil against you. 97.8. Woe to you who acquire silver and gold in unrighteousness and say: ' We have become rich with riches and have possessions; And have acquired everything we have desired. 97.9. And now let us do what we purposed: For we have gathered silver 98.2. For ye men shall put on more adornments than a woman, And coloured garments more than a virgin: In royalty and in grandeur and in power, And in silver and in gold and in purple, And in splendour and in food they shall be poured out as water. 99.2. Woe to them who pervert the words of uprightness, And transgress the eternal law, And transform themselves into what they were not [into sinners]: They shall be trodden under foot upon the earth. 99.7. And again I swear to you, ye sinners, that sin is prepared for a day of unceasing bloodshed. And they who worship stones, and grave images of gold and silver and wood (and stone) and clay, and those who worship impure spirits and demons, and all kinds of idols not according to knowledge, shall get no manner of help from them. 99.8. And they shall become godless by reason of the folly of their hearts, And their eyes shall be blinded through the fear of their hearts And through visions in their dreams. 99.9. Through these they shall become godless and fearful; For they shall have wrought all their work in a lie, And shall have worshiped a stone: Therefore in an instant shall they perish. 99.11. Woe to you who spread evil to your neighbours; For you shall be slain in Sheol. 99.12. Woe to you who make deceitful and false measures, And (to them) who cause bitterness on the earth; For they shall thereby be utterly consumed. 99.13. Woe to you who build your houses through the grievous toil of others, And all their building materials are the bricks and stones of sin; I tell you ye shall have no peace. 99.14. Woe to them who reject the measure and eternal heritage of their fathers And whose souls follow after idols; For they shall have no rest. 99.15. Woe to them who work unrighteousness and help oppression, And slay their neighbours until the day of the great judgement. 99.16. For He shall cast down your glory, And bring affliction on your hearts, And shall arouse His fierce indignation And destroy you all with the sword; And all the holy and righteous shall remember your sins. 100.7. Woe to you, Sinners, on the day of strong anguish, Ye who afflict the righteous and burn them with fire: Ye shall be requited according to your works. 100.8. Woe to you, ye obstinate of heart, Who watch in order to devise wickedness: Therefore shall fear come upon you And there shall be none to help you. 100.9. Woe to you, ye sinners, on account of the words of your mouth, And on account of the deeds of your hands which your godlessness as wrought, In blazing flames burning worse than fire shall ye burn. 102.9. I tell you, ye sinners, ye are content to eat and drink, and rob and sin, and strip men naked, and 103.5. Woe to you, ye sinners, when ye have died, If ye die in the wealth of your sins, And those who are like you say regarding you: ' Blessed are the sinners: they have seen all their days. 103.6. And how they have died in prosperity and in wealth, And have not seen tribulation or murder in their life; And they have died in honour, And judgement has not been executed on them during their life. 103.7. Know ye, that their souls will be made to descend into Sheol And they shall be wretched in their great tribulation. 103.8. And into darkness and chains and a burning flame where there is grievous judgement shall your spirits enter; And the great judgement shall be for all the generations of the world. Woe to you, for ye shall have no peace. 104.7. but keep afar from their violence; for ye shall become companions of the hosts of heaven. And, although ye sinners say: ' All our sins shall not be searched out and be written down, nevertheless 104.8. they shall write down all your sins every day. And now I show unto you that light and darkness 104.9. day and night, see all your sins. Be not godless in your hearts, and lie not and alter not the words of uprightness, nor charge with lying the words of the Holy Great One, nor take account of your
9. Anon., Jubilees, 11.16-11.17, 12.1-12.8, 15.26, 20.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

11.16. And in the thirty-seventh jubilee, in the sixth week, in the first year thereof, he took to himself a wife, and her name was ’Îjâskâ, the daughter of Nêstâg of the Chaldees. And she bare him Terah in the seventh year of this week. 11.17. And the prince Mastêmâ sent ravens and birds to devour the seed which was sown in the land, in order to destroy the land, and rob the children of men of their labours. 12.1. And it came to pass in the sixth week, in the seventh year thereof, that Abram said to Terah his father, saying, "Father!" And he said, "Behold, here am I, my son. 12.2. And he said, "What help and profit have we from those idols which thou dost worship, And before which thou dost bow thyself? For there is no spirit in them, For they are dumb forms, and a misleading of the heart. Worship them not: 12.3. Worship the God of heaven, Who causeth the rain and the dew to descend on the earth, And doeth everything upon the earth, And hath created everything by His word, And all life is from before His face. 12.4. Why do ye worship things that have no spirit in them? For they are the work of (men's) hands, And on your shoulders do ye bear them 12.5. And ye have no help from them, But they are a great cause of shame to those who make them, And a misleading of the heart to those who worship them: Worship them not. 12.6. And his father said unto him, "I also know it, my son, but what shall I do with a people who have made me to serve before them? 12.7. And if I tell them the truth, they will slay me; for their soul cleaveth to them to worship them and honour them. Keep silent, my son, lest they slay thee. 12.8. And these words he spake to his two brothers, and they were angry with him and he kept silent. 15.26. This law is for all the generations for ever 20.7. and mutual corruption through fornication. br"And guard yourselves from all fornication and uncleanness, And from all pollution of sin, Lest ye make our name a curse, And your whole life a hissing
10. Dead Sea Scrolls, Pesher On Habakkuk, 5.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Dead Sea Scrolls, Epistle of Jeremiah, 63 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 7.17, 13.1, 13.17, 14.12, 14.29, 15.2-15.3, 15.5, 15.15, 15.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7.17. For it is he who gave me unerring knowledge of what exists,to know the structure of the world and the activity of the elements; 13.1. For all men who were ignorant of God were foolish by nature;and they were unable from the good things that are seen to know him who exists,nor did they recognize the craftsman while paying heed to his works; 13.17. When he prays about possessions and his marriage and children,he is not ashamed to address a lifeless thing. 14.12. For the idea of making idols was the beginning of fornication,and the invention of them was the corruption of life 14.29. for because they trust in lifeless idols they swear wicked oaths and expect to suffer no harm. 15.2. For even if we sin we are thine, knowing thy power;but we will not sin, because we know that we are accounted thine. 15.3. For to know thee is complete righteousness,and to know thy power is the root of immortality. 15.5. whose appearance arouses yearning in fools,so that they desire the lifeless form of a dead image. 15.15. For they thought that all their heathen idols were gods,though these have neither the use of their eyes to see with,nor nostrils with which to draw breath,nor ears with which to hear,nor fingers to feel with,and their feet are of no use for walking. 15.17. He is mortal, and what he makes with lawless hands is dead,for he is better than the objects he worships,since he has life, but they never have.
13. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 4.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.16. The king was greatly and continually filled with joy, organizing feasts in honor of all his idols, with a mind alienated from truth and with a profane mouth, praising speechless things that are not able even to communicate or to come to one's help, and uttering improper words against the supreme God.
14. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.30, 3.175-3.190, 8.359, 8.366, 8.375-8.399, 8.402 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

3.30. 30 This is the God who formed four-lettered Adam 3.30. As foolish men go seeking day by day 3.175. 175 And with Peneus mixed pours in the sea 3.176. Its water, and men call it Stygian. 3.177. But when the Titans heard that there were son 3.178. Kept secretly, whom Cronos and his wife 3.179. Rhea begat, then Titan sixty youth 3.180. 180 Together gathered, and held fast in chain 3.181. Cronos and his wife Rhea, and concealed 3.182. Them in the earth and guarded them in bonds. 3.183. And then the sons of powerful Cronos heard 3.184. And a great war and uproar they aroused. 3.185. 185 And this is the beginning of dire war 3.186. Among all mortals. [For it is indeed 3.187. With mortals the prime origin of war.] 3.188. And then did God award the Titans evil. 3.189. And all of Titans and of Cronos born 3.190. 190 Died. But then as time rolled around there rose 8.359. Bringing the likeness antitypical 8.366. And a fish of the sea live thousand men 8.375. 375 Shall search the heart and bare it to conviction; 8.376. For of all things is he himself the ear 8.377. And mind and sight, and Word that maketh form 8.378. To whom all things submit, and he preserve 8.379. Them that are dead and every sickness heals. 8.380. 380 Into the hands of lawless men, at last 8.381. And faithless he shall come, and they will give 8.382. To God rude buffetings with impure hand 8.383. And poisonous spittle with polluted mouths. 8.384. And he to whips will openly give then 8.385. 385 His holy back; [for he unto the world 8.386. A holy virgin shall himself commit.] 8.387. And silent he will be when buffeted 8.388. Lest anyone should know whose son he i 8.389. Or whence he came, that he may talk to the dead. 8.390. 390 And he shall also wear a crown of thorns; 8.391. For of thorns is the crown an ornament 8.392. Elect, eternal. They shall pierce his side 8.393. With a reed that they may fulfill their law; 8.394. For of reeds shaken by another spirit 8.395. 395 Were nourished inclinations of the soul 8.396. of anger and revenge. But when these thing 8.397. Shall be accomplished, of the which I spoke 8.398. Then unto him shall every law be loosed 8.399. Which from the first by the decrees of men 8.402. But gall for food and vinegar to drink
15. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 9, 8 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

8. First of all, therefore, the husbandman is not anxious to plant or to sow anything that is unproductive, but only all such things as are worth cultivation, and as bear fruit, which will bring a yearly produce to their master man. For nature has pointed him out as the master of all trees and animals, and all other things whatever which are perishable;
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 127, 125 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

125. Because God was the cause, not the instrument; and what was born was created indeed through the agency of some instrument, but was by all means called into existence by the great first cause; for many things must co-operate in the origination of anything; by whom, from what, by means of what, and why? Now he by whom a thing originates is the cause; that from which a thing is made is the material; that by means of which it was made is the instrument; and why, is the object. 125. And it would be a less grievous evil if this hatred were displayed without disguise; for it is easiest to guard against what is plainly seen. But at present it is with difficulty suspected, and difficult of detection, being concealed by cunning and wicked arts, and at times it assumes the contrary appearance of love and affection, by means of its trickery and deceit.
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 65 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

65. But still what advantage is derived from all that is said? For men, instead of attending, turn their mind in other directions, some to marine and mercantile affairs, others to rents and agriculture; some to public honours and affairs of state, some to the gains to be derived from each different profession and art, others to revenging themselves upon their enemies, others again to the enjoyments to be derived from the indulgence of the amorous appetites, and in short every body is under the influence of some distracting idea or other; so that, as far as the subjects of the discussion are concerned, they are completely deaf, and are present with their bodies only, but are at a distance as to their minds, being in no particular different from images or statues.
18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 76 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

19. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 98, 97 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

97. Therefore he exhorts him who is able to run swiftly to strain onwards, without stopping to take breath, to the highest word of God, which is the fountain of wisdom, in order that by drinking of that stream he may find everlasting life instead of death. But he urges him who is not so swift of foot to flee for refuge to the creative power which Moses calls God, since it is by that power that all things were made and arranged; for to him who comprehends that everything has been created, that comprehension alone, and the knowledge of the Creator, is a great acquisition of good, which immediately persuades the creature to love him who created it.
20. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 154-157, 151 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

151. for this is that disposition which attaches itself to the soul in such a manner as to be difficult to shake off, hindering it from proceeding swiftly on its progress towards virtue. This, too, when we leave Egypt, that is to say, the whole of the district connected with the body, being anxious to unlearn our subjection to the passions, in accordance with the language and precepts of the prophet Moses, follows us close, checking and impeding our zeal in the departure, and out of envy causing delay to the rapidity of setting forth;
21. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 4.126-4.131 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

4.126. The lawgiver blames some persons of his time as gluttons, and as believing that the mere indulgence of luxury is the happiest of all possible conditions, not being content to live in this manner only in cities in which there were abundant supplies and stores of all kinds of necessary things, but carrying their effeminacy even into pathless and untrodden deserts, and choosing in them also to have markets for fish and meat, and all things which can contribute to an easy life: 4.127. then, when a scarcity arose, they assembled together and raised an outcry, and looked miserable, and with shameless audacity impeached their ruler, and did not desist from creating disturbances till they obtained what they desired; and they obtained it to their destruction, for two reasons: first of all, that it might be shown that all things are possible to God, who can find a way in the most difficult and apparently hopeless circumstances; and secondly, that punishment might fall on those who were intemperate in their gluttonous appetites, and obstinate resisters of holiness. 4.128. For a vast cloud being Raised{28}{#ex 16:13.} out of the sea showered down quails about the time of sunrise, and the camp and all the district around it for a day's journey for a well-girt active man was overshadowed all about with the Birds.{29}{#nu 11:31.} And the height of the flight of the birds was distant from the ground a height of about two cubits, in order that they might be easily caught. 4.129. It would have been natural therefore for them, being amazed at the marvellous nature of the prodigy which they beheld, to be satisfied with the sight, and being filled with piety to nourish their souls on that, and to abstain from eating flesh; but these men, on the contrary, stirred up their desires even more than before, and pursued these birds as the greatest good imaginable, and catching hold of them with both their hands filled their bosoms; then, having stored them up in their tents, they sallied forth to catch others, for immoderate covetousness has no limit. And when they had collected every description of food they devoured it insatiably, being about, vain-minded generation that they were, to perish by their own fulness; 4.130. and indeed at no distant time they did perish by the purging of their bile, {30}{#nu 11:20.} so that the place itself derived its name from the calamity which fell upon them, for it was called the graves of their lust, {31}{see #Nu 11:34: "And he called the name of that place Kibroth-hattaavah, because there they buried the people that lusted."} than which there is not in the soul, as the scripture teaches, us, any greater evil. 4.131. For which reason Moses says with great beauty in his recommendations, "Let not every man do that which seemeth good to his own Eyes,"{32}{#de 11:8.} which is equivalent to saying, let not any one gratify his own desire, but let each person seek to please God, and the world, and nature, and wise men, repudiating self-love, if he would become a good and virtuous man.XXV.
22. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 12, 19, 21, 39, 53, 68, 90, 95, 115 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

115. for he regarded the Jews with most especial suspicion, as if they were the only persons who cherished wishes opposed to his, and who had been taught in a manner from their very swaddling-clothes by their parents, and teachers, and instructors, and even before that by their holy laws, and also by their unwritten maxims and customs, to believe that there was but one God, their Father and the Creator of the world;
23. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 3.159 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

24. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 1.6, 4.8 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

25. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 7, 10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. Anon., Didache, 6.3, 13.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. Epictetus, Discourses, 3.22.39, 3.22.43, 3.22.48, 3.24.67-3.24.70, 4.1.81-4.1.82 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

28. New Testament, 1 Peter, 2.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.19. For it is commendable if someone endures pain, suffering unjustly, because of conscience toward God.
29. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.11. For it has been reported to me concerning you, mybrothers, by those who are from Chloe's household, that there arecontentions among you.
30. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.9-1.10, 4.3-4.8, 4.13-4.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. For they themselves report concerning us what kind of a reception we had from you; and how you turned to God from idols, to serve a living and true God 1.10. and to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead -- Jesus, who delivers us from the wrath to come. 4.3. For this is the will of God: your sanctification, that you abstain from sexual immorality 4.4. that each one of you know how to possess himself of his own vessel in sanctification and honor 4.5. not in the passion of lust, even as the Gentiles who don't know God; 4.6. that no one should take advantage of and wrong a brother or sister in this matter; because the Lord is an avenger in all these things, as also we forewarned you and testified. 4.7. For God called us not for uncleanness, but in sanctification. 4.8. Therefore he who rejects doesn't reject man, but God, who has also given his Holy Spirit to you. 4.13. But we don't want you to be ignorant, brothers, concerning those who have fallen asleep, so that you don't grieve like the rest, who have no hope. 4.14. For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so those who have fallen asleep in Jesus will God bring with him. 4.15. For this we tell you by the word of the Lord, that we who are alive, who are left to the coming of the Lord, will in no way precede those who have fallen asleep. 4.16. For the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with God's trumpet. The dead in Christ will rise first 4.17. then we who are alive, who are left, will be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air. So we will be with the Lord forever. 4.18. Therefore comfort one another with these words.
31. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 1.17, 2.5, 5.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.17. Now to the King eternal, immortal, invisible, to God who alone is wise, be honor and glory forever and ever. Amen. 2.5. For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus 5.18. For the Scripture says, "You shall not muzzle the ox when it treads out the grain." And, "The laborer is worthy of his wages.
32. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.12, 2.15, 3.3, 4.3, 5.9-5.10, 6.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

33. New Testament, Acts, 7.54-7.60, 10.9-10.16, 10.28, 15.20, 15.28-15.29, 17.23-17.31, 18.24-18.28, 21.25 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.54. Now when they heard these things, they were cut to the heart, and they gnashed at him with their teeth. 7.55. But he, being full of the Holy Spirit, looked up steadfastly into heaven, and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right hand of God 7.56. and said, "Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of Man standing on the right hand of God! 7.57. But they cried out with a loud voice, and stopped their ears, and rushed at him with one accord. 7.58. They threw him out of the city, and stoned him. The witnesses placed their garments at the feet of a young man named Saul. 7.59. They stoned Stephen as he called out, saying, "Lord Jesus, receive my Spirit! 7.60. He kneeled down, and cried with a loud voice, "Lord, don't hold this sin against them!" When he had said this, he fell asleep. 10.9. Now on the next day as they were on their journey, and got close to the city, Peter went up on the housetop to pray at about noon. 10.10. He became hungry and desired to eat, but while they were preparing, he fell into a trance. 10.11. He saw heaven opened and a certain container descending to him, like a great sheet let down by four corners on the earth 10.12. in which were all kinds of four-footed animals of the earth, wild animals, reptiles, and birds of the sky. 10.13. A voice came to him, "Rise, Peter, kill and eat! 10.14. But Peter said, "Not so, Lord; for I have never eaten anything that is common or unclean. 10.15. A voice came to him again the second time, "What God has cleansed, you must not make unholy. 10.16. This was done three times, and immediately the vessel was received up into heaven. 10.28. He said to them, "You yourselves know how it is an unlawful thing for a man who is a Jew to join himself or come to one of another nation, but God has shown me that I shouldn't call any man unholy or unclean. 15.20. but that we write to them that they abstain from the pollution of idols, from sexual immorality, from what is strangled, and from blood. 15.28. For it seemed good to the Holy Spirit, and to us, to lay no greater burden on you than these necessary things: 15.29. that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality, from which if you keep yourselves, it will be well with you. Farewell. 17.23. For as I passed along, and observed the objects of your worship, I found also an altar with this inscription: 'TO AN UNKNOWN GOD.' What therefore you worship in ignorance, this I announce to you. 17.24. The God who made the world and all things in it, he, being Lord of heaven and earth, dwells not in temples made with hands 17.25. neither is he served by men's hands, as though he needed anything, seeing he himself gives to all life and breath, and all things. 17.26. He made from one blood every nation of men to dwell on all the surface of the earth, having determined appointed seasons, and the bounds of their habitation 17.27. that they should seek the Lord, if perhaps they might reach out for him and find him, though he is not far from each one of us. 17.28. 'For in him we live, and move, and have our being.' As some of your own poets have said, 'For we are also his offspring.' 17.29. Being then the offspring of God, we ought not to think that the Divine Nature is like gold, or silver, or stone, engraved by art and device of man. 17.30. The times of ignorance therefore God overlooked. But now he commands that all men everywhere should repent 17.31. because he has appointed a day in which he will judge the world in righteousness by the man whom he has ordained; whereof he has given assurance to all men, in that he has raised him from the dead. 18.24. Now a certain Jew named Apollos, an Alexandrian by race, an eloquent man, came to Ephesus. He was mighty in the Scriptures. 18.25. This man had been instructed in the way of the Lord; and being fervent in spirit, he spoke and taught accurately the things concerning Jesus, although he knew only the baptism of John. 18.26. He began to speak boldly in the synagogue. But when Priscilla and Aquila heard him, they took him aside, and explained to him the way of God more accurately. 18.27. When he had determined to pass over into Achaia, the brothers encouraged him, and wrote to the disciples to receive him. When he had come, he helped them much, who had believed through grace; 18.28. for he powerfully refuted the Jews, publicly showing by the Scriptures that Jesus was the Christ. 21.25. But concerning the Gentiles who believe, we have written our decision that they should observe no such thing, except that they should keep themselves from food offered to idols, from blood, from strangled things, and from sexual immorality.
34. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.2, 2.14-2.16, 2.20-2.25, 9.20, 16.1-16.17, 18.4, 19.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.2. I know your works, and your toil and perseverance, and that you can't tolerate evil men, and have tested those who call themselves apostles, and they are not, and found them false. 2.14. But I have a few things against you, because you have there some who hold the teaching of Balaam, who taught Balak to throw a stumbling block before the children of Israel , to eat things sacrificed to idols, and to commit sexual immorality. 2.15. So you also have some who hold to the teaching of the Nicolaitans in the same way. 2.16. Repent therefore, or else I am coming to you quickly, and I will make war against them with the sword of my mouth. 2.20. But I have this against you, that you tolerate your woman, Jezebel, who calls herself a prophetess. She teaches and seduces my servants to commit sexual immorality, and to eat things sacrificed to idols. 2.21. I gave her time to repent, but she refuses to repent of her sexual immorality. 2.22. Behold, I will throw her into a bed, and those who commit adultery with her into great oppression, unless they repent of her works. 2.23. I will kill her children with Death, and all the assemblies will know that I am he who searches the minds and hearts. I will give to each one of you according to your deeds. 2.24. But to you I say, to the rest who are in Thyatira, as many as don't have this teaching, who don't know what some call 'the deep things of Satan,' to you I say, I am not putting any other burden on you. 2.25. Nevertheless that which you have, hold firmly until I come. 9.20. The rest of mankind, who were not killed with these plagues, didn't repent of the works of their hands, that they wouldn't worship demons, and the idols of gold, and of silver, and of brass, and of stone, and of wood; which can neither see, nor hear, nor walk. 16.1. I heard a loud voice out of the temple, saying to the seven angels, "Go and pour out the seven bowls of the wrath of God on the earth! 16.2. The first went, and poured out his bowl into the earth, and it became a harmful and evil sore on the men who had the mark of the beast, and who worshiped his image. 16.3. The second angel poured out his bowl into the sea, and it became blood as of a dead man. Every living thing in the sea died. 16.4. The third poured out his bowl into the rivers and springs of water, and it became blood. 16.5. I heard the angel of the waters saying, "You are righteous, who are and who were, you Holy One, because you judged this way. 16.6. For they poured out the blood of the saints and the prophets, and you have given them blood to drink. They deserve this. 16.7. I heard the altar saying, "Yes, Lord God, the Almighty, true and righteous are your judgments. 16.8. The fourth poured out his bowl on the sun, and it was given to him to scorch men with fire. 16.9. People were scorched with great heat, and people blasphemed the name of God who has the power over these plagues. They didn't repent and give him glory. 16.10. The fifth poured out his bowl on the throne of the beast, and his kingdom was darkened. They gnawed their tongues because of the pain 16.11. and they blasphemed the God of heaven because of their pains and their sores. They didn't repent of their works. 16.12. The sixth poured out his bowl on the great river, the Euphrates. Its water was dried up, that the way might be made ready for the kings that come from the sunrise. 16.13. I saw coming out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet, three unclean spirits, something like frogs; 16.14. for they are spirits of demons, performing signs; which go forth to the kings of the whole inhabited earth, to gather them together for the war of that great day of God, the Almighty. 16.15. Behold, I come like a thief. Blessed is he who watches, and keeps his clothes, so that he doesn't walk naked, and they see his shame. 16.16. He gathered them together into the place which is called in Hebrew, Megiddo. 16.17. The seventh poured out his bowl into the air. A loud voice came forth out of the temple of heaven, from the throne, saying, "It is done! 18.4. I heard another voice from heaven, saying, "Come forth, my people, out of her, that you have no participation in her sins, and that you don't receive of her plagues 19.2. for true and righteous are his judgments. For he has judged the great prostitute, her who corrupted the earth with her sexual immorality, and he has avenged the blood of his servants at her hand.
35. New Testament, James, 1.14-1.15, 2.19-2.20, 4.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.14. But each one is tempted, when he is drawn away by his own lust, and enticed. 1.15. Then the lust, when it has conceived, bears sin; and the sin, when it is full grown, brings forth death. 2.19. You believe that God is one. You do well. The demons also believe, and shudder. 2.20. But do you want to know, vain man, that faith apart from works is dead? 4.12. Only one is the lawgiver, who is able to save and to destroy. But who are you to judge another?
36. New Testament, Jude, 3, 25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

37. New Testament, Colossians, 3.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.16. Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly; in all wisdom teaching and admonishing one another with psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your heart to the Lord.
38. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.1-2.3, 2.8, 2.15-2.16, 2.18, 4.1-4.16, 4.22, 5.1-5.10, 5.14, 5.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. You were made alive when you were dead in transgressions and sins 2.2. in which you once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the powers of the air, the spirit who now works in the sons of disobedience; 2.3. among whom we also all once lived in the lust of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest. 2.8. for by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God 2.15. having abolished in the flesh the hostility, the law of commandments contained in ordices, that he might create in himself one new man of the two, making peace; 2.16. and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, having killed the hostility thereby. 2.18. For through him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father. 4.1. I therefore, the prisoner in the Lord, beg you to walk worthily of the calling with which you were called 4.2. with all lowliness and humility, with longsuffering, bearing with one another in love; 4.3. being eager to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace. 4.4. There is one body, and one Spirit, even as you also were called in one hope of your calling; 4.5. one Lord, one faith, one baptism 4.6. one God and Father of all, who is over all, and through all, and in us all. 4.7. But to each one of us was the grace given according to the measure of the gift of Christ. 4.8. Therefore he says, "When he ascended on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts to men. 4.9. Now this, "He ascended," what is it but that he also first descended into the lower parts of the earth? 4.10. He who descended is the one who also ascended far above all the heavens, that he might fill all things. 4.11. He gave some to be apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, shepherds and teachers; 4.12. for the perfecting of the saints, to the work of serving, to the building up of the body of Christ; 4.13. until we all attain to the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to a full grown man, to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ; 4.14. that we may no longer be children, tossed back and forth and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the trickery of men, in craftiness, after the wiles of error; 4.15. but speaking truth in love, we may grow up in all things into him, who is the head, Christ; 4.16. from whom all the body, being fitted and knit together through that which every joint supplies, according to the working in measure of each individual part, makes the body increase to the building up of itself in love. 4.22. that you put away, as concerning your former way of life, the old man, that grows corrupt after the lusts of deceit; 5.1. Be therefore imitators of God, as beloved children. 5.2. Walk in love, even as Christ also loved you, and gave himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling fragrance. 5.3. But sexual immorality, and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not even be mentioned among you, as becomes saints; 5.4. nor filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, which are not appropriate; but rather giving of thanks. 5.5. Know this for sure, that no sexually immoral person, nor unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, has any inheritance in the Kingdom of Christ and God. 5.6. Let no one deceive you with empty words. For because of these things, the wrath of God comes on the sons of disobedience. 5.7. Therefore don't be partakers with them. 5.8. For you were once darkness, but are now light in the Lord. Walk as children of light 5.9. for the fruit of the Spirit is in all goodness and righteousness and truth 5.10. proving what is well-pleasing to the Lord. 5.14. Therefore he says, "Awake, you who sleep, and arise from the dead, and Christ will shine on you. 5.19. speaking to one another in psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs; singing, and singing praises in your heart to the Lord;
39. New Testament, Galatians, 1.6, 1.13, 1.23, 3.16-3.20, 3.22-3.29, 4.3-4.11, 5.1, 5.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.6. I marvel that you are so quickly deserting him who called you in the grace of Christ to a different gospel; 1.13. For you have heard of my way ofliving in time past in the Jews' religion, how that beyond measure Ipersecuted the assembly of God, and ravaged it. 1.23. but they only heard: "He who once persecuted us nowpreaches the faith that he once tried to destroy. 3.16. Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and tohis seed. He doesn't say, "To seeds," as of many, but as of one, "Toyour seed," which is Christ. 3.17. Now I say this. A covetconfirmed beforehand by God in Christ, the law, which came four hundredand thirty years after, does not annul, so as to make the promise of noeffect. 3.18. For if the inheritance is of the law, it is no more ofpromise; but God has granted it to Abraham by promise. 3.19. What then is the law? It was added because of transgressions,until the seed should come to whom the promise has been made. It wasordained through angels by the hand of a mediator. 3.20. Now amediator is not between one, but God is one. 3.22. But the Scriptures shut up all things undersin, that the promise by faith in Jesus Christ might be given to thosewho believe. 3.23. But before faith came, we were kept in custodyunder the law, shut up to the faith which should afterwards berevealed. 3.24. So that the law has become our tutor to bring us toChrist, that we might be justified by faith. 3.25. But now that faithis come, we are no longer under a tutor. 3.26. For you are all sons ofGod, through faith in Christ Jesus. 3.27. For as many of you as werebaptized into Christ have put on Christ. 3.28. There is neither Jewnor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither malenor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. 3.29. If you are Christ's, then you are Abraham's seed and heirs according to promise. 4.3. So we also, when we were children, were held in bondage under theelements of the world. 4.4. But when the fullness of the time came,God sent out his Son, born to a woman, born under the law 4.5. thathe might redeem those who were under the law, that we might receive theadoption of sons. 4.6. And because you are sons, God sent out theSpirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, "Abba, Father! 4.7. Soyou are no longer a bondservant, but a son; and if a son, then an heirof God through Christ. 4.8. However at that time, not knowing God, youwere in bondage to those who by nature are not gods. 4.9. But now thatyou have come to know God, or rather to be known by God, why do youturn back again to the weak and miserable elements, to which you desireto be in bondage all over again? 4.10. You observe days, months,seasons, and years. 4.11. I am afraid for you, that I might havewasted my labor for you. 5.1. Stand firm therefore in the liberty by which Christ has madeus free, and don't be entangled again with a yoke of bondage. 5.13. For you, brothers, were called for freedom. Only don't useyour freedom for gain to the flesh, but through love be servants to oneanother.
40. New Testament, Hebrews, 5.12-5.14, 10.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.12. For when by reason of the time you ought to be teachers, you again need to have someone teach you the rudiments of the first principles of the oracles of God. You have come to need milk, and not solid food. 5.13. For everyone who lives on milk is not experienced in the word of righteousness, for he is a baby. 5.14. But solid food is for those who are full grown, who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern good and evil. 10.12. but he, when he had offered one sacrifice for sins for ever, sat down on the right hand of God;
41. New Testament, Philippians, 4.12-4.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.12. I know how to be humbled, and I know also how to abound. In everything and in all things I have learned the secret both to be filled and to be hungry, both to abound and to be in need. 4.13. I can do all things through Christ, who strengthens me.
42. New Testament, Romans, 1.18-1.32, 2.12, 2.15, 3.8, 3.29-3.30, 6.1-6.23, 8.2-8.14, 8.19, 8.31-8.39, 9.1, 9.24-9.26, 11.36, 14.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness 1.19. because that which is known of God is revealed in them, for God revealed it to them. 1.20. For the invisible things of him since the creation of the world are clearly seen, being perceived through the things that are made, even his everlasting power and divinity; that they may be without excuse. 1.21. Because, knowing God, they didn't glorify him as God, neither gave thanks, but became vain in their reasoning, and their senseless heart was darkened. 1.22. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools 1.23. and traded the glory of the incorruptible God for the likeness of an image of corruptible man, and of birds, and four-footed animals, and creeping things. 1.24. Therefore God also gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to uncleanness, that their bodies should be dishonored among themselves 1.25. who exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen. 1.26. For this reason, God gave them up to vile passions. For their women changed the natural function into that which is against nature. 1.27. Likewise also the men, leaving the natural function of the woman, burned in their lust toward one another, men doing what is inappropriate with men, and receiving in themselves the due penalty of their error. 1.28. Even as they refused to have God in their knowledge, God gave them up to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not fitting; 1.29. being filled with all unrighteousness, sexual immorality, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, evil habits, secret slanderers 1.30. backbiters, hateful to God, insolent, haughty, boastful, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents 1.31. without understanding, covet-breakers, without natural affection, unforgiving, unmerciful; 1.32. who, knowing the ordice of God, that those who practice such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but also approve of those who practice them. 2.12. For as many as have sinned without law will also perish without the law. As many as have sinned under the law will be judged by the law. 2.15. in that they show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience testifying with them, and their thoughts among themselves accusing or else excusing them) 3.8. Why not (as we are slanderously reported, and as some affirm that we say), "Let us do evil, that good may come?" Those who say so are justly condemned. 3.29. Or is God the God of Jews only? Isn't he the God of Gentiles also? Yes, of Gentiles also 3.30. since indeed there is one God who will justify the circumcised by faith, and the uncircumcised through faith. 6.1. What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? 6.2. May it never be! We who died to sin, how could we live in it any longer? 6.3. Or don't you know that all we who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? 6.4. We were buried therefore with him through baptism to death, that just like Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we also might walk in newness of life. 6.5. For if we have become united with him in the likeness of his death, we will also be part of his resurrection; 6.6. knowing this, that our old man was crucified with him, that the body of sin might be done away with, so that we would no longer be in bondage to sin. 6.7. For he who has died has been freed from sin. 6.8. But if we died with Christ, we believe that we will also live with him; 6.9. knowing that Christ, being raised from the dead, dies no more. Death no more has dominion over him! 6.10. For the death that he died, he died to sin one time; but the life that he lives, he lives to God. 6.11. Thus also consider yourselves also to be dead to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus our Lord. 6.12. Therefore don't let sin reign in your mortal body, that you should obey it in its lusts. 6.13. Neither present your members to sin as instruments of unrighteousness, but present yourselves to God, as alive from the dead, and your members as instruments of righteousness to God. 6.14. For sin will not have dominion over you. For you are not under law, but under grace. 6.15. What then? Shall we sin, because we are not under law, but under grace? May it never be! 6.16. Don't you know that to whom you present yourselves as servants to obedience, his servants you are whom you obey; whether of sin to death, or of obedience to righteousness? 6.17. But thanks be to God, that, whereas you were bondservants of sin, you became obedient from the heart to that form of teaching whereunto you were delivered. 6.18. Being made free from sin, you became bondservants of righteousness. 6.19. I speak in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh, for as you presented your members as servants to uncleanness and to wickedness upon wickedness, even so now present your members as servants to righteousness for sanctification. 6.20. For when you were servants of sin, you were free in regard to righteousness. 6.21. What fruit then did you have at that time in the things of which you are now ashamed? For the end of those things is death. 6.22. But now, being made free from sin, and having become servants of God, you have your fruit of sanctification, and the result of eternal life. 6.23. For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord. 8.2. For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus made me free from the law of sin and of death. 8.3. For what the law couldn't do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God did, sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh; 8.4. that the ordice of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. 8.5. For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit, the things of the Spirit. 8.6. For the mind of the flesh is death, but the mind of the Spirit is life and peace; 8.7. because the mind of the flesh is hostile towards God; for it is not subject to God's law, neither indeed can it be. 8.8. Those who are in the flesh can't please God. 8.9. But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if it is so that the Spirit of God dwells in you. But if any man doesn't have the Spirit of Christ, he is not his. 8.10. If Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the spirit is alive because of righteousness. 8.11. But if the Spirit of him who raised up Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised up Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit who dwells in you. 8.12. So then, brothers, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live after the flesh. 8.13. For if you live after the flesh, you must die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live. 8.14. For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, these are children of God. 8.19. For the creation waits with eager expectation for the sons of God to be revealed. 8.31. What then shall we say about these things? If God is for us, who can be against us? 8.32. He who didn't spare his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how would he not also with him freely give us all things? 8.33. Who could bring a charge against God's elect? It is God who justifies. 8.34. Who is he who condemns? It is Christ who died, yes rather, who was raised from the dead, who is at the right hand of God, who also makes intercession for us. 8.35. Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Could oppression, or anguish, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword? 8.36. Even as it is written, "For your sake we are killed all day long. We were accounted as sheep for the slaughter. 8.37. No, in all these things, we are more than conquerors through him who loved us. 8.38. For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor things present, nor things to come, nor powers 8.39. nor height, nor depth, nor any other created thing, will be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord. 9.1. I tell the truth in Christ. I am not lying, my conscience testifying with me in the Holy Spirit 9.24. us, whom he also called, not from the Jews only, but also from the Gentiles? 9.25. As he says also in Hosea, "I will call them 'my people,' which were not my people; And her 'beloved,' who was not beloved. 9.26. It will be that in the place where it was said to them, 'You are not my people,' There they will be called 'sons of the living God.' 11.36. For of him, and through him, and to him, are all things. To him be the glory for ever! Amen. 14.21. It is good to not eat meat, drink wine, nor do anything by which your brother stumbles, is offended, or is made weak.
43. New Testament, John, 1.1-1.2, 5.18, 5.44, 8.41, 8.58-8.59, 9.22, 10.16, 10.30, 10.38, 12.42, 14.9-14.11, 14.20, 16.32, 17.3, 17.11, 17.20-17.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 1.2. The same was in the beginning with God. 5.18. For this cause therefore the Jews sought all the more to kill him, because he not only broke the Sabbath, but also called God his own Father, making himself equal with God. 5.44. How can you believe, who receive glory from one another, and you don't seek the glory that comes from the only God? 8.41. You do the works of your father."They said to him, "We were not born of sexual immorality. We have one Father, God. 8.58. Jesus said to them, "Most assuredly, I tell you, before Abraham came into existence, I AM. 8.59. Therefore they took up stones to throw at him, but Jesus was hidden, and went out of the temple, having gone through the midst of them, and so passed by. 9.22. His parents said these things because they feared the Jews; for the Jews had already agreed that if any man would confess him as Christ, he would be put out of the synagogue. 10.16. I have other sheep, which are not of this fold. I must bring them also, and they will hear my voice. They will become one flock with one shepherd. 10.30. I and the Father are one. 10.38. But if I do them, though you don't believe me, believe the works; that you may know and believe that the Father is in me, and I in the Father. 12.42. Nevertheless even of the rulers many believed in him, but because of the Pharisees they didn't confess it, so that they wouldn't be put out of the synagogue 14.9. Jesus said to him, "Have I been with you such a long time, and do you not know me, Philip? He who has seen me has seen the Father. How do you say, 'Show us the Father?' 14.10. Don't you believe that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? The words that I tell you, I speak not from myself; but the Father who lives in me does his works. 14.11. Believe me that I am in the Father, and the Father in me; or else believe me for the very works' sake. 14.20. In that day you will know that I am in my Father, and you in me, and I in you. 16.32. Behold, the time is coming, yes, and has now come, that you will be scattered, everyone to his own place, and you will leave me alone. Yet I am not alone, because the Father is with me. 17.3. This is eternal life, that they should know you, the only true God, and him whom you sent, Jesus Christ. 17.11. I am no more in the world, but these are in the world, and I am coming to you. Holy Father, keep them through your name which you have given me, that they may be one, even as we are. 17.20. Not for these only do I pray, but for those also who believe in me through their word 17.21. that they may all be one; even as you, Father, are in me, and I in you, that they also may be one in us; that the world may believe that you sent me. 17.22. The glory which you have given me, I have given to them; that they may be one, even as we are one; 17.23. I in them, and you in me, that they may be perfected into one; that the world may know that you sent me, and loved them, even as you loved me.
44. New Testament, Luke, 10.7, 10.25-10.38, 22.17-22.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.7. Remain in that same house, eating and drinking the things they give, for the laborer is worthy of his wages. Don't go from house to house. 10.25. Behold, a certain lawyer stood up and tested him, saying, "Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life? 10.26. He said to him, "What is written in the law? How do you read it? 10.27. He answered, "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength, and with all your mind; and your neighbor as yourself. 10.28. He said to him, "You have answered correctly. Do this, and you will live. 10.29. But he, desiring to justify himself, asked Jesus, "Who is my neighbor? 10.30. Jesus answered, "A certain man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and he fell among robbers, who both stripped him and beat him, and departed, leaving him half dead. 10.31. By chance a certain priest was going down that way. When he saw him, he passed by on the other side. 10.32. In the same way a Levite also, when he came to the place, and saw him, passed by on the other side. 10.33. But a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came where he was. When he saw him, he was moved with compassion 10.34. came to him, and bound up his wounds, pouring on oil and wine. He set him on his own animal, and brought him to an inn, and took care of him. 10.35. On the next day, when he departed, he took out two denarii, and gave them to the host, and said to him, 'Take care of him. Whatever you spend beyond that, I will repay you when I return.' 10.36. Now which of these three do you think seemed to be a neighbor to him who fell among the robbers? 10.37. He said, "He who showed mercy on him."Then Jesus said to him, "Go and do likewise. 10.38. It happened as they went on their way, he entered into a certain village, and a certain woman named Martha received him into her house. 22.17. He received a cup, and when he had given thanks, he said, "Take this, and share it among yourselves 22.18. for I tell you, I will not drink at all again from the fruit of the vine, until the Kingdom of God comes. 22.19. He took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and gave to them, saying, "This is my body which is given for you. Do this in memory of me. 22.20. Likewise, he took the cup after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood, which is poured out for you.
45. New Testament, Mark, 14.22-14.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.22. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had blessed, he broke it, and gave to them, and said, "Take, eat. This is my body. 14.23. He took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave to them. They all drank of it. 14.24. He said to them, "This is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many. 14.25. Most assuredly I tell you, I will no more drink of the fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it anew in the Kingdom of God.
46. New Testament, Matthew, 4.7, 10.10, 19.17, 23.8-23.10, 26.26-26.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.7. Jesus said to him, "Again, it is written, 'You shall not test the Lord, your God.' 10.10. Take no bag for your journey, neither two coats, nor shoes, nor staff: for the laborer is worthy of his food. 19.17. He said to him, "Why do you call me good? No one is good but one, that is, God. But if you want to enter into life, keep the commandments. 23.8. But don't you be called 'Rabbi,' for one is your teacher, the Christ, and all of you are brothers. 23.9. Call no man on the earth your father, for one is your Father, he who is in heaven. 23.10. Neither be called masters, for one is your master, the Christ. 26.26. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, gave thanks for it, and broke it. He gave to the disciples, and said, "Take, eat; this is my body. 26.27. He took the cup, gave thanks, and gave to them, saying, "All of you drink it 26.28. for this is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many for the remission of sins. 26.29. But I tell you that I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on, until that day when I drink it anew with you in my Father's kingdom.
47. Aristides of Athens, Apology, 2, 16 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

48. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 2.114.3-2.114.6 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

49. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.8, 2.26.1, 3.11.9 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.8. Archelaus was by birth an Athenian, and son of Apollodorus. This person, similarly with Anaxagoras, asserted the mixture of matter, and enunciated his first principles in the same manner. This philosopher, however, held that there is inherent immediately in mind a certain mixture; and that the originating principle of motion is the mutual separation of heat and cold, and that the heat is moved, and that the cold remains at rest. And that the water, being dissolved, flows towards the centre, where the scorched air and earth are produced, of which the one is borne upwards and the other remains beneath. And that the earth is at rest, and that on this account it came into existence; and that it lies in the centre, being no part, so to speak, of the universe, delivered from the conflagration; and that from this, first in a state of ignition, is the nature of the stars, of which indeed the largest is the sun, and next to this the moon; and of the rest some less, but some greater. And he says that the heaven was inclined at an angle, and so that the sun diffused light over the earth, and made the atmosphere transparent, and the ground dry; for that at first it was a sea, inasmuch as it is lofty at the horizon and hollow in the middle. And he adduces, as an indication of the hollowness, that the sun does not rise and set to all at the same time, which ought to happen if the earth was even. And with regard to animals, he affirms that the earth, being originally fire in its lower part, where the heat and cold were intermingled, both the rest of animals made their appearance, numerous and dissimilar, all having the same food, being nourished from mud; and their existence was of short duration, but afterwards also generation from one another arose unto them; and men were separated from the rest (of the animal creation), and they appointed rulers, and laws, and arts, and cities, and the rest. And he asserts that mind is innate in all animals alike; for that each, according to the difference of their physical constitution, employed (mind), at one time slower, at another faster. Natural philosophy, then, continued from Thales until Archelaus. Socrates was the hearer of this (latter philosopher). There are, however, also very many others, introducing various opinions respecting both the divinity and the nature of the universe; and if we were disposed to adduce all the opinions of these, it would be necessary to compose a vast quantity of books. But, reminding the reader of those whom we especially ought - who are deserving of mention from their fame, and from being, so to speak, the leaders to those who have subsequently framed systems of philosophy, and from their supplying them with a starting-point towards such undertakings - let us hasten on our investigations towards what remains for consideration.
50. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 35, 40-41, 20 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Justin: Moreover, you were commanded to abstain from certain kinds of food, in order that you might keep God before your eyes while you ate and drank, seeing that you were prone and very ready to depart from His knowledge, as Moses also affirms: 'The people ate and drank, and rose up to play.' Exodus 32:6 And again: 'Jacob ate, and was satisfied, and grew fat; and he who was beloved kicked: he grew fat, he grew thick, he was enlarged, and he forsook God who had made him.' Deuteronomy 32:15 For it was told you by Moses in the book of Genesis, that God granted to Noah, being a just man, to eat of every animal, but not of flesh with the blood, which is dead. And as he was ready to say, as the green herbs, I anticipated him: Why do you not receive this statement, 'as the green herbs,' in the sense in which it was given by God, to wit, that just as God has granted the herbs for sustece to man, even so has He given the animals for the diet of flesh? But, you say, a distinction was laid down thereafter to Noah, because we do not eat certain herbs. As you interpret it, the thing is incredible. And first I shall not occupy myself with this, though able to say and to hold that every vegetable is food, and fit to be eaten. But although we discriminate between green herbs, not eating all, we refrain from eating some, not because they are common or unclean, but because they are bitter, or deadly, or thorny. But we lay hands on and take of all herbs which are sweet, very nourishing and good, whether they are marine or land plants. Thus also God by the mouth of Moses commanded you to abstain from unclean and improper and violent animals: when, moreover, though you were eating manna in the desert, and were seeing all those wondrous acts wrought for you by God, you made and worshipped the golden calf. Hence he cries continually, and justly, 'They are foolish children, in whom is no faith.' Deuteronomy 32:6, 20
51. Tertullian, On Idolatry, 16 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

16. Touching the ceremonies, however, of private and social solemnities - as those of the white toga, of espousals, of nuptials, of name-givings - I should think no danger need be guarded against from the breath of the idolatry which is mixed up with them. For the causes are to be considered to which the ceremony is due. Those above-named I take to be clean in themselves, because neither manly garb, nor the marital ring or union, descends from honours done to any idol. In short, I find no dress cursed by God, except a woman's dress on a man: for cursed, says He, is every man who clothes himself in woman's attire. The toga, however, is a dress of manly name as well as of manly use. God no more prohibits nuptials to be celebrated than a name to be given. But there are sacrifices appropriated to these occasions. Let me be invited, and let not the title of the ceremony be assistance at a sacrifice, and the discharge of my good offices is at the service of my friends. Would that it were at their service indeed, and that we could escape seeing what is unlawful for us to do. But since the evil one has so surrounded the world with idolatry, it will be lawful for us to be present at some ceremonies which see us doing service to a man, not to an idol. Clearly, if invited unto priestly function and sacrifice, I will not go, for that is service peculiar to an idol; but neither will I furnish advice, or expense, or any other good office in a matter of that kind. If it is on account of the sacrifice that I be invited, and stand by, I shall be partaker of idolatry; if any other cause conjoins me to the sacrificer, I shall be merely a spectator of the sacrifice.
52. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.116, 7.122 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.116. Also they say that there are three emotional states which are good, namely, joy, caution, and wishing. Joy, the counterpart of pleasure, is rational elation; caution, the counterpart of fear, rational avoidance; for though the wise man will never feel fear, he will yet use caution. And they make wishing the counterpart of desire (or craving), inasmuch as it is rational appetency. And accordingly, as under the primary passions are classed certain others subordinate to them, so too is it with the primary eupathies or good emotional states. Thus under wishing they bring well-wishing or benevolence, friendliness, respect, affection; under caution, reverence and modesty; under joy, delight, mirth, cheerfulness. 7.122. though indeed there is also a second form of slavery consisting in subordination, and a third which implies possession of the slave as well as his subordination; the correlative of such servitude being lordship; and this too is evil. Moreover, according to them not only are the wise free, they are also kings; kingship being irresponsible rule, which none but the wise can maintain: so Chrysippus in his treatise vindicating Zeno's use of terminology. For he holds that knowledge of good and evil is a necessary attribute of the ruler, and that no bad man is acquainted with this science. Similarly the wise and good alone are fit to be magistrates, judges, or orators, whereas among the bad there is not one so qualified.
53. Origen, Against Celsus, 8.28 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.28. We shall now proceed to the next statement of Celsus, and examine it with care: If in obedience to the traditions of their fathers they abstain from such victims, they must also abstain from all animal food, in accordance with the opinions of Pythagoras, who thus showed his respect for the soul and its bodily organs. But if, as they say, they abstain that they may not eat along with demons, I admire their wisdom, in having at length discovered, that whenever they eat they eat with demons, although they only refuse to do so when they are looking upon a slain victim; for when they eat bread, or drink wine, or taste fruits, do they not receive these things, as well as the water they drink and the air they breathe, from certain demons, to whom have been assigned these different provinces of nature? Here I would observe that I cannot see how those whom he speaks of as abstaining from certain victims, in accordance with the traditions of their fathers, are consequently bound to abstain from the flesh of all animals. We do not indeed deny that the divine word does seem to command something similar to this, when to raise us to a higher and purer life it says, It is good neither to eat flesh, nor to drink wine, nor anything whereby your brother stumbles, or is offended, or is made weak; and again, Destroy not him with your meat, for whom Christ died; and again, If meat make my brother to offend, I will eat no flesh while the world stands, lest I make my brother to offend.
54. Justinian, Digest, 50.2.3.3 (5th cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

55. Anon., Epistle To Diognetus, 1.1

56. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 8.6

57. Pseudo-Tertullian, Martyrdom of Perpetua And Felicitas, 6



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 399
abstinence Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 10
adam Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 186
adiaphora/indistinguishable/neutral Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 196, 203
admirers,double loyalties of Zetterholm (2003), The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity. 146
advantage (sumpheron,utilitas) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 170
agency,all things McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 158
agency,divine Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 123
agency,divine and human in paul Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 123
agency,human Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 123
agency,transferral of in paul Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 123
alcinous Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 90
altar Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 154
apocalyptic literature and thought Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 65
apostasy Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 399
apostle Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 404, 593
apostolic council Zetterholm (2003), The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity. 146, 147
apostolic decree Zetterholm (2003), The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity. 146, 147
appropriation (oikeiōsis) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 152, 153, 181
aramaic Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 26
archon Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131
arena Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 65
astray,to lead/go/wander Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 399
babylon,sins of Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 154
balaam Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 154
baptism Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19, 136; deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 197
battle Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 154
benefactors Zetterholm (2003), The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity. 146
celsus Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 51; Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 10
censure Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 294
christ,as son McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 158
christ,see also jesus Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131, 186
christianity,early,feasting practices König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 127
christianity,early,relationship between early christian and jewish feasting and feasting literature König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 127
christology,adam/image- Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 186
church,as one body in christ deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 197
church Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 136
churches/tradition of paul pauline Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 593
coercion Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 65
conversion,according to paul Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 384
conversion Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 384
cook-shops McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 223
corinth Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 109
corinthian assembly,correspondence Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 50, 51
corinthians Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131, 186
creation and ownership,through christ McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 158
creator,creation Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19, 27
crucifixion Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131, 186
cult,official Zetterholm (2003), The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity. 147
cult Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 25
cynics Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 154
deity,deities Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 50, 51
deity,temples to Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 50
demons,as gentile gods Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 92
demons,worship of Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 399
demons McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 154, 158
desires Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 109
devil Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 186
devotion Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19, 25
didaskalikos (alcinous) Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 90
dining Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 50, 51
disputes,schools (of shammai and hillel) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 593
divine name Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 26
education,stoicism Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 294
egypt,egyptian Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 26
ekklesia Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 26
elements of the world Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 92
ennoia Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131, 186
epistemology,pauls Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 136, 145, 181
epistemology,stoic Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 145
epistemology,suneidēsis Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 145, 152, 153, 154, 181
eschatology, as colonial mimicry Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 65
eucharist,of bread and water McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 223
eucharist Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 221
exousia Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 151, 152, 153, 154
experience/experiential Jeong (2023), Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation. 183
faith Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 136; deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 197
family Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 50, 51
father Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 27, 136
festivals Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 154
food (dietary) laws,kashrut Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 593
fools/foolishness Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 399
fornication Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 154
free will Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 294
freedom,and cognition Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 123
freedom,pauline Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 294
freedom (eleutheria) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 145, 149, 153, 154, 181
friendship,divine-human Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 138
galen.,on intellectual independence Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 90
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 593
gift of cognition,in epictetus and paul Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 123
glory Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 136
gluttons,gluttony Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 109
gnosis,knowledge Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131, 186
gnosis (knowledge) in paul Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 92
god,identification of deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 197
god,uniqueness of Stanton (2021), Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace, 210
god,unity of Stanton (2021), Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace, 210
god-fearers,double loyalties of Zetterholm (2003), The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity. 147
god (pauline),involvement in human affairs Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 138
god of Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 50, 51
gold Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 399
good,appropriate actions (kathēkonta) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 131, 151, 154
good (agathos) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 196, 203
grace,as gods beneficence deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 254
grace,response to deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 254
graeco-roman piety Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 130, 131, 151, 152, 153, 181
greece,greek Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 26, 27, 136
heaven Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19
hebrew Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 26
hellenistic judaism Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 27; Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 186
help Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 399
hillel,school of Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 593
historical tradition Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 404
honor and dishonor deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 254
human being,creation of,adams creation Dunderberg (2008), Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus. 221
ialdabaoth Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 186
identity,formation of Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 65
identity construction Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 50, 51
idol,idolatry Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 136
idol food Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 126; Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 131
idolatry Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 50, 51; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 399; Zetterholm (2003), The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity. 146, 147
idols,as demons McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 158
idols,as mediators McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 158
idols,as statues McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 154
idols,food offered to Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 404, 593
idols,food sacrificed to McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 153, 154, 158
idols,making/fashioning of Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 399
idols Dunderberg (2008), Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus. 221; Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 384; Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 154; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 399
images,material for idols Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 399
immorality Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 384
imperialism roman,x Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 65
inheritance deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 254
instruction/teaching,false Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 399
intellectual independence,,galen and medical discourse on Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 90
intellectual independence,,in christianity Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 90
intellectual independence,,paul versus valentinians on Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 90
intellectual independence Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 90
interdependence,morally formative Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 138
intermediates Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 149, 151, 154
irenaeus,on heresy and paganism Boulluec (2022), The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries, 130
israel,israelites Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 109
jerusalem,agreement at Zetterholm (2003), The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity. 146, 147
jesus,last supper of Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 221
jesus,philo Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131
jesus,return of deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 254
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 404
jewish-christian Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 186
jewish practices/torah observance Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 136, 151, 203
jews,in god-congested roman environment Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 28
jews Stanton (2021), Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace, 210
jezebel Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 154
judaizing Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 151
judea Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 25
judgment deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 254
kinglessness Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 186
knowledge,pauline Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 126, 134, 138
knowledge Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131
kurios,kyrios Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 25, 26
law,laws Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 136
life,tree of Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131
life Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131
logos Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19
lord Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19, 26, 27, 136
lords prayer Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 593
man (anthropos) barbelo,man and son of man Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 186
market Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 593
marketplace Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 154
marriage (see also divorce) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 593
maturity Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 138
meat,sacrificial Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 154
meat McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 223
mediation' McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 158
medicine and medical discourse,intellectual independence and Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 90
melchizedek Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19
messiah Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19
messianism,messianic Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19, 25
metals,fashioning of Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 399
metaphor Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 221
metaphysics Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 27
mimicry Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 65
missionary,preaching Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 384
monotheism Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 27, 136
moral formation,adaptation in Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 134, 138
moral formation,frank criticism in Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 134
moral formation,involvement of god/gods within Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 138
moral formation,love in Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 134, 138
moral formation,protocol of Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 134, 138
moral formation,via meals Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 126, 138
moses Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 109
mutation Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19
nature/nature Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 196
necessity/require (anagkē,anagkazō) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 149
neither/nothing (oudeteros/ouden) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 136
networks,social Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 154
new person deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 254
new religionsgeschichtliche schule Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19, 25, 26, 27
new testament Stanton (2021), Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace, 210
nicolaitans,the Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 154
noahide commandments Zetterholm (2003), The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity. 146
offerings Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 50, 51
old person deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 254
oppression Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 154
origen Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 10
pagan,paganism Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 25, 26, 136
paganism,heresy assimilated to Boulluec (2022), The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries, 130
parables,good samaritan Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 184
passions deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 254
passions (pathē) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 170
paul,1 corinthians McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 223
paul,as pastor Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 384
paul,determinism Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 294
paul,free will Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 294
paul,his demonology Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 92
paul,on idolatry Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 50, 51
paul,on intellectual independence Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 90
paul,pauline,paulinism Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19, 25, 26, 27, 136
paul Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 50, 51; Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 221; König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 127; McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 223; Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131, 186; Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 109
paul (saul) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 404, 593
paul of tarsus Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 65
pauline Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 10
peter (cephas,simon –) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 404
philosophy Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 27
pleasure Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 294, 384
porneia (zenut,unchastity) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 593
preaching,pauline Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 384
preferreds (proēgmena) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 149, 151, 203
prepositional metaphysics Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 27
priest Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 154
psychic adam/eve/body,class Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131
purification/purity Jeong (2023), Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation. 183
pythagoreans Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 10
qumran Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19
resurrection Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 136
revelation,book of Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 65
ritual Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 50, 51; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19, 136
ritual purity,maintained beyond the temple Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 221
roman emperor,x Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 65
roman empire culture of spectacle of Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 65
rome,roman Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 25
rulers Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131
sacrifice,symbolism of Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 221
sacrifice and sacrificial feasting,christian attitudes to sacrificial meat König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 127
salvation/soteriology Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131, 186
salvation Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 138; Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 149, 153, 154, 196, 203; deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 254
satan Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 92
second temple Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19
sectarianism Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 65
self-sufficiency Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 138
septuagint Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 109
sethians,sethianism Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131, 186
shammai,school Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 593
shema Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 171
shema\u2003 Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 26
shemanan Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 184
silver Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 399
slavery Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 149, 153, 170, 181
sobriquet Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 154
sonship Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 27
sophia,see also prunicus,wisdom,zoe Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131, 186
specific christian intellectuals,intellectual independence in Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 90
spirit,divine Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 186
spirits,evil/of evil Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 399
spiritual,class Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131
spiritual gifts,form and content of Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 153
spiritualization Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 221
stoicism,and freedom through cognition Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 123
stoicism,exousia Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 294
stoicism,on freedom Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 294
strong McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 223
suffering Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 154
synagogue,gentile participation in Zetterholm (2003), The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity. 146
synoptic,tradition Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 404
teaching,false Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 154
telos Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 149, 153, 154
temple Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 136
terah Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 399
testaments of the twelve patriarchs Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 171
tetragrammaton Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 26
theissen,gerd McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 223
theriomorphism Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 186
tradition,enochic Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 154
transformation deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 254
translation Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 26
tyrant Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 294
unity deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 197
valentinus and valentinians Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 90
value (axia) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 149, 152, 170, 196
vengeance Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 65
vice Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 170
virtue Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 109; Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 149
weak McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 223
weakness,of corinthian believers Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 126, 134, 138
weakness,of epicurean students Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 134
weapon Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 294
wilderness passim,place Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 109
wisdom,concept Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131, 186
wisdom,jewish Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 131
wisdom Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 19
wisdom (concept) Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 50, 51